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Test Bank Of Aging and Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By Lori Campbell, Herbert C. Northcott Mark Novak

 

CHAPTER 3: AGING IN CANADA AND THE WORLD TODAY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Between 1921 and 2011, Canada’s older population grew at how many times more than the rate of the general population?
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following facts concerning the Canadian population in 2011 is true?
a. The population of people aged 0–14 years decreased by 9%.
b. Older people accounted for twice the proportion of the population of most other Western countries.
c. The proportion of people aged 65 and over rose by 5% from 1951 levels.
d. Canada’s population is one of the older populations within the world.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   46                  BLM: REM

 

  1. By 2061, the proportion of Canada’s population aged 65 and over may be over what percentage of the total population?
a. 12
b. 25
c. 63
d. 84

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2011, The United Nations world population report stated that what percentage of the world’s population was aged 60 years or older?
a. 12%
b. 16%
c. 20%
d. 24%

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   46                  BLM: REM

 

 

  1. Which of the following countries is among the “less developed nations” of the world?
  2. Australia
  3. Ethiopia
  4. India
  5. Bangladesh

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 47             BLM: HO

 

  1.    In 2010, Yoshi and his wife lived in a developed country in which low fertility rates and low death rates lead to a continuance in population aging. In which country did the couple live?
  2. China
  3. India
  4. Japan
  5. Thailand

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 50                       BLM: HO

 

  1.    Between 1901 and 1911, 1.5 million people moved to Canada. This migration accounted for what percentage of Canada’s total population increase in those years?
a! 78%
b! 44%
c! 27%
d! 12%

 

ANS

ANS: B                     REF: 52                    BLM: REM

 

  1. Sam and his sister Beulah came to Canada in 1931 from England. Why did the Canadian population see such a large migration of young adults (20- to 30-year-olds) into Canada in the 20th century?
a. to keep Canada’s population young
b. to decrease the birth rate
c. to increase the proportion of older people in Canada
d. to promote smaller family sizes

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   52                  BLM: HO

 

  1.    Which of the following was a characteristic of the migration of 3.5 to 4.5 million people to Canada between 1901 and 1931?
a. The total population of Canada increased as a result of the large numbers of people entering Canada
b. The number of immigrants from the British Isles increased sharply.
c. Most of the immigrants were young females with children.
d. Immigrants from Eastern Europe tended to settle in the Maritimes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   52                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following was an effect on the population of older people caused by the waves of immigrants to Canada between 1901 and 1931?
a. Initially, the proportion of older people in Canada decreased as aged people returned to their countries of origin as new ethnic groups appeared.
b. The birth rate increased due to the number of young immigrants, resulting in a larger proportion of older people in Canada.
c. The number of older people increased dramatically because of the massive immigration of older people into Canada during the Great Depression.
d. As they aged, the young immigrants who had made Canada a young population began to add to the older population.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   52                  BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2001, Pedro and Louisa, two elderly Mexican immigrants, returned home to Mexico from Canada. Which of the following reasons explains why there is a net migration of older people from Canada?
a. They refuse to pay such high taxes in their older years.
b. They return to die in their homeland.
c. Their children no longer need them for assistance.
d. They do not like the cold Canadian winter.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   52                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The proportion of foreign-born people in the older population may increase in the near future as a result of which of the following?
a. a wave of immigration in the 1950s
b. older cohorts, with a higher proportion Canadian-born, dying
c. better healthcare following immigration
d. decreasing birth rates across Canada

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   52                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Tom and Lucy have recently decided to move to Canada. The current pattern of immigration shows that the largest proportion of immigrants come from which one of the following parts of the world?
a. the Caribbean
b. the United Kingdom
c. Eastern Europe
d. Asia

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   53-54             BLM: HO

 

  1. Geraldo and Francesca are new immigrants to Canada. Which of the following methods describes how the majority of Canada’s immigrants now arrive to this country?
  2. as family members of Canadian residents
  3.   as illegal immigrants
  4. as refugees
  5. as foreign students

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 53                       BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following has little effect upon the aging of Canada’s population?
a. birth rate
b. chronic disease rates
c. immigration
d. social structure

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 54                    BLM: HO

 

  1. In Canada, what happened to death rates during the 19th and early 20th centuries?
a. They began to drop.
b. They rose steadily for men and women.
c. They remained stable, and were balanced by high birth rates.
d. They increased for men, but decreased for women.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 54                    BLM: REM

 

  1. What effect did changing conditions during the 80 years between 1851 and 1931 have on life expectancy at birth and at age 65?
a. Life expectancy decreased steadily.
b. Life expectancy increased steadily.
c. Life expectancy remained relatively stable (at 72 years for males, and 76 years for females).
d. Life expectancy decreased sharply before 1914, and thereafter rose slowly to current levels.

