Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

 

Sample  Question 

 

1. A child typically enters the mental health system ____.​

a. ​by asking for a referral from a pediatrician
b. ​through the criminal justice system
c. ​by the actions, positive or negative, of peers
d. ​through teachers, counselors, or parents

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Many child and adolescent problems can be best described as the ____.​

a. ​failure to demonstrate expected developmental progress
b. ​absence of the key survival skills needed to thrive
c. ​result of excessive expectations by parents
d. ​stresses associated with educational demands

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

3. Most problematic behaviors shown by children are ____.​

a. ​qualitatively different from normal behavior
b. ​shown to some degree by most children
c. ​caused by inadequate parenting
d. ​indistinguishable from one another

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

4. Interventions for children and adolescents are often intended to ____.​

a. ​restore previous levels of functioning
b. ​serve as a warning for negative behavior
c. ​reform behavior to conform to norms
d. ​eliminate distress and promote further development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. ​In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, children’s mental health problems were attributed to ____.

a. ​possession by the devil or other evil forces
b. ​poor parenting practices
c. ​chemical imbalances
d. ​low self-esteem

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, acts of child maltreatment were ____.​

a. ​illegal and punishable by severe fines
b. ​very uncommon but largely overlooked
c. ​practiced primarily among lower socioeconomic classes
d. ​considered to be a parent’s right for educating or disciplining a child

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. John Locke (1632–1704) advanced the belief that children were ____.​

a. ​possessed by the devil
b. ​uncivilized
c. ​emotionally sensitive beings
d. ​young adults

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. The work of Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard (1775–1838) is notable in that ____.​

a. ​his orientation toward children was one of care and helping, in contrast to the times
b. ​he was the first documented individual to use behavioral techniques with children
c. ​he was a strong advocate for sending disturbed children to asylums
d. ​he initiated the Massachusetts’ Stubborn Child Act

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

9. ​How did Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard believe he could tame the “wild boy of Aveyron”?

a. ​exorcism
b. ​environmental stimulation
c. ​allow him to behave as he did in the wild
d. ​peer modeling

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​Which method did Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard use to tame the “wild boy of Aveyron”?

a. ​cold showers
b. ​tranquilizers
c. ​timeouts
d. ​massages

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​At the end of the nineteenth century, children with intellectual disabilities were regarded as ____.

a. ​suffering from “moral insanity”
b. ​imbeciles
c. ​lunatics
d. ​possessed by the devil

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. ​At the end of the nineteenth century, children with normal cognitive abilities but disturbing behavior were thought to be ____.

a. ​suffering from “moral insanity”
b. ​imbeciles
c. ​diseased
d. ​possessed by the devil

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​The first disorder unique to children and adolescents was ____.

a. ​masturbatory insanity
b. ​schizoid disorder
c. ​moral insanity
d. ​manic depression

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. During the early part of the twentieth century, the biological disease model of mental problems led to ____.​

a. ​the belief that mental illness had no physical basis
b. ​improved treatments
c. ​more controlled research methods
d. ​eugenics and segregation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

15. ​Freud was the first to link mental disorders to ____.

a. ​neurotransmitter imbalances
b. ​early childhood experiences
c. ​possession by evil spirits
d. ​classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Freud’s theory focused on ____.​

a. ​single causes of behavior
b. ​multiple causes of behavior
c. ​diseases of the mind
d. ​neurological causes of behavior

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories are called ____.​

a. ​etiologies
b. ​differentials
c. ​nosologies
d. ​prescriptives

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Who is referred to as the “Father of Behaviorism”?​

a. ​Freud
b. ​Albert
c. ​Watson
d. ​Rayner

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. ​The development of ____ treatment can be traced back to the rise of behaviorism in the early 1900s.

a. ​psychodynamic
b. ​evidence-based
c. ​group-based
d. ​humanist

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. In the first half of the twentieth century, most children with mental disorders were ____.​

a. ​institutionalized
b. ​treated with behavior therapy
c. ​treated with psychoanalysis
d. ​overlooked

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. The work of Rene Spitz ____.​

a. ​led to the development of an organic model of mental illness
b. ​is the first documented attempt to help a special needs child
c. ​led to some of the first empirically supported behavioral techniques for eliminating children’s fears
d. ​raised serious questions about the harmful impact of institutionalization of children’s development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​During the 1950s and 1960s, ____ emerged as a systematic approach to the treatment of childhood disorders.

a. ​psychoanalysis
b. ​family therapy
c. ​behavior therapy
d. ​institutionalization

