Sample Chapter

Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 12Th Ed By  Bidlack – Test Bank


Chapter 01

What Is Plant Biology?


Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The first microscopes were produced by ________________, who ground and fitted lenses in a small metal tube.
    A. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    B.  Dutch spectacle makers
    C.  Linnaeus
    D.  Carl Zeiss
    E.  Otto Brunfels



  1. The early scientist who first demonstrated experimentally that plants do not have the same modes of nutrition as animals was
    A. Nehemiah Grew.
    B.  Carl Willdenow.
    C.  Alexander von Humboldt.
    D.  Sir J. D. Hooker.
    E.  J. B. van Helmont.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #3

  1. Plant _______ study plant relationships, identify and classify plants into groups based on genetic similarity, and name plants according to these groups.
    B. physiologists
    C. anatomists
    D. morphologists
    E. geographers


Stern – 001 Chapter… #4


  1. The science that deals with the form, structure, and embryology of plants is
    A.plant taxonomy.
    B. plant physiology.
    C. plant genetics.
    D. cytology.
    E. plant morphology.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #5

  1. The scientific method begins with
    A. reading scientific journals
    B.  substantiated observations that aren’t explained by existing principles or theories
    C.  a tentative, unproven explanation of an observation
    D.  restating a general theory in understandable terms
    E.  testing hypotheses generated to explain observations


Stern – 001 Chapter… #6

  1. The study of plants and their impact on humans is important because plants
    A. provide food, shelter, and clothing
    B.  provide the ecological support system linking all living organisms in their environment
    C.  contribute to the natural beauty of the world and play a role in many recreational pursuits
    D.  influence world climate
    E.  all of the choices are correct


Stern – 001 Chapter… #7

  1. Which sequence generally describes the steps of the scientific method?
    A.hypothesis, observation, testing, retesting
    B. testing, observation, hypothesis, retesting
    C. observation, hypothesis, testing, retesting
    D. observation, testing, hypothesis, retesting
    E. observation, writing, hypothesis, publishing


Stern – 001 Chapter… #8


  1. The objective of scientific research is described as
    A. collecting data
    B.  developing and testing hypotheses
    C.  using human history to explain technological advances
    D.  using scientific instrumentation such as microscopes
    E.  applying results to improve human lives



  1. Which of the following scientists would more likely be concerned with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves?
    A.plant anatomist
    B. plant physiologist
    C. forester
    D. plant geneticist
    E. plant geographer


Stern – 001 Chapter… #9

  1. The Swedish botanist who produced the elements of our present system of naming and classifying plants in the eighteenth century was
    A.Matt Johnson.
    B. Carolus Linnaeus.
    C. Gustav Bjorklund.
    D. J. B. van Helmont.
    E. Olaf Anderson.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #10

  1. A theory is
    A. an educated guess.
    B.  an accumulation of data.
    C.  a modified hypothesis.
    D.  a repeatable observation.
    E.  a group of generalizations or principles that help us understand events in the natural world


Stern – 001 Chapter… #11


  1. An early English botanist who described the structure of wood more precisely than any of his predecessors was
    A.Nehemiah Grew.
    B. Sir Joseph D. Hooker.
    C. Charles Claude Smythe.
    D. James Worthington.
    E. Anton L. Bortenschlager.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #12

  1. Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes could magnify objects up to
    A.600 times.
    B. 500 times.
    C. 400 times.
    D. 300 times.
    E. 200 times.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #13

  1. According to the scientific method, an hypothesis is
    A. a well supported idea expanded from facts via reasoning but is not currently known to be entirely or universally true.
    B.  an idea or explanation that is a basis for experimental investigation.
    C.  information that is known and specific.
    D.  the last step in the scientific method that deals with collection of data.
    E.  an experimentally demonstrated fact.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #14

  1. People who study the interaction of people and plants in their environment are __________.
    A. ethnobotantists
    B.  plant physiologists
    C.  plant scientists
    D.  plant taxonomists
    E.  horticulturalists



  1. ______________ is the scientific investigation of the biology of plants, algae, and fungi.
    A. plant morphology
    B.  ecology
    C.  botany
    D.  cytology
    E.  ethnobotany


  1. Environmental scientists are developing technologies to convert ___________ into __________ as a source of renewable, plant-based fuel.
    A. oil shale; diesel
    B.  cellulose and starch; ethanol
    C.  petroleum products; gasoline
    D.  wind; electrical energy
    E.  hydropower; electrical energy


  1. When human populations increase, they increase their impact on plants and other living organisms by _______________________________________.
    A. using plants as fuel
    B.  building homes
    C.  harvesting plants for food for themselves and their animals
    D.  replacing plant communities with agricultural crops
    E.  all of the above


  1. Plant ecologists and NASA scientists are working together to develop _________________ for space travel that use plants to recycle carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
    A. chemical carbon dioxide scrubbers
    B.  open pond systems
    C.  methane generators
    D.  closed systems
    E.  water purification systems



  1. If a catastrophe destroyed all green plants and algae on land and in the water, animal life would be able to survive for approximately __________ before suffocating due to lack of oxygen.
    A. 6 months
    B.  1 year
    C.  6 years
    D.  11 years
    E.  100 years



True / False Questions

  1. Plants can live without humans but humans cannot live without plants.


  1. Originally, the scientific method was considered to involve a routine series of steps.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #15

  1. The noted Swedish botanist Linnaeus published his book, Species Plantarum, in the early twentieth century.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #16

  1. Plant morphology is a discipline that deals with the naming and classification of plants.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #17


  1. The microscope was invented during the eighteenth century.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #18

  1. Van Helmont concluded after his classical experiment with the willow tree that its increase in weight had been due to the water it had absorbed.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #19

  1. Science may be defined as “a search for knowledge of the natural world.”


Stern – 001 Chapter… #20

  1. The term microscope was first used during the fifteenth century.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #21

  1. Van Helmont’s experiment with a willow branch demonstrated that the soil in which it grew gained weight over time.


Stern – 001 Chapter… #22

  1. Sections of plant stems can detect ‘up’ and ‘down’ directions when producing new roots and stems.



Chapter 03



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is/are generally credited with developing the cell theory?
    A. R. J. H. Dutrochet
    B. Nehemiah Grew
    C. Robert Hooke
    D. Rudolph Virchow
    E. Schleiden and Schwann


Stern – 003 Chapter… #1

  1. Which of the following functions as an organic catalyst?
    B. granum
    C. thylakoid
    D. microfilament
    E. enzyme


Stern – 003 Chapter… #21

  1. Who first saw boxlike compartments with a simple microscope and named them “cells”?
    A.Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    B. Robert Hooke
    C. Francis Crick
    D. Charles Darwin
    E. Gregor Mendel


Stern – 003 Chapter… #28


  1. _____________ allow people to view objects smaller than 2 micrometers.
    A. Magnifying glasses
    B.  Cameras
    C.  Electron microscopes
    D.  Telescopes
    E.  The Hubble telescope


  1. The feature of a microscope that determines its greatest useful magnification is the ___________________.
    A. resolution
    B.  intensity of the light source
    C.  type of light used
    D.  use of stains and dyes
    E.  None of these


  1. __________________ microscopes allow scientists to see atomic structure of molecules.
    A.  Compound
    B.  Scanning electron
    C.  Dissecting
    D.  Scanning tunneling
    E.  Confocal scanning


  1. Which of the following would be found in a eukaryotic cell but NOT in a prokaryotic cell?
    B. cell membrane
    C. mitochondrion
    D. nucleus
    E. both [mitochondrion and nucleus] are correct


Stern – 003 Chapter… #22


  1. Prokaryotic cells are characteristic of __________________; eukaryotic cells are characteristic of ______________.
    A. fungi; plants
    B.  bacteria; plants, animals, fungi, and protists
    C.  fungi; plants and animals
    D.  plants and animals; bacteria
    E.  viruses; bacteria


  1. In a mature, functioning, healthy cell with a nucleus, which of the following is extracellular?
    A. endoplasmic reticulum
    B. middle lamella
    C. nucleolus
    D. chromosomes
    E. ribosomes


Stern – 003 Chapter… #2

  1. Mitochondria
    A.are the sites of protein synthesis in the cell.
    B. are mainly found in vacuoles.
    C. are the site of ATP production.
    D. are a part of Golgi bodies.
    E. have no internal structure.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #3

  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of cell walls?
    B. cellulose
    C. lignin
    D. protein
    E. pectin


Stern – 003 Chapter… #11


  1. The cell wall functions  _______________________.
    A. as support
    B.  as a barrier between plant and outside environment
    C.  as protection for fragile cells
    D.  to provide and maintain functional cell shape
    E.  all of the above


  1. The fluid within cells in which the nucleus and other organelles are suspended is
    B. cytoplasm.
    C. cell sap.
    D. pectin.
    E. stroma.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #10

