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Biological Psychology 12th Edition by James W. Kalat – Test Bank 

 

True / False

 

1. Johannes Müller held that whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

2. The coding of visual information in your brain results in an exact duplicate of the object’s shape on the surface of the cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

3. The cornea is an adjustable structure in the eye that focuses light.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

4. Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

5. Shapes are more easily identified with peripheral vision than foveal vision.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

6. Photopigments are stable in the dark.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

7. According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive only three colors.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

8. The retinex theory accounts for the principle of color constancy.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

9. An object’s location, color, and movement are all processed in the same part of the visual cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

10. Lateral inhibition is the reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

11. Parvocellular cells respond strongly to moving stimuli and large overall patterns.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

12. The ventral stream of visual processing is important for identifying movement.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

13. Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary visual cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

14. A complex cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

15. Infants are born with the ability to control their visual attention.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. The law of specific nerve energies states that ____.​

a. ​perception of a repeated stimulus fades
b. ​every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light
c. ​the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus
d. ​any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

17. According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by ____.​

a. ​which neurotransmitter is released
b. ​which neurons are active
c. ​the velocity of the action potentials
d. ​the amplitude of the action potentials

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

18. In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____.​

a. ​retina cells
b. ​bipolar cells
c. ​ganglion cells
d. ​spiny cells

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

19. Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the ____. ​

a. ​retina
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​macula

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

20. Bipolar cells send their messages to ____, which are located close to the center of the eye.​

a. ​spiny cells
b. ​cornea cells
c. ​bipolar cells
d. ​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

21. Light from the right half of the world strikes which part of the retina?​

a. ​the left half
b. ​the right half
c. ​the whole retina equally
d. ​It depends of the wavelength.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

22. In what order does visual information pass through the retina?​

a. ​receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
b. ​ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells
c. ​receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
d. ​bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

23. Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.​

a. ​receptors
b. ​geniculate cells
c. ​amacrine cells
d. ​optic nerves

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

24. The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?​

a. ​rods and cones
b. ​bipolar cells
c. ​horizontal cells
d. ​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

25. The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the ____.​

a. ​blind spot
b. ​fovea
c. ​optic chiasm
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

26. Which statement characterizes the fovea?​

a. ​It has the greatest perception of detail.
b. ​It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve.
c. ​It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil.
d. ​It has more rods than cones.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

27. If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina?​

a. ​the optic nerve
b. ​the fovea
c. ​an area containing mostly rods
d. ​the cornea

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

28. The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks ____.​

a. ​have no discernible fovea
b. ​have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina
c. ​have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina
d. ​are virtually indistinguishable from the retinas of humans

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

29. In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages ____.​

a. ​straight to the brain
b. ​immediately to ganglion cells within the retina
c. ​to bipolar cells within the retina
d. ​to the periphery of the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

30. Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information?​

a. ​It is closest to the pupil.
b. ​It surrounds the optic nerve.
c. ​It has tightly packed receptors.
d. ​It contains many blood vessels for supplying energy.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

31. Which statement is TRUE with regard to peripheral vision?​

a. ​It is very sensitive to detail.
b. ​It is easier to recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by other objects.
c. ​It is not very sensitive to light.
d. ​It is most sensitive to color, which helps to differentiate multiple objects clearly.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

32. In comparison to the rods, cones are more ____.​

a. ​common toward the periphery of the retina
b. ​sensitive to detail
c. ​sensitive to dim light
d. ​common in rodents and other nocturnal animals

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

33. ____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.​

a. ​Phototransmitters
b. ​Photosins
c. ​Photopigments
d. ​Photoions

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

34. Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to ____.​

a. ​opsins
b. ​unstable proteins
c. ​all-trans-retinal
d. ​sodium

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

35. Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called ____.​

a. ​photo-optics
b. ​photopigments
c. ​opsins
d. ​kestrels

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

36. In comparison to cones, rods ____.​

a. ​are more common toward the center of the retina
b. ​are more sensitive to detail
c. ​are more sensitive to dim light
d. ​reach their peak firing levels slowly

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

37. Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.​

a. ​the periphery; the fovea
b. ​red; blue
c. ​vertebrates; invertebrates
d. ​reading text; reading road signs

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

38. ____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different wavelengths of light.​

a. ​Retinol; photopigments
b. ​Opsins; retinol
c. ​Photopigments; opsins
d. ​Opsins; photopigments

