Sample Chapter

 

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank For Aging Concepts And Controversies 8th Edition by Harry R. Moody , Jennifer R. Sasser

 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Controversy 3

Do Intelligence and Creativity Decline With Age?

 

  1. According to the results of cross-sectional studies, on average older people learn new things more slowly than younger people because:
  2. A) Older people lack practice.
  3. B) Older and younger people have different learning styles.
  4. C) Older people may be less motivated to learn new things than younger people.
  5. D) Reaction time is slower in older people compared to younger people.

*E)      All of the above

 

  1. Fluid intelligence refers to:
  2. A) Intelligence accumulated from past experience and socialization
  3. B) Intelligence that is measured on a verbal and a performance scale
  4. C) Pragmatic or social judgment

*D)      Intelligence applied to new tasks or the ability to come up with novel or creative solutions to unforeseen problems

  1. E) None of the above

 

  1. Crystallized intelligence refers to:

*A)      Intelligence accumulated from past experience and socialization

  1. B) Intelligence that is measured on a verbal and a performance scale
  2. C) Pragmatic or social judgment
  3. D) Intelligence applied to new tasks or the ability to come up with novel or creative solutions to unforeseen problems
  4. E) None of the above

 

  1. Cross-sectional studies of intelligence may reveal differences between young and old people that do not arise from age, but from characteristics of different cohorts, including which of the following?
  2. A) Young people are more familiar than old people with test taking.
  3. B) Old people show more test anxiety than young people.
  4. C) Some old people accept the prejudices of ageism and believe that intelligence declines with age.
  5. D) Young people are less cautious than old people and may be more likely to guess at the answer on tests of intelligence.

*E)      All of the above

 

  1. Dennis argues that Lehman (Age and Achievement) may have introduced bias into his study by:
  2. A) Using as a criterion for inclusion of a work as a “significant contribution” the appearance of the work in lists of “best” books, “best” operas, etc.
  3. B) Assessing the importance of work done over several decades, which assumes that standards of excellence in all fields do not change
  4. C) Failing to acknowledge that the number of creative workers in all fields has greatly increased, thereby substantially increasing the competition among younger creative workers

*D)      All of the above

  1. E) A and B above

 

  1. Findings from recent research on the aging brain suggest which of the following might be true?
  2. A) The brain retains its capacity for making new memories.
  3. B) The brain is more flexible than once thought.
  4. C) Some aging changes in the brain are reversible.
  5. D) Older brains process information in a different way than younger brains.

*E) All of the above

 

  1. According to Levy and Langer, what are some of the problems with research studies conducted on aging and creativity that use a “Peak and Decline Model”?
  2. A) Such research assumes that different types of creativity are expressed in different stages of the life course.
  3. B) Such research assumes that creativity can be defined the same way in different stages of the life course.
  4. C) Such research assumes that creativity and productivity are not the same.
  5. D) Such research assumes that creativity increases in early adulthood and then starts to decline.

*E) Both A and C are true.

 

  1. As a group, older people take longer than younger people to learn new things.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Wisdom is most like crystallized intelligence and not fluid intelligence.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Most gerontologists would agree that wisdom inevitably results from aging.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. The Seattle Longitudinal Study and other research on cognitive function found that the largest average declines in intelligence come after age 60, but that intellectual decline in later life may be reversed.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Research on age and cognitive function has found that the personality changes through adulthood, particularly in response to health problems, economic hardships, and bereavement.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Intelligence has potential for growth even at advanced ages.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. When it comes to the effects of aging on learning and memory, there are many individual differences, or “heterogeneity.”

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The view that intelligence and creativity decline with age is widely shared.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to Lehman, individuals who engage in creative work are most likely to produce the highest volume of highest quality work at later years.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. The modal age at which creative thinkers, leaders, and athletes have reached their peak performance has gradually increased.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The modal age of leaders (e.g., presidents of American colleges and universities, Supreme Court justices) is greater than that of other highly successful professionals and athletes.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The modal ages of peak creativity tend to rise slowly until the mid-30s and then decline rapidly.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Dennis agrees with Lehman (Age and Achievement) that the output of high-quality creative work peaks in middle age, followed by an inevitable decline.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Dennis argues that Lehman’s (Age and Achievement) methodology is flawed.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Dennis argues that if all of Lehman’s methodological problems were corrected and sources of bias were eliminated, the negative relationship between age and creativity would disappear.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. According to Carstensen, normal changes in overall cognitive processing begin in a person’s 20s and 30s.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Once cognitive declines begin, there is very little that can be done to improve intellectual functioning.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Older adults show a decided preference in memory and attention for positive information.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Despite losses in critical capabilities as humans grow older, most older adults experience an improved sense of well-being.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to Cohen, historically both science and culture in Western societies have focused on the negative aspects of human aging.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Human beings stop developing psychologically at mid-life.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

  1. According to Cohen, wisdom is the expression of developmental intelligence.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Changes in physical functioning associated with aging may lead to an older person developing a new perspective that fuels creativity.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Creativity is not only a cognitive process but it is also affected by the environment in which one lives and societal expectations.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Involvement in creative activities may positively influence aging and longevity.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

Type: E

  1. Does creativity decline with age? Use examples from the reading and from your own experience to describe the relationship between creativity and age.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. How do wisdom and intelligence differ from one another? Does wisdom necessarily develop with advancing age?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the debate surrounding the causes of the classic aging pattern that occurs with intelligence. To what causes do realists attribute this pattern? How does this contrast with the optimists’ view? What are the implications of this debate for older adults?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Lehman’s work Age and Achievement was published in 1953. Consider the historical context during which Lehman conducted his research and discuss his findings on the relationship between age and achievement. What are some possible explanations for Lehman’s findings? If Lehman were to conduct his study in 2009, do you think the findings would be the same?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Dennis’s critique of Lehman’s argument that creativity inevitably declines after middle age. Do you agree or disagree with Dennis’s skepticism? Explain.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Carstensen developed the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) to address paradoxical results from studies on aging. What are some of these paradoxes and how does SST help us make sense of them?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Cohen puts forward the concept of “developmental intelligence.” What are the key features of this concept? How might you relate this to your own development or that of an older adult you know?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Levy and Langer come down strongly on the side of the “Life Span Developmental Model” of creativity and aging. Of the two models, the “Life Span Developmental Model” or the “Peak and Decline Model,” which model do you feel is most convincing, and why?

*A) Varies

Controversy 11

Aging Boomers: Boom or Bust?

 

  1. What are events that influence groups of people during the same years, such as the influence of World War II on the “GI Generation”?
  2. A) Period effects

*B) Cohort effects

  1. C) Rites of passage
  2. D) Aging effects
  3. E) All of the above

 

  1. People of all ages were affected by the expansion and availability of the Internet in 1990s. This is an example of what kind of effect?
  2. A) Aging effect
  3. B) Modernization effect

*C) Period effect

  1. D) Cohort effect
  2. E) None of the above

 

  1. Boomers make up what proportion of the U.S. population?
  2. A) About one-half

*B)      About one-quarter

  1. C) About one-eighth
  2. D) About one-third

 

  1. In what year did the oldest baby boomers turn age 65?
  2. A) 2008
  3. B) 2010

*C)      2011

  1. D) 2029

 

  1. The impact of aging on the baby boomer cohort will be shaped by the following:
  2. A) Chronological aging effects
  3. B) Period effects from the past
  4. C) Period effects in the future
  5. D) Sources of diversity, such as ethnicity, class, and gender

*E)      All of the above

  1. F) A and C

 

  1. In the story, Boomsday, what does the “perfect economic storm” refer to?
  2. A) The Great Depression of the 1930s
  3. B) The mortgage lending crisis that began in 2008

*C) Seventy-seven million people retiring during a time of economic crisis

  1. D) All of the above
  2. E) None of the above

 

  1. In the story, Boomsday, “transitioning” refers to which of the following?
  2. A) Opting to take reduced Social Security benefits starting before the age of 65
  3. B) Opting to forgo Social Security benefits all together to keep the money in the government reserves
  4. C) Opting to move from one’s home to an assisted living facility

*D) Opting to be legally euthanized in return for huge tax breaks and subsidies

 

  1. What does the analogy “like watching a pig move through a python” refer to?
  2. A) The slow progress made in ending ageism during the 20th century

*B) The movement of the huge boomer cohort from childhood through adulthood and into old age

  1. C) The impact in on society in 2011 when most members of the huge boomer cohort begin to receive Social Security benefits
  2. D) The resistance of most Americans toward retirement planning

 

  1. According to McArdle, when the boomers are fully retired, there will be how many workers per retiree?
  2. A) 42 workers per 1 retiree
  3. B) 10 workers per 1 retiree
  4. C) 3 workers per 1 retiree

*D) 2 workers per 1 retiree

 

  1. The generation of the “boomers” refers to people who were born in the United States between 1946 and 1964.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Boomers were the first generation in American history where more than half achieved some level of higher education.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. “Generation Jones” is another name for the baby boomers born between 1946 and 1954.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. When considering any cohort, such as the boomers, it is important to keep in mind not only age, period, and cohort effects, but the impact of class, ethnicity, and gender as well in shaping individual experiences.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Aging effects are effects brought about by the physiological process of aging, along with social responses by others to those effects.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The boomer cohort is extremely homogenous, making it easy to objectively characterize it.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Boomsday depicts conflict between members of different generational cohorts over economic resources and social programs.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. In the excerpt from Buckley’s novel of political satire, Boomsday refers to the year 2011, when the first of the baby boomers begin to retire with full Social Security benefits.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to McArdle, the next 20 years will require a transfer of resources away from the care of children to the care of older people.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Among the oldest boomers there is a not insignificant proportion who are working part- or full-time and collecting social security benefits.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Roszak asserts that the boomer generation will change the meaning of old age, that it will constitute a different kind of older population.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to Goldsmith, the boomer crisis predicted by the “catastropharians” can’t be avoided—it is inevitable.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

  1. According to multiple AARP surveys, most boomers plan to retire before the age of 65 because they no longer wish to work or because they have the savings to support themselves while not working.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

Type: E

  1. What do sociologists Berger and Luckman mean by “social construction”? Discuss how this approach can be used to understand the complexities of the baby boomer generation.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. There are several factors that must be considered when trying to predict how members of the boomers will experience later life. What are these factors? Are there any additional emerging social trends that might exert an influence on the aging of the boomers?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. A 2011 Harris Poll revealed that aging boomers are planning to delay retirement, perhaps by several years. What are some of the factors contributing to this trend? What are some of the opportunities and challenges for a multigenerational workplace?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Boomers in the United States have been represented to the public in contradictory ways: on the one hand, as selfish and negative, on the other hand, as idealistic and positive. Discuss, providing examples of these conflicting stereotypes used to characterize the boomers.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E
27.       McArdle begins the excerpt from No Country for Young Men by asking the question, “Will America look better, worse, or just different?” as a result of the aging of the boomers.  How do your answer her questions? Provide support for your answers.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Are there stereotypes projected on to the generation to which you belong? Where do these stereotypes originate? Which characteristics do you identify with and which do you reject, and for what reasons?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. The excerpt from The Longevity Revolution concludes with the assertion that in their old age boomers will bring to public awareness important questions about “fate and purpose.” What are these important questions and what experiences have made the boomers prepared to raise these questions? Do you agree with Roszak’s assertion? If so, why? If not, why not?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Goldsmith acknowledges that American society faces a crisis in the future. According to him, what is the nature of this crisis?  How does what Goldsmith has to say challenge the popular portrayal of the aging of the boomer?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Most of the large scale surveys conducted with boomers unfortunately do not take into account the ethnic diversity of the cohort, thus these general findings can be quite misleading and obscure health disparities for ethnic minorities. How might different sub-groups of boomers experience later life? How will programs, services, and policies need to change in order to meet the particular needs of different groups of aging boomers?

*A) Varies