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Anatomy and Physiology From Science to Life 2nd Edition by Gail Jenkins – Test Bank 

 

 

 

 

  1. The spleen, thymus, and tonsils are all organs that function within the:
  2. A) Urinary system D) Lymphatic system
  3. B) Digestive system E)            Cardiovascular system
  4. C) Endocrine system

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the location of this bone anatomically?

 

  1. A) It is proximal to the carpal region and inferior to the manual region.
  2. B) It is the lateral bone of the antebrachium.
  3. C) It is located in the crural region.
  4. D) It is inferior to the femoral region and superior to the tarsal region.
  5. E) It is distal to the antecubital region, and is the medial bone of the crural region.

 

 

  1. A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be:
  2. A) Enhancement of labor contraction by oxytocin
  3. B) Blood calcium regulation
  4. C) Blood pressure regulation
  5. D) Blood glucose regulation
  6. E) Body temperature regulation

 

 

  1. Along which of the following body planes has this section been made?

 

  1. A) Oblique    B)  Frontal    C)  Sagittal    D)  Coronal    E)  Transverse

 

  1. A) Popliteal    B)  Mental    C)  Crural    D)  Olecranal    E)  Occipital
  2. This component of a feedback system provides input to the control center.
  3. A) Effector    B)  Receptor    C)  Brain    D)  Stimulus    E)  Efferent
  4. A 24 year old female presents to the ER complaining of the following symptoms:
  • Acute lower right quadrant abdominal pain rated at an 9 out of 10 on the pain scale (10 being the worst pain ever!), that she characterizes as “burning and stabbing” in quality
  • Feelings of nausea, dizziness and weakness.
  • No difficulty breathing

As her physician, you notice that she exhibits the following signs:

  • A very high fever (104ºF)
  • High blood pressure (146/90)
  • A rapid heart rate (110 beats per minute)
  • Clear lung sounds- although her respiratory rate is rapid.

Which of the following choices is the most likely the correct diagnosis?

  1. A) Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
  2. B) A pulmonary embolus (blood clot in the lungs)
  3. C) Acute appendicitis
  4. D) Meningitis
  5. E) Pneumonia
  6. This component of a feedback system receives output from the control center.
  7. A) Effector D)           Central Nervous System
  8. B) Stimulus E)            Afferent
  9. C) Receptor

 

  1. The study of structure is called:
  2. A) Physiology    B)  Histology    C)  Embryology    D)  Biology    E)  Anatomy
  3. The study of function is called:
  4. A) Physiology    B)  Biology    C)  Histology    D)  Embryology    E)  Anatomy
  5. Which term best describes the view shown in this image of the human skull?

 

  1. A) Anterior    B)  Medial    C)  Posterior    D)  Ipsilateral    E)  Lateral
  2. Which of the following choices is NOT considered to be a basic life process?
  3. A) Reproduction D)           Responsiveness
  4. B) Metabolism E)            Pathology
  5. C) Growth

Ans:  E     Difficulty:  easy

 

  1. The basic structural and functional units of an organism are:
  2. A) Molecules    B)  Cells    C)  Tissues    D)  Protons    E)  Organs
  3. Organs:
  4. A) function independently from one another.
  5. B) are made of a single tissue type.
  6. C) are the smallest living units in the human body.
  7. D) include examples such as the bones, the skin, the heart and the lungs.
  8. E) can only contribute to the function of a single organ system, such as the stomach to the digestive system.
  9. The pancreas is an organ that plays a role in the:
  10. A) Digestive and urinary systems. D)           Respiratory and lymphatic systems.
  11. B) Respiratory and digestive systems. E)            Endocrine and digestive systems.
  12. C) Endocrine and lymphatic systems.
  13. A group of cells with similar emergent functional properties is defined as a(n):
  14. A) Organism    B)  Compound    C)  Tissue    D)  Organ    E)  Molecule
  15. The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body is known as:
  16. A) Metabolism    B)  Catalyst    C)  Anabolism    D)  Catabolism    E)  Homeostasis

Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium

 

  1. The term brachial refers to the:
  2. A) chin    B)  fingers    C)  arm    D)  forearm    E)  calf
  3. The term sacral refers to the:
  4. A) chin
  5. B) area between the shoulder blades.
  6. C) area at the base of the skull.
  7. D) area inferior to the lumbar region and medial to the coxae.
  8. E) calf
  9. The term mental refers to the:
  10. A) cranium    B)  fingers    C)  chin    D)  ear    E)  calf
  11. The term otic refers to the:
  12. A) eye    B)  fingers    C)  chin    D)  ear    E)  calf
  13. The mental region is ________________ to the orbital region.
  14. A) Inferior    B)  Deep    C)  Superficial    D)  Lateral    E)  Contralateral

 

 

  1. The carpal region is ________________ to the antebrachium.
  2. A) Proximal    B)  Superior    C)  Deep    D)  Distal    E)  Medial
  3. The pancreas and liver are organs that are part of the ____________ system.
  4. A) Integumentary    B)  Lymphatic    C)  Digestive    D)  Reproductive    E)  Skeletal
  5. Which of the following organs would NOT be visible if the body was sectioned along a mid-sagittal plane?
  6. A) Heart    B)  Adrenal gland    C)  Small intestine    D)  Liver    E)  Uterus
  7. Which of the following is the term used to describe the body’s ability to detect and respond to changes in the internal or external environment?
  8. A) Responsiveness D)           Metabolism
  9. B) Reproduction E)            Catabolism
  10. C) Differentiation
  11. The term sural refers to the:
  12. A) skin    B)  fingers    C)  chin    D)  ear    E)  calf

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a TRUE statement concerning the selected feedback mechanism in a healthy individual?
  2. A) Positive feedback mechanisms are stable, and the most common means to maintain homeostasis in the body.
  3. B) Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms.
  4. C) Elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) result in the release of glucagon from the pancreas, which stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose- resulting in more glucose in the bloodstream.
  5. D) Blood pressure regulation is a good example of positive feedback, because the response to the initial stimulus increases the stimulus.
  6. E) Stretch receptors in the cervix, stimulated by the fetus during labor and delivery, result in the release of a hormone that stimulates more forceful uterine contractions and additional “stretch” or dilation of the cervix.

 

 

  1. The thoracic region is ________________ to the inguinal region.
  2. A) Superior    B)  Deep    C)  Distal    D)  Lateral    E)  Supine

Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium

 

  1. Which of the following anatomical terms best describes the indicated region?

 

  1. A) Mental    B)  Popliteal    C)  Antecubital    D)  Olecranal    E)  Coxal
  2. Which of the following anatomical terms best describes the indicated region?

 

  1. A) Otic    B)  Popliteal    C)  Antecubital    D)  Olecranal    E)  Occipital

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms best describes the location of the stomach relative to the pancreas?
  2. A) Deep    B)  Serous    C)  Distal    D)  Transverse    E)  Anterior
  3. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
  4. A) The cranial cavity houses the brain and is lined by the pleural membranes.
  5. B) The pericardial cavity lies within the superior portion of the mediastinum.
  6. C) The pleural cavities are lined by a membrane called the parietal peritoneum.
  7. D) The visceral layer of a serous membrane covers the organ it protects.
  8. E) The superior border of the pelvic cavity is the diaphragm.

 

 

  1. The name for the serous membrane lining the cavity which houses the lungs is the: _________________________________.
  2. A) dura mater D)           parietal pleura
  3. B) parietal peritoneum E)            visceral pleura
  4. C) visceral peritoneum

 

 

  1. The name for the serous membrane lining the cavity which houses the liver is the: _________________________________.
  2. A) parietal pericardium D)           parietal pleura
  3. B) parietal peritoneum E)            parietal mediastinum
  4. C) dura mater

 

 

  1. An example of a retroperitoneal organ is the:
  2. A) pancreas D)           stomach
  3. B) liver E)            lower 2/3rd’s of the small intestine
  4. C) heart

 

 

  1. In which cavity is the brain located?
  2. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pelvic cavity
  3. B) Mediastinal cavity E)            Vertebral cavity
  4. C) Pleural cavity

 

 

  1. In which cavity is the spleen located?
  2. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pelvic cavity
  3. B) Mediastinal cavity E)            Abdominal cavity
  4. C) Pleural cavity

 

 

  1. Which of the following organs is NOT retroperitoneal?
  2. A) pancreas D)           duodenum of small intestine
  3. B) adrenal gland E)            kidney
  4. C) stomach

 

 

  1. An individual has been in a traumatic motor vehicle accident and has been ejected from the vehicle because they were not wearing their seatbelt. The person is conscious, and complaining of left upper quadrant pain. When you visualize the area, it has some significant bruising and is painful to palpation. Which of the following organs are located in that area and might be of concern?
  2. A) appendix    B)  urinary bladder    C)  brain    D)  spleen    E)  gall bladder

 

 

  1. An individual has been in a traumatic motor vehicle accident and has been ejected from the vehicle because they were not wearing their seatbelt. The person is unconscious, pulseless, and apenic (not breathing). You see some significant lacerations in the cranial region, and the bleeding is profuse. You also notice some clear fluid leaking from the otic region. Where is the otic region?
  2. A) ear    B)  base of the skull    C)  eye    D)  nose    E)  mouth
  3. This is a change in body function that can be measured objectively.
  4. A) Symptom    B)  Disorder    C)  Disease    D)  X-ray    E)  Sign
  5. This plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
  6. A) Oblique    B)  Frontal    C)  Horizontal    D)  Transverse    E)  Midsagittal
  7. Which cavity would enclose the heart?
  8. A) Cranial cavity D)           Abdominal cavity
  9. B) Mediastinal cavity E)            Pleural cavity
  10. C) Vertebral cavity
  11. A female is having pain in her hypogastric region. Which organ is NOT located in this region?
  12. A) Uterus D)           Large intestines
  13. B) Spleen E)            Small intestines
  14. C) Urinary bladder
  15. The function of serous fluid is to:
  16. A) Protect the central nervous system
  17. B) Separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities
  18. C) Reduce friction between organs
  19. D) Circulate respiratory gases
  20. E) Carry nervous impulses
  21. Choose the directional term that would make the sentence correct: The sternum is ____ to the heart.
  22. A) Deep    B)  Anterior    C)  Inferior    D)  Distal    E)  Transverse
  23. What is the name of this region?

 

  1. A) Left hypochondriac D)           Hypogastric
  2. B) Right Lumbar E)            Mental
  3. C) Left inguinal
  4. A transverse plane will section a body or organ into
  5. A) Anterior and posterior D)           Unequal left and right sides
  6. B) Left and right E)            Proximal and distal
  7. C) Superior and inferior
  8. This is the study of the functions of body structures.
  9. A) Anatomy    B)  Physiology    C)  Dissection    D)  Histology    E)  Immunology

Ans:  B     Difficulty:  easy

 

  1. This is defined as a group of cells with similar structure and function.
  2. A) Tissue    B)  Organ    C)  Molecules    D)  Compounds    E)  Organism
  3. This is the process of breaking down larger substances into simpler ones.
  4. A) Metabolism    B)  Anabolism    C)  Catabolism    D)  Auscultation    E)  Palpation
  5. This is the regulation of body conditions within normal limits.
  6. A) Palpation    B)  Percussion    C)  Homeostasis    D)  Autopsy    E)  Histology
  7. This body fluid directly affects the proper functioning of cells.
  8. A) Lymph D)           Aqueous humor
  9. B) Blood E)            Vitreous body
  10. C) Interstitial fluid
  11. This is the structure of a feedback system that receives output from the control center.
  12. A) Receptor    B)  Body fluids    C)  Brain    D)  Effector    E)  Afferent
  13. A condition NOT regulated by a negative feedback loop would be:
  14. A) Childbirth D)           Heart rate
  15. B) Body temperature E)            Blood sugar
  16. C) Blood pressure
  17. This is a change in body function that is subjective, and described by the patient to the clinician.
  18. A) Symptom    B)  Disorder    C)  Disturbance    D)  Disease    E)  Sign

 

 

  1. In which cavity is the brain located?
  2. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pericardial cavity
  3. B) Vertebral cavity E)            Pleural cavity
  4. C) Abdominal cavity
  5. In which cavity are the lungs located?
  6. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pericardial cavity
  7. B) Vertebral cavity E)            Pleural cavity
  8. C) Abdominal cavity
  9. In which cavity is the stomach located?
  10. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pericardial cavity
  11. B) Vertebral cavity E)            Pleural cavity
  12. C) Abdominal cavity
  13. This cavity is inferior to the abdominal cavity.
  14. A) Vertebral canal D) Pericardial cavity
  15. B) Cranial cavity E)            Pelvic cavity
  16. C) Abdominal cavity
  17. Which cavity would include the heart?
  18. A) Cranial cavity D)           Pericardial cavity
  19. B) Vertebral cavity E)            Pleural cavity
  20. C) Abdominal cavity
  21. This plane divides the body into right and left halves.
  22. A) Frontal    B)  Sagittal    C)  Transverse    D)  Oblique    E)  Coronal
  23. This plane divides the body into unequal left and right sides.
  24. A) Frontal    B)  Midsagittal    C)  Transverse    D)  Oblique    E)  Parasagittal
  25. An oblique plane will cut a body or organ into
  26. A) Anterior and posterior D)           Sections along an angle
  27. B) Left and right E)            Unequal left and right sides
  28. C) Superior and inferior
  29. This directional term means farthest from the midline.
  30. A) Medial    B)  Anterior    C)  Proximal    D)  Deep    E)  Lateral
  31. Membranes that cover lung tissue are called:
  32. A) meninges D)           parietal serosa
  33. B) visceral pleura E)            dura mater
  34. C) parietal mesenteries
  35. This directional term means farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk or farther from the origination of a structure.
  36. A) Deep    B)  Contralateral    C)  Lateral    D)  Cephalic    E)  Distal
  37. This directional term is the opposite of deep.
  38. A) Superficial    B)  Superior    C)  Inferior    D)  Distal    E)  Proximal
  39. Choose the directional term that would make the sentence correct. The heart is _____ to the liver.
  40. A) Inferior    B)  Anterior    C)  Contralateral    D)  Superior    E)  Superficial
  41. Which of the following organs is not found in the abdominal cavity?
  42. A) Stomach    B)  Spleen    C)  Liver    D)  Gallbladder    E)  Diaphragm
  43. This covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen.
  44. A) Pericardium D)           Diaphragm
  45. B) Pleura E)            Serous membrane
  46. C) Mediastinum

Use the following to answer questions 73-77:

 

 

 

  1. Where on the diagram is the femoral area?
  2. A) D    B)  E    C)  F    D)  J    E)  K

 

 

  1. Where on the diagram is the sacral area?
  2. A) C    B)  D    C)  E    D)  I    E)  J

 

 

  1. Where on the diagram is the cervical area?
  2. A) C    B)  E    C)  J    D)  K    E)  B

 

 

  1. Where on the diagram is the brachial area?
  2. A) C    B)  E    C)  I    D)  K    E)  D

 

 

  1. Where on the diagram is the popliteal area?
  2. A) H    B)  I    C)  J    D)  D    E)  E

 

 

Use the following to answer questions 78-80:

 

 

 

  1. The gallbladder is ______ to the sternum.
  2. A) Superficial    B)  Medial    C)  Proximal    D)  Distal    E)  Inferior

 

 

  1. The stomach is ____ to the bladder.
  2. A) Lateral    B)  Medial    C)  Distal    D)  Inferior    E)  Superior

 

 

  1. The humerus is _____ to the radius.
  2. A) Proximal    B)  Distal    C)  Medial    D)  Superior    E)  Anterior

 

 

Use the following to answer questions 81-84:

 

 

 

  1. Which plane is parasagittal?
  2. A) A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  3. Which plane is frontal?

 

 

 

  1. Which plane is transverse?
  2. A) A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E

 

 

  1. Which plane is oblique?
  2. A) A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E

 

 

  1. Name the cavities of the trunk and the serous membranes that line them.

 

 

 

  1. List the eleven systems of the human body.

 

 

 

  1. Describe the anatomical position.

 

 

 

  1. List the basic processes of life.

Ans:       The basic processes of life include metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation and reproduction.

  1. Name the structural levels of the body and describe each level.

 

  1. List and briefly describe the six basic life processes.

 

 

 

  1. Describe a feedback system and list the components.
  2. Compare and contrast a positive and a negative feedback system.

 

 

 

  1. Describe why maintaining the volume and composition of bodily fluids is important to homeostasis.
  2. Describe the positive feedback mechanism that regulates labor contractions during the birth of a baby.
  3. Explain the difference between signs and symptoms and provide examples.
  4. Compare and contrast the disciplines of anatomy and physiology, and explain why they are studied together in courses such as the one you are now taking.

 

  1. Which of the following is considered to be a “lesser element” found in the body?
  2. A) Carbon
  3. B) Aluminum
  4. C) Iodine
  5. D) Calcium
  6. E) Selenium

 

 

  1. The rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by all of the following except:
  2. A) the presence of the appropriate enzyme
  3. B) the concentration of the reactants
  4. C) the presence or absence of carbon
  5. D) the temperature
  6. E) the presence of the appropriate catalyst

 

 

  1. The phospholipids that make up the plasma membranes of body cells have a _____________ head region and a _____________ tail region, a quality that results in the formation of the “lipid bilayer”.
  2. A) non-polar, hydrophilic
  3. B) non-polar, polar
  4. C) polar, hydrophilic
  5. D) hydrophobic, hydrophilic
  6. E) hydrophilic, non-polar

 

 

  1. Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?
  2. A) H2O
  3. B) CH4
  4. C) PO43-
  5. D) NaCl
  6. E) HCl

 

 

  1. A bond in which electrons are shared unequally is called a(n):
  2. A) Hydrogen bond
  3. B) Ionic bond
  4. C) Amphipathic bond
  5. D) Polar covalent bond
  6. E) Nonpolar covalent bond

 

 

  1. True or False: The sugar forming part of the backbone of DNA strands is called deoxyribose.
  2. A) True
  3. B) False

 

 

  1. True or False: Most enzymes are non-specific, meaning they may bind to substrates indiscriminately and catalyze a wide range of reactions in the body.
  2. A) True
  3. B) False

 

 

  1. True or False: Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose one or more valence electrons and become positively or negatively charged.
  2. A) True
  3. B) False

 

 

  1. True or False: The lower the pH, the higher the H+ concentration.
  2. A) True
  3. B) False