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

39. Peripheral vision mainly depends upon ____.​

a. ​the fovea
b. ​cones
c. ​rods
d. ​just a few receptors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

40. Night-active species are more likely than day-active species to have ____.​

a. ​better peripheral vision
b. ​larger blind spots
c. ​a greater rod to cone ratio
d. ​a greater cone to rod ratio

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

41. Why do humans perceive faint light better in the periphery of the eye?​

a. ​Receptors in the periphery are closer to the pupil.
b. ​The fovea is closer to the retina’s blind spot than peripheral receptors.
c. ​More receptors in the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell.
d. ​Ganglion cells in the periphery transmit their information to a larger brain area.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

42. Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color?​

a. ​cones only
b. ​rods only
c. ​both rods and cones
d. ​horizontal and amacrine cells

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

43. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision ____.​

a. ​there are only three rods and three cones in each eye
b. ​there are only three colors of light in the world
c. ​rods are important for perception of light colors
d. ​our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

44. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the basis for color vision?​

a. ​a different receptor for each color
b. three kinds of cones
c. ​a single receptor that produces different responses for each color
d. ​the combined influences of rods and cones

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

45. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, the most important factor in determining the color we see is the ____.​

a. ​velocity of the action potential
b. ​absolute activity of a single cone
c. ​difference between cone and rod activity
d. ​relative activity of short, medium, and long wavelengths

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

46. The fact that all colors on older televisions were created by combining only three different colors of light supports the ____ theory of color vision.​

a. ​CRT
b. ​opponent process
c. ​retinex
d. ​trichromatic

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

47. At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory seems to fit best.​

a. ​opponent process; volley
b. ​volley; trichromatic
c. ​opponent process; trichromatic
d. ​trichromatic; opponent process

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

48. After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?​

a. ​Young-Helmholtz theory
b. ​trichromatic theory
c. ​opponent-process theory
d. ​color-constancy theory

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

49. Which theory of color vision is best able to explain negative color afterimages?​

a. ​retinex theory
b. ​opponent-process theory
c. ​trichromatic theory
d. ​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

50. Color constancy is the ability to ____.​

a. ​perceive all wavelengths as the same color
b. ​see color, even in very faint light
c. ​differentiate among many colors and hues
d. ​recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

51. Color and brightness constancy are best explained by the ____ theory of color vision.​

a. ​trichromatic
b. ​opponent-process
c. ​retinex
d. ​constancy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

52. According to the retinex theory, we perceive color by ____.​

a. ​the relative activity of three kinds of cones
b. ​contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others
c. ​a red vs. green system and a yellow vs. blue system
d. ​detecting the velocity of action potentials from the eye

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

53. Which theory can best explain why people that are wearing yellow-colored glasses can still identify the color of a green apple?​

a. ​trichromatic theory
b. ​retinex theory
c. ​opponent-process theory
d. ​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

54. Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the most common form of color vision deficiency.​

a. ​blue; yellow
b. ​green; blue
c. ​red; green
d. ​red; blue

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

55. The ability of some women to detect slightly finer discriminations of color than other women is most likely due to having ____.​

a. ​two types of long-wavelength cones
b. ​more short-wavelength cones
c. ​shorter optic nerves
d. ​a larger cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

56. The most common form of color vision deficiency is due to ____.​

a. ​poor eyesight
b. ​malformation of area V4 in the brain
c. ​complete absence of one of the types of cones
d. ​long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

57. ____ cells axons make up the optic nerve.​

a. ​Horizontal
b. ​Amacrine
c. ​Bipolar
d. ​Ganglion

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

58. In foveal vision, ____.​

a. ​each ganglion cell excited by many receptors
b. ​ganglion cells respond poorly to color vision
c. ​ganglion cells respond well to dim light
d. ​each ganglion cell is excited by a single cone

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

59. The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially meet at the ____.​

a. ​optic chiasm
b. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
c. ​hypothalamus
d. ​cerebral cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

60. Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?​

a. ​directly to the cerebral cortex
b. ​to the lateral geniculate
c. ​to the superior colliculus
d. ​directly to the occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

61. The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the ____.​

a. ​cerebral cortex
b. ​superior colliculus
c. ​inferior colliculus
d. ​thalamus

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

62. Branches of the optic nerve go directly to what areas of the brain?​

a. ​lateral geniculate and cerebral cortex
b. ​superior colliculus and cerebral cortex
c. ​lateral geniculate and superior colliculus
d. ​prefrontal cortex and occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

63. In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed information back and forth.​

a. ​thalamus; cortex
b. ​thalamus; inferior geniculate
c. ​inferior colliculus; thalamus
d. ​thalamus; lateral colliculus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

64. Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic chiasm would result in blindness in the ____.​

a. ​right eye
b. ​left eye
c. ​peripheral vision of both eyes
d. ​left visual field

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

65. The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of ____.​

a. ​lateral inhibition in the retina
b. ​the diffraction of light from the edge’s surface
c. ​fatigue of the rods and cones
d. ​the color of the object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

66. In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible for lateral inhibition?​

a. ​horizontal cells
b. ​ganglion cells
c. ​bipolar cells
d. ​glial cells

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

67. Horizontal cells receive their input from ____, and they send output to ____.​

a. ​rods and cones; ganglion cells
b. ​rods and cones; bipolar cells
c. ​bipolar cells; ganglion cells
d. ​cones; rods

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

68. Suppose someone has a genetic defect that prevents the formation of horizontal cells in the retina. Which visual phenomenon is most likely to be impaired?​

a. ​lateral inhibition
b. ​movement perception
c. ​dark adaptation
d. ​size constancy

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

69. What is responsible for sharpening contrast at visual borders?​

a. ​receptive fields
b. ​lateral inhibition
c. ​retinal disparity
d. ​the direction in which the light shines

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

70. The receptive field of a receptor is the ____.​

a. ​point at which the optic nerve exits the retina
b. ​axon hillock
c. ​point in space from which light strikes the receptor
d. ​point where light shines on, and excites, the visual cortex

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

71. The point in space from which light strikes the receptor is called the ____.​

a. ​stimulus field
b. ​convergence field
c. ​receptive field
d. ​bipolar area

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

72. The ____ of any neuron in the visual system is the area of the visual field that excites or inhibits it.​

a. ​stimulus field
b. ​convergence field
c. ​receptive field
d. ​bipolar field

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

73. The ability to detect movement better than color in our peripheral vision is largely due to ____.​

a. ​magnocellular neurons in the periphery
b. ​parvocellular neurons tightly packed in the periphery
c. ​no cones in the periphery
d. ​the strength of the eye muscles

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

74. Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from ____.​

a. ​magnocellular neurons
b. ​rods
c. ​bipolar cells that receive input from cones
d. ​the periphery of the retina

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

75. Being able to detect fine details of a color painting would depend most on which type of ganglion cells?​

a. ​parvocellular
b. ​magnocellular
c. ​koniocellular
d. ​kodacellular

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

76. Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area of the cerebral cortex?​

a. ​precentral gyrus
b. ​postcentral gyrus
c. ​prefrontal cortex
d. ​occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

77. The primary visual cortex sends its information ____.​

a. ​to the lateral geniculate nucleus
b. ​to area V1
c. ​to area V2
d. ​back to the retina

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

78. Cortical area ____ appears to be where conscious visual perception occurs.​

a. ​V4
b. ​V3
c. ​V2
d. ​V1

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

79. The primary visual cortex is also known as the ____.​

a. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
b. ​striate cortex
c. ​area V2
d. ​parvocellular area

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

80. Visual information from the lateral geniculate area goes to the ____.​

a. ​retina
b. ​primary visual cortex
c. ​thalamus
d. ​hypothalamus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

81. Blindsight refers to ____.​

a. ​the ability to localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field
b. ​the ability to merge together information from both eyes even though they do not see the exact same picture
c. ​improved hearing and touch in blind people
d. ​the inability to see flashing light

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

82. Once information is sent to the secondary visual cortex, it ____.​

a. ​has reached its final processing destination
b. ​may return to the primary visual cortex
c. ​goes mostly to the primary motor cortex
d. ​is sent back to the retina

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

83. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a ventral branch sensitive to ____.​

a. ​details of shape
b. ​facial features
c. ​movement
d. ​brightness

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

84. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a dorsal branch important for ____.​

a. ​details of shape
b. ​color and brightness
c. ​movement
d. ​integrating vision with action

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

85. Once within the cerebral cortex, a mixed pathway of magnocellular and parvocellular cells is important for ____.​

a. ​brightness and color
b. ​integrating vision with action
c. ​details of shape
d. ​distinguishing facial features

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

86. The visual paths in the temporal cortex collectively are referred to as the ____.​

a. ​ventral stream
b. ​dorsal stream
c. ​lateral stream
d. ​magnoparvocellular pathway

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04

 

87. The visual path in the parietal cortex is referred to as the ____.​

a. ​ventral stream
b. ​dorsal stream
c. ​parvocellular pathway
d. ​magnocellular pathway

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

88. Damage to the ventral stream may interfere with ____.​

a. ​the ability to describe the shape or size of an object
b. ​walking toward something seen
c. ​reaching to grasp an object
d. ​perceiving whether the lights are on or off

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

89. Damage to the dorsal stream may interfere with ____.​

a. ​describing what is seen
b. ​perceiving the movement of an object
c. ​remembering something seen at a previous time
d. ​reaching out to grasp an object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

90. What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?​

a. ​circle of a particular radius
b. ​circle with a hole in the middle
c. ​bar in a particular orientation
d. ​bar of a particular length

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

91. What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field, regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?​

a. ​simple
b. ​complex
c. ​bipolar
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

92. Which cell responds most strongly to a stimulus moving perpendicular to its axis?​

a. ​simple
b. ​complex
c. ​lateral geniculate
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

93. What is one way to determine whether a given cell in the primary visual cortex is “simple” or “complex”?​

a. ​the shape of its receptive field
b. ​whether its receptive field is monocular or binocular
c. ​whether it can respond equally to lines in more than one location
d. ​whether it is sensitive to the orientation of the stimulus

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

94. The one additional feature that hypercomplex cells have that complex cells do not is that hypercomplex cells ____.​

a. ​respond to their receptive field faster
b. ​have a strong inhibitory area at one end of its receptive field
c. ​have receptive fields that are triangular
d. ​respond to bars of light in more than one orientation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

95. ____ respond to a particular feature of a stimulus.​

a. ​Hypercomplex cells
b. ​Magnocellular cells
c. ​Feature detectors
d. ​Shape detectors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

96. V1 neurons would be most strongly activated by viewing ____.​

a. ​the letter T
b. ​a circle
c. ​repeating stripes on a flag
d. ​a single bar of light

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

97. Which structure has the largest receptive fields and the greatest preferential sensitivity to highly complex visual patterns, such as faces?​

a. ​inferior temporal cortex
b. ​superior colliculus
c. ​lateral geniculate
d. ​striate cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

98. Cells in the inferior temporal cortex that are sensitive to a particular shape are also likely to respond to the shape’s ____.​

a. ​figure-ground reversal
b. ​color
c. ​motion
d. ​mirror-reversal

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

99. An inability to recognize objects despite otherwise satisfactory vision is called ____.​

a. ​visual agnosia
b. ​blindsight
c. ​prosopagnosia
d. ​hemianopsia

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

100. To what does “shape constancy” refer?​

a. ​All neurons within a single column have the same shape of dendritic tree.
b. ​We can recognize objects even at different orientations.
c. ​Objects described from memory appear more symmetrical than in reality.
d. ​We see certain shapes the same way throughout our lives regardless of age.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

101. A person with visual agnosia is unable to ____.​

a. ​perceive colors
b. ​point to objects
c. ​recognize visual objects
d. ​see

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

102. Someone with prosopagnosia has difficulty with ____.​

a. ​focusing on colored objects
b. ​seeing items located in the left visual field
c. ​recognizing faces
d. ​processing information from more than one sensory modality at a time

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

103. In addition to having difficulty recognizing faces, people with prosopagnosia may have difficulty____.​

a. ​reading
b. ​with all types of memory
c. ​recognizing colors
d. ​recognizing different kinds of plants and animals

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

104. Area ____ is particularly important for color constancy.​

a. ​V1
b. ​V2
c. ​V3
d. ​V4

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

105. When cells in the middle temporal cortex respond to visual stimuli, their response depends mostly on the ____.​

a. ​speed and direction of movement
b. ​exact shape of the object
c. ​color and brightness of the object
d. ​exact location of the object in visual space

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

106. Damage to the magnocellular pathway would most likely lead to the loss of ____.​

a. ​color vision
b. ​shape perception
c. ​color constancy
d. ​motion perception

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

107. Which of the following would be easiest for someone who is motion blind?​

a. ​dressing themselves
b. ​driving a car
c. ​taking the dog for a walk
d. ​filling a pitcher with water

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

108. Human newborns come into the world predisposed to pay more attention to ____ than any other stationary displays.​

a. ​toys
b. ​balloons
c. ​faces
d. ​dogs

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

109. Cortical neurons in the visual cortex of a kitten or a cat will lose the ability to respond to stimuli in one eye if the eye is sutured shut for ____.​

a. ​the first week after birth
b. ​the first month of life
c. ​any two month period in adult life
d. ​the third and fourth months of life

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

110. Stereoscopic depth perception requires the brain to detect ____.​

a. ​amblyopia
b. ​retinal disparity
c. ​strabismus
d. ​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

111. In depth perception, different views are received by each eye, depending on the distance of the object being viewed. What is this called?​

a. ​retinal disparity
b. ​amblyopic differential
c. ​astigmatic contrast
d. ​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

112. What is strabismus?​

a. ​a failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time
b. ​a blurring of vision caused by asymmetrical curvature of the eye
c. ​stereoscopic depth perception
d. ​the ability to perceive a flashing light as if it were a moving object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

113. Astigmatism refers to the ____.​

a. ​sensitive period for development of vision
b. ​ability to see horizontal and vertical lines
c. ​asymmetric curvature of eyes
d. ​inability to detect motion

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

114. Infants with cataracts need to have surgical repair ____.​

a. ​as early as possible
b. ​before they begin school
c. ​if it does not fix itself
d. ​when they are old enough to recover from surgery

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

115. What would be the likely outcome of a person who was blind at birth, and had vision restored later in life by the removal of cataracts (clouded lenses)?​

a. ​quick development of normal vision
b. ​trouble describing the shapes of objects
c. ​trouble identifying the location of light
d. ​inability to use touch and sound cues to maneuver around in a building

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

Essay

 

116. Describe the trichromatic, opponent-process, and retinex theories of color vision.​

ANSWER:   Trichromatic: We have three different kinds of cones, each maximally sensitive to different wavelengths of light (corresponding to colors that we see as red, green, and blue) Opponent process: Bipolar cells are excited or inhibited by each member of a pair of complementary colors (yellow-blue, red-green, white-black)
Retinex: The cortex compares information from various parts of the retina to determine brightness and color perception for each area.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

117. What is prosopagnosia?​

ANSWER:   People with severe problems, either because of brain damage or because they developed fewer connections, may have prosopagnosia, meaning an impaired ability to recognize faces. People with prosopagnosia can read, so visual acuity is not the problem. They recognize people’s voices, so
their problem is not memory (Farah, Wilson, Dain, & Tanaka, 1998). Furthermore, if they feel clay models of faces, they are worse than other people at determining whether two clay models are the same or different (Kilgour, de Gelder, & Lederman, 2004). Their problem is not vision in
general, but something that relates specifically to faces.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

118. Describe the functional and anatomic differences between rods and cones.​

ANSWER:   Rods, abundant in the periphery of the human retina, respond to faint light but are not useful in daylight because bright light bleaches them. Cones, abundant in and near the fovea, are less active in dim light, more useful in bright light, and essential for color vision. Because of the distribution of rods and cones, you have good color vision in the fovea but not in the periphery.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

119. ​Describe the difference between parvocellular and magnocellular neurons and pathways.

ANSWER:   The parvocellular neurons, with small cell bodies and small receptive fields, are mostly in or near the fovea. (Parvocellular means “small celled,” from the Latin root parv, meaning “small.”) The magnocellular neurons, with larger cell bodies and receptive fields, are distributed evenly
throughout the retina. (Magnocellular means “large celled,” from the Latin root magn, meaning “large.” The same root appears in magnify.)​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

120. Describe the key functions of the major pathways in the visual cortex.​

ANSWER:   The primary visual cortex (V1) sends information to the secondary visual cortex (area V2), which processes the information further and transmits it to additional areas. The connections in the visual cortex are reciprocal. For example, V1 sends information to V2, and V2 returns information to V1.
From V2, the information branches out in several directions for specialized processing. Researchers distinguish between the ventral stream and the dorsal stream. They call the ventral stream through the temporal cortex the “what” pathway, because it is specialized for identifying and recognizing objects. The dorsal stream through the parietal cortex, once called the “where” pathway, is now called the “how” pathway, because of its importance for visually guided movements.Although the distinction between ventral and dorsal pathways is useful, we should not overstate it.
Normal behavior makes use of both pathways in collaboration (Farivar, 2009), and although
damage to either pathway impairs some tasks more than others, it affects all tasks to some degree.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex