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Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition by James N. Butcher – Test Bank 




Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology: An Overview


Multiple-Choice Questions


1.1-1. Which of the following is an example of family aggregation?

  1. Both Jane and her husband are alcoholic.
  2. Jim and John, 21-year-old friends, are both schizophrenic.
  3. Karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder.
  4. Kim’s suicide was apparently a reaction to her mother’s abuse.


1.1-2. What does Monique’s case best illustrate?

  1. Most individuals with mental disorders are violent.
  2. Women are more likely to commit suicide than men.
  3. Most individuals who experience a mental breakdown are clearly unwell long before treatment is sought.
  4. Mental illness can have a significant impact on one’s life.


1.1-3. What does Monique’s case best illustrate?

  1. Abnormal behavior usually produces more distress in others than the person who engages in the abnormal behavior.
  2. Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances.
  3. Most people who suffer from abnormal behavior are quickly identified as deviant by other people.
  4. When people suffer from mental disorders, they are unable to work or live independently.

1.1-4. What makes defining abnormality difficult?

  1. There are so many types of abnormal behavior that they can’t be accurately described.
  2. There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal.
  3. Most of us are abnormal much of the time so that we cannot tell what is normal.
  4. Criteria for abnormality have yet to be developed.



1.1-5. Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality?

  1. Suffering
  2. Maladaptiveness
  3. Deviancy
  4. There is no single sufficient element.


1.1-6. The fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates that

  1. modern society is unlikely to change.
  2. what is acceptable for men and women is no longer different.
  3. American culture values independence.
  4. the values of a society may change over time.


1.1-7. Brett persistently injects himself with pain killers. This has greatly increased his chance of overdosing and dying. His behavior harms no one else. According to the DSM-5, is Brett’s behavior consistent with the definition of a mental disorder?

  1. Yes, because many people in society engage in this behavior.
  2. Yes, because he is persistently acting in a way that harms him.
  3. No, because his behavior must also harm the well-being of others in the community.
  4. No, because there is no evidence that his actions are out of his own control.


1.1-8. According to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder?

  1. Always
  2. Only when the behavior is inconsistent with cultural norms
  3. When it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual
  4. Never


1.1-9. In the field of abnormal psychology, what does DSM stand for?

  1. Disorders, Science, and the Mind
  2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
  3. Descriptors for the Science of the Mind
  4. Diagnostic Science of the Mind


1.1-10. Which of the following is included in the DSM-5?

  1. A discussion of the various causes of mental disorders
  2. A means of identifying different mental disorders
  3. A description of all conditions for mental illness
  4. A description of all of the possible treatments for each disorder



1.1-11. In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is

contained in the

  1. American Psychological Association’s bylaws.
  2. American Psychiatric Association’s bylaws.
  3. World Health Organization’s classification code.
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.



1.1-12. Which of the following best describes the DSM?

  1. A complete guide to the origin, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  2. A work in progress that classifies mental disorders based on what is currently known
  3. A fundamentally flawed collection of unfounded assumptions about mental disorders
  4. A collection of random opinions to diagnosing mental disorders


1.1-13. According to the case study in the textbook, for Zell Kravinsky the burden of _______ was almost unbearable.

  1. hoarding personal possessions
  2. washing his hands compulsively
  3. refusing to help others
  4. writing and rewriting letters to his family


1.1-14. What is a reason for classifying mental disorders?

  1. A classification system allows information to be organized.
  2. Then professionals won’t need to look at as much information about a person.
  3. Then professionals can make assumptions about people based on their diagnosis.
  4. The diagnosis then often has an effect on peoples’ behaviors.


1.1-15. Which concept provides psychologists with a consistent naming system that can be used to organize and identify information in a helpful manner?

  1. Epidemiology
  2. Classification
  3. Brain research
  4. Labeling


1.1-16. Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for

mental disorders?

  1. A classification system establishes the types of problems that mental professionals can treat.
  2. When a label is used to describe an individual’s behavior, information about the person is lost.
  3. A classification system allows for research to advance.
  4. Identifying the disorder that an individual has guides treatment.


1.1-17. Which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders?

  1. It is far more important that they be reliable than it is for them to be valid.
  2. Classification systems make it more difficult to gather statistics on the incidence and prevalence of disorders.
  3. Classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims.
  4. Although they assist scientists who are researching disorders, they always inhibit our ability to communicate about abnormal behavior in a consistent way.


1.1-18. All of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental

disorders EXCEPT

  1. stereotyping.
  2. labeling.
  3. stigma.
  4. structure.


1.1-19. Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means

  1. people are reluctant to discuss their psychological problems because they are afraid others won’t like them.
  2. people feel very sad and upset when they find out they have a mental illness.
  3. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness.
  4. the problem of removing the diagnosis, even if people make a full recovery from mental illness.


1.1-20. What is wrong with describing someone as being “schizophrenic”?

  1. It implies someone is depressed.
  2. Such a definitive diagnosis is rare.
  3. The behavior of the schizophrenic changes so rapidly that this is only true a small percentage of the time.
  4. Labels should be applied to disorders, not to people.


1.1-21. Which of the following has been shown to reduce stigma of the mentally ill?

  1. Educating people that a mental illness is a “real” brain disorder
  2. Referring to a mental illness as a “mental disease”
  3. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness
  4. Applying labels to individuals, such as “schizophrenic” or “bipolar”


1.1-22. What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate?

  1. Alcoholism has long lasting effects on mood and behavior, even when drinking has ceased.
  2. A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed.
  3. Depression is not universal.
  4. The symptoms of some illnesses are not apparent until after lengthy psychological evaluation.


1.1-23. What is a culture-specific disorder?

  1. A disorder seen in all cultures
  2. A disorder that is seen universally, but presents itself differently depending on cultural factors
  3. A disorder that is a product of cultural stressors
  4. A disorder seen only in certain cultures


1.1-24. Practically speaking, “abnormal” behavior means

  1. any behavior that is “away from the normal” and causes any distress.
  2. any behavior that causes the person distress.
  3. any behavior that causes us to consider our values.
  4. any behavior that deviates from the norms of the society in which the person lives.



1.1-25. Maria believes that her dead grandmother occasionally speaks to her. In deciding if Maria has a mental illness or not, which of the following should first be evaluated?

  1. How old is Maria?
  2. Is Maria’s belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture?
  3. Do people in general consider Maria’s belief abnormal?
  4. Does her belief match any of the symptoms in the disorders in the DSM?


1.1-26. Members of which culture are likely to make the distinction between mental illness (a term used to denote less severe conditions) and madness (a term used to describe more severe problems)?

  1. Iranians
  2. Jamaicans
  3. Americans
  4. Japanese


1.1-27. Why is it important to know how many people have diagnosable mental illnesses?

  1. Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services.
  2. The number of people with mental illness and the level of crime are highly correlated.
  3. If the incidence of mental illness is rising, there needs to be a corresponding increase in the level of funding for medical research.
  4. Pharmaceutical companies need such information to ensure the appropriate level of drug production.


1.1-28. ___________ refers to the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at a given point of time.

  1. Point prevalence
  2. Absolute prevalence
  3. 1-year prevalence
  4. Lifetime prevalence


1.1-29. What is epidemiology?

  1. The exploration of what forms of treatment are most effective
  2. A form of psychotherapy
  3. The study of the role of genes in mental illness
  4. The study of the distribution of a disorder in a population


1.1-30. Mental health epidemiology is

  1. the study of epidemics in mental disorders among the general population.
  2. the study of organic brain diseases among different ethnic populations of a defined geographic region.
  3. the study of the distribution of mental disorders in a given population.
  4. a sociological study of psychological disorders.


1.1-31. What does it mean if a disorder is said to be highly prevalent?

  1. It is common.
  2. It is not curable.
  3. It is treatable.
  4. It is contagious.


1.1-32. What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest?

  1. Point prevalence
  2. One-year prevalence
  3. Lifetime prevalence
  4. Virtual prevalence


1.1-33. ________ rates may be reported in terms of the lifetime risk of contracting a particular disorder.

  1. Prevalence
  2. Point prevalence
  3. Point incidence
  4. Incidence


1.1-34. Which of the following is an example of point prevalence?

  1. Forty people had a panic attack in the last year.
  2. Seventy people in her graduating class had been diagnosed with anorexia at some time during the past four years.
  3. 1% of the population is currently experiencing depressive symptoms.
  4. 15% of women will suffer from an anxiety disorder before the age of 30.


1.1-35. What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder?

  1. Point prevalence
  2. One-year prevalence
  3. Lifetime prevalence
  4. All prevalence data count both those who have the disorder and those who have recovered.


1.1-36. The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year. The mayor should ask an epidemiologist for the ________ of the disorder.

  1. prevalence rate
  2. incidence rate
  3. point prevalence
  4. acute occurrence


1.1-37. What type of prevalence estimate tends to be highest?

  1. Point prevalence
  2. One-year prevalence
  3. Lifetime prevalence
  4. Virtual prevalence


1.1-38. What term refers to the number of new cases of a disorder that occur over a given time period?

  1. Point prevalence
  2. One-year prevalence
  3. Incidence
  4. Valence


1.1-39. Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence?

  1. Most problems are acute.
  2. Few people report symptoms of mental illness when completing surveys.
  3. The incidence of comorbidity is too high.
  4. Measures of several types of disorders were not included.


1.1-40. What is the most prevalent grouping of psychological disorder?

  1. Anxiety disorders
  2. Depressive disorders
  3. Substance abuse disorders
  4. Dissociative disorders


1.1-41. What is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders?

  1. Many people were probably misdiagnosed.
  2. So many people have disorders that this has become a major health issue.
  3. Many people with disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time.
  4. A large majority of people with disorders seek treatment, so the problem is not as bad as it seems.


1.1-42. What can be said about individuals who have a history of at least one serious psychological disorder?

  1. Most are effectively treated and never experience mental illness again.
  2. Over 50% have at least two or more other disorders.
  3. Few have a comorbid disorder.
  4. Individuals who have sought treatment for one illness are unlikely to ever experience another.


1.1-43. Comorbidity means

  1. that a disorder is often fatal.
  2. that a person has two or more disorders.
  3. that a person has a more severe form of a disorder.
  4. that a person is unlikely to recover from the disorder.


1.1-44. A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that

  1. those people who have three or more comorbid disorders have one or more mild and transitory disorders.
  2. over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.
  3. people who have one mental disorder are unlikely to have a second comorbid disorder.
  4. as people grow older they are more likely to have multiple severe disorders.


1.1-45 Most mental health treatment

  1. occurs in an outpatient setting.
  2. requires an overnight stay.
  3. does not involve professionals.
  4. occurs in psychiatric hospitals.


1.1-46. Most people with psychological disorders

  1. seek treatment as soon as they realize there is a problem.
  2. recover only if they seek treatment.
  3. delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.
  4. exaggerate their symptoms so it takes longer for them to recover.


1.1-47. The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that

  1. inpatient hospitalization in public institutions has increased.
  2. people with psychological problems more often receive inpatient treatment than outpatient treatment.
  3. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.
  4. the number of community services has skyrocketed.


1.1-48. Which of the following mental health professionals has a doctoral degree in psychology and provides individual therapy to the patient?

  1. clinical psychologist
  2. occupational therapist
  3. caseworker
  4. psychiatrist


1.1-49. Which of the following mental health professionals prescribes medications and monitors the patient for side effects?

  1. clinical psychologist
  2. psychiatrist
  3. counseling psychologist
  4. occupational therapist



            A clinical social worker would provide a patient with help in which of the following areas?

  1. family therapy
  2. occupational therapy
  3. prescriptions
  4. clinical research


1.1-51. Describing a disorder as acute means that

  1. it causes very severe distress and impairment.
  2. it causes very mild distress and impairment.
  3. it is a very long-lasting disorder.
  4. it is a disorder that is short in duration.


1.1-52. Why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder?

  1. A disorder cannot be identified unless there is an understanding of where it came from.
  2. All recognized disorders have known causes.
  3. Biological treatments only work when a disorder has a biological cause.
  4. The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions about causality.


1.1-53. One strength of case studies is

  1. they can help prove causal relationships between variables.
  2. they can generate new ideas to explore.
  3. they do not involve bias.
  4. they are usually highly accurate.


1.1-54. Why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies?

  1. Case studies can provide little information about a disorder.
  2. Few patients are willing to be used as case studies.
  3. It is unethical.
  4. Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed.


1.1-55. Which of the following typically involves having a patient or research participant fill out questionnaires?

  1. Case study method
  2. Direct observation
  3. Self-report data collection
  4. Psychophysiological data collection


1.1-56. Which of the following typically involves the use of trained observers?

  1. Case study method
  2. Direct observation
  3. Self-report data collection
  4. Psychophysiological data collection


1.1-57. A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person’s feelings and responses. This research strategy is

  1. very strong and widely used in abnormal psychology.
  2. rarely used in abnormal psychology because few people are willing to examine their own lives closely.
  3. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.
  4. weak because it confuses correlational data with experimental data.


1.1-58. Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he has had several arrests for driving while intoxicated, Carl reports that he has no problems with drinking. This is an example of

  1. the problems with self-report data.
  2. the problems with case studies.
  3. the problems of diagnosis.
  4. the problems of forming hypotheses.


1.1-59. ________ are more or less plausible ideas used to explain something (e.g., a behavior) and can be tested using research methods.

  1. Observations
  2. Hypotheses
  3. Variables
  4. Correlations


1.1-60. An important FIRST step in studying a particular disorder is

  1. selecting the best case study for analysis.
  2. determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder.
  3. deciding upon the appropriate statistical analyses to use on the data to be collected.
  4. selecting the appropriate subjects for study.



1.1-61. Upon deciding to study individuals with a given disorder, what is the next step that should be taken?

  1. Select criteria for identifying individuals with the disorder.
  2. Determine what treatment approach will be tested.
  3. Establish which subjects will be the control group and which will be in the experimental group.
  4. Gather survey data to determine where your subjects are most likely to reside.


1.1-62. Ideally, a sample is described as what?

  1. Random
  2. Representative
  3. Generalizable
  4. Demographically pure


1.1-63. Why is a representative sample desirable?

  1. Such samples are random.
  2. Hypotheses can only be tested on representative samples.
  3. Only representative samples yield meaningful results.
  4. The more representative a sample is, the more generalizable the data.


1.1-64. Dr. Katz is researching the causes of all phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for only people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is

  1. the people who come may not have a phobia.
  2. his sample will be too small.
  3. he is not getting a representative sample.
  4. he doesn’t know if people are telling the truth about their fears or not.

1.1-65. Why would a researcher want to ensure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample?

  1. This helps eliminate a correlational relationship.
  2. It increases the chances of finding a causal relationship.
  3. It provides important epidemiological information such as the prevalence and incidence of the disorder.
  4. It increases the researcher’s ability to generalize findings to the larger group.



1.1-66. A researcher interested in the health problems of people with schizophrenia interviews only those people diagnosed with the disorder who are in an inpatient facility. The most glaring weakness in this study is

  1. the absence of correlational statistics.
  2. the failure to use DSM-IV criteria for health problems.
  3. having an inappropriate control group.
  4. nonrepresentative sampling.

1.1-67. In Dr. Lu’s study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls with eating disorders are the ________ group.

  1. comparison
  2. control
  3. criterion
  4. treatment


1.1-68. In Dr. Lu’s study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ________ group.

  1. conforming
  2. control
  3. criterion
  4. treatment


1.1-69. In what significant ways do correlational research designs differ from experimental research designs?

  1. Correlational research does not require the selection of a sample to study.
  2. Correlational research does not generate hypotheses.
  3. There is no comparison group in correlational research.
  4. There is no manipulation of variables in correlational research.


1.1-70. To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

  1. an experimental design.
  2. a representative sample of individuals with the disorder.
  3. a control group.
  4. a criterion group.


1.1-71. What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders?

  1. People who have an eating disorder and a wide range of educational backgrounds.
  2. A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except that they eat normally.
  3. A group that is drawn from the sample of people with eating disorders.
  4. People who used to have eating disorders but no longer say they do.


1.1-72. Why are correlational research designs often used in abnormal psychology?

  1. They are best at determining cause and effect.
  2. They are the most useful for comparing groups.
  3. They give in-depth descriptions of the disorder being studied.
  4. It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology.


1.1-73. What is the most important limitation of correlational studies?

  1. They cannot determine cause and effect.
  2. They are very subject to bias.
  3. They rarely have representative samples.
  4. They are very difficult to do.


1.1-74. Researchers have observed that women who wear bras for more than 16 hours a day are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who spend less time in a bra. In other words, there is a correlation between wearing a bra and breast cancer. Based on this finding, which of the following statements is true?

  1. Wearing a bra causes cancer.
  2. All women should avoid wearing a bra for more than 16 hours a day.
  3. There is no relationship between wearing a bra and breast cancer; these data are clearly flawed.
  4. Some additional variable may serve to explain the relationship observed between wearing a bra and developing cancer.


1.1-75. Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?

  1. x causes y
  2. y causes x
  3. as x increases, y increases
  4. as x increases, y decreases


1.1-76. Dr. Gordon finds that heroin-addicted adults almost always smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol when they were young adolescents. Knowing this strong association we can conclude that

  1. cigarette smoking causes drinking, which causes heroin addiction.
  2. if cigarette smoking and drinking could be stopped in adolescence, heroin addiction would be stopped too.
  3. heroin addiction is caused by the same factors that cause early smoking and drinking.
  4. there is an association among the variables, but no causal inferences should be drawn.


1.1-77. Individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest that

  1. genetic factors cause an individual to have alcohol problems.
  2. environmental factors cause an individual to have alcohol problems.
  3. both genetic and environmental factors cause an individual to have problems.
  4. although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded.


1.1-78. Dr. Francis has discovered that the more spaghetti people eat, the less likely they are to be diagnosed with depression. Based on this finding, what statement can be made about the relationship between spaghetti and depression?

  1. There is a positive correlation between spaghetti eating and depression.
  2. There is a negative correlation between spaghetti eating and depression.
  3. Spaghetti prevents depression.
  4. There is no relationship between spaghetti eating and depression.



1.1-79. It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

  1. not
  2. randomly
  3. negatively
  4. positively


1.1-80. A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred?

  1. x causes y
  2. y causes x
  3. as x increases, y increases
  4. as x increases, y decreases