  1. The outer boundary of living protoplasm in a plant cell is a
    A.vacuolar membrane.
    B. primary cell wall.
    C. secondary cell wall.
    D. middle lamella.
    E. plasma membrane.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #12

  1. Cell membranes are made up of a mosaic of ____________________.
    A. phospholipids and proteins
    B.  cellulose and lignin
    C.  pectins and proteins
    D.  nucleic acid and wax
    E.  carbohydrates and proteins



  1. Which of the following are primary constituents of cell membranes?
    B. phospholipids
    C. proteins
    D. carbohydrates
    E. steroids


Stern – 003 Chapter… #23

  1. Mitochondria __________________________.
    A. are the sites of protein synthesis in the cell.
    B.  are mainly found in vacuoles.
    C.  are the site of chemical energy (ATP) production
    D.  are a part of Golgi bodies
    E.  have no internal structure


  1. Which of the following do NOT develop from proplastids?
    B. chromoplasts
    C. symplast
    D. leucoplasts
    E. amyloplasts


Stern – 003 Chapter… #6

  1. Cell structures that apparently function in controlling the addition of cellulose to the cell wall, in steering vesicles from Golgi bodies to the cell wall, and in aiding movement within the cell are
    A. thylakoids.
    B.  ribosomes.
    C.  mitochondria.
    D.  microtubules.
    E.  lysosomes.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #7


  1. The watery fluid found in vacuoles is called
    B. stroma.
    C. cristae.
    D. protoplasm.
    E. cell sap.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #8

  1. Which of the following are common to nearly all plant and animal cells?
    A. plasmodesmata
    B.  cell wall
    C.  centrioles
    D.  plastids
    E.  cell membrane


Stern – 003 Chapter… #9

  1. Which of the following structures found in living cells is not bound by a membrane or membranes?
    A.Golgi bodies (dictyosomes)
    B. plastids
    C. ribosomes
    D. endoplasmic reticulum
    E. nucleus


Stern – 003 Chapter… #13

  1. Enzymes are synthesized on
    B. chloroplasts.
    C. Golgi bodies.
    D. the nucleus.
    E. microbodies.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #14


  1. The stacks of double membrane structures found in chloroplasts are
    A.plasma membranes.
    B. vacuolar membranes.
    C. Golgi bodies.
    D. grana.
    E. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #15

  1. Which of the following are not found within chloroplasts?
    A.starch grains
    B. DNA
    C. ribosomes
    D. enzymes
    E. Golgi bodies


Stern – 003 Chapter… #16

  1. Which of the following may be found in plant cell vacuoles?
    A.water-soluble pigments
    B. crystals
    C. salts
    D. sugars
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #17

  1. The structure known as the ______________ is formed of RNA and associated proteins inside the nucleus.
    A. ribosome
    B.  nucleolus
    C.  mitochondrion
    D.  Golgi
    E.  nucleus


Stern – 003 Chapter… #24


  1. Which of the pairs is mismatched?
    A.chloroplast; photosynthesis
    B. nucleus; chromosomes
    C. microtubule; movement
    D. mitochondrion; energy production
    E. ribosome; digestion


Stern – 003 Chapter… #25

  1. Maintaining the internal turgor pressure of cells is a function of the
    B. cytoplasm.
    C. lysosome.
    D. vacuole.
    E. microtubules.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #26

  1. Which organelle is correctly matched with its function?
    A.endoplasmic reticulum; starch storage
    B. nucleolus; DNA synthesis
    C. Golgi; packaging
    D. chloroplast; RNA synthesis
    E. vacuole; membrane synthesis


Stern – 003 Chapter… #27

  1. Cyclosis is explained as the
    A.cycling of DNA to RNA.
    B. secretion of cyclin.
    C. cloning of a gene.
    D. movement of cytoplasm and certain organelles within the cell.
    E. cyclic nature of the mitotic process.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #29


  1. The middle lamella
    A.appears after droplets of pectin accumulate in the equatorial region on spindle fibers.
    B. consists mainly of cellulose.
    C. appears during anaphase.
    D. is not formed if a spindle is present.
    E. is an important living portion of the cell.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #4

  1. In which phase of the cell cycle does replication (duplication) of the DNA take place?
    B. prophase
    C. metaphase
    D. anaphase
    E. telophase


Stern – 003 Chapter… #5

  1. In mitosis the two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to opposite poles during
    B. metaphase.
    C. anaphase.
    D. telophase.
    E. interphase.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #18

  1. In plants such as ferns, conifers, and flowering plants, mitosis takes place mostly in
    B. wood.
    C. the center of stems.
    D. the center of roots.
    E. leaves.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #19


  1. The constricted areas of chromosomes where the pairs of chromatids are held together are called
    B. centromeres.
    C. plasmodesmata.
    D. cytokinesis buttons.
    E. satellites.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #20

  1. Following chromosome duplication, the 2 chromatids are held together at the
    B. centromere.
    C. telomere.
    D. kinetochore.
    E. centriole.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #30

  1. If a plant has a diploid (2N) number of 6 chromosomes, how many chromatids are present during metaphase of mitosis?
    B. 12
    C. 18
    D. 24
    E. cannot be determined


Stern – 003 Chapter… #31

  1. Chromosomes shorten and thicken during this stage of the cell cycle.
    B. anaphase
    C. prophase
    D. telophase
    E. cytokinesis


Stern – 003 Chapter… #32


  1. A characteristic of metaphase is that
    A.chromatids separate and move apart.
    B. chromosomes are arranged randomly.
    C. microtubules are synthesized.
    D. the nucleolus re–forms.
    E. chromosomes are arranged on the equatorial plane.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #33

  1. The cell plate appears during
    B. interphase.
    C. prophase.
    D. telophase.
    E. prophase II.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #34

  1. The _______________________ initiates the formation of the new cell wall separating two daughter cells.
    A. cell plate
    B.   centriole
    C.   phragmoplast
    D.  dictyosome
    E.  endoplasmic reticulum


  1. Communication between two daughter cells is maintained by the formation of ___________ during cytokinesis.
    A. the middle lamella
    B.  the primary cell wall
    C.  the secondary cell wall
    D.  plasmodesmata
    E.  microtubular links



  1. The secondary cell wall forms ______________________________.
    A.  after the cell reaches mature size and shape
    B.  in some, but not all plant cells
    C.  forms between the cell membrane and the primary cell wall
    D.  from cellulose and lignin
    E.  all of the above



True / False Questions

  1. Leeuwenhoek is credited with applying the term cell to the boxlike compartments he saw in cork tissue.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #35

  1. Pasteur discovered that alcoholic fermentation involved the activity of yeast.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #36

  1. A plasma membrane consists primarily of carbohydrate molecules.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #37

  1. The region of a chromosome to which a spindle fiber may be attached is called a chromatid.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #38


  1. Golgi bodies (dictyosomes) appear as branches of chloroplasts in the cell.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #39

  1. Cell vacuoles contain water and dissolved substances.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #40

  1. Pyrenoids and thylakoids have similar functions.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #41

  1. The nuclear envelope is porous.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #42

  1. Protein synthesis takes place in the mitochondria.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #43

  1. Cyclosis is another name for the cell cycle.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #44


  1. Vacuoles function in regulating the movement of RNA out of the nucleus.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #45

  1. Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in vacuoles.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #46

  1. Leucoplasts contain yellow to orange pigments.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #47

  1. Phragmoplasts are produced during prophase of mitosis.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #48

  1. Replication (duplication) of DNA takes place during the S period of interphase.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #49

  1. Strictly speaking, mitosis refers only to division of nuclei—not cells.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #50


  1. Material to be viewed with a transmission electron microscope must be nonliving.


Stern – 003 Chapter… #51

Chapter 11

Multiple Choice Questions

  1.   ___________ is defined as an irreversible increase in mass due to the division and enlargement of cells.
    A. Development
    B.  Differentiation
    C.  Determination
    D.  Growth
    E.  Change


  1. Genes, acting in conjunction with the environment, control patterns of _________________.
    A. growth
    B.  development
    C.  differentiation
    D.  response to environmental changes
    E.  all of the above


  1. Internal environmental factors coordinating plant growth and development include ________.
    A. water quality
    B.  light
    C.  hormones
    D.  temperature
    E.  day length


  1. External environmental factors influencing plant growth and development include __________.
    A. water quality
    B.  water availability
    C.  minerals
    D.  light
    E.  all of the above



  1. The plant physiologist credited with the discovery of auxins was
    A.Frits Went.
    B. Charles Darwin.
    C. Francis Darwin.
    D. R. F. M. van Steveninck.
    E. P. F. Wareing.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #6

  1. Which of the following groups of plants tends to be the least sensitive to auxins?
    A.herbaceous dicots
    B. monocots
    C. woody dicots
    D. flowering plants with net-veined leaves
    E. plants with flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5


Stern – 011 Chapter… #9

  1. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a/an  ____________.
    A. gibberellin
    B.  auxin
    C.  cytokinin
    D.  an ethylene derivative
    E.  none of these answers are correct.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #10

  1. Which of the following pertaining to auxins is true?
    A.Their migration from the cells where they originate is relatively slow.
    B. Their movement is polar.
    C. Their movement requires the expenditure of energy stored in ATP molecules.
    D. They tend to proceed through parenchyma cells surrounding vascular bundles.
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #11


  1. A precursor is
    A.a traveling electron.
    B. a growth-regulating substance.
    C. a simple molecule that is converted to a more complex molecule.
    D. a gene that determines writing style.
    E. one who is predisposed to using profanity.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #12

  1. The defoliant Agent Orange was a 1-to-1 mixture of 2,4-D and
    B. 2,4,5-T.
    C. DDT.
    D. TCP.
    E. 2,4,6-Z.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #13

  1. One of the most important effect of auxin is its effect on ____________________.
    A. cell division.
    B.  cell elongation.
    C.  stomatal opening.
    D.  flowering.
    E.  dormancy.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #23

  1. One cellular process that is affected by auxin is the ____________________.
    A. promotion of cell division in the cambium
    B.  stimulation of ion transport into the vacuole
    C.  formation of chloroplasts
    D.  inhibition of ATP synthesis
    E.  opening of stomates


Stern – 011 Chapter… #25


  1. An important commercial use of auxin is to
    A.defoliate forests.
    B. induce fruit ripening.
    C. cause fruit to drop so ground harvesting can take place.
    D. stimulate production of adventitious roots on stem and leaf cuttings.
    E. stimulate flowering.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #26

  1. Naturally occurring and synthetic __________ such as 2,4-D, are the basis of many ‘weed killers’, especially for broad leaf weeds in lawns.
    A. abscicic acid
    B.  auxins
    C.  cytokinins
    D.  ethylene
    E.  gibberellins


  1. The Japanese scientist who reported the discovery of bakane (“foolish seedling”) effect on rice was
    B. Hirohito.
    C. Fuji.
    D. Kurosawa.
    E. Kaneshiro.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #14

  1. Which of the following functions as a precursor in the synthesis of gibberellins?
    A.Vitamin A
    B. cytokinin
    C. Vitamin D
    D. acetyl CoA
    E. starch


Stern – 011 Chapter… #15


  1. Which plant hormone was isolated from a fungus causing “crazy-seedling disease”?
    B. auxin
    C. ethylene
    D. gibberellin
    E. ABA


Stern – 011 Chapter… #24

  1. Commercial chrysanthemum growers may use a growth retardant to produce short, sturdy plants.  It acts by blocking synthesis of ______________.
    A. abscisic acid
    B.  auxin
    C.  cytokinin
    D.  ethylene
    E.  gibberellin


  1. Which of the following plant growth processes appear to be affected by gibberellin?
    A. increasing stem growth
    B.  reversing genetic dwarfism
    C.  breaking seed dormancy
    D.  stimulate growth at lower temperatures
    E.  All of the above


  1. The most important effect of cytokinin is its influence on
    A.cell division.
    B. stomatal opening.
    C. cell elongation.
    D. flowering.
    E. dormancy.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #28


  1. Which of the following is used by nurseries to cause active plants to become dormant?
    B. ethylene
    C. abscisic acid
    D. gibberellins
    E. auxin


Stern – 011 Chapter… #1

  1. Which of the following is synthesized from carotenoid pigments in plastids?
    A.abscisic acid
    B. gibberellins
    C. ethylene
    D. auxins
    E. cytokinins


Stern – 011 Chapter… #16

  1. Absicsic acid is associated with maintaining ___________ in buds and seeds.
    A. turgor pressure
    B.  color
    C.  dormancy
    D.  growth and development
    E.  steady rates of cell division


  1. The suppression of the growth of axillary or lateral buds is called
    A.metabolic inhibition.
    B. dioxin toxic syndrome.
    C. recessive meristem induction.
    D. cytokinin-gibberellin negation.
    E. apical dominance.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #5


  1. A reduction in the elongation of stems subject to mechanical stresses is called
    B. xylar reduction.
    C. thigmomorphogenesis.
    D. internode compression.
    E. skototropism.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #17

  1. The fruit ripening process releases large quantities of
    B. cytokinin.
    C. ethylene.
    D. abscisic acid.
    E. gibberellin.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #22

  1. Which of the following is an effect of light on auxin?
    A.It develops into a more complex substance.
    B. It disintegrates completely.
    C. It migrates away from the light against a diffusion gradient.
    D. It is increased in quantity.
    E. It produces a stronger response.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #19

  1. Which of the following plant movements is due primarily to an external stimulus?
    A.helical (spiraling) movement
    B. nodding movement
    C. twining movement
    D. gravitropism
    E. none of these answers are correct.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #2


  1. Special cells that facilitate the perception of gravity by root caps and coleoptiles are
    B. leucocytes.
    C. taxes.
    D. amyloplasts.
    E. plebiscites.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #20

  1. Which of the following is a simple device that rotates a potted plant slowly about a horizontal axis?
    B. parallelostat
    C. phytomotor
    D. clinostat
    E. none of these answers are correct.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #21

  1. Plant movements that are not oriented relative to the direction of the stimulus are called
    B. nastic movements.
    C. etiolated movements.
    D. thigmotropisms.
    E. silhouette movements.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #27

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
    A.Turgor movements were the basis for Linnaeus’ garden clock.
    B. Nastic movements are a type of turgor movement in flat organs.
    C. in plants or plant parts that show turgor movements, the entire plant moves.
    D. in a pulvinus, water slowly moves out of the xylem into the surrounding area, causing movement.
    E. a phototropism is a form of turgor movement.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #3


  1. Which of the following play a major role in water-conservation movements of grasses?
    A.bulliform cells
    B. epidermal cells
    C. mesophyll cells
    D. glands
    E. fibers


Stern – 011 Chapter… #7

  1. The movement of a leaf petiole as the leaf inclines to the sun throughout the day is facilitated by
    A.bulliform cells.
    B. motor cells.
    C. tracheids.
    D. passage cells.
    E. laticifers.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #18

  1. Plants that have two critical photoperiods are called
    A.short-day plants.
    B. long-day plants.
    C. day-neutral plants.
    D. critical-day plants.
    E. intermediate-day plants.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #4

  1. The flowering of plants may be due to a hormone, the existence of which has not yet been proven. That hypothetical hormone is called
    B. plant adrenalin.
    C. florigen.
    D. day-neutral hormone.
    E. 2,4,5-T.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #8


  1. Phytochromes are pale ______ pigments.
    B. blue.
    C. red.
    D. orange.
    E. yellow.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #30


True / False Questions

  1. The part of the stem above the cotyledons in a bean seedling is the epicotyl.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #31

  1. There probably is only one auxin naturally produced by plants.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #32

  1. The applications of certain gibberellins to a lawn can cause it to turn green earlier in the spring.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #33

  1. Phototropic responses may vary according to light intensity.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #34


  1. Statoliths are involved in phototropisms.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #35

  1. Circadian rhythms are found in both plants and animals.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #36

  1. Grass leaves may roll up in dry weather when certain cells lose their turgor.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #37

  1. Apical dominance can be offset with an application of cytokinins to axillary buds.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #38

  1. Day-neutral plants do not need light in order to flower.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #39

  1. Tissue culture involves the cultivation of cells on a tree branch.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #40


  1. Phytochrome pigment is known to occur in at least three stable forms.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #41

  1. A taxis is a movement involving primarily the leaves of a plant.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #42

  1. A plant that is spindly because it has been grown in the dark is said to be etiolated.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #43

  1. Garner and Allard were responsible for coining the term photoperiodism.


Stern – 011 Chapter… #44

Chapter 21

The Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns and Their Relatives



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Ancient land plants are thought to be derived from
    A.brown algae.
    B. green algae.
    C. cyanobacteria.
    D. bacteria.
    E. bryophytes.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #28

  1. One of the significant adaptations to prevent drying out in the land environment was the development by vascular plants of (a)
    A.leaf system.
    B. cuticle.
    C. stomata.
    D. flowering system.
    E. both [cuticle and stomata] are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #29

  1. Enations are small, flattened green protuberances found on the stems of mosses.
    B. horsetails.
    C. quillworts.
    D. true mosses.
    E. whisk ferns.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #3


  1. Whisk ferns produce sporangia on the upper surface of leaf-like flaps of tissue called _________.
    A. gametophylls
    B.  microphylls
    C.  enations
    D.  sporophylls
    E.  megaphylls


  1. The gametophytes of which of the following are saprobic? mosses
    B. horsetails
    C. quillworts
    D. true mosses
    E. whisk ferns


Stern – 021 Chapter… #4

  1. Which of the following probably did NOT occur when a shift from aquatic to terrestrial habitats took place millions of years ago?
    A.sterile jackets of cells developed around gametangia
    B. embryos developed within protective tissues
    C. a cuticle appeared
    D. chlorophyll appeared
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #8

  1. Which of the following has neither true leaves nor true roots? mosses (Lycopodium)
    B. whisk ferns (Psilotum)
    C. spike mosses (Selaginella)
    D. horsetails (Equisetum)
    E. ferns


Stern – 021 Chapter… #10


  1. Within the seedless vascular plant group, the relationship of ______________ to the ferns and other fern allies is unresolved.
    A. tree ferns
    B.  flowering plants
    C.  whisk ferns
    D.  hornworts
    E.   liverworts


  1. The so-called fern allies (relatives of ferns) include several divisions of plants related to ferns. Which of the following belongs to this group? mosses
    B. hornworts
    C. liverworts
    D. tree ferns
    E. lichens


Stern – 021 Chapter… #1

  1. The spores of which of the following were used at one time for flashlight powder in photography and the theater?
    B. club mosses
    C. true mosses
    D. quillworts
    E. horsetails


Stern – 021 Chapter… #2

  1. Sporophylls are
    A.leaves that bear sporangia.
    B. insects that consume spores.
    C. special spores of quillworts.
    D. photosynthetic sporangia.
    E. spore mother cells of horsetails.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #5


  1. In nature asexual propagation of ground pines (Lycopodium) may take place by means of which of the following?
    B. root divisions
    C. bulbils
    D. corms
    E. cladophylls


Stern – 021 Chapter… #12

  1. The leaves of spike mosses and quillworts have an appendage called a
    B. bract.
    C. gland.
    D. ligule.
    E. lobe.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #13

  1. A fundamental distinction between club mosses (Lycopodium) and spike mosses (Selaginella) involves differences in their
    B. stems.
    C. habitats.
    D. chlorophyll.
    E. spores.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #14

  1. A spike moss microspore has the potential to develop into which of the following?
    A.female gametophyte
    B. male gametophyte
    C. sporophyte
    D. protonema
    E. None of these answers are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #15


  1. Lycopods produce sporangia which are produced on the upper surface of modified leaves termed
    B. microphylls.
    C. enations.
    D. sporophylls.
    E. megaphylls.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #31

  1. The common name for ground pines is based on the appearance of the ___________, which is an evergreen stem running along the surface of the solid.
    A. megaphylls
    B.  gametophyte
    C.  sporophylls
    D.  cones and seed
    E.  sporophyte


  1. Living spike mosses and quillworts produce ______________, a reproductive feature referred to as ________.
    A. two types of spores; heterospory
    B.  one type of spore; monospory
    C.  large leaves; megaphylly
    D.  nonflagellated sperm cells; motile reproduction
    E.  woody stems; arboreal


  1. Which of the following is considered to be a likely ancestor of the club mosses?
    B. Psilotum
    C. Tmesipteris
    D. Equisetum
    E. Isoetes


Stern – 021 Chapter… #11


  1. Carinal and vallecular canals are found in the stems of
    A.true ferns.
    B. club mosses and ground pines.
    C. horsetails.
    D. quillworts.
    E. whisk ferns.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #6

  1. Which of the following are the air tubes located within horsetail (Equisetum) stems between the ribs?
    A.central canals
    B. carinal canals
    C. vallecular canals
    D. aerenchyma canals
    E. None of these answers are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #16

  1. The stems of which of the following are the plant’s principal sites of photosynthesis? mosses
    B. spike mosses
    C. whisk ferns
    D. horsetails
    E. More than one of these answers are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #17

  1. Which of the following unrelated structures function according to changes in humidity?
    A.elaters of liverworts
    B. elaters of horsetails
    C. moss peristomes
    D. None of these answers are correct.
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #18


  1. The substance in horsetail stems that makes them suitable for scouring is
    A.magnesium salts.
    B. silica.
    C. calcium carbonate.
    D. table salt.
    E. potassium chloride.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #19

  1. Cannel coal is fossilized
    A.fern spores.
    B. fern stems.
    C. horsetail and club moss spores.
    D. horsetail stems.
    E. club moss stems.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #26

  1. Archegonia and antheridia are structures where _____________ are produced.
    A. spores
    B.  elaters
    C.  gametes
    D.  sporoctyes
    E.  peristomes


  1. Leaves with more than one vein and a leaf trace are generally classified as
    A.compound leaves.
    B. megaphylls.
    C. simple leaves.
    D. pinnate leaves.
    E. microphylls.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #9


  1. The semi-transparent tissue that protects immature sporangia in many ferns is called a/an
    B. jacket.
    C. sporophyll.
    D. soral coat.
    E. sorus.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #20

  1. In ferns an annulus is directly and intimately associated with a/an
    B. rhizome.
    C. adventitious root.
    D. sporangium.
    E. prothallus.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #21

  1. The antheridia of ferns are usually located
    A.around the apical notch of the prothallus.
    B. within a sorus on a frond.
    C. among the rhizoids on the prothallus.
    D. in the axils of rhizome scales.
    E. around the margins of the prothallus.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #22

  1. In ferns, meiosis occurs in this structure.
    B. gametophyte
    C. frond
    D. rhizome
    E. sporophyte


Stern – 021 Chapter… #32


  1. A favorite growing medium for orchid growers comes from
    A.fern fronds.
    B. fern “bark.”
    C. dried club mosses.
    D. dried horsetail stems.
    E. quillwort leaves.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #27

  1. Which pair of plants is placed in the same division?
    A.Selaginella and Tmesipteris
    B. Isoetes and Psilotum
    C. Psilotum and Tmesipteris
    D. Lycopodium and Equisetum
    E. Lycopodium and Psilotum


Stern – 021 Chapter… #30

  1. Bryophytes, ferns and fern allies all require _________________ for sexual reproduction because the sperm cells ______________.
    A. pollinators; depend on animals for distribution
    B.  wind currents; depend on wind for gamete distribution
    C.  surface water; swim to the egg cell
    D.  dry conditions; must be dry before they fertilize egg cells
    E.  None of the above


  1.  Primitive plants, which are believed to be the ancestors of present-day ferns, appeared during which of the following geological periods?
    A. Devonian
    B.  Carboniferous
    C.  Ordovician
    D.  Permian
    E.  Cretaceous


Stern – 021 Chapter… #23


  1. People have used ferns for which of the following purposes?
    A. to reduce indoor air pollution
    B.  landscaping
    C.  drugs to promote urination (diuretics)
    D.  food
    E.  all of the above


  1. The fern gametophyte is typically _____________________.
    A. large and long-lived
    B.  nonphotosynthetic and saprobic
    C.  attached to the sporophyte
    D.  small and photosynthetic
    E.  used in landscaping


  1. The fossilized dungs of prehistoric animals and humans are called
    B. petrifactions.
    C. casts.
    D. coprolites.
    E. molds.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #7

  1. Botanists who study fossil plant materials in their research are known as
    B. plant historians.
    C. phycologists.
    D. geobotanists.
    E. paleobotanists.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #24


  1. Uncompressed rocklike fossils in which the original cell structure has been preserved are
    B. petrifactions.
    C. casts.
    D. unaltered fossils.
    E. imprints.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #25

  1.   _______________ are an excellent place to find fossils of ferns and fern allies.
    A. Volcanic deposits
    B.  Limestone rocks
    C.  Diatomaceous earth
    D.  Sandstone rocks
    E.  Coal mines



True / False Questions

  1. Whisk ferns consist primarily of stems.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #33

  1. The leaves of both club mosses and quillworts are microphylls.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #34

  1. Leaves that bear sporangia are called sporophylls.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #35


  1. Quillworts have no stems.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #36

  1. The annulus of a fern sporangium functions in spore dispersal.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #37

  1. Fern fronds are often subdivided into pinnae.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #38

  1. The prothalli of ferns normally produce rhizoids.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #39

  1. A petrifaction is a fossil in which the preserved organism is found in an unaltered state.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #40

  1. The image of a compression fossil is called an imprint.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #41


  1. Tmesipteris is a close relative of whisk ferns.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #42

  1. The leaves of horsetails are called ligules.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #43

  1. Ancient relatives of both club mosses and horsetails were large and treelike.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #44

  1. Club moss spores emit a flash of light when ignited.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #45

  1. Ferns produce seeds but no spores.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #46

  1. Equisetum belongs to a group of plants called “pig tails”.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #47


  1. Ferns are distinguished from their relatives by having megaphylls.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #48

  1. Embryos are not produced by ferns, only spores.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #49

  1. Enations are pre-leaves that are found in Psilotum.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #50

  1. The soft coal, cannel, consists primarily of carbonized spores of giant horsetails and club mosses.


Stern – 021 Chapter… #51