Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank Of Biology Science for Life with Physiology 4th Edition by Belk

 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

 

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 4e (Belk)

Chapter 3   Is It Possible to Supplement Your Way to Better Health?

Nutrients and Membrane Transport

 

1) Nutrients that the human body requires in large quantities are called

  1. A) micronutrients.
  2. B) macronutrients.
  3. C) vitamins.
  4. D) minerals.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

2) Which of the following is NOT a macronutrient?

  1. A) water
  2. B) carbohydrate
  3. C) protein
  4. D) vitamin C

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

3) A deficiency of water in the body is called

  1. A) diffusion.
  2. B) dehydration.
  3. C) endocytosis.
  4. D) hypertension.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

4) A decrease in the body’s normal water level can cause which of the following problems?

  1. A) muscle cramps
  2. B) decreased heart rate
  3. C) low body temperature
  4. D) increased sweating

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

5) How many liters of water does an average human need to replace each day by consuming food or drink?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

6) When you compare tap water to bottled water, in most cases

  1. A) bottled water has more impurities than tap water.
  2. B) bottled water and tap water are equally clean.
  3. C) tap water has more salt than bottled water.
  4. D) tap water usually tastes better than bottled water.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

7) Sports drinks that have a solute concentration that is higher than blood might cause ________ when you drink them.

Answer:  dehydration

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

8) Which macronutrient is the major source of energy for cell processes?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) fats
  4. D) water

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

9) Table sugar (sucrose) belongs to which category of nutrients?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) fats
  4. D) minerals

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

10) Which of the following is an example of a food that is rich in complex carbohydrates?

  1. A) pasta
  2. B) table sugar
  3. C) margarine
  4. D) cheese

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

11) Which of these foods is made up of many branching chains of sugar monomers?

  1. A) honey
  2. B) milk
  3. C) nuts
  4. D) beans

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

12) The human body stores excess carbohydrates in the form of ________ in muscles and the liver.

Answer:  glycogen

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

13) A ________ (two words) has been stripped of most of its nutrients.

Answer:  processed food

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

14) Why are whole foods better for your health than processed foods?

  1. A) Whole foods contain more sugars and less fiber, so they’re more digestible than processed foods.
  2. B) Whole foods have been refined to provide the highest possible calorie content.
  3. C) Processed foods may contain antioxidants, which can cause disease.
  4. D) Processed foods don’t contain all the vitamins and minerals found in whole foods.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

15) Carbohydrates are an excellent source of energy for the body. If a candy bar and a pear contain an equal number of calories from carbohydrates, which is a healthier food and why?

  1. A) The candy bar is healthier because it contains simple sugars, which are easier for the body to get energy from.
  2. B) The pear is healthier because it contains fewer chemical bonds that need to be broken in the digestive tract.
  3. C) The pear is healthier because it contains more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
  4. D) Neither the candy bar nor the pear is better because they both contain the same number of calories.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Applied

 

16) Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of ________.

Answer:  starch

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

17) Why is fiber an important part of a healthful human diet?

  1. A) It is easily digested into monosaccharides, which are used for energy.
  2. B) It may decrease the risk of certain types of cancers.
  3. C) It increases the amount of HDL and LDL cholesterol in the body.
  4. D) It contains more energy, gram for gram, than any other nutrient.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

18) What are the monomer “building blocks” that make up proteins?

  1. A) monosaccharides
  2. B) glycerol molecules
  3. C) amino acids
  4. D) fatty acids

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

19) Amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body are called ________ amino acids.

Answer:  essential

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

20) Which food is most likely to contain all essential amino acids?

  1. A) beef
  2. B) carrots
  3. C) corn
  4. D) rice

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

21) What happens to excess protein in the body?

  1. A) It is broken down and excreted in urine.
  2. B) It is used as energy by muscles.
  3. C) It is stored as fat.
  4. D) It is used to build bone mass.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

22) What is a major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

  1. A) At room temperature, saturated fats are liquid and unsaturated fats are solid.
  2. B) Unsaturated fats have a flat molecular structure, but saturated fats are kinked.
  3. C) Saturated fat molecules are packed together loosely, but unsaturated fats are tightly packed.
  4. D) Unsaturated fats contain carbon-to-carbon double bonds, but saturated fats don’t.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Applied

23) In commercial food manufacturing, hydrogenation is used to

  1. A) make an unsaturated fat more saturated.
  2. B) reduce the amount of “empty calories” in a carbohydrate.
  3. C) convert fatty acids into amino acids.
  4. D) convert vitamins into minerals.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

24) A fat with many unsaturated carbons is called ________.

Answer:  polyunsaturated

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

25) Omega-3 and omega-6 are the names of two ________ (three words).

Answer:  essential fatty acids

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

26) Erin wants to make a stir fry using an unsaturated fat. Sam suggests that she use

  1. A) butter.
  2. B) olive oil.
  3. C) lard.
  4. D) margarine.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Applied

 

27) How are trans fats different from regular saturated fats?

  1. A) Trans fats cannot form carbon-carbon double bonds.
  2. B) Trans fats have flattened fatty acids.
  3. C) Trans fats are liquid at room temperature.
  4. D) Trans fats do not contain glycerol.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

28) Trans-fatty acids, which are common in fast food, are a concern to nutritionists because they

  1. A) increase the incidence of clogged arteries.
  2. B) decrease the availability of iron to bodily cells.
  3. C) cannot be digested by the human body.
  4. D) outcompete the enzymes needed for normal bodily functions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

29) Vitamins in the human body

  1. A) are sources of stored energy.
  2. B) help enzymes function properly.
  3. C) act as hormones that trigger cells to take up glucose.
  4. D) are the basis of the plasma membrane.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

30) Which vitamin could build up to dangerous levels within the body?

  1. A) vitamin B12
  2. B) vitamin C
  3. C) vitamin D
  4. D) folic acid

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

31) Sunlight is required for the synthesis of

  1. A) cholesterol.
  2. B) vitamin D.
  3. C) vitamin K.
  4. D) amino acids.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

32) Vitamins function as ________, helping molecules within the cells reduce the activation energy of necessary chemical reactions.

  1. A) minerals
  2. B) leptin
  3. C) coenzymes
  4. D) enzymatic inhibitors

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

33) Vitamin ________ is water soluble and cannot be synthesized by the body.

  1. A) A
  2. B) C
  3. C) E
  4. D) K

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

34) Scurvy is a disease that is caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) vitamin B6
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin E

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

35) Cal takes a vitamin supplement to make sure he has enough biotin in his diet. Instead of the supplement, Cal could just eat more

  1. A) oranges.
  2. B) eggs.
  3. C) red meat.
  4. D) grains.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

36) Anemia is a disorder that can be caused by a deficiency in

  1. A) vitamin A.
  2. B) one of the B vitamins.
  3. C) magnesium.
  4. D) sodium.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

37) Which of these statements is true about minerals?

  1. A) Minerals will not dissolve in water.
  2. B) Some minerals contain carbon.
  3. C) Minerals cannot be made by the body.
  4. D) Minerals are not used by body cells.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

38) Tanya eats a vegan diet, which means that she does not eat any animal products. What would be a good source of calcium for Tanya?

  1. A) spinach
  2. B) cheese
  3. C) nuts
  4. D) whole grains

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

39) Table salt provides the body with necessary sodium and chloride. However, too much salt could result in

  1. A) muscle cramps.
  2. B) bone damage.
  3. C) kidney stones.
  4. D) high blood pressure.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

40) A diet that is rich in whole grains provides the body with which of the following essential minerals?

  1. A) calcium
  2. B) chloride
  3. C) potassium
  4. D) sulfur

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

41) What is a function of antioxidants?

  1. A) to prevent muscle cramps and weakness
  2. B) to improve skin tone and fight acne
  3. C) to decrease damage done to cells by free radicals
  4. D) to allow the cell to maintain water balance

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

42) Which antioxidant is naturally found in cocoa?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) beta-carotene
  3. C) flavonoid
  4. D) selenium

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Factual

 

43) Which of these vitamins is also considered an antioxidant?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) biotin
  3. C) folic acid
  4. D) niacin

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.1

Skill:  Conceptual

44) Which of the following does not involve molecules moving across cell membranes?

  1. A) osmosis
  2. B) facilitated diffusion
  3. C) active transport
  4. D) induced fit

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

45) Diffusion is

  1. A) one type of active transport.
  2. B) the movement of water across a cell membrane.
  3. C) the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  4. D) the movement of molecules across a membrane, assisted by proteins embedded in the membrane.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

46) How would amino acids and calcium ions from the bloodstream move across a cell membrane?

  1. A) diffusion
  2. B) osmosis
  3. C) facilitated diffusion
  4. D) active transport

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

47) Which of the following best describes the structure of the plasma membrane?

  1. A) a single layer of proteins
  2. B) a single layer of lipids with proteins embedded in it
  3. C) a double layer of proteins
  4. D) a double layer of lipids with proteins embedded in it

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

48) Which of the following requires the most ATP to move the molecule across a plasma membrane?

  1. A) water
  2. B) a simple sugar, such as glucose
  3. C) a dissolved gas, such as carbon dioxide
  4. D) an ion moving against a concentration gradient

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

49) What does hydrophobic mean?

  1. A) made of water
  2. B) repelled by water
  3. C) attracted to water
  4. D) dissolved in water

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

50) Even though they’re extremely small, viruses are too large to enter a cell by passive or active transport and thus must enter a host cell via

  1. A) diffusion.
  2. B) osmosis.
  3. C) exocytosis.
  4. D) endocytosis.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Applied

 

51) The movement of a substance out of a cell via a vesicle is called ________.

Answer:  exocytosis

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

52) The interior of a phospholipid bilayer is

  1. A) hydrophobic.
  2. B) hydrophilic.
  3. C) proteinaceous.
  4. D) hydrogenated.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

53) Phospholipid bilayer membranes are

  1. A) always impermeable to small molecules.
  2. B) always permeable to charged atoms and molecules.
  3. C) differentially permeable.
  4. D) impermeable to all atoms and molecules.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

54) Use the figure to answer the following question. Which of the following can’t freely pass through a cell membrane without going through a protein channel?

  1. A) oxygen
  2. B) carbon dioxide
  3. C) water
  4. D) calcium ions

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

55) Molecules embedded in phospholipid bilayers that form channels allowing molecules to pass into and out of the cell are made of

  1. A) carbohydrates.
  2. B) proteins.
  3. C) nucleic acids.
  4. D) lipids.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

56) In general, the net movement of small, uncharged atoms and molecules through the membrane of a cell will occur until

  1. A) the concentration of a solute is equal on both sides of the membrane.
  2. B) all those atoms or molecules are on the same side of the membrane.
  3. C) the cell grows so large that it can’t hold any more material.
  4. D) the cell shrinks to the point that it can’t function properly.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

57) Imagine a balloon is made from a membrane that’s permeable to water but not sucrose molecules. If the balloon is filled with a 50% sucrose solution and then placed in a beaker of water, then the balloon will

  1. A) not change in size or volume.
  2. B) get smaller as it loses water.
  3. C) get larger as it gains water.
  4. D) eventually burst.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

58) Imagine a balloon is made from a membrane that’s permeable to water but not sucrose molecules. If the balloon is filled with a 50% sucrose solution and then placed in a beaker of water, how will the concentration of sucrose change inside the balloon (if at all)?

  1. A) It won’t change.
  2. B) It will become less concentrated.
  3. C) It will become more concentrated.
  4. D) The concentration will increase and then decrease.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

59) If a drop of red food coloring is added to a glass of water, the red-colored molecules will

  1. A) move from an area of high concentration of red-colored molecules to an area of low concentration.
  2. B) move from an area of low concentration of red-colored molecules to an area of high concentration.
  3. C) move from an area of high concentration of water molecules to an area of low concentration.
  4. D) move toward an area of low concentration of water molecules.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

60) During diffusion, solute molecules move

  1. A) up a concentration gradient of solute molecules.
  2. B) down a concentration gradient of solvent molecules.
  3. C) down a concentration gradient of solute molecules.
  4. D) unpredictably with regards to a concentration gradient of solvent molecules.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

61) When molecules or atoms move down a concentration gradient across cell membranes, it’s called

  1. A) active transport.
  2. B) passive transport.
  3. C) exocytosis.
  4. D) endocytosis.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

62) Phagocytic white blood cells digest many of the invasive bacteria that gain entry into the human body. How could a bacterial cell enter a white blood cell in order to be digested?

  1. A) facilitated diffusion
  2. B) active transport
  3. C) exocytosis
  4. D) endocytosis

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

63) Water can enter cells through either passive transport or pores in the membrane called

  1. A) aquaporins.
  2. B) electrolytes.
  3. C) diffusion channels.
  4. D) exocytes.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

64) Elodea is a freshwater aquatic plant that is often used as aquarium vegetation. What would happen to an Elodea plant that was immersed in a saltwater aquarium?

  1. A) The cells of the plant would burst as water from the aquarium moved into the plant.
  2. B) The cells of the plant would shrink as water from the plant moved into the aquarium.
  3. C) The solution inside each cell would get salty as the saltwater moved into the plant.
  4. D) The saltwater would not affect the plant in any way.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Applied

 

65) The type of diffusion in which water moves down a concentration gradient is called ________.

Answer:  osmosis

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

66) Exocytosis and endocytosis both involve membrane-bound ________ that can fuse with plasma membranes.

Answer:  vesicles

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

67) During exocytosis, large substances are moved

  1. A) out of the cell.
  2. B) into the cell.
  3. C) between organelles.
  4. D) through protein channels in the plasma membrane.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

68) According to the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, what proportion of a healthy diet should consist of meat and beans?

  1. A) about 10%
  2. B) about 20%
  3. C) about 30%
  4. D) about 40%

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

69) If you put together a plate that included all of the food groups in the proportions that are recommended by the USDA, which of these would take up the largest portion of the plate?

  1. A) fruits
  2. B) vegetables
  3. C) grains
  4. D) meat and beans

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

70) When you eat a piece of toast that has been spread with butter, your body breaks the food down into mainly

  1. A) amino acids and glycerol.
  2. B) glycerol, fatty acids, and monosaccharides.
  3. C) monosaccharides and amino acids.
  4. D) fatty acids, amino acids, and polysaccharides.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Applied

 

71) Monosaccharides can be used by body cells

  1. A) to build membranes.
  2. B) to produce enzymes.
  3. C) for energy production.
  4. D) to store energy.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Factual

72) Which of these has not been tested by the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness?

  1. A) aspirin
  2. B) multivitamin
  3. C) antibiotic
  4. D) cough medicine

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 4e (Belk)

Chapter 13   Prospecting for Biological Gold: Biodiversity and Classification

 

1) Why are companies particularly interested in bioprospecting?

  1. A) Companies hope to become famous for discovering a new species.
  2. B) Companies hope to make more students interested in taxonomy.
  3. C) Companies hope to discover a species that contains an enzyme or another protein that can be marketed.
  4. D) Companies hope to discover how life on Earth began.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

2) Dr. Smith has discovered a bird that he believes is a new species. Dr. Wilson says he will only be convinced if Dr. Smith finds several more birds of the same type. Why might Dr. Wilson feel this way?

  1. A) He wants to be sure Dr. Smith hasn’t killed the last one and made the species extinct.
  2. B) He wants to be sure that the bird Dr. Smith found isn’t just an unusual example of an already-described species.
  3. C) He wants to make sure that there will be enough specimens for many scientists to study the bird and see if it is a new species.
  4. D) All the bird species have already been described, so there can’t be anymore.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Applied

 

3) Why is it so difficult for scientists to know how many species have already been described?

  1. A) Scientific journals do not publish accounts of new species.
  2. B) There isn’t one location for cataloguing all species.
  3. C) Scientists are too busy testing hypotheses to investigate the number of species on Earth.
  4. D) Many species are microscopic, so they are difficult to study.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

4) Scientists can compare the relationships between all modern species by examining a gene that performs a similar function in species from all kingdoms. What does this one gene encode?

  1. A) Taq polymerase
  2. B) ribosomal RNA
  3. C) enzymes needed for photosynthesis
  4. D) restriction enzymes

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

5) According to the most current classifications, which of the following groups is the most different from all the others?

  1. A) bacteria
  2. B) fungi
  3. C) animals
  4. D) archaea

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Factual

 

6) Scientists would change the most current classification system if

  1. A) more species became extinct.
  2. B) more types of vertebrates were discovered.
  3. C) more information became available on the evolutionary history of existing species.
  4. D) new species evolved.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

7) What does the main trunk at the far left of the “tree of life” represent?

  1. A) all extinct members of the lineage
  2. B) the earliest common ancestor of all the organisms in the tree
  3. C) the most successful members of the lineage
  4. D) the organisms for which most fossils have been discovered

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

8) How have classification systems for living things changed over the years?

  1. A) Scientists have always recognized five kingdoms of living things, but the placement of species within those kingdoms has changed.
  2. B) Until the last 20 years, organisms had been classified first as animal or plant. Recently, a five-kingdom system became the preferred classification system.
  3. C) The three-domain system has been introduced within the last 30 years, to replace the five-kingdom system.
  4. D) The exact organization proposed in the 18th century by Carl Linnaeus has recently been reinstituted by scientists.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

9) Which of the following would be considered bioprospecting?

  1. A) studying how cancer cells reproduce without controls
  2. B) studying the mating rituals of fish species in a coral reef
  3. C) studying a sample of earthworm skin for antibacterial properties
  4. D) studying the number of species a particular species of owl uses as food

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Applied

 

10) True or false: It’s possible for the same species to be categorized under two different names in different natural history museums around the world.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

11) True or false: Once some bioprospectors have determined that a representative of a species has no useful compounds, that species is excluded from further study by other bioprospectors.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Applied

 

12) True or false: Organisms on Earth are currently classified first as either plant or animal.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

13) In what period did all modern animal groups first appear in the oceans?

  1. A) Cambrian
  2. B) Silurian
  3. C) Carboniferous
  4. D) Permian

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

14) In which era did primitive bacteria first appear?

  1. A) Precambrian
  2. B) Paleozoic
  3. C) Mesozoic
  4. D) Cenozoic

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

15) An organism that is multicellular and makes its own food would be classified in which kingdom?

  1. A) kingdom Animalia
  2. B) kingdom Fungi
  3. C) kingdom Plantae
  4. D) kingdom Protista

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

16) An organism that is multicellular, relies on other organisms for food, and reproduces by spores would be classified in which kingdom?

  1. A) kingdom Animalia
  2. B) kingdom Fungi
  3. C) kingdom Plantae
  4. D) kingdom Protista

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

17) Of the four kingdoms in the domain Eukarya, which one is most likely to be split into two or more new kingdoms as scientists perform more genetic analyses on evolutionary relationships?

  1. A) kingdom Plantae
  2. B) kingdom Protista
  3. C) kingdom Animalia
  4. D) kingdom Fungi

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

18) DNA is found in every cell of an organism. What subset of DNA changes would be most useful to molecular biologists to determine evolutionary relationships?

  1. A) DNA changes that occur in genes specific to organisms in one kingdom
  2. B) DNA changes in genes that are shared by a common ancestor
  3. C) DNA changes in genes that occur in body cells and cannot be passed to offspring
  4. D) DNA changes in genes that do not generally code for any function

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

19) Fossils of ancient organisms are found in deep layers of rock, while the fossils of more recent organisms are found in shallower layers. Which two groups’ common ancestor would be found in relatively shallow fossils?

  1. A) Protista and Bacteria
  2. B) Fungi and Archaea
  3. C) Animals and Plants
  4. D) Plants and Protists

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

20) How does the DNA of related organisms show similarity?

  1. A) The DNA of each organism is unique and therefore shows no similarity.
  2. B) The diverse types of sugars and phosphates are very similar.
  3. C) The sequence of bases is very similar.
  4. D) The locations of DNA within the cell are very similar.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1

Skill:  Factual

 

21) In what way is a member of domain Archaea similar to a member of domain Bacteria?

  1. A) They are both photosynthetic.
  2. B) They both live in extreme environments.
  3. C) They both have DNA enclosed in a nucleus.
  4. D) They are both prokaryotic cells.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

22) Both mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from free-living

  1. A) protists.
  2. B) animals.
  3. C) bacteria.
  4. D) plants.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

23) Different phyla of fungi are distinguished from each other by what trait?

  1. A) their methods of obtaining food
  2. B) the way they form spores
  3. C) the type of hyphae they form
  4. D) the type of antibiotics they produce

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

24) How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?

  1. A) Prokaryotes have no DNA.
  2. B) Prokaryotes have no nucleus separating the DNA from the rest of the cell.
  3. C) Prokaryotes are unicellular, while eukaryotes are multicellular.
  4. D) Prokaryotes cause disease, but eukaryotes don’t.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

25) Algae are classified as part of which group?

  1. A) Plantae
  2. B) Protista
  3. C) Fungi
  4. D) Archaea

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

26) Place these categories in the correct order, from most inclusive to least inclusive.

  1. A) phylum, kingdom, domain, species
  2. B) species, phylum, domain, kingdom
  3. C) kingdom, species, phylum, domain
  4. D) domain, kingdom, phylum, species

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

27) You work for a firm that has hired you to look for drugs that work in a similar way to aspirin. Your first search will be among organisms in which kingdom?

  1. A) Plantae
  2. B) Protista
  3. C) Fungi
  4. D) Animalia

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

 

28) How do fungi obtain nutrients?

  1. A) through photosynthesis
  2. B) by secreting chemicals that break down food and then absorbing it
  3. C) by secreting antibiotics and then absorbing killed bacteria
  4. D) by engulfing bacteria directly

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

29) The leftovers in your refrigerator are guaranteed to eventually grow mold because fungi

  1. A) get nutrients from other organisms.
  2. B) have cell walls.
  3. C) are widespread and reproduce quickly.
  4. D) often produce antibiotics.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

30) In what way are fungi similar to animals?

  1. A) Both take in food from the outside.
  2. B) Both produce hair-like hyphae.
  3. C) Both form embryos when they reproduce.
  4. D) Both produce antibiotics.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

31) Plants possess many compounds that affect animals. Which of the following is the most likely reason?

  1. A) Plants have been subject to mutation-causing pollution for many decades.
  2. B) Plants have cell structures that are very different from animal cells.
  3. C) Plants contain chloroplasts that are derived from free-living prokaryotes.
  4. D) Plants that produce chemical defenses were successful against plant-eating animals.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

32) Which group underwent a large increase in diversity during the Cambrian explosion?

  1. A) animals
  2. B) plants
  3. C) fungi
  4. D) bacteria

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

33) Which of the following animal traits would be of most interest to bioprospectors?

  1. A) the ability to eat other organisms
  2. B) the ability to survive in the ocean
  3. C) the ability to produce venom
  4. D) the ability to produce food

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

34) An organism is described that can live in very high temperature water. This organism is most likely a member of the

  1. A) Bacteria domain.
  2. B) Archaea domain.
  3. C) Protista kingdom.
  4. D) Animalia kingdom.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

35) Life on Earth is approximately

  1. A) 36 billion years old.
  2. B) 3.6 billion years old.
  3. C) 360 million years old.
  4. D) 36 million years old.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

36) The Cambrian explosion is a period in Earth’s history when what significant event occurred?

  1. A) life first appeared
  2. B) eukaryotes first appeared
  3. C) plants first appeared
  4. D) multicellular animals first appeared

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

37) Why would bioprospectors for private drug companies be interested in animals that produce venom?

  1. A) The venom could be used to control pests like mice and rats.
  2. B) Venoms often interact with nerves, so at much reduced concentrations, they could act as painkillers.
  3. C) Powerful venoms could be used as biological weapons.
  4. D) Many venoms potentially have antibiotic properties.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

 

38) What is the result of adaptive radiation?

  1. A) the extinction of one species and the replacement with another
  2. B) the diversification of one or a few species into a varied group of descendants
  3. C) symbiosis between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
  4. D) convergent evolution in which unrelated species take similar forms

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

39) What is the adaptive value of natural antibiotic production for fungi?

  1. A) Bacteria use fungi for food.
  2. B) Bacteria spoil the food that the fungi need for their own nutrition.
  3. C) Bacteria are the main competitors with fungi for food.
  4. D) Bacteria inhibit the reproduction of fungi.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

40) To which group are organisms in kingdom Fungi most closely related?

  1. A) Plantae
  2. B) Protista
  3. C) Animalia
  4. D) Bacteria

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

41) In order to construct an evolutionary classification of modern-day aquatic vertebrates, what is the the best source of information?

  1. A) the DNA sequence
  2. B) the structure of organs
  3. C) the position of appendages
  4. D) the distribution of scales

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

42) With the evolution of ________, plants were able to grow taller.

  1. A) seeds
  2. B) vascular tissue
  3. C) flowers
  4. D) photosynthesis

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

43) Why might Archaea be more difficult to grow in the lab than Bacteria?

  1. A) Archaea are larger cells and thus take in more food.
  2. B) Archaea are much smaller than bacteria and are harder to see growing.
  3. C) Archaea often grow in unusual environments that would be hard to reproduce in the lab.
  4. D) Archaea don’t usually reproduce in captivity.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

 

 

44) How could a molecule from plants that blocks the connection between nerves and muscles be useful as a pharmaceutical?

  1. A) It could be used to produce restriction enzymes.
  2. B) It could be used as a source of antibiotic.
  3. C) It could be used as a muscle relaxant.
  4. D) It could be used as an antiviral medication.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

45) The most important role of bacteria in the environment is

  1. A) as disease-causing agents.
  2. B) as fungal control.
  3. C) as decomposers.
  4. D) as a source of restriction enzymes.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

46) For how long were prokaryotes the only kind of life on Earth?

  1. A) 100 million years
  2. B) 500 million years
  3. C) 1 billion years
  4. D) 1.5 billion years

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

47) Symbiosis is a relationship that is mutually beneficial to two organisms. Which organelle developed as a result of a symbiotic relationship?

  1. A) golgi body
  2. B) nucleus
  3. C) mitochondrion
  4. D) endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

48) What were the Ediacaran fauna?

  1. A) organisms that seem to be the first life on Earth
  2. B) symbiotic organisms that evolved into cellular organelles
  3. C) the first multicellular organisms found in the fossil record
  4. D) the most ancient ancestors of organisms in kingdom Protista

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

49) A book is being publicized that purports to provide proof that aliens from another planet brought life to Earth. The proof they show are strange fossils of multicellular organisms that look like no animal you have ever seen. These “aliens” are an example of

  1. A) adaptive radiation.
  2. B) the Ediacaran fauna.
  3. C) ancient Archaea.
  4. D) endosymbiosis.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

 

50) Why would bioprospectors be interested in an animal that is bright red and slow-moving?

  1. A) It could be a good source of pigment.
  2. B) It could make a toxic molecule that could be useful in small quantities.
  3. C) It could make a good pet.
  4. D) It could be a good source of a sedative.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

51) There are a number of sites, around the world, that have been made uninhabitable because of chemical pollution in the soil. Which group of organisms might have useful biological tools for breaking down these toxic compounds?

  1. A) animals
  2. B) fungi
  3. C) protists
  4. D) plants

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

 

 

52) Mycorrhizae are fungi that are symbiotic with plants. What is the likely relationship between these fungi and plants?

  1. A) The fungi provide soil nutrients to the plants; the plants provide food to the fungi.
  2. B) The fungi remove bacteria from the soil; the plants provide water to the fungi.
  3. C) The fungi provide CO2to the plants; the plants protect the fungi from predators.
  4. D) The fungi remove predators from the plants; the plants provide shelter for the fungi.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Applied

53) After dinosaurs became extinct, the number of mammal species increased greatly. This is an example of

  1. A) adaptive radiation.
  2. B) endosymbiosis.
  3. C) competition.
  4. D) eukaryotic development.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

54) When plants first colonized land, the space they occupied was two-dimensional: the surface of the land. Which adaptation allowed plants to occupy a three-dimensional environment?

  1. A) double fertilization
  2. B) seeds
  3. C) vascular system
  4. D) flowers

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

55) What evolutionary milestone is shown in the figure?

  1. A) bacteria evolving into archaea
  2. B) prokaryotes evolving into eukaryotes
  3. C) protists evolving into animals
  4. D) algae evolving into plants

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

56) True or false: Mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells are very similar to prokaryotes.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

57) Organisms that form mats of long, thin chains of cells and are important in decomposition are ________.

Answer:  fungi

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

58) The first antibiotic, discovered as a result of a laboratory accident, was ________.

Answer:  penicillin

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

59) Both algae and plants have the ability to perform ________.

Answer:  photosynthesis

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

60) What is a virus?

  1. A) an organism in domain Archaea
  2. B) an organism in kingdom Protista
  3. C) an organism in domain Bacteria
  4. D) a non-living particle

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Factual

 

61) Which of these is a true statement about viruses?

  1. A) Viruses are living cells that can invade other organisms.
  2. B) Viruses use energy to perform life functions.
  3. C) Viruses use host cells to make more viruses.
  4. D) Viruses will die unless they are inside an organism.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2

Skill:  Conceptual

62) Taxol is the most well-known anticancer chemical. Taxol was obtained from a species in which of the following groups?

  1. A) Plantae
  2. B) Protista
  3. C) Animalia
  4. D) Bacteria

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Factual

 

63) The best source of an antibacterial compound that would limit the growth of a particular kind of soil bacteria would be

  1. A) other bacteria regardless of habitat.
  2. B) animals that live in the same area.
  3. C) fungi from the same soil.
  4. D) flowering plants from the same soil.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Applied

 

 

64) The entity most likely to profit when a pharmaceutically important molecule is discovered in a species of rainforest tree is

  1. A) the country in which the rainforest is located.
  2. B) the shaman who has been using the bark of that tree to cure disease.
  3. C) the company that discovered the compound.
  4. D) the wildlife federation that has been working to maintain the rainforest and prevent development.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Applied

 

65) Using the “grind ’em and find ’em” strategy, a scientist finds eight promising chemicals that can control the growth of cancer cells in the lab. However, the only one that is useful as a drug for humans

  1. A) kills normal cells as well as cancer cells.
  2. B) is stable in the human body.
  3. C) is difficult to manufacture in a laboratory.
  4. D) is very expensive to gather.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Applied

66) True or false: Organisms that live in habitats with high levels of competition are more likely to produce defensive chemicals than those that live with little competition.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

67) Bioprospectors who search for clues in the habitat for whether an organism will be useful are taking advantage of an organism’s ________.

Answer:  ecology

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

68) Indigenous healers who have knowledge of the healing properties of native organisms are called ________.

Answer:  shamans

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Factual

 

 

69) Which of the following is the best way to test a hypothetical evolutionary classification among living organisms?

  1. A) analysis of embryonic development
  2. B) analysis of physical structures
  3. C) analysis of DNA sequence
  4. D) analysis of habitat

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  12.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

70) Taq polymerase was not among compounds known to be useful to healers of native people. Why not?

  1. A) Taq polymerase is used in molecular biology applications and not for pharmaceutical use.
  2. B) Taq polymerase is used to treat diseases that didn’t exist in ancient times.
  3. C) Taq polymerase comes from an organism that only recently evolved.
  4. D) The gene that codes for Taq polymerase has recently evolved new functions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Applied

 

 

71) In this phylogeny feather pattern on the head is the trait used to separate the sparrows into groups. DNA analysis suggests a different phylogeny that places white-crowned birds and golden-crowned birds more closely together. Therefore, the striped pattern on the head is a result of

  1. A) convergent evolution.
  2. B) sexual selection.
  3. C) genetic drift.
  4. D) endosymbiosis.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

72) Why is adult anatomy sometimes a misleading way to construct a phylogeny that reflects evolutionary history?

  1. A) Adult anatomy isn’t strongly influenced by natural selection
  2. B) Convergent evolution produces similar traits in unrelated species.
  3. C) Adult anatomy is too variable within a species.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 4e (Belk)

Chapter 21   Is There Something in the Water? Reproductive and Developmental Biology

 

1) Asexual reproduction

  1. A) requires the genetic contributions of two individuals.
  2. B) requires two types of sex cells.
  3. C) results in offspring that are clones of the parent.
  4. D) results in fertilization.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

2) The form of reproduction used by E. coli, a type of bacteria found in your digestive tract, is

  1. A) budding.
  2. B) vegetative reproduction.
  3. C) binary fission.
  4. D) meiosis.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

3) A stand of aspen trees on a mountainside in Colorado is composed of genetic clones of a parent tree. Each new tree emerges from a root stock of the parent tree. This type of reproduction is referred to as

  1. A) vegetative reproduction.
  2. B) budding.
  3. C) fission.
  4. D) sexual reproduction.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

4) Which of the following reproductive processes will result in genetically unique individuals?

  1. A) budding
  2. B) sexual reproduction
  3. C) vegetative reproduction
  4. D) binary fission

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

5) If a diploid cell with 18 chromosomes undergoes meiosis, the resulting gametes will each have ________ chromosomes.

  1. A) 18
  2. B) 16
  3. C) 9
  4. D) 36

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Applied

 

6) One type of cell that contains half the genetic information of an individual is a

  1. A) zygote.
  2. B) gonad.
  3. C) sperm.
  4. D) fertilized egg.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

7) A zygote is

  1. A) haploid.
  2. B) diploid.
  3. C) 2n.
  4. D) 4n.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

8) An animal that can both donate and receive sperm

  1. A) reproduces asexually.
  2. B) has only male gonads.
  3. C) is called a hermaphrodite.
  4. D) undergoes copulation.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

9) A human skin cell is ________, while a human sperm cell is ________.

  1. A) diploid; haploid
  2. B) haploid; diploid
  3. C) diploid; diploid
  4. D) 1n; 2n

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

10) Atrazine is a widely-used pesticide hypothesized to be an endocrine disruptor that results in

  1. A) increased metabolism in animals.
  2. B) the conversion of testosterone into estrogen.
  3. C) the masculinization of female ovaries.
  4. D) the loss of all sexual organs in frogs.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

11) The most successful gamete production strategies observed in nature consist of

  1. A) 100% small gametes and 0% large gametes.
  2. B) 100% large gametes and 0% small gametes.
  3. C) 50% small gametes and 50% large gametes.
  4. D) 75% large gametes and 25% small gametes.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Applied

 

12) Most fish use ________ as a means of reproduction.

  1. A) copulation
  2. B) external fertilization
  3. C) internal fertilization
  4. D) binary fission

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

13) You perform an experiment whereby you place a compound into a pond, and after some time, you find increased numbers of “masculinized” females from all species of fish. You correctly predict that this compound

  1. A) must have a similar structure to that of estrogen.
  2. B) may activate the enzyme aromatase.
  3. C) binds to and activates estrogen receptors.
  4. D) may be structurally similar to testosterone.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

14) You have identified a new single-celled organism in the laboratory and have observed that new daughter cells remain attached to the parent and then break away. You correctly hypothesize that this new organism reproduces by

  1. A) budding.
  2. B) binary fission.
  3. C) copulation.
  4. D) external fertilization.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Applied

 

15) True or false: Hermaphrodites are organisms that are genetically male but physically resemble both males and females.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

16) One disadvantage of asexual reproduction is

  1. A) there’s no need to find a partner to reproduce.
  2. B) organisms that are isolated from other organisms can use this method of reproduction.
  3. C) there’s not much ability to adapt to environmental change.
  4. D) organisms that don’t move can use this method of reproduction.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Applied

 

17) The ________ system allows survival of different species.

Answer:  reproductive

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Conceptual

18) The primary female reproductive organs are the ________, which are responsible for producing egg cells.

Answer:  ovaries

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.1

Skill:  Factual

 

 

19) Sperm production takes place in the

  1. A) seminiferous tubules.
  2. B) Leydig cells.
  3. C) epididymis.
  4. D) vas deferens.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

20) In a vasectomy, the vas deferens is cut and tied to block the release of ________ during ejaculation.

  1. A) semen
  2. B) testosterone
  3. C) sperm
  4. D) nutritional secretions for sperm

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

21) What structures inside the human penis are responsible for an erection?

  1. A) columns of erectile tissue that fill with blood
  2. B) a series of small bones that push out of the pelvic cavity and into the penis during arousal
  3. C) small balloon-like glands that fill with air
  4. D) one large bone that pushes out of the pelvic cavity and into the penis during arousal

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Applied

22) The pathway of sperm from production to ejaculation is

  1. A) seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra.
  2. B) epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminiferous tubules.
  3. C) epididymis, urethra, seminiferous tubules, vas deferens.
  4. D) epididymis, seminiferous tubules, vas deferens, urethra.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

23) The hormone-producing cells of the male reproductive tract are

  1. A) in the seminal vesicles.
  2. B) the Leydig cells.
  3. C) in the bulbourethral glands.
  4. D) in the prostate gland.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

24) In males, the urethra

  1. A) provides passage from the body for sperm.
  2. B) produces sugars that sperm use for energy.
  3. C) contains the testes.
  4. D) fills with blood during sexual arousal.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

25) Why are the testicles kept outside of the body?

  1. A) They lower the temperature for sperm production.
  2. B) The testicles cushion the penis and stop it from hanging too low.
  3. C) There’s no reason for this.
  4. D) Earlier in human evolution, visible testicles helped males to sexually attract females.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

26) A disease of the bulbourethral glands could lead to

  1. A) insufficient levels of sugar available for sperm to use for energy.
  2. B) semen lacking any sperm.
  3. C) damaged sperm due to exposure to acidic urine.
  4. D) semen lacking the thin, milky white fluid.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

27) The three structures that add secretions to the sperm to make up semen are the

  1. A) seminal vesicles, Leydig cells, and prostate gland.
  2. B) prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and seminiferous tubules.
  3. C) bulbourethral glands, Leydig cells, and seminal vesicles.
  4. D) seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

28) The process of sperm formation takes approximately

  1. A) 24 hours.
  2. B) 20 days.
  3. C) 60 days.
  4. D) 6 months.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

29) Eggs mature and are released from the

  1. A) oviduct.
  2. B) uterus.
  3. C) vagina.
  4. D) follicle.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

30) Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the

  1. A) endometrium.
  2. B) uterus.
  3. C) corpus luteum.
  4. D) oviduct.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

31) Eggs first develop in a woman

  1. A) prior to birth.
  2. B) at puberty.
  3. C) throughout her lifetime.
  4. D) every 60 days.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

32) The passage of an unfertilized egg from production to leaving the body is

  1. A) ovary, oviduct, uterus, and vagina.
  2. B) oviduct, uterus, vagina, and ovary.
  3. C) uterus, vagina, ovary, and oviduct.
  4. D) vagina, ovary, oviduct, and uterus.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

33) Some women suffer from severe cramps during their menstrual cycles, requiring medical attention. This is a condition called dysmenorrhea. Based on your knowledge of the female reproductive tract, which of the following structures is the most likely cause of this condition?

  1. A) vagina
  2. B) cervix
  3. C) uterus
  4. D) labia majora

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

34) The shedding of the endometrium occurs during

  1. A) menstruation.
  2. B) intercourse.
  3. C) ovulation.
  4. D) fertilization.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

35) A woman is more likely to experience bladder infections than a man because

  1. A) the urethra and vagina are separate openings into the body.
  2. B) the urethra is shorter in a woman than in a man.
  3. C) the urethra is longer in a woman than in a man.
  4. D) the acidity of the urine makes women more susceptible to infections.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

36) Infertility is defined as

  1. A) the inability to conceive after one month of unprotected sex.
  2. B) the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sex.
  3. C) the inability to conceive after five years of unprotected sex.
  4. D) the inability to conceive after one attempt of unprotected sex.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

37) The drug diethylstylbestrol, or DES, mimics estrogen and interferes with the development of the fetal uterus. This drug is considered to be

  1. A) a hormone.
  2. B) as good as estrogen.
  3. C) an endocrine disruptor.
  4. D) a good form of birth control.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

38) The process of gametogenesis

  1. A) results in diploid gametes.
  2. B) results in human sperm with 46 chromosomes.
  3. C) allows fertilization to result in a cell with the correct number of chromosomes for that species.
  4. D) only occurs in males.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

39) Fertilization takes place in the

  1. A) uterus.
  2. B) ovary.
  3. C) oviduct.
  4. D) cervix.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

40) Ovulation

  1. A) is the process in males that produces sperm.
  2. B) occurs on the first day of the menstrual cycle.
  3. C) results in the release of a mature egg.
  4. D) occurs in the oviducts.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

41) The corpus luteum produces and releases ________ following ovulation.

  1. A) FSH and LH
  2. B) estrogen
  3. C) progesterone
  4. D) both estrogen and progesterone

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

42) Which place should you choose to avoid living in if you were concerned about male infertility and low sperm count?

  1. A) a farm in North Dakota
  2. B) Los Angeles
  3. C) Boston
  4. D) Miami

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Applied

 

43) The hormones that function in both the male and female reproductive systems are

  1. A) estrogen and progesterone.
  2. B) gonadotropin-releasing hormones and progesterone.
  3. C) luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
  4. D) luteinizing hormone and progesterone.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

44) The hormone that is detected in a pregnancy test is

  1. A) human chorionic gonadotropin hormone made by the early embryo.
  2. B) progesterone made by the corpus luteum.
  3. C) luteinizing hormone made by the pituitary.
  4. D) estrogen made by the ovary.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

45) Which of these methods of birth control prevents follicle development?

  1. A) diaphragm
  2. B) birth control pill
  3. C) female condom
  4. D) intrauterine device

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

46) True or false: All sexually transmitted diseases have symptoms.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

47) True or false: All sexually transmitted diseases can be cured if medical treatment is sought early enough.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

48) True or false: The major cause of infertility in males occurs as a result of physical blockages or obstructions to the ducts that sperm pass through.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

49) When does spermatogenesis first occur in males?

  1. A) in the womb
  2. B) at birth
  3. C) during childhood
  4. D) at puberty

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

50) What is the function of the midpiece on a sperm cell?

  1. A) to contain the haploid nucleus
  2. B) to propel the sperm forward
  3. C) to aid the sperm’s penetration of the egg
  4. D) to provide energy for movement

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

51) What is the final product after a primary oocyte goes through meiosis?

  1. A) four secondary oocytes
  2. B) three secondary oocytes and one polar body
  3. C) two secondary oocytes and polar bodies
  4. D) one secondary oocyte and polar bodies

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

52) Which of the following conception control methods is most effective?

  1. A) diaphragm
  2. B) condom
  3. C) minipill
  4. D) vaginal ring

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

53) A surge in which of the following hormones is responsible for ovulation?

  1. A) estrogen
  2. B) FSH
  3. C) LH
  4. D) progesterone

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Applied

 

54) During the menstrual cycle, what is the main source of progesterone in females?

  1. A) placenta
  2. B) pituitary gland
  3. C) developing follicle
  4. D) corpus luteum

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Applied

 

55) In the graph depicting the levels of various hormones, what event would prevent the decline in estrogen and progesterone seen toward the end of the 28-day menstrual cycle?

  1. A) a subsequent ovulation event
  2. B) the maturation of another follicle
  3. C) fertilization
  4. D) degeneration of the corpus luteum

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

56) Label the external and internal components of the male reproductive system.

 

 

 

Answer:

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

57) Label the parts of the female reproductive anatomy.

 

 

Answer:

 

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.2

Skill:  Factual

 

 

58) Which of the following decreases the probability that fertilization will take place?

  1. A) Cervical mucus is less viscous and thinner following ovulation.
  2. B) The oviducts contract during ovulation.
  3. C) Enzymes are present within the acrosome of sperm.
  4. D) The upper vagina is an acidic environment.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

59) The zona pellucida

  1. A) allows quick passage of the egg down the oviduct.
  2. B) bathes the egg in estrogen.
  3. C) is another term for the fertilized egg.
  4. D) acts as a binding site for the sperm head.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

60) The tissue in the gastrula that gives rise to muscle is the

  1. A) ectoderm.
  2. B) mesoderm.
  3. C) gaendoderm.
  4. D) gastrula.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

 

61) The hormone responsible for milk production and secretion during and after pregnancy is

  1. A) prolactin.
  2. B) estrogen.
  3. C) progesterone.
  4. D) human chorionic gonadotropin.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

 

62) During labor, oxytocin stimulates the uterus to contract, and these contractions stimulate the release of more oxytocin in a ________ feedback mechanism, resulting in ever stronger contractions.

Answer:  positive

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

 

 

63) The process of ________ occurs in cells that become more specialized in their function.

  1. A) cleavage
  2. B) gastrulation
  3. C) differentiation
  4. D) fertilization

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

64) The three layers of tissue that form the ________ are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

  1. A) zygote
  2. B) blastocyst
  3. C) gastrula
  4. D) fetus

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Factual

 

65) Which of the following is mismatched?

  1. A) mesoderm → muscles
  2. B) endoderm → lungs
  3. C) ectoderm → nervous system
  4. D) mesoderm → eye

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Applied

 

66) The presence or absence of ________ is critical in determining the development of either male or female reproductive structures in an embryo.

  1. A) androgens
  2. B) estrogen
  3. C) gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  4. D) progesterone

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Conceptual

 

67) Jane is a 20-year-old individual who externally resembles a female but who is actually genetically a male (XY). Based on your knowledge of human development, how could this be possible?

  1. A) Although Jane is genetically a male, she has produced an abnormal amount of estrogen since birth.
  2. B) During development, Jane’s body produced an excessive amount of testosterone, leading to the development of female external genitalia.
  3. C) Jane’s embryonic gonads did not produce androgens, or they lacked functional testosterone receptors.
  4. D) Due to a genetic defect, Jane lacks sufficient aromatase activity, the enzyme that converts testosterone into estrogen.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Applied

 

68) Exposure to which of the following chemicals is correlated with low-birth weight and premature birth?

  1. A) the plasticizer DEHP
  2. B) bisphenol A (BPA)
  3. C) synthetic estrogen (DES)
  4. D) polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs)

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Applied

 

69) A common practice during delivery of a baby is to induce labor by giving pregnant women

  1. A) estrogen.
  2. B) progesterone.
  3. C) oxytocin.
  4. D) prolactin.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.3

Skill:  Applied

 

70) Laboratory studies have shown that endocrine disruptors

  1. A) decrease the ability of human sperm to fertilize eggs.
  2. B) cause human birth defects.
  3. C) cause reproductive problems in nonhuman animals.
  4. D) cause endometriosis in women.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  21.4

Skill:  Conceptual

 

71) The evidence that endocrine disruptors in the water supply can cause human reproductive problems is

  1. A) correlative.
  2. B) definitive.
  3. C) statistically significant.
  4. D) entirely absent.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  21.4

Skill:  Factual