.

 

ANS:  B                    REF: 54                    BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following was a reason given in the text for the change in infant mortality rates between 1941 and 2008?
a. Declining breastfeeding practices in favour of formula and dietary supplements.
b. Outbreaks of resistant childhood diseases such as diphtheria and scarlet fever as medical research support went toward increased military spending.
c. Better prenatal care as awareness about its importance increased.
d. Advances in pediatrics that led to new procedures for treating distressed and premature deliveries.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   54                  BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2008, what was the average life expectancy age for males?
a. 73
b. 75
c. 77
d. 79

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   54                  BLM: REM

 

 

  1. In 2008, what was the average life expectancy age for females?
a. 75
b. 79
c. 81
d. 83

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   54                  BLM: REM

 

 

  1. Since 1979, mortality rates for adults have decreased due to advances in the treatment of which one of the most common causes of death in adulthood?
a. traumatic injuries
b. tuberculosis
c. cancer
d. cardiovascular disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   54                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which group experiences some of the greatest improvements in life expectancy?
a. children aged 1­–5 years
b. children aged 12–16 years
c. women aged 65–75 years
d. people aged 85 years and over

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   54                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following led to the aging of Canadian society more than any other factor?
a. a decrease in infant mortality rates
b. a drop in birth rates
c. the socialization of the medical system
d. decreased immigration

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   54-55             BLM: HO

 

  1. What signalled the demographic transition in Canada that occurred around 1850?
a. decreased birth rates
b. increased death rates
c. the repatriation of the constitution
d. increased immigration

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   55                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What two events that occurred between 1951 and the present account for the greatest changes in the Canadian population?
a. the baby boom and the baby bust
b. demographic increases and low death rate
c. infant ratio rejuvenation and senile macular degeneration
d. population explosion and per capita contraction

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   56                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Natasha is a baby boomer. Which of the following sets of years signifies when the baby boom started and ended in Canada?
a. 1938 to 1968
b. 1940 to 1970
c. 1942 to 1962
d. 1946 to 1964

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   56                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is defined as “the average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to pass through all her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year?”
a. the birth rate
b. the age-specific birth rate
c. the fertility rate
d. the reproductive potential

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   56                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The age-specific birth rate specifies the number of births per 1,000 women in a given age group for which of the following?
a. all of Canada
b. the world
c. women of child-bearing age (16–44 years)
d. women falling within the given age group

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   56                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the denominator for describing age-specific birth rates?
a. number of births in a given age group
b. average number of children born alive to a woman during her lifetime
c. total number of women aged 15–49 years of age
d. per 1,000 women in a specific age group

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   56                  BLM: REM

 

  1. During Canada’s baby boom, what happened to the age-specific birth rate for women aged under 20 years old?
a. It increased less than 10%.
b. It nearly doubled.
c. It showed no significant change.
d. It tripled.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   56                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Foot and Stoffman (1998), what caused Canada’s baby boom?
a. a large influx of immigrants, and a good economy
b. low mortality rates, stable fertility rates, and high birth rates
c. federal tax incentives to have more children
d. changing cultural values within a geographically mobile population

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   56-57             BLM: REM

 

  1. What happened after a century-long trend of population aging in Canada?
a. it was reversed during the baby boom
b. it continued up to the present
c. it was caused by a gradual reduction in the crude birth rate
d. it led to dramatic increases in healthcare costs

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   57                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Foot and Stoffman, which country had “the loudest baby boom in the industrialized world?”
a. Japan
b. Canada
c. Greece
d. Sweden

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   56                  BLM: REM

 

  1.   Foot and Stoffman (1998) point to which of the following as major causes of Canada’s baby bust period?
a. the Great Depression and World War II
b. more women in the labour force and the use of oral contraception
c. an influx of older immigrants and changing social values
d. increasing disease-specific survival rates and decreasing mortality rates

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   56                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What happened to the total fertility rate in Canada during the baby bust cycle for Canada (1961–present)?
a. It fell below replacement levels.
b. It rose slowly then increased slightly as more babies were born.
c. It stabilized because of inflation.
d. It stabilized because of government aid through tax subsidies.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   57                  BLM: REM

 

  1.    What is the replacement level for a population?
a. half of the median population growth rate
b. double the age-specific birth rate
c. a fertility rate of 2.1
d. 20% of the population median age

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   57                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. If current aging rates continue, what could happen by 2061 to the Canadian population rate for those individuals aged 80 and over?
  2. It would double.
  3. It would triple.
  4. It would quadruple.
  5. It would be maintained.

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 60                       BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following characterized the first stage of Canada’s demographic transition (pre-1850s)?
a. high median age
b. high death rates
c. high birth rates
d. high life expectancy

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   59                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Major declines in birth and death rates characterized which stage of Canada’s demographic transition?
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   60                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What trend is shown in projections of Canadian age structure into 2031 using population pyramids?
a. a declining proportion of women in the oldest age cohorts
b. an expanding, bottom-heavy distribution
c. low birth rates, low death rates, and an aging population
d. a disproportionate growth of the middle-aged cohorts

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   60                  BLM: HO

 

  1. As this current century progresses, what shape will describe Canada’s population shift?
  2. It will become a rectangle.
  3. It will become a prism.
  4. It will become circular.
  5. It will become a square.

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 60           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes the third stage of Canada’s demographic transition?
a. low incidence rates
b. higher death rates
c. low birth rates
d. a younger population

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   60                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Canadians aged 80+ showed what percentage of an increase in the older population (65+) between 2001 and 2006?
a! 46%
b! 25%
c! 10%
d! 3.5%

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   60                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Sandra is 48 years old. She has two children of her own, and she works full time, in addition to taking care of her two elderly parents. Which of the following terms, coined by gerontologist Elaine Brody, describes the caregiving demands on middle-aged women such as Sandra?
a. women on the edge
b. middle-age crisis
c. women in the middle
d. mid-life crisis

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   63                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What may result in the future from increasing demand for programs for older people?
a. resentment and an economic crisis
b. further widening of differences in socio-economic status
c. decreased flexibility in current programs
d. creation of new opportunities for service and recreational industries

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   61                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Where did older people rank by age group in 2011–2012 in terms of money received from Canada’s social security system?
a. first
b. third
c. fourth
d. last

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   60                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Philip and his wife Alexandra are both 73 years old, and they immigrated to Canada in 2004 to be with their children. From where did most older immigrants come from during that time?
a. Asia
b. Europe
c. Africa
d. The United States

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   62                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes Aboriginal peoples in terms of ethnicity and the elderly?
a. They have a very “young” population.
b. They have entered the second stage of the demographic transition.
c. They have richer social supports than other ethnic groups.
d. They have a lower dependency ratio.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   62                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is institutional completeness?
a. the amount of community support offered to its older members
b. equal representation of all age groups in social activity
c. the variety of social programs required to accommodate an individual’s needs
d. a dependency ratio of 0

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 63                    BLM: HO

 

  1. For older people, which of the following is determined by factors such as the size of an ethnic group, the proportion of older people in the group, the concentration of the group, and cultural values?
a. status
b. ethnicity
c. availability of support
d. dependency ratio

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   63                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. What is the most distinguishing characteristic of internal migration among older people?
a. They are less mobile.
b. They move more frequently than the non-aged, but within a smaller area.
c. They tend to move larger distances, and especially from urban centres to rural towns.
d. They frequently establish more than one residency, and migrate seasonally.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   63                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Newbold’s (2077) discovery of a peak migration among older people corresponds to which of the following by Litwak and Longino (1987)?
a. cohort study of geographic mobility in the older population
b. report of higher mobility among older people than younger people
c. prediction of a uni-directional migratory flow model for older people
d. retirement stage

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   64                    BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the three stages of later life when people may choose to move, as described by Litwak and Longino (1987)?
a. retiree stage
b. elderly stage
c. disability stage
d. empty-nest stage

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   64                  BLM: REM

 

  1.    What are retirement stage, disability stage, and severe disability stage as described by Litwak and Longino (1987)?
a. substages added into Erikson’s life stages model of psycho-social development
b. stages of later life when people choose to move
c. the three main periods of emotional crisis in later life
d. the disengagement theory of aging

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   64                  BLM: REM

 

  1. The need to live in a nursing home or other institution may lead older people to move. What is this called in Litwak and Longino’s model?
a. a handicap
b. the severe disability stage
c. the dialectical phase
d. a functional disengagement crisis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   64                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Fred and Irene have recently retired, and are moving to a larger urban centre to be with like-minded adults. Which of the following reasons explains why is there a peak in migration patterns around retirement age?
a. Older people are beginning second careers.
b. Older people are requiring increased levels of institutionalization.
c. Older people are relocating to improve their quality of life.
d. Older people are avoiding retirement penalties.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   64                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Why do people in the second or third stage of retirement tend to move?
a. to get more support
b. for a more relaxed lifestyle
c. to a specific climate
d. to a bigger, more expensive home

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   64                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Grace belongs to the fastest growing segment of the Canadian population. To which of the following age groups does Grace belong?
a! women aged 85 and over
b! women aged 65 and over
c! women aged 55 to 64
d! younger women aged 45 to 54

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   64                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Projections suggest that by 2050, the male: female ratio for people aged 65+ years will reach which of the following ratios?
a! over two to one
b! 78 men per 100 women
c! 1:1
d! 105 men to every 100 women

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   65                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Many sources assume that a large older population will create what level of dependence of older people on the young?
a. low
b. moderate
c. variable
d. high

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   66                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for the calculation used by gerontologists to gauge the burden that the old (and the young) place on people in middle age?
a. social burden measure
b. overall dependency ratio
c. crude dependency indicator
d. intergenerational reliance ratio

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   66                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Samuel and his wife have three teenagers and they travel to Sam’s mother’s home, which is 50 kilometers away every weekend in order to take care of Sam’s mother. This places a great deal of stress on Sam and his wife. Which of the following terms is used to describe the burden that the old and the young place on people in middle age?
a. apocalyptic demography
b. crude dependency ratio
c. elderly dependency figure
d. overall dependency ratio

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   66                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Despite the almost doubling of the ratio of people aged 65+ to those 20–64, the overall dependency ratio will decrease compared to 1996. To which of the following can this decrease be attributed?
a. the proportion of young people (0–19) will decline
b. these projections do not take into account the effects of inflation
c. these rates do not accurately reflect the economic burden of the elderly
d. the regression coefficient is negative

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   66                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What did Denton, Feaver, and Spencer (1998) suggest will happen to the overall dependency ratio in Canada in the next forty years?
a. It will rise steadily as more people enter old age.
b. It will fall steadily as the number of people entering middle age rises.
c. It will fall until early into the next century, when it will rise as the baby boom generation enters old age.
d. It will rise until early into the next century, where it will fall suddenly as the baby bust generation enters middle age.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   66                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is most frequently the cause of projected large increases in Canada’s expenditures into the future?
a. trade deficits
b. decreased social services spending in the present
c. education costs for the young
d. population aging

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   66                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What statement does Scarth (2003) make about the reality of serving an older population?
a. It costs more than serving a younger population.
b. It costs less than serving a younger population.
c. It costs the same as serving a younger population.
d. Canada may need to increase its GDP by 13 percent to finance social security and other programs for older people in the future.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   66                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Evans et al. (2001), what other force accounts for an increased cost to healthcare?
a. the increased cost of new and expensive drugs
b. the increased cost of talented surgeons and specialists
c. the increased cost of acute care hospitalization
d. the increased cost of hospital equipment and staff

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   67                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Some argue that crude dependency rates tell only part of the story. What do they use instead to determine the economic burden of an older population?
a. youth to elderly CCSD ratios
b. overall dependency ratios
c. effective dependency ratios
d. cost-factor ratios

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   67-68             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following will improve projected future dependency rates?
a. changing the age of eligibility for government pensions
b. changing current policies to make early retirement less attractive
c. increasing the number of middle-aged workers who have private pension plans
d. creating a weaker economy

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   68                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following could decrease the dependency burden?
a. if the economy weakens
b. if the income of middle-aged people improves relative to services to the old
c. if the income for the working class improves at a rate of 1% over inflation
d. if middle-income earners increase the use of private pension plans

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   68                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the greatest weakness of using dependency rates to project into the future?
a. It requires assumptions that do not remain valid over time.
b. It cannot anticipate the effects of social change on policy.
c. It neglects the benefits of an older population.
d. It tends to yield false negatives (Type II errors).

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   68                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following may result from the presence of more older people in Canadian society?
a. a higher crime rate as more older people create a larger target for victimization
b. a larger use of social resources and a subsequent drop in the quality of life caused by the strain of a larger older population on society
c. a society with more people concerned about fitness, diet, and disease prevention
d. a more robust economy as older people move from consumerism to resource conservation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   68                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for the assumption that population dynamics direct the future of social interactions and social institutions?
a. demographic determinism
b. social dependency
c. futurology
d. effective dependency

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   69                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What has McDaniel (1986) suggested regarding using dependency ratios to project into the future?
a. It promotes ageism and intergenerational conflict.
b. It provides the most accurate measure of the cost of the elderly to a society.
c. It neglects the importance of social policies on the dependence of the elderly.
d. It avoids demographic determinism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   69                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes the assumption that population dynamics influences the future of social relations and social institutions?
a. demographic determinism
b. sociological determinism
c. demographic causes
d. social determinants

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   69                  BLM: REM

 

  1. To meet the needs of an aging society, demographers need to study the connections between which of the following?
a. the number of older people who work
b. economic realities
c. healthcare costs
d. social change

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   69                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following are example of countries that show the transition to an older society can occur without social conflict or distress?
a. Japan and China
b. Great Britain and Sweden
c. France and Belgium
d. Mexico and Spain

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   69                  BLM: HO

 

 

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Define the term “population aging.” What are the three methods used by demographers to measure how a population ages?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

Population aging is defined as the following: demographers, experts who study population change, use at least three measures of population aging. Population aging refers to the “how” a population grows older. The three methods used include:

  1. the number of older people in a population
  2. the median age of a population
  3. the proportion of older people in a population

 

REF: 47

 

  1. Explain the terms, “baby boom,” “baby bust,” and age-specific birth rate, and describe how the baby boom factor accounts for the greatest change in the Canadian population from 1946 to the present.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

“Baby boom” is defined as the sharp rise in the fertility rate in Canada from about 1946 to the early 1960s (precise dates vary).

“Baby bust” refers to the sharp drop in fertility rates from the mid-1960s to the current date.

“Age-specific birth rate” refers to the number of births in a given age group per 1,000 women in that age group.

The baby boom spanned a 20-year period, and it reversed not only a general trend of decreased fertility rates that had begun in the 19th century, but also a century-long trend in population aging in the late 19th century.

 

REF: 56-57

 

  1. What is prospective aging? Explain this term, and how it may lead to a change in the way Canadians think about growing older and later life.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

“Prospective aging” allows demographers the opportunity to compare populations with different life expectancies. It also allows them to compare one society at different points in time as life expectancy increases. One measure of prospective aging uses the number of years of remaining life expectancy as the start of old age.

There is an expectancy that Canadians are living longer, more healthy lives, and, as such, this would raise the societal start of old age. Canadian programs, policies, and researchers might begin to use age 70 as the start of old age in Canada, and to some extent, this adjustment has begun.

The concept of prospective aging can help societies better calculate the start of pension plans and other benefits.

 

REF: 58-59

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Discuss the Stephen Lewis Foundation’s Grandmothers to Grandmothers Campaign and how it has

had an impact in African nations.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

As part of the mission of the Stephen Lewis Foundation, the foundation offers support to African grand-

mothers who care for children orphaned by AIDS. “Grandmothers are recognized as community

experts and agents of change by governments and international aid agencies. They nurture, feed, and

put their grandchildren into school. They work to educate their grandchildren about HIV prevention,

care, and treatment, tend to the sick in their communities, help the recently bereaved, set up support

groups, harvest the crops, and advocate for women’s rights.”

The SLF was created in 2006, and the program aims to raise awareness and mobilize support in Canada

for African grandmothers and their orphaned children. The organization reports that Canada now has

240 grandmother groups who “share ideas, raise awareness, fundraise, advocate, and act as ambassadors

for their African counterparts.” In addition, the campaign has raised over $12 million in five years.

 

REF: 48

 

  1. Interview someone who is 80+ years old. It can be a grandparent, aunt/uncle, or someone you’ve met

in your community. How does this individual feel about growing older in society today?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

Comments will vary among those interviewed. Some people will be positive about aging, while others

will not. Some will make comments about the progress they have seen in society; others will have

reservations about society today.

The essay question should allow the student to gain perspective about what it is like to get older, and to

have some understanding of and an appreciation for, older Canadians in society.

 

REF: Chapter 3

 

  1. Interview an older Canadian who is still able to travel during the winter months. Where does he/she

go, and why does he/she go there?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

Responses as to where Canadians spend the winter may include Florida, Arizona, Hawaii, Texas, etc.

A large number of Canadians travel in order to escape the cold, harsh Canadian winters. Some travel

for health reasons (although rising insurance costs are preventing some Canadians from travelling.) Some

travel to visit family and renew acquaintances with other winter travellers.

 

REF: 63-64