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21st Century Astronomy The Solar System 5th Ed by Kay – Test Bank

 

 

 

Chapter 1: Thinking Like an Astronomer

Learning Objectives

1.1 Earth Occupies a Small Place in the Universe

Define the bold-faced vocabulary terms within the chapter.

Multiple Choice: 1, 9, 14, 21, 29, 31, 36, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44

Short Answer:

List our cosmic address.

Multiple Choice: 22

Short Answer:

Differentiate the various components of our cosmic address.

Multiple Choice: 2, 6, 23

Short Answer:

Relate the different sizes of, or the different distances between, the components of our cosmic address.

Multiple Choice: 10, 11, 15, 24, 25

Short Answer:

Relate astronomical distances with light-travel time.

Multiple Choice: 4, 7, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28

Short Answer: Illustrate the size or history of the universe with scaled models.

Multiple Choice: 3, 5, 8, 12, 13

Short Answer: 1.2 Science Is a Way of Viewing the Universe

Compare the everyday and scientific meanings of theory.

Multiple Choice: 33, 35, 39

Short Answer: Compare an idea with a hypothesis.

Multiple Choice: 32, 34

Short Answer: Describe the steps of the scientific method.

Multiple Choice: 38, 41

Short Answer: Assess whether a given idea or explanation is scientific.

Multiple Choice: 45, 46

Short Answer: Establish why all scientific knowledge is provisional.

Multiple Choice: 30

Short Answer: 1.3 Astronomers Use Mathematics to Find Patterns

Identify patterns in nature.

Multiple Choice: 47, 48, 51

Short Answer: Summarize the evidence for the statement “We are actually made of recycled stardust.”

Multiple Choice: 50, 52, 54

Short Answer: Identify fields of science that relate to the study of origins.

Multiple Choice: 53

Short Answer: Working It Out 1.1

Write numbers in both scientific and standard notation.

Multiple Choice: 49, 55, 57, 58, 68

Describe characteristics of real-world objects in terms of ratios.

Multiple Choice: 56, 59, 60

Determine the mathematical behavior of proportional systems.

Multiple Choice: 61, 62, 63, 64

Working It Out 1.2

Identify the x and y axes on a graph.

Define slope on a graph.

Read data from linear and logarithmic graphs.

Multiple Choice: 65, 66, 69, 70

Distinguish between linear and exponential curves on a graph.

Multiple Choice: 67

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The word astronomy means
    1. “patterns among the stars.”
    2. “to study the stars.”
    3. “discovering the universe.”
    4. “the movement of the stars.”
    5. “personality traits set by the stars.”

 

 

  1. The number of planets in our Solar System is
  2. According to the figure below, Earth is located approximately
    1. at the center of the Milky Way.
    2. near the center of the Milky Way.
    3. about halfway out from the center of the Milky Way.
    4. at the farthest outskirts of the Milky Way.
    5. outside the Milky Way, which is why we can see it as a band across the night sky.

 

  1. The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 1.5 × 1011 m, and light from the Sun takes approximately _________ to reach Earth.
    1. 8 seconds
    2. 8 minutes
    3. 8 hours
    4. 8 days
    5. 8 years
  2. Our universe is approximately 13.7 _________ years old.
    1. thousand
    2. million
    3. billion
    4. trillion
  3. Milky Way is the name of
    1. our solar system.
    2. the galaxy in which we live.
    3. the local group of galaxies we are in.
    4. the supercluster of galaxies we are in.
  4. One of the nearest stars is Alpha Centauri, whose distance is 4.4 light-years. The time it takes light to travel from Alpha Centauri to us is
    1. 25 seconds.
    2. 3 minutes.
    3. 4 years.
    4. 600 years.
  5. The time it takes light to cross Neptune’s orbit is closest to which of the following?
    1. a second
    2. a quick meal
    3. a night’s sleep
    4. the time between presidential elections
  6. A light-hour is a measure of

 

 

  1. If one thinks about the distance between Earth and the Moon, 384,400 km, approximately how much of that distance would Saturn and its rings take up?
    1. much more than this distance
    2. less than half this distance
    3. more than half this distance
    4. exactly equal to this distance
  2. The diameter of the Moon is
    1. larger than the distance across the continental United States.
    2. roughly equal to the longest distance across Texas.
    3. more than half the distance across the continental United States.
    4. less than half the distance across the continental United States.
  3. The early universe was composed mainly of which two elements?
    1. hydrogen and helium
    2. carbon and oxygen
    3. hydrogen and oxygen
    4. carbon and iron
    5. nitrogen and oxygen
  4. What is the approximate number of stars in the Milky Way?
    1. 10 million
    2. 300 million
    3. 10 billion
    4. 300 billion
    5. 1 trillion
  5. The Local Group is the environment around
    1. the Earth-Moon system.
    2. the Sun that contains about a dozen stars.
    3. the Sun that contains over a million stars.
    4. the Milky Way that contains a few dozen galaxies.
    5. the Milky Way that contains a few thousand galaxies.
  6. The majority of the mass in our universe is made up of
    1. dark matter.
  7. The speed of light is approximately
    1. 3,000 km/s.
    2. 30,000 km/s.
    3. 300,000 km/s.
    4. 3 million km/s.
    5. 3 billion km/s.
  8. If an event were to take place on the Sun, how long would it take for the light it generates to reach us?
    1. 8 minutes
    2. 11 hours
    3. 1 second
    4. 1 day
    5. It would reach us instantaneously.
  9. One of the nearest stars is Alpha Centauri, whose distance is 4.2 × 1016 How long does it take light to travel from Alpha Centauri to us?
    1. 25 seconds
    2. 3 minutes
    3. 4 years
    4. 560 years
    5. 6,200 years

 

  1. The distance to the nearest large spiral galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, is 2.4 × 1022 How long does it take light to travel from Andromeda to us?
    1. 4 years
    2. 360 years
    3. 2 thousand years
    4. 5 million years
    5. 5 billion years
  2. The distance to the center of the Laniakea cluster of galaxies is 5 × 1023 How long does it take light to travel from these galaxies to us?
    1. 7,000 years
    2. 54,000 years
    3. 120,000 years
    4. 12 million years
    5. 54 million years
  1. A light-year is a unit commonly used in astronomy as a measure of
  2. According to the figure below, if you were to specify your address in the universe, listing your membership from the smallest to largest physical structures, it would be
    1. Earth, Local Group, Solar System, Andromeda, the universe.
    2. Earth, Solar System, Local Group, Milky Way, the universe.
    3. Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, Local Group, Laniakea Supercluster, the universe.
    4. Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea Supercluster, the universe.
    5. Earth, Laniakea Supercluster, Milky Way, Solar System, the universe.
  1. Which of the following is false?
    1. The Local Group is a member of the Laniakea Supercluster, which contains thousands of galaxies.
    2. The Local Group contains two large spiral galaxies and a few dozen dwarf galaxies.
    3. Our Solar System has eight classical planets.
    4. The Milky Way Galaxy contains approximately 100 million stars.
    5. The Laniakea Supercluster is one of many superclusters in the universe.
  1. If the diameter of the Milky Way is approximately 100,000 light-years, then our galaxy is _________ times larger than our Solar System. For reference, Pluto’s orbit has an approximate diameter of 80 astronomical units (AU).
    1. 100
    2. 1,000
    3. 10,000
    4. 106
    5. 108

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The majority of the energy in our universe is
    1. radiated by stars from the nuclear fusion going on in their cores.
    2. the kinetic energy found in the collisions of galaxies.
    3. the gravitational potential energy of superclusters.
    4. emitted in radioactive decays of unstable elements.
    5. made up of dark energy that permeates space.
  2. After the Sun, the next nearest star to us is approximately _________ away.
    1. 8 light-seconds
    2. 80 light-minutes
    3. 40 light-hours
    4. 4 light-years
    5. 200 light-years
  3. The figure below measures distances in the amount of time it takes light to travel. If the circumference of Earth is a snap of your fingers (1/7 second), the diameter of the Solar System is approximately equal to
    1. the length of a quick lunch.
    2. the time to turn a page in a book.
    3. the length of the work day.
    4. the time you spent in high school.
    5. a human lifetime.
  4. If you compared the diameter of Earth, which is 13,000 km, to 1 second, then what unit of time would be equivalent to the size of the Milky Way, whose diameter is 1021 m, and what significant milestone would this time correspond to in our evolution?
    1. 2 million years, the length of time humans have existed on Earth
    2. 30,000 years, the length of time humans have lived in North America
    3. 400 years, the length of time humans have been exploring the skies with telescopes
    4. 4 billion years, the age of the Solar System
    5. 14 billion years, the age of the universe
  5. _________ is the idea that the simplest explanation for a phenomenon is usually the correct one.
    1. Newton’s hypothesis
    2. Occam’s razor
    3. Aristotle’s test
    4. Einstein’s excuse
    5. The Copernican principle
  6. A scientific theory can be shown to be wrong if
    1. cultural beliefs evolve to contradict it.
    2. scientists gather new data that contradict its predictions.
    3. it cannot explain all phenomena.
    4. it was first proposed as a conjecture.
    5. a majority of people do not accept it.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Albert Einstein is best known for his revolutionary theory of
    1. quantum mechanics.
  2. In science an idea that cannot be tested is
    1. a hypothesis.
    2. not a scientific idea.
    3. a theory.
    4. a principle.
  3. A theory is
    1. tied to known physical laws.
    2. able to make testable predictions.
    3. a hypothesis that has withstood many attempts to falsify it.
    4. all of the above
  4. A hypothesis is an idea that is
    1. falsifiable with current technology only.
    2. potentially falsifiable with future technology.
    3. not falsifiable.
    4. both a and b
  5. A hypothesis may become a theory
    1. after many repeated attempts to falsify it fail.
    2. if a majority of scientists agree on its propositions.
    3. after it has been logically proved.
    4. if it makes at least one verifiable prediction.
  6. A theoretical model is
    1. a made-up explanation.
    2. a detailed description in terms of known physical laws or theories.
    3. a testable assumption.
    4. a scientific law.
  7. A scientific principle is
    1. a scientific law.
    2. a detailed description in terms of known physical laws or theories.
    3. a general idea or sense about the universe.
    4. a testable statement.
  8. In the scientific method, if an observation does not support the hypothesis, what possible actions should happen next?
    1. Make additional predictions.
    2. Make more observations.
    3. Choose a new hypothesis or revise the current one.
    4. Both b and c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is false?
    1. A scientific theory is an undisputed fact.
    2. If continual testing of a hypothesis shows it to be valid, it may become an accepted theory.
    3. A hypothesis must always have one or more testable predictions.
    4. A scientific theory may eventually be proven wrong when scientists acquire new data.
    5. Scientific observations are used to test a hypothesis.
  2. The scientific method is a process by which scientists
    1. prove theories to be known facts.
    2. gain confidence in theories by failing to prove them wrong.
    3. show all theories to be wrong.
    4. test the ideas of Aristotle.
    5. survey what the majority of people think about a theory.
  3. A _________ becomes a _________ when repeated testing of its predictions does not disprove it.
    1. hypothesis; scientific method
    2. theory; scientific revolution
    3. phenomenon; theory
    4. hypothesis; theory
    5. law; theory
  4. The cosmological principle states that
    1. the universe is expanding in all directions at the same rate.
    2. a unique center of the universe exists.
    3. the universe looks the same everywhere and in all directions as long as you look on large enough spatial scales.
    4. physical laws change from place to place in the universe.
    5. the universe is in a “steady state.”
  5. Because of _____________, we can conclude that gravity works the same way on Earth as it does on Mars.
    1. Newton’s theory of relativity
    2. Einstein’s special theory of relativity
    3. Sagan’s planetary principle
    4. the cosmological principle
    5. the hypothetical statute
  6. If you have a stuffy nose, a fever, chills, and body aches and a doctor treats you for the flu rather than four separate diseases that account for each of your symptoms, this is an application of
    1. Newton’s hypothesis
    2. Occam’s razor
    3. Aristotle’s test
    4. Einstein’s relativity
    5. Copernican principle
  7. One of the central assumptions in astronomy is that the physical laws of nature
    1. change when objects move at high speed.
    2. change throughout the age of the universe.
    3. depend on the mass of the objects involved.
    4. are the same everywhere in the universe.
  8. The statement “our universe is but one of a multitude of isolated universes” is best characterized as a
    1. speculative but unscientific idea because it is not testable and therefore not falsifiable.
    2. scientific fact.
    3. physical law.
    4. hypothesis that is currently being tested.
  9. The language of science is
    1. Greek
    2. mathematics
    3. calculus
    4. Java
    5. Latin
  10. When you see a pattern in nature, it is usually evidence of
    1. a theory being displayed.
    2. quantum mechanics in action.
    3. a breakdown of random clustering.
    4. an underlying physical law.
    5. A decrease in entropy.
  11. Scientific notation is used in astronomy primarily because it allows us to
    1. write very large and very small numbers in a convenient way.
    2. talk about science in an easy way.
    3. change easy calculations into hard calculations.
    4. change hard calculations into easy calculations.
    5. explain science to engineers.
  12. Which is an important element in the composition of your body that was produced by nuclear fusion inside a star or an explosion of a star?
    1. iron
    2. calcium
    3. oxygen
    4. carbon
    5. all of the above
  13. The figure below shows the night sky as it appears for an observer in the United States at the same time of the night but at four different seasons of the year. Which conclusion below is not reasonable based on these observations?
    1. Constellations do not change their location relative to one another, but which constellations appear in the night sky does change from season to season.
    2. There are some constellations such as Ursa Minor, Ursa Major, Cassiopeia, and Cephus that are always seen in the night sky.
    3. Some constellations such as Capricornus and Sagittarius are only visible during summer and fall.
    4. A good time to harvest crops would be when the constellation Pegasus is directly overhead.
    5. A good time to plant crops would be when the constellation Sagittarius is directly overhead.

 

 

  1. Which presently observed element or isotope was not produced in appreciable amounts in the very early universe shortly after the Big Bang?
    1. hydrogen
    2. helium-4
    3. deuterium
    4. carbon
    5. helium-3
  2. The study of whether or not life exists elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond is called
  3. The most massive elements such as those that make up terrestrial planets like Earth were formed
    1. in the early universe.
    2. inside stars and supernovae.
    3. through meteor collisions.
    4. in the core of Earth.
    5. during the formation of the Solar System.
  4. The number 123,000 written in scientific notation is
    1. 23 × 106
    2. 23 × 105
    3. 23 × 103
    4. 23 × 10–6
    5. 23 × 103
  5. If the radius of circle B is twice the radius of circle A, and the area of a circle is proportional to the radius squared (A ∝ r2), then the ratio of the area of circle B to that of circle A is
    1. 5.
    2. 25.
    3. 414.
  1. (6 × 105) × (3 × 10–2) =
    1. 8 × 103
    2. 8 × 104
    3. 8 × 106
    4. 8 × 108
    5. 8 × 10-3
  1. (1.2 × 109 ) ÷ (4 × 10–3) =
    1. 3 × 106
    2. 3 × 105
    3. 3 × 1010
    4. 3 × 1011
    5. 3 × 1012
  2. If the radius of circle B is 5 times the radius of circle A, then the ratio of the area of circle B to that of circle A is
    1. 2.
    2. 04.
    3. 025.
  1. If the radius of sphere B is 5 times the radius of sphere A, then the ratio of the volume of sphere B to the volume of sphere A is
    1. 008.
    2. 2.
  1. The area of a circle is related to its diameter by the formula . Using algebra to solve for D, we find that
    1. .
    2. .
    3. .
    4. .
    5. .
  2. The volume of a sphere is related to its radius by the formula . Using algebra to solve for R, we get
    1. .
    2. .
    3. .
    4. .
    5. .
  3. If the speed of light is 3 × 105 km/s and 1 km =62 mile, what is the speed of light in miles per hour (mph)?
    1. 670 million mph
    2. 670 thousand mph
    3. 186 mph
    4. 186 thousand mph
    5. 2 billion mph
  4. The orbital period of Mercury is 88 days. What is its orbital period in units of seconds?
    1. 76000 seconds
    2. 6 million seconds
    3. 6 billion seconds
    4. 760 billion seconds
    5. 76 million seconds
  5. At a time step of 10 shown in the figure below, how many viruses are there?
    1. 500
    2. 1000
    3. 1500
    4. 2000
  6. Approximately how many viruses are at time step 5 in the figure below?
    1. 10
    2. 30
    3. 50
    4. 90
    5. 100
  7. Which graph (a), (b), or (c) in the figures below is a plot of an exponential behavior?
    1. figure (a)
    2. figure (b)
    3. figure (c)
    4. both a and c
    5. both b and c
  8. The number 1.5 x 104 is:
    1. 00015
    2. 0015
    3. 1500
    4. 15000
    5. 150000
  9. What are the units of the vertical axis?
    1. km
    2. hour
    3. km/hour
    4. hour/km