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. ​The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; Public Law 104-446) mandates ____.

a. ​segregated education for children with special needs
b. ​the use of IQ tests for assessing children
c. ​standardized programs for children identified as special needs
d. ​education in the least restrictive environment possible

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. What is the purpose of an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP)?​

a. ​to test the child using standardized tests
b. ​to accurately diagnose each child’s illness against a model
c. ​to tailor the child’s school program to his or her needs
d. ​to understand the role of family history in mental health

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

25. The 2007 United Nations Treaty adopted a new convention to ____.​

a. ​provide free and appropriate education to children with special needs
b. ​improve disability rights and abolish discrimination
c. ​provide psychotherapy services to children with special needs
d. ​improve test measures to diagnose children with special needs

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms that are associated with ____.​

a. ​deviance
b. ​defiance of norms
c. ​disobedience
d. ​distress

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. In contrast to adults, abnormality in children is often defined in terms of ____.​

a. ​stage of development
b. ​everyday stress
c. ​disability
d. ​addiction

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Which description of a child would be considered labeling a child rather than describing her behavior?​

a. ​Ashley is a child with mental retardation.
b. ​Karlee is an anxious child.
c. ​Amber is a child with autism.
d. ​Robyn is a child who is small.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

29. Boundaries between abnormal versus normal functioning are ____.​

a. ​scientifically defined
b. ​relatively arbitrary
c. ​well-established
d. ​determined by each family

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. What concept states that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings such as child maltreatment?​

a. ​trifinality
b. ​ethnic finality
c. ​equifinality
d. ​multifinality

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. Successful adaptation to the environment varies across ____.​

a. ​psychological theories
b. ​developmental stages
c. ​region of the country
d. ​culture and ethnicity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​The ability to successfully adapt in the environment is referred to as ____.

a. ​intelligence
b. ​adjustment
c. ​resilience
d. ​coping

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. To determine a child’s competencies, it is useful to have some knowledge of ____.​

a. ​institutional norms
b. ​animal behavior
c. ​adult dysfunctions
d. ​developmental tasks

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. Which of the following is not a developmental task of middle childhood?​

a. ​academic achievement
b. ​getting along with peers
c. ​differentiating self from environment
d. ​rule-governed conduct

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. Which of the following is not a developmental task of adolescence?​

a. ​academic achievement
b. ​self-control and compliance
c. ​forming a cohesive sense of self-identity
d. ​involvement in extracurricular activities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Which of the following is not a developmental task of infancy?​

a. ​attachment to caregiver
b. ​language
c. ​differentiation of self from environment
d. ​forming close friendships within and across gender

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. Resiliency in boys is best associated with households in which there are:​

a. ​male role models, structure, and encouragement of emotional expressiveness
b. ​female role models, structure, and encouragement of emotional expressiveness
c. ​male role models and a combination of risk taking and independence
d. ​female role models and a combination of risk taking and independence

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. Multifinality refers to the observation that ____.​

a. ​different disorders may stem from similar causes
b. ​various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings
c. ​the same disorder may have different causes
d. ​developmental pathways may converge at the end

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. Conduct disorder may arise from different developmental pathways, a concept known as ____.​

a. ​equifinality
b. ​multifinality
c. ​developmental diversity
d. ​disordered beginnings

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Which is an example of resiliency?​

a. ​submissiveness
b. ​coping skills
c. ​networking skills
d. ​physical aptitude

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. A risk factor is a variable that ____.​

a. ​follows a negative outcome
b. ​increases the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur
c. ​indicates positive outcomes
d. ​decreases the likelihood that negative outcome will occur

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Which of the following is true with respect to resilience?​

a. ​Resilience is relevant to a few, traumatic life events.
b. ​Resilience cannot be learned or taught.
c. ​Resilience remains consistent over time.
d. ​Resilience may vary over time and across situations.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. By the year 2020, global child and adolescent mental health issues, in terms of disability, will ____.​

a. ​decrease by 50%
b. ​remain the same as the present day
c. ​slightly increase
d. ​surpass physical health issues

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Which risk factor is most likely to increase a child’s vulnerability to psychopathology?​

a. ​chronic poverty
b. ​impulsivity
c. ​two-career families
d. ​lack of siblings

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. In the United States and Canada, children from ____ racial/ethnic backgrounds have the highest rates of poverty.​

a. ​African American and Native American
b. ​Native American and Asian American
c. ​Asian American and Mexican American
d. ​African American and Mexican American

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. Girls have higher rates of ____ than boys.​

a. ​illiteracy
b. ​autism
c. ​depression
d. ​ADHD

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. Childhood poverty is a daily reality for about one in ____ children in the United States.​

a. ​four
b. ​five
c. ​seven
d. ​eight

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. Which statement about children’s mental health is false?​

a. ​About 1 in 15 children has a mental health problem that impairs their functioning.
b. ​Approximately 75% of children with mental health problems receive proper services.
c. ​Race plays more of a role than socioeconomic status (SES) in disorder rates among children.
d. ​About 1 in 10 children meets the criteria for a specific psychological disorder.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Most children today ____.​

a. ​will have the same development trajectory to adulthood
b. ​grow out of their childhood difficulties by adulthood
c. ​face greater stressors at earlier ages than children of the past
d. ​have the same types of problems as children of the past

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Which children are disproportionately afflicted with mental health problems?​

a. ​those who are recent immigrants
b. ​those who are only children
c. ​those with more than two siblings
d. ​those born to parents with criminal histories

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. The significant difficulties that children in chronic poverty experience may be due to​

a. ​damage to the cerebellum
b. ​an underactive amygdala
c. ​certain genetic markers
d. ​impaired prefrontal cortex development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Which statement is true regarding LGBT youth?​

a. ​They are more likely to seek help from adults.
b. ​They often experience verbal and physical abuse.
c. ​They have fewer academic problems.
d. ​They are more likely to be bullies.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. Which statement reflects the differences in mental health problems between boys and girls?​

a. ​Anxiety disorders are more common in boys than girls.
b. ​Sex differences in problem behaviors exhibit by early infancy.
c. ​Boys demonstrate more difficulties than girls starting in early adolescence.
d. ​Boys’ externalizing problems are more prevalent than girls’ in the preschool years.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Which statement is true about how ethnicity affects mental health problems in children?​

a. ​Minority children in the United States are overrepresented in rates of some disorders.
b. ​No differences emerge in relation to race and mental health even when controlling for other factors.
c. ​Minority children and youth do not face any more disadvantages in life than other children.
d. ​Ethnic representation in research studies has received a great deal of attention in studies of child psychopathology.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Verified reports of child abuse and neglect number over ____ in the United States.​

a. ​100,000
b. ​200,000
c. ​500,000
d. ​1,000,000

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Phone surveys suggest that about ____ of 10- to 16-year-olds experience physical and/or sexual abuse.​

a. ​one-tenth
b. ​one-fourth
c. ​one-third
d. ​one-half

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Phone surveys suggest that about ____ of 12- to 17-year-olds met criteria for either post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, or substance abuse/dependence.​

a. ​1% to 5%
b. ​5% to 9%
c. ​16% to 19%
d. ​20% to 35%

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which issues make adolescence a particularly vulnerable period?​

a. ​risky sexual behavior
b. ​sporting teams
c. ​chores at home
d. ​technology use

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Children with the most chronic and serious disorders ____.​

a. ​are more likely to receive help, and therefore, to succeed in school
b. ​face sizable difficulties throughout their lives
c. ​are less likely to have social problems in online venues
d. ​do not tend to carry a psychiatric disorder into adulthood

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. What might be one consequence associated with child psychopathology?​

a. ​increased demands on health systems
b. ​less funding for educational institutions
c. ​less interest in interventions
d. ​increased funding for criminal justice systems

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​How has the societal view of children changed throughout history and who were some of the major historical figures responsible for these changes?

ANSWER:   Early writings suggest that children were considered servants of the state in the city-states of early Greece. Ancient Greek and Roman societies believed that any person—young or old—with a physical or mental handicap, disability, or deformity was an economic burden and a social embarrassment, and thus was to be scorned, abandoned, or put to death. Today we recognize children as valuable, independent of any other purpose, to help them develop normal lives and competencies. Some of the major influences were Freud, Watson, and Locke.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. What characteristics of a child place him or her at risk for developing a psychological disorder?​

ANSWER:   Children who face many known risk factors, such as community violence and parental divorce, are vulnerable to abnormal development. Acute, stressful situations as well as chronic adversity put children’s successful development at risk. Chronic poverty, serious caregiving deficits, parental mental illness, divorce, homelessness, and racial prejudice are known risk factors that increase children’s vulnerability to psychopathology—especially in the absence of compensatory strengths and resources.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. In regards to legislation pertaining to children with special needs and education, what is IDEA and what does it mandate?​

ANSWER:   ​In the United States the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; Public Law 104-446) mandates: free and appropriate public education for any child with special needs in the least restrictive environment for that child; each child with special needs, regardless of age, must be assessed with culturally appropriate tests; each of these children must have an individualized education program (IEP) tailored to his or her needs, and must be re-assessed.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. What is an IEP and what is its purpose?​

ANSWER:   An IEP is an individualized education program tailored to his or her needs, and must be re-assessed.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. What is the goal of the Treaty that the United Nations General Assembly adopted in 2007 regarding persons with disabilities?​

ANSWER:   In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a new convention to protect the rights of persons with disabilities around the world. This convention represents an important shift from addressing the “special needs” of children to realizing their rights and removing the physical, linguistic, social, and cultural barriers that remain. Countries that ratify the convention agree to enact laws and other measures to improve disability rights, and also to abolish legislation, customs, and practices that discriminate against persons with disabilities.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. What should be taken into account when diagnosing most child and adolescent disorders?​

ANSWER:   To judge what is abnormal, we need to be sensitive to each child’s stage of development and consider each child’s unique methods of coping and way of compensating for difficulties.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. In what ways can low income and/or poverty affect children’s development?​

ANSWER:   Poverty has a significant, yet indirect, effect on children’s adjustment, most likely because of its association with negative influences—particularly harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors—that define the day-to-day experiences of children in poverty.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. Define the concept of competence. How may competence be assessed?​

ANSWER:   ​Definitions of abnormal child behavior must take into account the child’s competence—that is, the ability to successfully adapt in the environment. Developmental tasks, which include broad domains of competence such as conduct and academic achievement, tell how children typically progress within each domain as they grow. Knowledge of the developmental tasks provides an important backdrop for considering a child or adolescent’s developmental progress and impairments.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Distinguish between the concepts of multifinality and equifinality.​

ANSWER:   Multifinality is a concept that proposes that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings (in this case, child maltreatment). Equifinality is a concept that proposes that similar outcomes stem from different early experiences and developmental pathways.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. Distinguish between risk and resilience.​

ANSWER:   A risk factor is a variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occur. Children who survive risky environments by using their strong self-confidence, coping skills, and abilities to avoid risk situations may be considered resilient—they seem able to fight off or recover from their misfortune.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. What are some of the key factors affecting rates and expression of mental disorders?​

ANSWER:   ​New pressures and social changes may place children at increasing risk for the development of disorders at younger ages (Obradovic et al., 2010). Many stressors today are quite different from those faced by our parents and grandparents. Some have been around for generations: chronic poverty, inequality, family breakup, single parenting, and so on. Others are more recent or are now more visible: homelessness, adjustment problems of children in immigrant families, inadequate child care available to working parents, and conditions associated with the impact of prematurity, parental HIV, and cocaine or alcohol abuse on children’s growth and development.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

72. What are some of the findings regarding sex differences in children’s mental health problems?​

ANSWER:   Hyperactivity, autism, childhood disruptive behavior disorders, and learning and communication disorders are more common in boys than in girls; the opposite is true for most anxiety disorders, adolescent depression, and eating disorders.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

73. What child rearing environment predicts the best resiliency for boys, and which predicts the best for girls?​

ANSWER:   Resilience in boys is associated with households in which there is a male role model (such as a father, grandfather, or older brother); structure; rules; and some encouragement of emotional expressiveness. In contrast, girls who display resilience come from households that combine risk taking and independence with support from a female caregiver.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. Discuss the influence of race and ethnicity in the development of psychological disorders.​

ANSWER:   Children from certain ethnic and racial groups in the United States are overrepresented in rates of some disorders, such as substance abuse, delinquency, and teen suicide (Nguyen et al., 2007). However, once the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), sex, age, and referral status are controlled for (i.e., the unique contributions of these factors are removed or accounted for), few differences in the rate of children’s psychological disorders emerge in relation to race or ethnicity.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. Discuss the difficulties sexual minority youth experience in society and which mental health disorders they are most at risk for developing.​

ANSWER:   ​According to several large surveys of LGBT youths in middle and high schools, they are more likely to be victimized by their peers as well as by family members, and they report more bullying, teasing, harassment, and physical assault than other students. Given the stigma and prejudice that exist in many parts of society, it is not surprising that young people who are LGBT have higher rates of mental health problems, including depression and suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and risky sexual behavior, as compared with their heterosexual counterparts.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

1. Skepticism exists regarding research in abnormal child psychology because _____.​

a. ​experts on childhood disorders frequently disagree
b. ​research findings in abnormal child psychology have no clear results
c. ​many conclusions from research with children produce the same findings
d. ​research findings are primarily extrapolated from adult studies

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   A Scientific Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. The ______ of research findings are what advance the field of psychology.​

a. ​reliability
b. ​standardization
c. ​accumulation
d. ​validity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   A Scientific Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. Research presented in the media is typically ____.​

a. ​clearly presented and discussed by medical doctors
b. ​oversimplified
c. ​overly detailed and confusing
d. ​adequately reported

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   A Scientific Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. In research terms, research questions about behavior that follow from a theory are called ____.​

a. ​speculations
b. ​hypotheses
c. ​assumptions
d. ​proposals

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Because there is no one correct approach to research, most problems in abnormal child psychology are best studied by using ____.​

a. ​utilizing rigorous experiments
b. ​using case studies
c. ​only one strategy
d. ​multiple methods and strategies

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. Evaluating the mental health of children can be particularly difficult due to the ____.​

a. ​cultural variations of what constitutes abnormal behavior
b. ​difference in psychological theories
c. ​limited amount of assessment tools available for children
d. ​vague information often given by children

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. Factors such as SES, child’s age, and cultural background affect the _____ of symptoms and disorders.​

a. ​rate and expression
b. ​pervasiveness
c. ​outcome
d. ​termination

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. Questions about the nature and distribution of childhood disorders are frequently addressed through ____.​

a. ​epidemiological research
b. ​regression analysis
c. ​correlation studies
d. ​efficacy studies

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Isabella appears sad and is having difficulty academically and with her peer group. Isabella has a close relationship with her mother. This relationship with her mother can be considered a ____.​

a. ​mediating variable
b. ​protective factor
c. ​moderator variable
d. ​risk factor

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

10. ______ rates refer to the extent to which new cases of a disorder appear over a specified time period.​

a. ​Comorbidity
b. ​Comortality
c. ​Incidence
d. ​Prevalence

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. _____ rates refer to all cases of a disorder, whether new or previously existing, that are observed during a specified time period.​

a. ​Comorbidity
b. ​Comortality
c. ​Incidence
d. ​Prevalence

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Variables that are associated at a particular point in time with no clear proof that one precedes the other are said to be ____.​

a. ​predictive
b. ​moderating
c. ​correlated
d. ​comorbid

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. A variable that precedes an outcome of interest and increases the chances that the negative outcome will occur is a(n) ____.​

a. ​risk factor
b. ​protective factor
c. ​predictive factor
d. ​epidemiological factor

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. A variable that precedes an outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the negative outcome will occur is a(n) ____.​

a. ​predictive factor
b. ​risk factor
c. ​epidemiological factor
d. ​protective factor

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Research into risk and protective factors requires large samples of children be studied and multiple areas of functioning be assessed over long periods of time because ____.​

a. ​the areas of child functioning that will be affected are known in advance
b. ​a high percentage of children who are at risk will develop the disorder
c. ​the ages at which a disorder may occur or reoccur is not known in advance
d. ​the risk and protective factor processes take years to develop

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. ____ evaluate treatment outcomes for children who are unsystematically assigned to treatment and control conditions.​

a. ​Efficacy studies
b. ​Case studies
c. ​Randomized controlled trials
d. ​Correlational studies

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Factors that influence the direction or strength of a relationship of variables of interest are called ____.​

a. ​correlated variables
b. ​mediator variables
c. ​risk variables
d. ​moderator variables

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. If a study of the effect of divorce found a more negative impact for girls than for boys, sex will be a ____.​

a. ​protective factor
b. ​risk factor
c. ​mediating variable
d. ​moderating variable

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

19. The process, mechanism, or means through which a variable produces a particular outcome is known as a(n) ____ variable.​

a. ​comorbid
b. ​correlated
c. ​mediating
d. ​moderating

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. Children who receive treatment are ____.​

a. ​at the same level of functioning as those who are not treated
b. ​less likely to discuss problems with their parents
c. ​less likely to progress then children who are not in treatment
d. ​better off than children who do not receive treatment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. A researcher investigating the relationship between maternal distress and child conduct problems found that maternal distress was related to disciplinary strategies towards the child, which in turn were related to child conduct problems. In this study, disciplinary strategies are a ____.​

a. ​comorbid variable
b. ​correlated variable
c. ​mediator variable
d. ​moderator variable

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

22. Treatment ____ refers to whether or not a treatment can produce changes under well-controlled conditions.​

a. ​efficacy
b. ​effectiveness
c. ​reliability
d. ​validity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. To know if a treatment would truly be useful in community settings, researchers should focus on treatment ____.​

a. ​efficacy
b. ​effectiveness
c. ​reliability
d. ​validity

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. Ideally, a measure of psychopathology should be ____.​

a. ​changeable
b. ​valid
c. ​moderated
d. ​randomized

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. A ____ assessment measure allows for the scores of one child to be compared to the scores of other similar children.​

a. ​reliable
b. ​valid
c. ​standardized
d. ​distributed

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. Emily’s mother was asked to complete a behavior checklist on two separate occasions several weeks apart. The results yielded from both occasions were very similar. The behavior checklist can be said to be:​

a. ​reliable
b. ​valid
c. ​standardized
d. ​effective

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

27. An assessment tool that actually measures the construct it is intended to measure can be considered ____.​

a. ​reliable
b. ​valid
c. ​standardized
d. ​effective

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ____ validity refers to whether scores on a measure behave as predicted by theory or past research.​

a. ​Face
b. ​Convergent
c. ​Construct
d. ​Discriminant

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ____ validity refers to the degree of correlation between measures that are expected to be related to one another.​

a. ​Convergent
b. ​Construct
c. ​Criterion
d. ​Discriminant

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. Amy was observed by a researcher both at home and at school. What kind of research method is this?​

a. ​Clinical observation
b. ​Structured observation
c. ​Situational observation
d. ​Naturalistic observation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Applied

 

31. ​____ validity refers to the degree of correlation between measures that are not expected to be related to one another.

a. ​Convergent
b. ​Construct
c. ​Criterion
d. ​Discriminant

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Applied

 

32. A limitation of psychophysiological measures is ____.​

a. ​deception by the child
b. ​poor inter-rater reliability
c. ​high level of inference for interpretation
d. ​inappropriateness with young children

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. To record electrical activity of the brain, one would want to use a(n) ____.​

a. ​EEG
b. ​PET scan
c. ​CT scan
d. ​MRI

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ____ use radio signals generated in a strong magnetic field.​

a. ​EEGs
b. ​PET scans
c. ​CT scans
d. ​MRIs

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. ____ are used to study cerebral glucose metabolism.​

a. ​PET scans
b. ​EEGs
c. ​CT scans
d. ​MRIs

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Neuroimaging techniques are least useful in determining ____.​

a. ​gross and fine analyses of brain structure
b. ​changes in blood flow in the brain
c. ​rate of glucose metabolism in the brain
d. ​the reason for abnormal brain activity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. One of the major limitations of observational research methods is that ____.​

a. ​they are not cost effective
b. ​behavior may be altered as a function of participants’ awareness of being observed
c. ​results tend to be invalid
d. ​observation cannot be conducted in a structured way

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. Maturation is a threat to ____.​

a. ​external validity
b. ​internal validity
c. ​convergent validity
d. ​inter-rater reliability

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. The degree to which findings can be generalized to children, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than the one in a particular study is referred to as ____.​

a. ​external validity
b. ​internal validity
c. ​face validity
d. ​generalized validity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. The overlapping or co-occurrence of disorders is called ____.​

a. ​multifinality
b. ​comortality
c. ​multidiagnosis
d. ​comorbidity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. The use of ____ is rare in studies of child psychopathology.​

a. ​randomly selected samples
b. ​samples of convenience
c. ​reliable measures
d. ​valid measures

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. The greater the degree of control that a researcher has over the ____, the more a study approximates a true experiment.​

a. ​subjects in the sample
b. ​moderator variables
c. ​independent variable
d. ​dependent variable

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. A correlation of 75 between age and amount of time spent in REM sleep means that ____.​

a. ​older people spend more time in REM sleep
b. ​younger people spend less time in REM sleep
c. ​older people spend less time in REM sleep
d. ​the relationship between age and time spent in REM sleep is weak

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ____ increases the chance that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.​

a. ​Manual distribution
b. ​Predetermined distribution
c. ​Natural assignment
d. ​Random assignment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Asking college students to describe their childhood relationships with peers is an example of a ____ design.​

a. ​longitudinal
b. ​cohort
c. ​prospective
d. ​retrospective

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

46. Recall bias and distortion are potential limitations of ____ studies.​

a. ​analogue
b. ​case
c. ​retrospective
d. ​cohort

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ____ research focuses on a specific research question under conditions that only resemble or approximate the situation to which the researcher wishes to generalize.​

a. ​Cohort
b. ​Retrospective
c. ​Circumscribed
d. ​Analogue

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. When the conditions of a study only resemble or approximate the conditions of interest, questions may be raised about the ____ of the study.​

a. ​external validity
b. ​internal validity
c. ​standardization
d. ​randomization

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Which statement about case studies is false?​

a. ​They involve intensive observation and analysis of an individual child.
b. ​They use controlled methods without biases.
c. ​They are rich in detail and provide valuable insights.
d. ​They usually study rare childhood disorders.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Qualitative research ____.​

a. ​provides a numerical approach to understanding research
b. ​provides an intensive and intimate understanding of a situation
c. ​uses normed assessment tools
d. ​uses statistical analysis

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. In an A-B-A-B design, the “B” stands for ____.​

a. ​intervention
b. ​baseline
c. ​behavior
d. ​observation

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. In ____ research, the same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development.​

a. ​cross-sectional
b. ​longitudinal
c. ​between groups
d. ​cohort

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. In ____ research, different individuals at different ages or stages of development are studied at the same point in time.​

a. ​analogue
b. ​within group
c. ​cross-sectional
d. ​between group

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Aging effects and cohort effects are some of the potential disadvantages of ____ research designs.​

a. ​longitudinal
b. ​cross-sectional
c. ​experimental
d. ​between group

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Qualitative research is characterized by ____.​

a. ​operational definitions
b. ​isolation of variables of interest
c. ​careful control of subject matter
d. ​in-depth narratives and observations

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Qualitative data are typically collected by ____.​

a. ​open-ended interviewing and observations
b. ​already developed observational and assessment tools
c. ​controlled and structured interviewing
d. ​forced choice survey questions

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. _____ means that the child shows some form of agreement to participate in research without necessarily understanding the full significance of the research.​

a. ​Uninformed consent
b. ​Partial consent
c. ​Assent
d. ​Voluntary participation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Ethical and Pragmatic Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. The final responsibility for ethical integrity of a research project lies with the ____.​

a. ​parents
b. ​ethics board
c. ​government
d. ​investigator

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Ethical and Pragmatic Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Research procedures that may harm a child physically or psychologically should ____.​

a. ​only be used when necessary
b. ​only be used when a parent gives consent
c. ​never be used
d. ​only be used when the researcher is very careful

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Ethical and Pragmatic Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. Participation in research is done through direct informed consent except when the participants are ____.​

a. ​children
b. ​adult women
c. ​war veterans
d. ​college students

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Ethical and Pragmatic Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Why is it important to study developmental psychopathology in children who are not referred to clinics?​

ANSWER:   Case definition in abnormal child psychology is complex because children do not refer themselves for treatment. Therefore, equating illness with seeking treatment can be misleading. The factors that lead to referral sometimes have more to do with the child’s parents, teachers, or doctor than with the child’s behavior. Therefore, it is important that we study problems in children who are not referred to clinics for treatment as well as those who are.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. When would qualitative research be preferred over quantitative research?​

ANSWER:   Proponents of qualitative research believe that it provides an intensive and intimate understanding of a situation that is rarely achieved in quantitative research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). Qualitative methods, such as the use of examples or stories, may be particularly engaging to children and enable the discussion of sensitive topics, while allowing the children a sense of control over the research situation.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. Why is it difficult to use true experimentation to study child psychopathology?​

ANSWER:   Most variables of interest in child psychopathology cannot be manipulated directly, including the nature or severity of the child’s disorder, parenting practices, or genetic influences. As a result, much of the research conducted on children with problems and their families relies on nonexperimental, correlational approaches.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. Distinguish between moderating and mediating variables.​

ANSWER:   Moderator variables influence the direction or strength of the relationship of variables of interest. The association between two variables depends on or differs as a function of moderating variables, such as the child’s age, sex, SES, or cultural background. Mediator variables refer to the process, mechanism, or means through which a variable produces a particular outcome. Mediators describe what happens at the psychological or neurobiological level to explain how one variable results from another.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. Why is it important for research to be both reliable and valid?​

ANSWER:   Results need to be consistent in order to determine that they are genuine from one trial to the next, and valid to ensure that they are measuring what they are supposed to be measuring.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. Distinguish between correlational and true experimental research.​

ANSWER:   ​In a true experiment the researcher has maximum control over the independent variable or conditions of interest and can use random assignment of subjects to groups, include needed control conditions, and control possible sources of bias. In correlational studies, researchers often examine relationships among variables by using a correlation coefficient, a number that describes the degree of association between two variables.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. Describe a study in which you would use a qualitative approach. Be sure to indicate why it would be beneficial to use a qualitative approach in your study.​

ANSWER:   ​A study that looked at victims of child sexual abuse would benefit from qualitative study. Qualitative methods, such as the use of examples or stories, may be particularly engaging to children and enable the discussion of sensitive topics, while allowing the children a sense of control over the research situation.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

68. What ethical and pragmatic issues must be considered when conducting research with children?​

ANSWER:   ​Although researchers are obligated to use nonharmful procedures, exposing the child to mildly stressful conditions such as a brief separation from their parent or exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus may be necessary in some instances if benefits associated with the research are to be realized. Children are more vulnerable than adults to physical and psychological harm, and their immaturity may make it difficult or impossible for them to evaluate exactly what research participation means. In view of these realities, precautions must be taken to protect children’s rights during the course of a study.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Ethical and Pragmatic Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Describe two neuroimaging techniques used to examine the brain.​

ANSWER:   ​Two types of functional imaging procedures are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET). fMRI is a form of MRI that registers neural activity in functioning areas of the brain. By doing so, it can show which brain areas are active during particular mental operations such as solving a specific type of problem or reacting to a fear-inducing stimulus.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. Explain the benefits and limitations of the case study. Why is the case study important in abnormal child psychology?​

ANSWER:   Case studies yield narratives that are rich in detail and provide valuable insights into factors associated with a child’s disorder. Nevertheless, they also have drawbacks. They are typically viewed as unscientific and flawed because they are characterized by uncontrolled methods and selective biases, by inherent difficulties associated with integrating diverse observations and drawing valid inferences among the variables of interest, and by generalizations from the particular child of interest to other children. Hence, case studies have been viewed primarily as rich sources of descriptive information that provide a basis for subsequent testing of hypotheses in research using larger samples and more controlled methods. They may also provide a source for developing and trying out new treatment methods. Despite their unscientific nature, there are compelling reasons why systematically conducted case studies are likely to continue to play a useful role in research on childhood disorders. First, some childhood disorders, such as childhood-onset schizophrenia, are rare, making it difficult to generate large samples of children for research. Second, the analyses of individual cases may contribute to the understanding of many striking symptoms of childhood disorders that either occur infrequently or are hidden and therefore difficult to observe directly. Third, significant childhood disturbances such as post-traumatic stress disorder (see Chapter 12) often develop as the result of a natural disaster, severe trauma, or abuse. These extreme events and circumstances are not easily studied using controlled methods.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

71. Describe the limitations of longitudinal studies.​

ANSWER:   ​Practical concerns include obtaining and maintaining research funding and resources over many years and the long wait for meaningful data. Design difficulties relate to aging effects and cohort effects. Aging effects are general changes that occur because as participants age there are increases in physical prowess, impulse control, or social opportunity. Cohort effects are influences related to being a member of a specific cohort—a group of individuals who are followed during the same time and experience the same cultural or historical events.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Methods of Studying Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

72. How can qualitative and quantitative research methods be used in complimentary ways?​

ANSWER:   ​Qualitative methods can be used to identify important dimensions and theories that can then be tested quantitatively. Alternatively, qualitative case studies may be used to illuminate the meaning of quantitatively derived findings (Guerra et al., 2011). In addition, if qualitative data have been reduced to numbers through word counts or frequency counts of themes, the data can be analyzed using quantitative methods.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Research Strategies
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

73. What are the primary differences between pseudoscience and science?​

ANSWER:   ​The differences between scientific and pseudoscientific claims are not simply whether or not they are based on evidence (Finn, Bothe, & Bramlett, 2005). As we discuss later in this chapter, it is the quality of the evidence, how it was obtained, and how it is presented that are crucial in evaluating whether claims are scientifically believable. Scientists are certainly capable of making incorrect claims. What distinguishes them from pseudoscientists is that they play by the rules of science, are prepared to admit when they are wrong, and are open to change based on new evidence.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   A Scientific Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

74. Discuss how cultural differences can impact data collection and research outcomes for childhood disorders.​

ANSWER:   ​The rate and expression of childhood symptoms and disorders often vary in relation to demographic and situational factors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) (e.g., the social, economic, and physical environment in which the child lives as reflected in measures such as family income, education, or occupation); parents’ marital status; and the child’s age, gender, and cultural background, to name but a few. Consequently, these variables must be assessed and controlled in most studies.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. Why is it important to use randomized controlled trials in research?

ANSWER:   By assigning participants to groups on the basis of the flip of a coin, numbers drawn from a hat, or a table of random numbers, the chance is increased that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Research Process
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze