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Biopsychology, 8th Edition by John P.J. Pi – Test Bank 

 

Chapter 3

The Anatomy of the Nervous System: Systems, Structures, and Cells
That Make Up Your Nervous System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  The two major divisions of the nervous system are the

 

  1. A) ANS and the CNS.
  2. B) SNS and the CNS.
  3. C) PNS and the CNS.
  4. D) ANS and the PNS.
  5. E) brain and the spinal cord.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

2)  The CNS is composed of two major divisions: the

 

  1. A) ANS and PNS.
  2. B) brain and brain stem.
  3. C) SNS and ANS.
  4. D) spinal cord and brain stem.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

3)  The ANS is part of the

 

  1. A) sympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) parasympathetic nervous system.
  3. C) brain.
  4. D) CNS.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

4)  The somatic nervous system

  1. A) is part of the PNS.
  2. B) participates in sensory and motor interactions with the external environment.
  3. C) is part of the ANS.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

5)  In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information

 

  1. A) to the CNS.
  2. B) to the PNS.
  3. C) from the CNS.
  4. D) from the cortex.
  5. E) from the brain.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

6)  Neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are part of the

 

  1. A) somatic nervous system.
  2. B) basal ganglia.
  3. C) ANS.
  4. D) peripheral nervous system.
  5. E) both C and D

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

7)  Which part of the PNS projects from only the cranial and sacral portions of the CNS?

 

  1. A) parasympathetic nervous system
  2. B) sympathetic nervous system
  3. C) somatic nervous system
  4. D) cranial nerves
  5. E) autonomic nervous system

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 51

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

8)  The sympathetic nervous system differs from the parasympathetic nervous system in that the sympathetic nervous system has

  1. A) no first-stage neurons.
  2. B) no second-stage neurons.
  3. C) first-stage neurons that synapse at a substantial distance from the target organ.
  4. D) first-stage neurons that synapse close to the target organ.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 52

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

9)  Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body’s energy?

 

  1. A) CNS
  2. B) PNS
  3. C) sympathetic nervous system
  4. D) parasympathetic nervous system
  5. E) somatic nervous system

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 52

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

10)  The first two cranial nerves are

 

  1. A) sensory.
  2. B) the optic and auditory nerves.
  3. C) the facial and auditory nerves.
  4. D) motor.
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 52

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

11)  The vagus nerve is

 

  1. A) part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) the tenth cranial nerve.
  3. C) the longest cranial nerve.
  4. D) both sensory and motor.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 52

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

12)  The dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater are

 

  1. A) neurons.
  2. B) neuroglia.
  3. C) parts of the autonomic nervous system.
  4. D) meninges.
  5. E) myelin.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

13)  From outside to inside, the three meninges are the

 

  1. A) Nina, Pinta, and Santa-Maria.
  2. B) arachnoid, dura, and pia.
  3. C) dura, pia, and meninx.
  4. D) dura, meninx, and pia.
  5. E) dura, arachnoid, and pia.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

14)  Adhering to the surface of the brain is the

 

  1. A) tough mother.
  2. B) pia mater.
  3. C) meninx.
  4. D) CSF.
  5. E) arachnoid.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

15)  The subarachnoid space is just outside the

 

  1. A) neocortex.
  2. B) arachnoid membrane.
  3. C) arachnoid mater.
  4. D) pia mater.
  5. E) central canal.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

16)  How many ventricles are there in the brain?

 

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 2
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

17)  The CSF circulates through the

 

  1. A) central canal.
  2. B) lateral ventricles.
  3. C) subarachnoid space.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

18)  Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by

  1. A) networks of small blood vessels that protrude into the ventricles.
  2. B) the superior sagittal sinus.
  3. C) the arachnoid membrane.
  4. D) the choroid plexuses.
  5. E) both A and D

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

19)  The cerebral aqueduct connects the

 

  1. A) lateral ventricles.
  2. B) third and fourth ventricles.
  3. C) fourth ventricle and the central canal.
  4. D) circus maximus and the forum.
  5. E) left and right hemispheres.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

20)  When a tumor near the cerebral aqueduct causes cerebrospinal fluid to accumulate in the brain, the disorder is

 

  1. A) hydrocephalus.
  2. B) Down syndrome.
  3. C) cranial elephantiasis.
  4. D) multiple sclerosis.
  5. E) Parkinson’s disease.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

21)  Hydrocephalus results from the

  1. A) production of too much CSF.
  2. B) production of excessively watery CSF.
  3. C) production of water rather than CSF.
  4. D) breakdown of the mechanism that absorbs CSF into the lateral vesicles.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

22)  The blood brain barrier is

 

  1. A) a spongy bone.
  2. B) the arachnoid space and pia mater.
  3. C) an electrochemical organ.
  4. D) absent in cases of hydrocephalus.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 54

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23)  The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into cerebral neurons of

 

  1. A) most proteins and other large molecules.
  2. B) small unnatural molecules.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

24)  Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit

 

  1. A) action potentials.
  2. B) axons.
  3. C) synapses.
  4. D) electrochemical signals.
  5. E) pizzas.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

25)  The cone-shaped structure at the boundary between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the

 

  1. A) node of Ranvier.
  2. B) dendrite.
  3. C) axon hillock.
  4. D) Golgi complex.
  5. E) mitochondrion

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

26)  The soma is

 

  1. A) often myelinated.
  2. B) the cell body.
  3. C) covered by nodes of Ranvier.
  4. D) next to the nucleus.
  5. E) smaller than a terminal button.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

27)  What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?

 

  1. A) dendrites
  2. B) axon
  3. C) cell body
  4. D) buttons
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

28)  Communication among mammalian neurons often occur

  1. A) at points where their cell bodies contact one another.
  2. B) across gaps called dendrites.
  3. C) across synapses.
  4. D) at points where their axons contact one another.
  5. E) at points where dendrites contact one another.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

29)  Most of a neuron’s DNA is in its

 

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) buttons.
  3. C) synaptic vesicles.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) axon hillock.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 56

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

30)  Synaptic vesicles are most prevalent in the

 

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) nodes of Ranvier.
  3. C) postsynaptic membranes.
  4. D) synaptic clefts.
  5. E) buttons.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 56

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

31)  The neuron membrane includes

 

  1. A) a lipid bilayer.
  2. B) channel proteins.
  3. C) signal proteins.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

32)  All neurons with one axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are

 

  1. A) motor.
  2. B) interneurons.
  3. C) multipolar.
  4. D) bipolar.
  5. E) unipolar.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

33)  Interneurons

  1. A) integrate activity within a single brain structure; they don’t conduct signals from one structure to another.
  2. B) have two short axons but no dendrites.
  3. C) have one long axon and one short dendrite.
  4. D) have several short axons and no dendrites.
  5. E) have bipolar axons and dendrites.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

34)  Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called

 

  1. A) neurons.
  2. B) ganglia.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) nuclei.
  5. E) buttons.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

35)  Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to

 

  1. A) nuclei.
  2. B) ganglia.
  3. C) ganglion.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) cell bodies.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

36)  Multipolar neurons have a single long process emanating from the cell body. This is

 

  1. A) an axon.
  2. B) a dendrite.
  3. C) a button.
  4. D) a protein.
  5. E) a signal protein.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

37)  CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to

 

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) oligodendroglia.
  3. C) glial cells.
  4. D) Schwann cells.
  5. E) microglia.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

38)  In the CNS, axons are myelinated by

 

  1. A) vesicles.
  2. B) oligodendrocytes.
  3. C) unipolar cells.
  4. D) astrocytes.
  5. E) Schwann cells.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

39)  Myelination

 

  1. A) causes cancer.
  2. B) penetrates the blood brain barrier.
  3. C) occurs only on Schwann cells.
  4. D) increases the speed of axonal conduction.
  5. E) increases the speed of synaptic transmission.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

40)  PNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are to

 

  1. A) multiple sclerosis.
  2. B) oligodendrocytes.
  3. C) astrocytes.
  4. D) neuroglia.
  5. E) satellite cells.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

41)  Glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are

 

  1. A) microglia
  2. B) Schwann cells.
  3. C) astrocytes.
  4. D) oligodendrocytes.
  5. E) oligodendroglia.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

42)  The largest glial cells are

 

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) Schwann cells.
  3. C) microglia.
  4. D) magnoglia.
  5. E) oligodendrocytes.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

43)  The Golgi stain colors neurons

 

  1. A) violet.
  2. B) black.
  3. C) blue.
  4. D) red.
  5. E) yellow.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

44)  The best thing about the Golgi stain is that it

 

  1. A) is opaque.
  2. B) reveals the inner structure of the neuron.
  3. C) does not stain many neurons.
  4. D) stains only Golgi neurons.
  5. E) was developed by a Nobel Prize winner.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

45)  The discovery of the Golgi stain

  1. A) was accidental.
  2. B) was one of the major early breakthroughs in the study of the nervous system.
  3. C) occurred in 1995.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

46)  The first neural stain, one which revealed the silhouette of a few neurons on a slide, is

 

  1. A) the Golgi stain.
  2. B) red.
  3. C) the Nissl stain.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

 

47)  The first neural stain that permitted neuroanatomists to view some aspects of the inner structure of a neuron was the

 

  1. A) Nissl stain.
  2. B) Golgi stain.
  3. C) Weigert stain.
  4. D) amino acid autoradiography stain.
  5. E) electron microscope stain.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

48)  Nissl stains (e.g., cresyl violet) are frequently used to

  1. A) study the fine details of axonal structure.
  2. B) determine the general distribution of cell bodies in the nervous system.
  3. C) study neural buttons.
  4. D) identify axosomatic synapses.
  5. E) study the responses of Nissl bodies.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

49)  The fine inner details of neuron structure can be studied best

 

  1. A) with a Nissl stain.
  2. B) by electron microscopy.
  3. C) with cresyl violet.
  4. D) with a Golgi stain.
  5. E) with a microelectrode.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

50)  The main advantage of the scanning electron microscope over the conventional electron microscope is that it

  1. A) operates in light.
  2. B) is capable of higher magnification than the ordinary electron microscope.
  3. C) produces three-dimensional electron micrographs.
  4. D) uses more protons than electrons.
  5. E) requires fewer beams of electrons.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

51)  To locate the terminals of axons that project from a particular brain structure, an investigator would employ

  1. A) a retrograde tracing technique.
  2. B) an anterograde tracing technique.
  3. C) labeled chemicals that are readily transported to the neuron’s nucleus.
  4. D) a Golgi stain.
  5. E) a Nissl stain.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

 

 

52)  The back of your head is

 

  1. A) posterior.
  2. B) dorsal.
  3. C) inferior.
  4. D) anterior.
  5. E) ventral.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

53)  The top of a dog’s head is

 

  1. A) anterior.
  2. B) ventral.
  3. C) caudal.
  4. D) dorsal.
  5. E) posterior.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

54)  The tip of your nose is

 

  1. A) superior and dorsal.
  2. B) caudal and anterior.
  3. C) medial and anterior.
  4. D) anterior and posterior.
  5. E) ventral and dorsal.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

55)  The nose of a rat is

 

  1. A) rostral.
  2. B) ventral.
  3. C) anterior.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

56)  The spine of a human runs just beneath the

 

  1. A) ventral surface.
  2. B) anterior surface.
  3. C) dorsal surface.
  4. D) posterior surface.
  5. E) superior surface.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 62

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

57)  Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is commonly used with reference to the brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of four-legged creatures?

 

  1. A) inferior
  2. B) caudal
  3. C) posterior
  4. D) medial
  5. E) lateral

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 62

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

 

 

58)  A cut in which of the following planes would sever all of the cerebral commissures, the tracts that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres?

 

  1. A) horizontal
  2. B) sagittal
  3. C) midsagittal
  4. D) frontal
  5. E) diagonal

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 62

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

59)  The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a

 

  1. A) midsagittal section.
  2. B) sagittal section.
  3. C) longitudinal section.
  4. D) lateral section.
  5. E) cross section.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

60)  Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of

 

  1. A) cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
  2. B) myelin.
  3. C) myelinated axons.
  4. D) meninges.
  5. E) cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

61)  White matter is white because

 

  1. A) it is unmyelinated.
  2. B) cell bodies are white.
  3. C) satellite cells are gray.
  4. D) axon membranes are white.
  5. E) myelin is white.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

62)  In cross section, spinal gray matter has four arms; among these are the two

 

  1. A) ventral roots.
  2. B) ventral routes.
  3. C) ventral horns.
  4. D) posterior horns.
  5. E) both B and D

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

63)  How many individual dorsal roots are there in the human nervous system?

 

  1. A) 12
  2. B) 31
  3. C) 62
  4. D) 124
  5. E) none

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

 

 

64)  How many left ventral roots are there in the human body?

 

  1. A) 12
  2. B) 31
  3. C) 62
  4. D) 124
  5. E) none

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

65)  Most neurons of the dorsal root synapse in the

 

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) spinal cord.
  3. C) dorsal root ganglia.
  4. D) PNS.
  5. E) ventral horn.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

66)  The neurons of the dorsal roots are

 

  1. A) sensory.
  2. B) motor.
  3. C) tracts.
  4. D) unipolar.
  5. E) both A and D

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

67)  Most neurons of the ventral roots

 

  1. A) are bipolar.
  2. B) are unipolar.
  3. C) have their cell bodies in white matter.
  4. D) have their cell bodies in the ventral horn.
  5. E) are interneurons.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

 

68)  “Encephalon” means within the

 

  1. A) forebrain.
  2. B) brain stem.
  3. C) head.
  4. D) hemispheres.
  5. E) nervous system.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

69)  The large lateral outgrowths that compose the telencephalon are the

 

  1. A) eyes.
  2. B) temporal lobes.
  3. C) cerebral hemispheres.
  4. D) ventricles.
  5. E) testes.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

 

 

 

 

70This is an illustration of the developing neural tube.  The line points to one of the brain’s major divisions, the

  1. A) diencephalon.
  2. B) metencephalon.
  3. C) telencephalon.
  4. D) myelencephalon.
  5. E) mesencephalon.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

 

71)  The myelencephalon is often called the

 

  1. A) midbrain.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) brain stem.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) cortex.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

72)  The caudal part of the forebrain is the

 

  1. A) telencephalon.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) myelencephalon.
  4. D) reticular formation.
  5. E) midbrain.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

73)  The midbrain is

 

  1. A) part of the mesencephalon.
  2. B) part of the metencephalon.
  3. C) the mesencephalon.
  4. D) part of the brain stem.
  5. E) both C and D

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

74)  The myelencephalon is

 

  1. A) the medulla.
  2. B) part of the hindbrain.
  3. C) part of the brain stem.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

75)  Which of the following is not in the brain stem?

 

  1. A) myelencephalon
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) metencephalon
  4. D) medulla
  5. E) telencephalon

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

76)  The myelencephalon is composed largely of

 

  1. A) ganglia.
  2. B) tracts.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) ventricles.
  5. E) colliculi.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

77)  Which of the following structures is named after a term that means “little net”?

 

  1. A) reticular formation
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) medulla
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) hippocampus

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

78)  The reticular formation is in the

 

  1. A) brain stem.
  2. B) cortex.
  3. C) thalamus.
  4. D) olfactory bulb.
  5. E) spinal cord.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

79) This is an illustration of the brain stem. The pointer lines point to the

  1. A) cerebellum.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) reticular formation.
  4. D) hippocampus.
  5. E) tegmentum.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

80)  The reticular formation is in the core of the

 

  1. A) mesencephalon.
  2. B) myelencephalon.
  3. C) metencephalon.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 64 & 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

81)  Which of the following is a large structure visible on the dorsal surface of the human brain stem?

 

  1. A) pituitary
  2. B) cerebellum
  3. C) optic chiasm
  4. D) hypothalamus
  5. E) mammillary body

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

82)  The inferior and superior colliculi compose the

 

  1. A) thalamus.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) tectum.
  4. D) hippocampus.
  5. E) cerebellum.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

83)  The tectum is the roof of the

 

  1. A) metencephalon.
  2. B) mesencephalon.
  3. C) myelencephalon.
  4. D) telencephalon.
  5. E) diencephalon.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

84)  Which structure is not part of the tegmentum?

 

  1. A) hypothalamus
  2. B) periaqueductal gray
  3. C) substantia nigra
  4. D) red nucleus
  5. E) cerebral aqueduct

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

85)  Three major structures in the __________ of the brain are named after a color.

 

  1. A) medulla
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) tectum
  4. D) tegmentum
  5. E) thalamus

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

86)  The neural structure situated nearest the opening connecting the third and fourth ventricles is the

 

  1. A) substantia nigra.
  2. B) periaqueductal gray.
  3. C) red nucleus.
  4. D) superior colliculi.
  5. E) cerebral aqueduct.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

87)  The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the

 

  1. A) brain stem.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) mesencephalon.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) pituitary.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

88)  The lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, and ventral posterior nuclei are all nuclei of the

 

  1. A) midbrain.
  2. B) spinal cord.
  3. C) cortex.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) thalamus.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

89)  Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the

 

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) reticular formation.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) substantia nigra.
  5. E) caudate.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

90)  Which of the following part of the diencephalon connects the two lobes of the thalamus?

 

  1. A) massa intermedia
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) cerebral aqueduct
  4. D) corpus callosum
  5. E) hippocampal commissure

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

91)  Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information?

 

  1. A) pons
  2. B) red nucleus
  3. C) lateral geniculate
  4. D) substantia nigra
  5. E) caudate

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

92)  The lateral geniculate nuclei, medial geniculate nuclei, and ventral posterior nuclei are all

 

  1. A) diencephalic nuclei.
  2. B) thalamic nuclei.
  3. C) sensory relay nuclei.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

93)  Which part of the diencephalon regulates the pituitary?

 

  1. A) snot gland
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) medial geniculate
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) nasal mucosa

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

94)  The pituitary gland is situated just inferior to the

 

  1. A) nose.
  2. B) hippocampus.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) hypothalamus.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

95)  Which of the following is an X-shaped structure?

 

  1. A) spinal white matter
  2. B) reticular formation
  3. C) structure that dangles from the diencephalon
  4. D) optic chiasm
  5. E) substantia nigra

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

96)  Which of the following is a point of decussation?

 

  1. A) optic chiasm
  2. B) hippocampus
  3. C) temporal lobe
  4. D) substantia nigra
  5. E) superior colliculus

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

97)  If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons running from the eyes to the brain would be

 

  1. A) on the right side.
  2. B) ipsilateral.
  3. C) contralateral.
  4. D) decussating.
  5. E) bilateral.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

98)  The mammillary nuclei are

  1. A) bumps visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
  2. B) visible on the inferior surface of the diencephalon.
  3. C) often considered to be nuclei of the hypothalamus.
  4. D) found only in females.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

 

99)  This is an illustration of the

  1. A) thalamic nuclei.
  2. B) reticular nuclei.
  3. C) cerebral lobes.
  4. D) hypothalamic nuclei.
  5. E) cerebral fissures.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66&67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

100)  All mammals with lissencephalic brains

 

  1. A) are accountants.
  2. B) are flexible.
  3. C) have small brains.
  4. D) are clever.
  5. E) are old.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

101)  The large cortical ridges between fissures are called

 

  1. A) sulci.
  2. B) sulcuses.
  3. C) gyri.
  4. D) commissures.
  5. E) lobes.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

102)  Big is to small as fissures are to

 

  1. A) gyri.
  2. B) sulcus.
  3. C) commissures.
  4. D) gyrus.
  5. E) sulci.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

103)  The largest cerebral commissure is the

 

  1. A) corpus callosum.
  2. B) massa
  3. C) massa
  4. D) humungus commissura.
  5. E) longitudinal commissure.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

104)  The corpus callosum is the human brain’s largest

 

  1. A) neuron.
  2. B) nucleus.
  3. C) fissure.
  4. D) commissure.
  5. E) hemisphere.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

105)  The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it?

 

  1. A) temporal lobe
  2. B) frontal lobe
  3. C) parietal lobe
  4. D) prefrontal lobe
  5. E) occipital lobe

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

106)  Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the

 

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) corpus callosum.
  4. D) temporal lobe.
  5. E) longitudinal fissure.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

107)  The line points to the

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) superior temporal gyrus.
  3. C) postcentral fissure.
  4. D) longitudinal fissure.
  5. E) parietal lobe.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67&68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

108)  The lobe at the back of the brain, which serves a visual function, is the

 

  1. A) frontal lobe.
  2. B) occipital lobe.
  3. C) temporal lobe.
  4. D) prefrontal lobe.
  5. E) parietal lobe.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

109)  The functions of the occipital cortex are largely

 

  1. A) motor.
  2. B) visual.
  3. C) auditory.
  4. D) somatosensory.
  5. E) olfactory.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

110)  Precentral is to postcentral as

 

  1. A) somatosensory is to motor.
  2. B) auditory is to motor.
  3. C) somatosensory is to auditory.
  4. D) motor is to somatosensory.
  5. E) auditory is to somatosensory.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

111)  About what proportion of human cerebral cortex is neocortex?

 

  1. A) 10 %
  2. B) 25 %
  3. C) 40 %
  4. D) 60 %
  5. E) 90 %

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

112)  Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and triangular cell bodies?

 

  1. A) stellate cells
  2. B) chandelier cells
  3. C) pyramidal cells
  4. D) granule cells
  5. E) fusiform cells

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

113)  Neocortex contains two fundamentally different kinds of neurons: pyramidal cells and

 

  1. A) apical cells.
  2. B) bipolar cells.
  3. C) multipolar cells.
  4. D) columnar cells.
  5. E) none of the above.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

114)  Which of the following neurons have apical dendrites?

 

  1. A) interneurons
  2. B) stellate cells
  3. C) pyramidal cells
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

115)  The hippocampus is

 

  1. A) a neocortical structure.
  2. B) in the frontal lobes.
  3. C) six-layered.
  4. D) shaped like a sea horse in cross section.
  5. E) in the diencephalon.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

116)  The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the

 

  1. A) telencephalon.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) mesencephalon.
  4. D) myelencephalon.
  5. E) metencephalon.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

117)  A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors. This circuit is called the

 

  1. A) basal ganglia.
  2. B) paleocortex.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) cranial nerves.
  5. E) somatosensory system.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

118)  A major limbic system tract is the

 

  1. A) corpus callosum.
  2. B) reticular formation.
  3. C) cingulate.
  4. D) fornix.
  5. E) septum.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

  • Portrayed in this illustration is a neural circuit called the
  1. A) basal ganglia.
  2. B) visual system.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) reticular system.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

120)  Which of the following structures is not part of the limbic system?

 

  1. A) hippocampus
  2. B) septum
  3. C) cerebellum
  4. D) fornix
  5. E) hypothalamus

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

121)  Two parts of the limbic system are cortical structures. These two structures are the

 

  1. A) septum and the frontal cortex.
  2. B) hippocampus and the cingulate.
  3. C) frontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
  4. D) hippocampus and the amygdala.
  5. E) frontal cortex and the olfactory bulbs.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref:69& 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

122)  The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus compose the

 

  1. A) diencephalon.
  2. B) limbic system.
  3. C) somatosensory system.
  4. D) basal ganglia.
  5. E) thalamus.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

123)  The caudate and the putamen compose the

 

  1. A) limbic system.
  2. B) globus pallidus.
  3. C) striatum.
  4. D) amygdala.
  5. E) uvula.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

124)  Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often found in cases of

 

  1. A) Korsakoff’s syndrome.
  2. B) Parkinson’s disease.
  3. C) autism.
  4. D) Alzheimer’s disease.
  5. E) multiple sclerosis.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

125) Illustrated here

  1. A) is the limbic system.
  2. B) is the diencephalon.
  3. C) is the reticular formation.
  4. D) are the basal ganglia.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.

Answer: central nervous

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 50

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

2)  The arachnoid membrane is one of the __________.

Answer: meninges

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

3)  Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.

Answer: ventricles

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

 

4)  At the junction of the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.

Answer: axon hillock

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

5)  Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.

Answer: tracts

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

6)  Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.

Answer: astrocytes

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

7)  The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.

Answer: Golgi

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

8)  The opposite of dorsal is __________.

Answer: ventral

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

 

9)  It is __________ that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy white sheen.

Answer: myelin

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

 

10)  Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.

Answer: dorsal

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 63

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

11)  The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.

Answer: pons

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

12)  The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.

Answer: thalamus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

13)  The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.

Answer: pituitary

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

14)  The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________.

Answer: commissures

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

15)  The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.

Answer: lateral

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

16)  Pyramidal cells have __________ dendrites.

Answer: apical

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

17)  The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.

Answer: hippocampus

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

18)  __________ means “ring.”

Answer: Limbic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

19)  The almond-shaped nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.

Answer: amygdala

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

20)  The putamen and __________ compose the striatum.

Answer: caudate

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Describe the overall layout of the divisions and systems of the mammalian nervous system. Include a table in your answer. (Hint: “The mammalian nervous system is a system of twos.” )

Answer:

50% for a description of the organization

50% for an accurate table

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 52-53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59-60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

2) Label and define each of the 9 identified parts of this typical multipolar neuron.

 

 

 

Answer:

9 marks for correct labels

9 marks for the definitions

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 55

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

3)  There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions. How is our understanding of glial cells currently changing?

Answer:

50% for a description of glial cell types and their function

50% for discussing recently discovered functions of glial cells

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 57-59

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

 

4)  Compare Golgi and Nissl neuroanatomical stains, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Answer:

25% for describing Golgi staining

25% for describing Nissl staining

50% for comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the two stains

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 59-60

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

5)  With the use of diagrams, describe all neuroanatomical in a conventional vertebrate (e.g., cat) nervous system and in the human nervous system.

Answer:

50% for illustrating dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral in a cat

25% for illustrating how this system is adapted to humans

25% for illustrating superior, inferior, proximal, and distal

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 61-62

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

 

6)  Draw a lateral view of the human cerebral hemispheres. Illustrate the four lobes and label four other structures.

Answer:

40% for the drawing

40% for locating the four lobes

20% for labeling four structures

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

7)  Draw a midsagittal section of the human brain and label 10 structures.

Answer:

50% for the drawing

50% for correctly labeling 10 structures

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 72

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8) Label all 14 parts of this midsagittal view of a human brain.

 

 

Answer:

14 marks for correctly labeling 14 structures

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 72

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

 

 

Chapter 11

Learning, Memory, and Amnesia: How Your Brain Stores Information

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  One of the major turning points in the study of the neuropsychology of memory was the year H.M. had his operation:

 

  1. A) 1923.
  2. B) 1934.
  3. C) 1953.
  4. D) 1983.
  5. E) 1991.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

2)  H.M. is

 

  1. A) a famous neuropsychologist.
  2. B) a person with epilepsy.
  3. C) an Egyptian.
  4. D) a famous physiological psychologist.
  5. E) a sad product of prefrontal lobotomy.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

3)  The brain operation performed on H.M. is called a

 

  1. A) unilateral temporal lobectomy.
  2. B) bilateral prefrontal lobotomy.
  3. C) bilateral temporal lobotomy.
  4. D) bilateral medial temporal lobectomy.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

4)  If you were going to illustrate the extent of H.M.’s lesion, you could accomplish this best if you drew H.M.’s brain from __________ perspective.

 

  1. A) an inferior
  2. B) a dorsal
  3. C) a posterior
  4. D) a lateral
  5. E) a dorsolateral

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

5)  H.M.’s surgery was a success in that

  1. A) the incidence of his seizures was markedly reduced.
  2. B) his IQ was increased.
  3. C) it became possible to reduce the level of his anticonvulsant medication.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

6)  After his surgery, H.M.’s IQ

 

  1. A) dropped to 68.
  2. B) dropped slightly.
  3. C) dropped to 89.
  4. D) stayed about the same.
  5. E) increased.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

 

7)  The shaded areas on this drawing of the inferior surface of the brain illustrate the position of the

  1. A) hippocampuses.
  2. B) amygdalas.
  3. C) striatums.
  4. D) medial parietal lobes.
  5. E) medial temporal lobes.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

 

8)  Following his surgery, H.M. seemed to experience

  1. A) an extreme retrograde amnesia for remote events.
  2. B) a complete disruption of short-term memory.
  3. C) a mild retrograde amnesia for events of the 2 years preceding the surgery.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 270

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

9)  H.M.’s greatest postsurgical problem is his

 

  1. A) anterograde amnesia.
  2. B) retrograde amnesia.
  3. C) deficit in short-term memory.
  4. D) loss of remote memory.
  5. E) drop in IQ.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 270

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

10)  The most commonly employed test of short-term verbal memory is the

 

  1. A) block-tapping test.
  2. B) digit-span test.
  3. C) digit-span +1 test.
  4. D) WAIS.
  5. E) paired-associate test.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 270

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

11)  H.M.’s postsurgical digit span was found to be

 

  1. A) 109.
  2. B) 125.
  3. C) 112.
  4. D) 114.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 270

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

12)  H.M. showed no long-term retention on the

 

  1. A) digit-span +1 test.
  2. B) mirror-drawing test.
  3. C) rotary-pursuit test.
  4. D) incomplete pictures test.
  5. E) Pavlovian conditioning test.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 270

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

13)  On which of the following tests did H.M. display substantial long-term memory as indicated by improved performance?

 

  1. A) Pavlovian conditioning test
  2. B) block-tapping +1 test
  3. C) mirror-drawing test
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 271

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

14)  In a nutshell, H.M.’s main problem seems to be that he

  1. A) has no long-term memories.
  2. B) can form no new long-term memories.
  3. C) can form no new explicit long-term memories.
  4. D) has a devastating retrograde amnesia for remote events.
  5. E) can form no new implicit long-term memories.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 272

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

15)  A major contribution of H.M.’s case was the following: It

  1. A) was the first to strongly implicate the medial temporal lobes in memory.
  2. B) effectively challenged the view that memorial functions are diffusely and equivalently distributed throughout the brain.
  3. C) provided support for the view that there are distinct modes of short-term and long-term storage.
  4. D) provided evidence of memory without conscious awareness.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 272

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

16)  Which of the following is a correct statement about medial temporal lobe amnesics? They often have

  1. A) medial temporal lobe pathology.
  2. B) difficulties forming long-term semantic memories.
  3. C) a profile of mnemonic deficits similar to that of H.M.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

17)  The tests commonly used to assess implicit memory in neuropsychological patients are

 

  1. A) object recognition tests.
  2. B) repetition priming tests.
  3. C) digit span tests.
  4. D) episodic tests.
  5. E) delayed nonmatching-to-sample tests.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

18)  Why do we have two memory systems – explicit and implicit – that are both capable of learning the same material? What advantage is there in having a second, conscious system? Recent evidence suggests that the answer is

 

  1. A) ischemia resistance.
  2. B) evolution.
  3. C) greater flexibility.
  4. D) direct motor control.
  5. E) the advantage of bilateral systems.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

19)  Explicit memories for the particular events or experiences of one’s life are __________ memories.

 

  1. A) semantic
  2. B) procedural
  3. C) episodic
  4. D) remote
  5. E) implicit

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

20)  K.C., the man who can’t time travel, experienced a severe deficit in __________ memory.

 

  1. A) implicit
  2. B) semantic
  3. C) episodic
  4. D) short-term
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

21)  Cerebral ischemia is

  1. A) a condition characterized by cancerous brain tumors.
  2. B) a type of cerebral hemorrhage.
  3. C) a shortage of blood to the brain.
  4. D) an area of brain damage.
  5. E) an area of brain damage caused by a toxin.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 274

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

22)  The study of which of the following amnesic subjects seemed to provide particularly strong evidence of the involvement of the hippocampus in memory?

 

  1. A) R.B.
  2. B) N.A.
  3. C) R.M.
  4. D) J.P.
  5. E) K.C.

 

Answer: A          

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 274

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

23)  Which of the following subjects suffered ischemia-produced hippocampal damage?

 

  1. A) H.M.
  2. B) R.B.
  3. C) P.B.
  4. D) K.C.
  5. E) N.A.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 274

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

24)  Which of the following amnesic patients suffered what appeared to be selective bilateral damage to the CA1 subfield of the hippocampal pyramidal-cell layer?

 

  1. A) H.M.
  2. B) P.B.
  3. C) J.P.
  4. D) R.B.
  5. E) K.C.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 274

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

25)  R.B.’s amnesia was similar to

 

  1. A) H.M.’s. amnesia, but less severe.
  2. B) H.M.’s. amnesia, but more severe.
  3. C) Korsakoff’s amnesia.
  4. D) Alzheimer’s amnesia.
  5. E) other c-auses of cerebral ischemia.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 274

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

26)  Korsakoff’s syndrome is typically associated with

 

  1. A) amnesia.
  2. B) chronic alcohol consumption.
  3. C) diffuse damage to the medial diencephalon.
  4. D) confusion and personality changes.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

27)  One major difference between the amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoff’s syndrome and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with advanced Korsakoff’s syndrome have

  1. A) a retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood.
  2. B) a mild retrograde amnesia for recent events.
  3. C) deficits in consolidation.
  4. D) anterograde amnesia.
  5. E) difficulty forming new explicit long-term memories.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

28)  It is difficult to differentiate between anterograde and retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff patients because

  1. A) the damage associated with Korsakoff’s syndrome is diffuse.
  2. B) the damage associated with Korsakoff’s syndrome is not diffuse.
  3. C) Korsakoff’s syndrome has a gradual onset.
  4. D) the anterograde deficits are so much milder than the retrograde deficits.
  5. E) the retrograde deficits are so much milder than the anterograde deficits.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

29)  Which of the following medial diencephalic structures are commonly damaged in Korsakoff patients?

 

  1. A) thalamus
  2. B) mediodorsal nuclei
  3. C) mammillary bodies
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

30)  The first theories of Korsakoff’s amnesia attributed it to mammillary body damage, but later evidence suggested that damage to the __________ is a major contributing factor.

 

  1. A) frontal cortex
  2. B) hippocampus
  3. C) mediodorsal nuclei
  4. D) temporal infarction
  5. E) cribriform plate

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

31)  The mediodorsal nuclei, which are often damaged in cases of Korsakoff’s amnesia, are nuclei of the

 

  1. A) thalamus.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) hippocampus.
  4. D) cerebellum.
  5. E) mammillary bodies.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

32)  The case of N.A. had a major impact on theories of amnesia because

  1. A) he died soon after his accident, and this enabled his physician to perform a postmortem examination of his hippocampus.
  2. B) a CT scan revealed the full extent of his lesion in the hippocampus.
  3. C) the foil penetrated the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus.
  4. D) by chance, his lesion was bilaterally symmetrical.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

33)  With respect to the study of amnesia, R.B. is to the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus as

  1. A) N.A. is to the medial dorsal nucleus of the hippocampus.
  2. B) N.A. is to the medial diencephalon.
  3. C) R.M. is to the medial diencephalon.
  4. D) aspirations are to infarcts.
  5. E) H.M. is to the medial diencephalon.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

34)  An MRI of N.A.’s brain revealed

 

  1. A) extensive medial diencephalic damage.
  2. B) selective damage to the mammillary bodies.
  3. C) selective damage to the mediodorsal nuclei.
  4. D) total destruction of the thalamus.
  5. E) deficits in forming new explicit memories.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

35)  Damage to the brains of Alzheimer patients is often apparent in the

 

  1. A) medial temporal lobe structures.
  2. B) basal forebrain.
  3. C) prefrontal cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

36)  Alzheimer’s amnesia is usually studied in

  1. A) monkeys.
  2. B) predementia Alzheimer’s patients.
  3. C) advanced cases of Alzheimer’s disease.
  4. D) neuropsychological patients with mediodorsal nucleus damage.
  5. E) neuropsychological patients with medial temporal lobe damage.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

37)  In addition to the memory deficits commonly observed in medial temporal lobe amnesics, predementia Alzheimer’s patients commonly experience deficits in

  1. A) short-term memory.
  2. B) implicit memory for verbal and perceptual material.
  3. C) implicit memory for sensorimotor learning.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

38)  In the brains of Alzheimer’s patients, the level of __________ is greatly reduced.

 

  1. A) epinephrine
  2. B) norepinephrine
  3. C) acetylcholine
  4. D) dopamine
  5. E) serotonin

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

39)  The main source of the brain’s acetylcholine is the

 

  1. A) frontal cortex.
  2. B) hippocampus.
  3. C) basal forebrain.
  4. D) mammillary bodies.
  5. E) substantia nigra.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

40)  The reduction of cholinergic activity in the brains of predementia Alzheimer patients results from damage to the

 

  1. A) basal forebrain.
  2. B) frontal cortex.
  3. C) mediodorsal nuclei.
  4. D) rhinal cortex.
  5. E) mammillary bodies.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

41)  The study of Alzheimer’s disease has implicated

 

  1. A) the hippocampus in memory.
  2. B) cholinergic neurons in memory.
  3. C) the amygdala in memory.
  4. D) amyloid in memory.
  5. E) dopamine in memory.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

42)  In Alzheimer’s disease, the brain damage is

 

  1. A) diffuse.
  2. B) restricted to the basal ganglia.
  3. C) restricted to the basal forebrain.
  4. D) unilateral.
  5. E) contralateral.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

43)  Amnesia that is produced by a blow to the head that does not penetrate the skull is called __________ amnesia.

 

  1. A) postconcussion
  2. B) posttraumatic
  3. C) retrograde
  4. D) anterograde
  5. E) postepisodic

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

44)  Islands of memory following concussion are memories of

  1. A) a few things from lists that have been otherwise forgotten.
  2. B) events that occurred during periods of time for which there is otherwise total amnesia.
  3. C) implicit events that occurred during a background of amnesia for explicit events.
  4. D) vacations to Hawaii.
  5. E) of early childhood.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

 

45)  Illustrated here is the time course of events occurring before and after

  1. A) concussion.
  2. B) contusion.
  3. C) consolidation.
  4. D) islands of memory.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: A  

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

 

46)  The retrograde amnesia associated with closed-head injury has been frequently studied in laboratory animals by

  1. A) hitting them on the head with a little rubber hammer.
  2. B) administering acetylcholine agonists.
  3. C) administering electroconvulsive shock.
  4. D) using multiple-trial learning tests that must be learned over several days.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: C

Diff: !   Page Ref: 277

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

47)  Electroconvulsive shock is commonly used in studies of memory because it

  1. A) improves semantic memory.
  2. B) has amnesic effects similar to those produce by concussion.
  3. C) causes hippocampal damage.
  4. D) is an effective form of therapy for anxiety.
  5. E) produces no retrograde effects on memory.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 277

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

48)  In an experimental investigation of the retrograde effects of ECS on one-trial conditioning (Pinel, 1969),

  1. A) amnesia was negligible if more than one ECS was administered.
  2. B) amnesia was negligible unless five or more ECSs were administered at once.
  3. C) retrograde amnesia for the conditioning was greater at longer conditioning-ECS intervals.
  4. D) rats explored the niche during the test significantly less than did no-ECS control rats if they had received ECS 10 seconds, 1 minute, or 10 minutes after the conditioning trial.
  5. E) rats explored the niche during the test significantly more than did no-ECS control rats if they had received ECS 10 seconds, 1 minute, or 10 minutes after the conditioning trial.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 277

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

49)  In an innovative series of experiments, Squire and his colleagues assessed the retrograde amnesia of patients following ECT. They assessed the patients’ memory for television shows that

 

  1. A) had played for more than 5 years.
  2. B) had played for more than 3 years.
  3. C) were currently playing during the experiment.
  4. D) had played for only one season.
  5. E) were first shown in other countries.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 278

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

50)  The long-term progressive increase in the resistance of memories to disruption by electroconvulsive shock was demonstrated in a study by Squire, Slater, and Chace (1975) in which the memory for __________ was assessed.

 

  1. A) digits
  2. B) faces
  3. C) shocks
  4. D) television shows that played for only one year
  5. E) names

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 278

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

51)  Research has consistently shown that memory consolidation usually takes about

 

  1. A) 1 minute.
  2. B) 10 minutes.
  3. C) 1 hour.
  4. D) 2 years.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 278

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

52)  Because H.M.’s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was widely believed that the hippocampus

  1. A) stores most long-term memories.
  2. B) stores all long-term memories.
  3. C) temporarily stores memories before they are transferred to a more permanent storage site.
  4. D) stores spatial memories.
  5. E) temporarily consolidates short-term memories.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 279

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

53)  According to the reconsolidation notion, long-term memories are temporarily susceptible to posttraumatic amnesia when they are

 

  1. A) recalled.
  2. B) transferred to the cortex.
  3. C) transferred to the hippocampus.
  4. D) transferred to LTP.
  5. E) consolidated.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 279

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

54)  A change in the brain that stores a memory is called

 

  1. A) LTP.
  2. B) an engram.
  3. C) a memorial.
  4. D) a stilton.
  5. E) synaptic facilitation.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 279

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

55)  In retrospect, the major reason for the initial difficulty in developing an animal model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia was that efforts focused on

 

  1. A) implicit memory tests.
  2. B) explicit memory tests.
  3. C) the hippocampus.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

56)  Which of the following has been used extensively in the assessment of object-recognition memory in monkeys?

 

  1. A) radial arm maze
  2. B) one-trial appetitive learning paradigm
  3. C) nondelayed matching-to-sample task
  4. D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
  5. E) delayed matching-to-sample task

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

57)  In one test commonly used to study medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in macaque monkeys,

  1. A) the sample appears over the central food well during the test phase of each trial.
  2. B) food is available under both objects during the test phase of each trial.
  3. C) food is available under the nonsample object during the test phase of each trial.
  4. D) no food is available during the sample-presentation phase of each trial.
  5. E) no food is available during the test phase of each trial.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58)  At delays of a few minutes or less, healthy control monkeys score about  __________ correct on the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task

 

  1. A) 90%
  2. B) 80%
  3. C) 70%
  4. D) 60%
  5. E) 5%

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

59)  Monkeys with large medial-temporal-lobe lesions displayed deficits on the __________ similar to those displayed by H.M.

 

  1. A) digit-span +1 test.
  2. B) WAIS.
  3. C) incomplete-pictures test.
  4. D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample test.
  5. E) digit-span test.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

60)  The human medial temporal lobe includes the

 

  1. A) hippocampus.
  2. B) amygdala.
  3. C) rhinal cortex.
  4. D) CA1 subfield.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

61) Illustrated here is one phase of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task. It is the

  1. A) delay phase.
  2. B) recall phase.
  3. C) sample phase.
  4. D) recognition phase.
  5. E) choice phase.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

62)  In early studies of medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in monkeys, the cortex underlying the hippocampus and amygdala was always damaged because the lesions were

 

  1. A) electrolytic.
  2. B) epileptic.
  3. C) cryogenic
  4. D) made by aspiration.
  5. E) bilateral.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

63)  Hippocampectomy in rats almost always involves damage to a small area of overlying __________ so that the aspiration can be performed.

 

  1. A) parietal cortex
  2. B) rhinal cortex
  3. C) amygdala
  4. D) entorhinal cortex
  5. E) temporal cortex

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

64)  Rats have one advantage over monkeys in the study of medial temporal lobe amnesia:

  1. A) In rats, the hippocampus can readily be aspirated without substantial rhinal cortex damage.
  2. B) Rats live longer.
  3. C) Rats learn object-recognition tasks more readily.
  4. D) Rats have better episodic memories.
  5. E) Rats have a subcortical hippocampus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

65)  The Mumby-box is an apparatus that has been frequently used to study

 

  1. A) delayed matching-to-sample in monkeys.
  2. B) delayed nonmatching-to-sample in rats.
  3. C) delayed matching-to-sample in mice.
  4. D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample in monkeys.
  5. E) nondelayed matching-to-sample in rats.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

66)  Rats can perform the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task

  1. A) only at chance levels.
  2. B) at levels that are only slightly above chance.
  3. C) at levels that are not significantly above chance.
  4. D) almost as well as monkeys at retention delays up to a minute or so.
  5. E) as well as humans when food is involved.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

67)  Bilateral lesions of the rhinal cortex that do not damage the hippocampus or amygdala produce

 

  1. A) slight object-recognition deficits in rats.
  2. B) no object-recognition deficits in monkeys.
  3. C) slight object-recognition deficits in monkeys.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 282

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

68) Here is an illustration of coronal section of a monkey brain cut through the hippocampus and amygdala. The shaded area indicates the position of the

  1. A) hippocampus.
  2. B) rhinal cortex.
  3. C) amygdala.
  4. D) parietal cortex.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 282

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

69)  Monkey and rat experiments on the effects of medial-temporal-lobe lesions on nonrecurring-items delayed nonmatching-to-sample suggest that __________ damage contributes substantially to the amnesic effects of bilateral medial-temporal lobectomy.

 

  1. A) rhinal cortex
  2. B) hippocampus
  3. C) amygdala
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 282

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

70)  Mumby and his colleagues showed that object-recognition deficits that were caused in rats by cerebral ischemia could be prevented by the bilateral removal of the

 

  1. A) hippocampus.
  2. B) amygdala.
  3. C) rhinal cortex.
  4. D) cingulate.
  5. E) reinforcement.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 282

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

71)  Mumby and his colleagues showed that large hippocampal lesions blocked the object-recognition deficits caused in rats by cerebral ischemia when the lesions were

  1. A) unilateral but not bilateral.
  2. B) contralateral but not ipsilateral.
  3. C) made 1 hour, but not 1 week, after the ischemia.
  4. D) ipsilateral but not contralateral.
  5. E) made 1 week, but not 1 hour, after ischemia.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 283

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

72)  Strong evidence that the object-recognition deficits produced by cerebral ischemia do not result from hippocampal damage comes from

  1. A) the case of R.B.
  2. B) a demonstration that hippocampal lesions can prevent ischemia-produced object-recognition deficits.
  3. C) demonstrations that the deficits are the result of CA1 damage.
  4. D) the case of N.A.
  5. E) demonstrations that ischemia can prevent the amnesic effects of hippocampal lesions.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 283

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

73)  One area of rhinal cortex is the

 

  1. A) entorhinal cortex.
  2. B) perirhinal cortex.
  3. C) introrhinal cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 283

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

74)  Hippocampal lesions in rats reliably disrupt the performance of tasks that involve memory for

 

  1. A) Pavlovian conditioning.
  2. B) time.
  3. C) spatial location.
  4. D) instrumental conditioning.
  5. E) objects.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 285

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

75)  Which of the following tasks is commonly used to study the spatial abilities of rats?

 

  1. A) Morris water maze
  2. B) radial-arm maze
  3. C) Mumby box
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 285

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

76)  The ability to refrain from visiting an arm of the radial arm maze more than once on a given test is a measure of __________ memory.

 

  1. A) semantic
  2. B) episodic
  3. C) working
  4. D) reference
  5. E) spatial

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

77)  Memory for general principles and skills required to perform a task is called __________ memory.

 

  1. A) complex
  2. B) reference
  3. C) working
  4. D) place
  5. E) inclusive

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

78)  Some hippocampal neurons become active only when the subject is

 

  1. A) remembering.
  2. B) forgetting.
  3. C) in a particular place.
  4. D) thinking.
  5. E) eating.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

79)  Hippocampal cells that become active only when the subject is in particular locations are called

 

  1. A) location cells.
  2. B) place cells.
  3. C) complex cells.
  4. D) simple cells.
  5. E) spot cells.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

80)  The location in a test environment in which a subject must be for a place cell to become active is called its

 

  1. A) place field.
  2. B) area of activity.
  3. C) location field.
  4. D) playing field.
  5. E) area of sensitivity.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

81)  When rats are not sure where they are, their place cells fire in accordance with where they

 

  1. A) “think” they are.
  2. B) “want” to be.
  3. C) came from.
  4. D) are going.
  5. E) “expect” to be picked up.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

82)  Grid cells, head direction cells, and border cells are located in the

 

  1. A) entorhinal cortex.
  2. B) amygdala.
  3. C) perirhinal cortex.
  4. D) place field.
  5. E) Morris water maze.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

83)  Food-caching species of birds tend to have __________ hippocampi than non-food-caching species.

 

  1. A) fewer
  2. B) smaller
  3. C) more complex
  4. D) larger
  5. E) more

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

84)  Although much evidence suggests that hippocampal damage disrupts spatial memory, evidence from __________ has been inconsistent.

 

  1. A) mice
  2. B) primates
  3. C) birds
  4. D) rats
  5. E) place cells

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 287

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

85)  According to the cognitive map theory, the hippocampus is specialized for storing

 

  1. A) memories for cognitions.
  2. B) egocentric maps.
  3. C) allocentric maps.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 287

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

86)  The authors of the cognitive map theory are

 

  1. A) Nadel and O’Keefe.
  2. B) Mumby and Pinel.
  3. C) Squire and Zola-Morgan.
  4. D) Rudy and Sutherland.
  5. E) Whishaw and Tomie.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 287

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

87)  The current consensus is that memories of experiences are likely stored

  1. A) diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original experience.
  2. B) throughout the hippocampus.
  3. C) in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus.
  4. D) in the diencephalon.
  5. E) in the rhinal cortex.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 287

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

88)  Which structure is thought to store memories for visual images?

 

  1. A) amygdala
  2. B) inferotemporal cortex
  3. C) striatum
  4. D) prefrontal cortex
  5. E) cerebellum

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 287

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

89)  The amygdala is thought to play a role in

  1. A) object recognition memory.
  2. B) memory for time.
  3. C) memory for the emotional significance of experiences.
  4. D) space and working memory.
  5. E) memory for language.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

90)  Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex often display deficits on __________ conventional tests of memory.

 

  1. A) no
  2. B) most
  3. C) many
  4. D) all
  5. E) about half of the

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

91)  Patients with prefrontal cortex damage display deficits in

 

  1. A) working memory.
  2. B) memory for the temporal order of events.
  3. C) reference memory.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

92)  One well known patient with prefrontal damage could not cook because she could not

  1. A) remember the various steps involved in preparing a meal.
  2. B) remember each individual cooking technique.
  3. C) carry out the various steps in proper sequence.
  4. D) recall the prerequisite knowledge.
  5. E) Wilder Penfield

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

93)  The amygdala appears to be involved in the __________ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum appears to be involved in the __________ component.

 

  1. A) emotional; sensorimotor
  2. B) visual; temporal
  3. C) spatial; visual
  4. D) sensory; emotional
  5. E) procedural; implicit

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 289

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

94)  The cerebellum is thought to store memories of

 

  1. A) learned sensorimotor skills.
  2. B) faces.
  3. C) time.
  4. D) objects.
  5. E) spatial locations.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 289

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

95)  The cerebellum has been found to play an important role in

 

  1. A) eye blink conditioning.
  2. B) face memory.
  3. C) music memory.
  4. D) aversive conditioning.
  5. E) operant conditioning.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 289

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored? 

 

96)  The striatum is thought to store

  1. A) memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses.
  2. B) the type of memories that develop incrementally over many trials (habit formation).
  3. C) memory for the temporal order of trials.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 289

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

97)  Long-term potentiation has been most frequently studied in the

 

  1. A) hippocampus.
  2. B) amygdala.
  3. C) substantia nigra.
  4. D) neocortex.
  5. E) cerebellum.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 290

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

98)  In one common type of LTP experiment, the perforant path is stimulated and the response is recorded in the

  1. A) neocortex.
  2. B) cerebellum.
  3. C) granule-cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
  4. D) motor neuron.
  5. E) nictitating-membrane circuit.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 290

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

99)  Long-term potentiation

  1. A) is usually induced by the intense stimulation of motor neurons.
  2. B) cannot be induced by electrical stimulation.
  3. C) has been most commonly studied in several different neural circuits in the hippocampus.
  4. D) cannot be studied in living animals.
  5. E) is not associated with changes in synaptic transmission.

Answer: C

Diff: 2Page Ref: 290

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

100)  Stimulation of the __________ elicits a response in the __________ layer of the hippocampal __________.

  1. A) perforant path; granule-cell; dentate gyrus
  2. B) dentate gyrus; perforant-path; pyramidal cells
  3. C) dentate gyrus; granule-cell; pyramidal cells
  4. D) pyramidal cells; dentate-gyrus; granule cells
  5. E) perforant layer; pyramidal-cell; gyrus

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 290

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

 

101)  Illustrated here is a neural circuit in which __________ is commonly studied.

  1. A) maintenance
  2. B) LTD
  3. C) LTP
  4. D) amnesia
  5. E) forgetting

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

 

102)  The main reason why LTP is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it

  1. A) involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage.
  2. B) can easily be studied in humans.
  3. C) involves readily accessible neocortical circuits.
  4. D) occurs in only mammals.
  5. E) can be induced by both electrical and chemical stimulation.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

103)  LTP is one of the most widely studied models of the physiology of memory because it

 

  1. A) can last for a long time.
  2. B) does not depend on co-occurrence.
  3. C) depends on co-occurrence.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

104)  Co-occurrence has been shown to be critical for LTP. Co-occurrence refers to the requirement for simultaneous activity in

 

  1. A) the hippocampus and dentate.
  2. B) sensory neurons and motor neurons.
  3. C) presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
  4. D) the CA1 and CA3.
  5. E) pyramidal and granule cells.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

105)  Which of the following is regarded as a critical factor in LTP?

 

  1. A) the hippocampus
  2. B) co-occurrence of activity in presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
  3. C) the amygdala
  4. D) reinforcement
  5. E) induction

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

106)  LTP occurs only when the high-intensity, high-frequency stimulation activates the

  1. A) presynaptic neurons but not the postsynaptic neurons.
  2. B) postsynaptic neurons but not the presynaptic neurons.
  3. C) both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
  4. D) hippocampus.
  5. E) the hippocampus and the perforant path.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

107)  When neuron A repeatedly fires neuron B, some change occurs that increases the efficiency with which A fires B. This statement is

 

  1. A) Occam’s razor.
  2. B) the principle of serendipity.
  3. C) Racine’s rule.
  4. D) Hebb’s postulate for learning.
  5. E) Nadel’s nostrum.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

108)  Support for the hypothesis that long-term potentiation is the mechanism of memory came from the discovery that

  1. A) LTP can be elicited by levels of stimulation that mimic normal neural activity.
  2. B) LTP effects are prominent in neural structures that have been implicated in memory.
  3. C) behavioral conditioning can produce LTP-like effects.
  4. D) the induction of maximal LTP in the hippocampus blocks learning of the Morris-water-maze task.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

109)  The NMDA receptor is a type of __________ receptor.

 

  1. A) serotonin
  2. B) glutamate
  3. C) dopamine
  4. D) GABA
  5. E) nitric oxide

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

110)  Which is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?

 

  1. A) NMDA
  2. B) GABA
  3. C) glycine
  4. D) epinephrine
  5. E) glutamate

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

111)  The NMDA receptor is thought to be involved in

 

  1. A) all LTP phenomena.
  2. B) postsynaptic inhibition.
  3. C) habituation.
  4. D) LTP at some synapses.
  5. E) eye blink inhibition.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory 

 

112)  In searching for the neural bases of LTP, many researchers assume that separate mechanisms account for

 

  1. A) maintenance and extinction.
  2. B) maintenance, reinforcement, and forgetting.
  3. C) expression and induction.
  4. D) induction, maintenance, and expression.
  5. E) learning, memory, and motivation.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

113)  The induction of LTP at glutaminergic synapses appears to

  1. A) be a postsynaptic phenomenon.
  2. B) be a presynaptic phenomenon.
  3. C) depend on an influx of calcium ions into the postsynaptic neuron.
  4. D) both B and C
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

114)  The specificity of LTP to particular synapses on the postsynaptic neuron is likely attributable to properties of

 

  1. A) serotonergic receptors.
  2. B) glutamate.
  3. C) dendritic spines.
  4. D) axo-axonal synapses.
  5. E) presynaptic inhibition.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 293

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

115)  Evidence suggests that the induction of LTP is postsynaptic and the maintenance and expression involve presynaptic changes. This implies the existence of a retrograde messenger. Recent studies suggest that this messenger may be

 

  1. A) glutamate.
  2. B) dopamine.
  3. C) serotonin.
  4. D) nitric oxide.
  5. E) NMDA.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 294

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

116)  Although most theories of LTP focus on neural mechanisms, __________ have also been found to influence LTP.

 

  1. A) presynaptic neurons
  2. B) postsynaptic neurons
  3. C) astrocytes
  4. D) electrical stimulation
  5. E) microglia

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 294

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

117)  Approximately what proportion of healthy people experience infantile amnesia?

 

  1. A) 0%
  2. B) 5%
  3. C) 8%
  4. D) 21%
  5. E) 100%

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 294

Topic: 11.9 Conclusion

 

118)  Recent studies have demonstrated that infantile amnesia can occur for __________ memories without affecting __________ memories for the same information.

 

  1. A) implicit; explicit
  2. B) explicit; implicit
  3. C) reference; working
  4. D) working; reference
  5. E) short-term; long-term

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 294

Topic: 11.9 Conclusion

 

119) According to the text, the scientific evidence has not yet established the effectiveness of

 

  1. A) NMDA.
  2. B) nitric oxide.
  3. C) nootropics.
  4. D) dendritic spines.
  5. E) LTP.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 295

Topic: 11.9 Conclusion

 

 

120)  The aspect of R.M.’s case that is most ironic is that

  1. A) he is a sleep researcher who sleeps a lot.
  2. B) during his posttraumatic amnesia, his circadian cycles suggested that in one sense he remembered past events.
  3. C) during his posttraumatic amnesia, when he recalled few of the details of his own life, he remembered the case of H.M.
  4. D) it is a particularly good example of hypermetaamnesia.
  5. E) it demonstrates the dominance of implicit memory.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 295

Topic: 11.9 Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  H.M.’s operation was a bilateral __________ lobectomy.

Answer: medial temporal

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

2)  H.M.’s main problem is that he cannot form new __________ long-term memories.

Answer: explicit

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 272

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

3)  Medial temporal lobe epileptics often have good explicit long-term memories for __________ information.

Answer: semantic

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 273

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

4)  R.B. had obvious damage to the __________ subfield of the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus.

Answer: CA1

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

5)  Damage to the __________ nuclei of the thalamus is thought to account for many of the memory problems experienced by patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome.

Answer: mediodorsal

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 275

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

6)  The major source of the brain’s acetylcholine is often damaged in Alzheimer’s patients. This area is the __________.

Answer: basal forebrain

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276

Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

 

7)  Posttraumatic amnesia for events that occur in the period after a concussive blow to the head is called __________ amnesia.

Answer: anterograde

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 277

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

8)  According to one hypothesis, each time a memory is retrieved from long-term storage, it is temporarily susceptible to posttraumatic amnesia and then is strengthened again. This “restrengthening” process has been termed __________.

Answer: reconsolidation

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 279

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

 

 

 

 

9)  The delayed nonmatching-to-sample test is a good measure of __________ long-term object-recognition memory in both rats and monkeys.

Answer: explicit

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 281

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

10)  The human medial temporal lobe includes the hippocampus, the __________, and the rhinal temporal cortex.

Answer: amygdala

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 280

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

11)  The rhinal cortex comprises two different regions: the entorhinal cortex and the ___________ cortex.

Answer: perirhinal

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 283

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

12)  There is substantial evidence that the__________ plays a major role memory for spatial location.

Answer: hippocampus

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 285

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

13)  The radial arm maze can be used to study both reference memory and __________ memory.

Answer: working

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

14) Most __________ cells are located in hippocampus, whereas grid cells are located in the entorhinal cortex.

Answer: place

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 286

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

15)  The __________ is thought to play a role in the storage of the emotional significance of various experiences.

Answer: amygdala

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

16)  The __________ is thought to play a role in working memory and memory for temporal order.

Answer: prefrontal cortex.

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 288

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

17)  The __________ is thought to store memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses.

Answer: striatum

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 289

Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

 

18)  In the hippocampus, the __________ receptor appears to play a critical role in LTP at the locations in the brain at which it is most frequently studied.

Answer: NMDA

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

19)  NMDA receptors respond to the __________ neurotransmitter.

Answer: glutamate

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 292

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

20)  Approximately __________% of people experience infantile amnesia.

Answer: 100

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 294

Topic: 11.9 Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Discuss medial temporal lobe amnesia, emphasizing the cases of H.M. and R.B. What have we learned from the study of this disorder?

Answer:

25% for discussing H. M.

25% for discussing R. B.

25% for a general discussion of medial temporal amnesia

25% for explaining what we have learned from the study of medial temporal lobe amnesia

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 269-275

Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

 

2)  Discuss Korsakoff’s syndrome and the amnesia associated with it. What areas of the brain have been linked to Korsakoff’s syndrome, and what is the evidence for these links?

Answer:

30% for discussing Korsakoff’s syndrome

40% for linking the mammillary bodies, mediodorsal nuclei, and the medial diencephalon to Korsakoff’s amnesia

30% for describing relevant evidence

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 275-276

Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

 

3)  Describe the major symptoms of posttraumatic amnesia and how these symptoms have provided support for the theory of consolidation. Describe studies that have been conducted to determine consolidation times and what they have accomplished.

Answer:

30% for a description of posttraumatic amnesia

20% for a description of consolidation and the evidence for it

30% for a description of studies of gradients of retrograde amnesia

20% for reaching a conclusion based on the discussion

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 276-278

Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

 

 

4)  It is widely believed that damage to the hippocampus is the major factor in the difficulties that medial temporal lobe amnesics have in recognizing objects. Why? What does relevant research on monkeys and rats suggest?

Answer:

40% for describing the evidence linking the hippocampus to object recognition amnesia

405 for describing relevant experiments in rats and monkeys

20% for reaching a conclusion based on the evidence

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 280-286

Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5)  Summarize the evidence that the hippocampus is involved in memory for space. Describe three kinds of evidence, and reach a conclusion.

Answer:

30% for describing relevant lesion studies

30% for describing research on place cells

30% for describing comparative research

10% for reaching conclusions based on the evidence

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 284-287

Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

 

6)  What is LTP? why is LTP so interesting to researchers? Describe a specific demonstration of LTP at a hippocampal site of your choice, and include a diagram.

Answer:

30% for defining LTP

30% for explaining why it is to interesting to researchers

30% for describing a specific demonstration of LTP

10% for a relevant diagram

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 290-294

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

 

7) Label this illustration of how LTP is typically studied. Then use this illustration, and any others that you may wish to supply, to describe and explain how LTP is typically produced and measured.

 

 

 

Answer:

40% for effective use of  illustration or illustrations to answer the question

30% for describing how LTP is typically produced

30% for describing how LTP is typically measured

Diff: 3  Page Ref 291

Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory