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Biopsychology 9th Edition by John P.J. Pine -Test Bank

 

Chapter 3

Anatomy of the Nervous System: Systems, Structures, and Cells

That Make Up Your Nervous System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

 

1)  The two major divisions of the nervous system are the

  1. A) ANS and the CNS.
  2. B) SNS and the CNS.
  3. C) PNS and the CNS.
  4. D) ANS and the PNS.
  5. E) brain and the spinal cord

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

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2)  The CNS is composed of two major divisions: the

  1. A) ANS and PNS.
  2. B) brain and brain stem.
  3. C) SNS and ANS.
  4. D) spinal cord and brain stem.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

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3)  The ANS is part of the

  1. A) sympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) parasympathetic nervous system.
  3. C) brain.
  4. D) CNS.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

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4)  The somatic nervous system

  1. A) is part of the PNS.
  2. B) participates in sensory and motor interactions with the external environment.
  3. C) is part of the ANS.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

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5)  In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information

  1. A) to the CNS.
  2. B) to the PNS.
  3. C) from the CNS.
  4. D) from the cortex.
  5. E) from the brain.

Answer: A

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6)  Neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are part of the

  1. A) somatic nervous system.
  2. B) basal ganglia.
  3. C) ANS.
  4. D) peripheral nervous system.
  5. E) both C and D

Answer: E

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7)  Which part of the PNS projects from only the cranial and sacral portions of the CNS?

  1. A) parasympathetic nervous system
  2. B) sympathetic nervous system
  3. C) somatic nervous system
  4. D) cranial nerves
  5. E) autonomic nervous system

Answer: A

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8)  The sympathetic nervous system differs from the parasympathetic nervous system in that the sympathetic nervous system has

  1. A) no first-stage neurons.
  2. B) no second-stage neurons.
  3. C) first-stage neurons that synapse at a substantial distance from the target organ.
  4. D) first-stage neurons that synapse close to the target organ.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: C

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9)  Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body’s energy?

  1. A) CNS
  2. B) PNS
  3. C) sympathetic nervous system
  4. D) parasympathetic nervous system
  5. E) somatic nervous system

Answer: D

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10)  The first two cranial nerves are

  1. A) olfactory and optic nerves.
  2. B) the optic and auditory nerves.
  3. C) the facial and auditory nerves.
  4. D) motor.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: A

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11)  The vagus nerve is

  1. A) part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) the tenth cranial nerve.
  3. C) the longest cranial nerve.
  4. D) both sensory and motor.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

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12)  The dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater are

  1. A) neurons.
  2. B) neuroglia.
  3. C) parts of the autonomic nervous system.
  4. D) meninges.
  5. E) myelin.

Answer: D

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13)  From outside to inside, the three meninges are the

  1. A) Nina, Pinta, and Santa-Maria.
  2. B) arachnoid, dura, and pia.
  3. C) dura, pia, and meninx.
  4. D) dura, meninx, and pia.
  5. E) dura, arachnoid, and pia.

Answer: E

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14)  Adhering to the surface of the brain is the

  1. A) tough mother.
  2. B) pia mater.
  3. C) dura mater.
  4. D) CSF.
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

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15)  The subarachnoid space is just outside the

  1. A) neocortex.
  2. B) arachnoid membrane.
  3. C) arachnoid mater.
  4. D) pia mater.
  5. E) central canal.

Answer: D

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16)  How many ventricles are there in the brain?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 12

Answer: C

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17)  The CSF circulates through the

  1. A) central canal.
  2. B) lateral ventricles.
  3. C) subarachnoid space.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

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18)  Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by

  1. A) networks of small blood vessels that protrude into the ventricles.
  2. B) the superior sagittal sinus.
  3. C) the arachnoid membrane.
  4. D) the choroid plexuses.
  5. E) both A and D

Answer: E

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19)  The cerebral aqueduct connects the

  1. A) lateral ventricles.
  2. B) third and fourth ventricles.
  3. C) fourth ventricle and the central canal.
  4. D) circus maximus and the forum.
  5. E) left and right hemispheres.

Answer: B

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20)  When a tumor near the cerebral aqueduct causes cerebrospinal fluid to accumulate in the brain, the disorder is

  1. A) hydrocephalus.
  2. B) Down syndrome.
  3. C) cranial elephantiasis.
  4. D) multiple sclerosis.
  5. E) Parkinson’s disease.

Answer: A

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Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

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21)  Hydrocephalus results from the

  1. A) production of too much CSF.
  2. B) production of excessively watery CSF.
  3. C) production of water rather than CSF.
  4. D) breakdown of the mechanism that absorbs CSF into the lateral vesicles.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

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Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

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22)  The blood brain barrier is

  1. A) a spongy bone.
  2. B) located in the pia mater.
  3. C) about the size of the cortex.
  4. D) located in all three meninges.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

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23)  The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into cerebral neurons of

  1. A) many proteins and other large molecules.
  2. B) all small molecules.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) sodium.
  5. E) all fluids.

Answer: A

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24)  Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit

  1. A) dendrites.
  2. B) axons.
  3. C) synapses.
  4. D) electrochemical signals.
  5. E) pizzas.

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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Rational

 

 

 

 

27)  What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?

  1. A) dendrites
  2. B) axon
  3. C) cell body
  4. D) buttons
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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31)  The neuron membrane includes

  1. A) a lipid bilayer.
  2. B) channel proteins.
  3. C) signal proteins.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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32)  Neurons with one axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are classified as

  1. A) motor.
  2. B) autonomic.
  3. C) multipolar.
  4. D) bipolar.
  5. E) unipolar.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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33)  Interneurons

  1. A) don’t conduct signals from one structure to another; they integrate activity within a single brain structure.
  2. B) have two short axons but no dendrites.
  3. C) have one long axon and one short dendrite.
  4. D) have several short axons and no dendrites.
  5. E) have bipolar axons and no dendrites.

Answer: A

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34)  Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called

  1. A) neurons.
  2. B) ganglia.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) nuclei.
  5. E) buttons.

Answer: D

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35)  Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to

  1. A) nuclei.
  2. B) ganglia.
  3. C) ganglion.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) cell bodies.

Answer: B

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37)  CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) oligodendroglia.
  3. C) glial cells.
  4. D) Schwann cells.
  5. E) microglia.

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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38)  In the CNS, axons are myelinated by

  1. A) vesicles.
  2. B) oligodendrocytes.
  3. C) unipolar cells.
  4. D) astrocytes.
  5. E) Schwann cells.

Answer: B

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39)  Myelination

  1. A) causes neural degeneration.
  2. B) penetrates the blood brain barrier.
  3. C) occurs only on Schwann cells.
  4. D) increases the speed of axonal conduction.
  5. E) increases the speed of synaptic transmission.

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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40)  PNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are to

  1. A) multiple sclerosis.
  2. B) oligodendrocytes.
  3. C) astrocytes.
  4. D) neuroglia.
  5. E) ANS.

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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28)  Chemical communication among mammalian neurons often occurs

  1. A) at points where their cell bodies contact one another.
  2. B) across gaps called dendrites.
  3. C) across synapses.
  4. D) at points where their axons contact one another.
  5. E) at points where dendrites contact one another.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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26)  The soma is

  1. A) often myelinated.
  2. B) the cell body.
  3. C) covered by nodes of Ranvier.
  4. D) next to the nucleus.
  5. E) smaller than a terminal button.

Answer: B

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36)  Many multipolar neurons have a long process emanating from the cell body. This long process is

  1. A) an axon.
  2. B) a dendrite.
  3. C) a button.
  4. D) a protein.
  5. E) a signal protein.

Answer: A

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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25)  The cone-shaped structure at the boundary between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the

  1. A) node of Ranvier.
  2. B) dendrite.
  3. C) axon hillock.
  4. D) Golgi complex.
  5. E) mitochondrion.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

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30)  Synaptic vesicles tend to be most prevalent in the

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) nodes of Ranvier.
  3. C) postsynaptic membranes.
  4. D) dendrites.
  5. E) buttons.

Answer: E

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29)  Most of a neuron’s DNA is in its

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) buttons.
  3. C) synaptic vesicles.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) axon hillock.

Answer: A

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41)  The particular glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are

  1. A) microglia.
  2. B) Schwann cells.
  3. C) astrocytes.
  4. D) oligodendrocytes.
  5. E) oligodendroglia.

Answer: A

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42)  The largest glial cells are

  1. A) astrocytes.
  2. B) Schwann cells.
  3. C) microglia.
  4. D) magnoglia.
  5. E) oligodendrocytes.

Answer: A

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43)  The Golgi stain colors neurons

  1. A) violet.
  2. B) black.
  3. C) blue.
  4. D) red.
  5. E) yellow.

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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44)  The best thing about the Golgi stain is that it

  1. A) is opaque.
  2. B) reveals the inner structure of the neuron.
  3. C) does not stain many neurons.
  4. D) stains only Golgi neurons.
  5. E) was developed by a Nobel Prize winner.

Answer: C

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45)  The discovery of the Golgi stain

  1. A) was accidental.
  2. B) was one of the major early breakthroughs in the study of the nervous system.
  3. C) occurred in 1995.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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46)  The first neural stain revealed the silhouettes of a few neurons on a slide; it is

  1. A) the Golgi stain.
  2. B) red.
  3. C) the Nissl stain.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

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47)  The first neural stain that permitted neuroanatomists to view some aspects of the inner structure of a neuron was

  1. A) the Nissl stain.
  2. B) the Golgi stain.
  3. C) the Weigert stain.
  4. D) mainly used for anterograde tracing.
  5. E) electron microscopy.

Answer: A

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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48)  Nissl stains (e.g., cresyl violet) are frequently used to

  1. A) study the fine details of axonal structure.
  2. B) determine the general distribution of cell bodies in the nervous system.
  3. C) study the contents of neural buttons.
  4. D) identify axosomatic synapses.
  5. E) study the responses of Nissl bodies to stimulation.

Answer: B

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49)  The fine inner details of neuron structure can be studied best

  1. A) with a Nissl stain.
  2. B) by electron microscopy.
  3. C) with cresyl violet.
  4. D) with a Golgi stain.
  5. E) with a microelectrode.

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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50)  The main advantage of the scanning electron microscope over the conventional electron microscope is that it

  1. A) operates in light.
  2. B) is capable of higher magnification than the ordinary electron microscope.
  3. C) produces three-dimensional images.
  4. D) uses more protons than electrons.
  5. E) requires fewer beams of electrons.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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51)  To locate the terminals of axons that project from a particular brain structure, an investigator would employ

  1. A) a retrograde tracing technique.
  2. B) an anterograde tracing technique.
  3. C) labeled chemicals that are readily transported back to the neuron’s nucleus.
  4. D) a Golgi stain.
  5. E) a Nissl stain.

Answer: B

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52)  The back of your head is

  1. A) posterior.
  2. B) dorsal.
  3. C) inferior.
  4. D) anterior.
  5. E) ventral.

Answer: A

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53)  The top of a dog’s head is

  1. A) anterior.
  2. B) ventral.
  3. C) caudal.
  4. D) dorsal.
  5. E) posterior.

Answer: D

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54)  The tip of your nose is

  1. A) superior and dorsal.
  2. B) caudal and anterior.
  3. C) medial and anterior.
  4. D) anterior and posterior.
  5. E) ventral and dorsal.

Answer: C

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55)  The nose of a rat is

  1. A) medial.
  2. B) dorsal.
  3. C) anterior.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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56)  The spine of a human runs just beneath the body’s

  1. A) ventral surface.
  2. B) anterior surface.
  3. C) dorsal surface.
  4. D) posterior surface.
  5. E) superior surface.

Answer: C

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57)  Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is commonly used with reference to the brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of four-legged creatures?

  1. A) inferior
  2. B) caudal
  3. C) posterior
  4. D) medial
  5. E) lateral

Answer: A

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58)  A cut in which of the following planes would sever all of the cerebral commissures, the tracts that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres?

  1. A) horizontal
  2. B) sagittal
  3. C) midsagittal
  4. D) frontal
  5. E) diagonal

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

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59)  The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a

  1. A) midsagittal section.
  2. B) sagittal section.
  3. C) longitudinal section.
  4. D) lateral section.
  5. E) cross section.

Answer: E

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

Type: (Factual)

 

 

60)  Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of

  1. A) cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
  2. B) myelin.
  3. C) myelinated axons.
  4. D) meninges.
  5. E) cerebrospinal fluid.

Answer: A

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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61)  White matter is white because

  1. A) it is unmyelinated.
  2. B) cell bodies are white.
  3. C) satellite cells are gray.
  4. D) axon membranes are white.
  5. E) myelin is white.

Answer: E

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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62)  In cross section, spinal gray matter has four arms; among these are the two

  1. A) ventral roots.
  2. B) ventral routes.
  3. C) ventral horns.
  4. D) lateral horns.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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63)  How many individual dorsal roots are there in the human nervous system?

  1. A) 12
  2. B) 31
  3. C) 62
  4. D) 124
  5. E) billions

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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64)  How many left ventral roots are there in the human body?

  1. A) 12
  2. B) 31
  3. C) 62
  4. D) 124
  5. E) billions

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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65)  Most neurons of the dorsal root synapse in the

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) spinal cord.
  3. C) dorsal root ganglia.
  4. D) PNS.
  5. E) ventral horn.

Answer: B

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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66)  The neurons of the dorsal roots are

  1. A) sensory.
  2. B) motor.
  3. C) tracts.
  4. D) multipolar polar.
  5. E) bipolar.

Answer: A

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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67)  Most neurons of the ventral roots

  1. A) are bipolar.
  2. B) are unipolar.
  3. C) have their cell bodies in white matter.
  4. D) have their cell bodies in the ventral horns.
  5. E) are interneurons.

Answer: D

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Topic: 3.4  Spinal Cord

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68)  “Encephalon” means within the

  1. A) forebrain.
  2. B) brain stem.
  3. C) head.
  4. D) cerebral hemispheres.
  5. E) nervous system.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

69)  The large lateral outgrowths that compose the telencephalon are the

  1. A) eyes.
  2. B) temporal lobes.
  3. C) cerebral hemispheres.
  4. D) ventricles.
  5. E) testes.

Answer: C

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Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

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70)  This is an illustration of the developing neural tube.  The line points to one of the brain’s major divisions, the

  1. A) diencephalon.
  2. B) metencephalon.
  3. C) telencephalon.
  4. D) myelencephalon.
  5. E) mesencephalon.

Answer: A

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71)  The myelencephalon is often called the

  1. A) midbrain.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) brain stem.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) cortex.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

72)  The caudal part of the forebrain is the

  1. A) telencephalon.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) myelencephalon.
  4. D) reticular formation.
  5. E) midbrain.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

73)  The midbrain is

  1. A) part of the mesencephalon.
  2. B) part of the metencephalon.
  3. C) the mesencephalon.
  4. D) part of the brain stem.
  5. E) both C and D

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

74)  The myelencephalon is

  1. A) the medulla.
  2. B) part of the hindbrain.
  3. C) part of the brain stem.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

75)  Which of the following is not in the brain stem?

  1. A) myelencephalon
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) metencephalon
  4. D) medulla
  5. E) telencephalon

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5  Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

76)  The myelencephalon is composed largely of

  1. A) ganglia.
  2. B) tracts.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) ventricles.
  5. E) colliculi.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

77)  Which of the following structures is named after a term that means “little net”?

  1. A) reticular formation
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) medulla
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) hippocampus

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

78)  The reticular formation is in the

  1. A) brain stem.
  2. B) cortex.
  3. C) thalamus.
  4. D) olfactory bulb.
  5. E) spinal cord.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

79) This is an illustration of the human brain stem. The pointer lines point to the

  1. A) cerebellum.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) reticular formation.
  4. D) hippocampus.
  5. E) tegmentum.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

80)  The reticular formation is in the core of the

  1. A) mesencephalon.
  2. B) myelencephalon.
  3. C) metencephalon.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

81)  Which of the following is a large structure visible on the dorsal surface of the human brain stem?

  1. A) pituitary
  2. B) cerebellum
  3. C) optic chiasm
  4. D) hypothalamus
  5. E) mammillary body

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

82)  The inferior and superior colliculi compose the

  1. A) thalamus.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) tectum.
  4. D) hippocampus.
  5. E) cerebellum.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

83)  The tectum is the roof of the

  1. A) metencephalon.
  2. B) mesencephalon.
  3. C) myelencephalon.
  4. D) telencephalon.
  5. E) diencephalon.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

84)  Which structure is not part of the tegmentum?

  1. A) hypothalamus
  2. B) periaqueductal gray
  3. C) substantia nigra
  4. D) red nucleus
  5. E) cerebral aqueduct

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

85)  Three major structures in the __________ of the brain are named after colors (red, black, and grey).

  1. A) medulla
  2. B) mesencephalon
  3. C) tectum
  4. D) tegmentum
  5. E) thalamus

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: The three structures are the red nucleus, substantia nigra, and periaqueductal gray.

 

 

 

86)  The neural structure situated near the duct connecting the third and fourth ventricles is the

  1. A) substantia nigra.
  2. B) periaqueductal gray.
  3. C) red nucleus.
  4. D) superior colliculi.
  5. E) cerebral aqueduct.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

87)  The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the

  1. A) brain stem.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) mesencephalon.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) pituitary.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

88)  The lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, and ventral posterior nuclei are all nuclei of the

  1. A) midbrain.
  2. B) spinal cord.
  3. C) cortex.
  4. D) medulla.
  5. E) thalamus.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

89)  Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) reticular formation.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) substantia nigra.
  5. E) caudate.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

90)  Which of the following part of the diencephalon connects the two lobes of the thalamus?

  1. A) massa intermedia
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) cerebral aqueduct
  4. D) corpus callosum
  5. E) hippocampal commissure

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

91)  Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information?

  1. A) pons
  2. B) red nucleus
  3. C) lateral geniculate
  4. D) substantia nigra
  5. E) ventral posterior

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

92)  The lateral geniculate nuclei, medial geniculate nuclei, and ventral posterior nuclei are all

  1. A) diencephalic nuclei.
  2. B) thalamic nuclei.
  3. C) sensory relay nuclei.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

93)  Which structure of the diencephalon regulates the pituitary?

  1. A) snot gland
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) medial geniculate
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) nasal mucosa

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

94)  The pituitary gland is situated just inferior to the

  1. A) nose.
  2. B) hippocampus.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) hypothalamus.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

95)  Which of the following is an X-shaped structure?

  1. A) spinal white matter
  2. B) reticular formation
  3. C) pituitary
  4. D) optic chiasm
  5. E) substantia nigra

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

96)  Which of the following is a point of decussation?

  1. A) optic chiasm
  2. B) hippocampus
  3. C) temporal lobe
  4. D) substantia nigra
  5. E) superior colliculus

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

97)  This is an illustration of the

  1. A) thalamic nuclei.
  2. B) reticular nuclei.
  3. cerebral lobes.
  4. D) hypothalamic nuclei.
  5. E) cerebral fissures.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

98)  If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons running from the eyes to the brain would be

  1. A) on the right side.
  2. B) ipsilateral.
  3. C) contralateral.
  4. D) decussating.
  5. E) bilateral.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 67-68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: The specific answer to this question is not provided in this chapter, thus to get the correct answer, students must deduce it from the information that is provided.

 

 

99)  The mammillary nuclei are

  1. A) bumps visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
  2. B) visible on the inferior surface of the diencephalon.
  3. C) often considered to be nuclei of the hypothalamus.
  4. D) found only in females.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

100)  All mammals with lissencephalic brains

  1. A) are accountants.
  2. B) are flexible.
  3. C) have smooth brains.
  4. D) are clever.
  5. E) are old.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

101)  The large cortical ridges between fissures are called

  1. A) sulci.
  2. B) pyramids.
  3. C) gyri.
  4. D) commissures.
  5. E) lobes.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

102)  Big is to small as fissures are to

  1. A) gyri.
  2. B) pyramids.
  3. C) commissures.
  4. D) gyrus.
  5. E) sulci.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

103)  The largest cerebral commissure is the

  1. A) corpus callosum.
  2. B) massa commissura.
  3. C) massa intermedia.
  4. D) humungus commissura.
  5. E) longitudinal commissure.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

104)  The corpus callosum is the human brain’s largest

  1. A) neuron.
  2. B) nucleus.
  3. C) fissure.
  4. D) commissure.
  5. E) hemisphere.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

105)  The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it?

  1. A) temporal lobe
  2. B) frontal lobe
  3. C) parietal lobe
  4. D) prefrontal lobe
  5. E) occipital lobe

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

106)  Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) corpus callosum.
  4. D) temporal lobe.
  5. E) longitudinal fissure.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

107)  The line points to the

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) superior temporal gyrus.
  3. C) postcentral fissure.
  4. D) longitudinal fissure.
  5. E) parietal lobe.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68-69

 

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

108)  The lobe at the back of the brain, which serves a visual function, is the

  1. A) frontal lobe.
  2. B) occipital lobe.
  3. C) temporal lobe.
  4. D) prefrontal lobe.
  5. E) parietal lobe.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68-9

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

109)  The functions of the occipital cortex are largely

  1. A) motor.
  2. B) visual.
  3. C) auditory.
  4. D) somatosensory.
  5. E) olfactory.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68-69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

110)  Precentral is to postcentral as

  1. A) somatosensory is to motor.
  2. B) auditory is to motor.
  3. C) somatosensory is to auditory.
  4. D) motor is to somatosensory.
  5. E) auditory is to somatosensory.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

111)  About what proportion of human cerebral cortex is neocortex?

  1. A) 10 %
  2. B) 25 %
  3. C) 40 %
  4. D) 60 %
  5. E) 90 %

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

112)  Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and triangular cell bodies?

  1. A) stellate cells
  2. B) chandelier cells
  3. C) pyramidal cells
  4. D) granule cells
  5. E) fusiform cells

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

113)  Neocortex contains two fundamentally different kinds of neurons: pyramidal cells and

  1. A) apical cells.
  2. B) bipolar cells.
  3. C) multipolar cells.
  4. D) columnar cells.
  5. E) stellate cells.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

114)  Which of the following neurons have apical dendrites?

  1. A) interneurons
  2. B) stellate cells
  3. C) pyramidal cells
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

115)  The hippocampus is

  1. A) a neocortical structure.
  2. B) in the frontal lobes.
  3. C) six-layered.
  4. D) shaped like a sea horse in cross section.
  5. E) in the diencephalon.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

116)  The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the

  1. A) telencephalon.
  2. B) diencephalon.
  3. C) mesencephalon.
  4. D) myelencephalon.
  5. E) metencephalon.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

117)  A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors. This circuit is called the

  1. A) basal ganglia.
  2. B) neocortex.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) cranial nerves.
  5. E) somatosensory system.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

118)  A major limbic system tract is the

  1. A) corpus callosum.
  2. B) reticular formation.
  3. C) cingulate.
  4. D) fornix.
  5. E) septum.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

119)  Which of the following structures is not part of the limbic system?

  1. A) hippocampus
  2. B) septum
  3. C) cerebellum
  4. D) fornix
  5. E) hypothalamus

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

120)  Two parts of the limbic system are cortical structures. These two structures are the

  1. A) septum and the frontal cortex.
  2. B) hippocampus and the cingulate.
  3. C) frontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
  4. D) hippocampus and the amygdala.
  5. E) frontal cortex and the olfactory bulbs.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

121)  Portrayed in this illustration is a neural circuit called the

  1. A) basal ganglia.
  2. B) visual system.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) reticular system.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

122)  The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus compose the

  1. A) diencephalon.
  2. B) limbic system.
  3. C) somatosensory system.
  4. D) basal ganglia.
  5. E) thalamus.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

123)  Together, the caudate and the putamen compose the

  1. A) limbic system.
  2. B) globus pallidus.
  3. C) striatum.
  4. D) amygdala.
  5. E) uvula.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

124)  Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often found in cases of

  1. A) Korsakoff’s syndrome.
  2. B) Parkinson’s disease.
  3. C) autism.
  4. D) Alzheimer’s disease.
  5. E) multiple sclerosis.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

125) Illustrated here

  1. A) is the limbic system.
  2. B) is the diencephalon.
  3. C) is the reticular formation.
  4. D) are the basal ganglia.
  5. E) is the medulla.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.

Answer: central nervous

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 52

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

2)  The arachnoid membrane is one of the __________.

Answer: meninges

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

3)  Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.

Answer: ventricles

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

4)  Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.

Answer: tracts

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 56

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

5)  At the junction of the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.

Answer: axon hillock

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

6)  Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.

Answer: astrocytes

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57-59

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Type: Factual

 

7)  The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.

Answer: Golgi

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 61

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

Type: Factual

 

8)  The opposite of dorsal is __________.

Answer: ventral

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 62-63

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

Type: Factual

 

9)  It is __________ that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy white sheen.

Answer: myelin

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

Type: Factual

 

10)  Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.

Answer: dorsal

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 64

Topic: 3.4 The Spinal Cord

Type: Factual

 

11)  The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.

Answer: pons

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 65

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

12)  The large, two-lobed subcortical structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.

Answer: thalamus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 66

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

13)  The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.

Answer: pituitary

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 67

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

14)  The cerebral hemispheres are connected by tracts called cerebral __________.

Answer: commissures

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 68

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

15)  The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.

Answer: lateral

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

16)  Pyramidal cells have __________ dendrites.

Answer: apical

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 69

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

17)  The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.

Answer: hippocampus

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

18)  __________ means “ring.”

Answer: Limbic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

19)  The almond-shaped nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.

Answer: amygdala

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 70

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

20)  The putamen and __________ compose the striatum.

Answer: caudate

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 71

Topic: 3.5 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Type: Factual

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Describe the overall layout of the divisions and systems of the mammalian nervous system. Include a table in your answer. (Hint: “The mammalian nervous system is a system of twos.” )

Answer:

50% for a description of the organization

50% for an accurate table

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 52-53

Topic: 3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Type: (Factual)

 

2) Label and define each of the 9 identified parts of this typical multipolar neuron.

 

 

 

Answer:

9 marks for correct labels

9 marks for the definitions

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 57

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Type: (Factual)

 

3)  There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions. How is our understanding of glial cells currently changing?

Answer:

50% for a description of glial cell types and their function

50% for discussing recently discovered functions of glial cells

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 56-61

Topic: 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Type: (Factual, Conceptual)

 

4)  Compare Golgi and Nissl neuroanatomical stains, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Answer:

25% for describing Golgi staining

25% for describing Nissl staining

50% for comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the two stains

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 61-62

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

Type: (Factual)

 

5)  With the use of diagrams, describe all neuroanatomical directions in a conventional vertebrate (e.g., cat) nervous system and in the human nervous system.

Answer:

50% for illustrating dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral in a cat

25% for illustrating how this system is adapted to humans

25% for illustrating superior, inferior, proximal, and distal

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 62-63

Topic: 3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

Type: (Factual)

 

6)  Draw a lateral view of the human cerebral hemispheres. Illustrate the four lobes and label four other structures.

Answer:

40% for the drawing

40% for locating the four lobes

20% for labeling four structures

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 68-69

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

7)  Draw a midsagittal section of the human brain and label 10 structures.

Answer:

50% for the drawing

50% for correctly labeling 10 structures

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 73

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

8) Label all 14 parts of this midsagittal view of a human brain.

 

 

Answer:

14 marks for correctly labeling 14 structures

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 73

Topic: 3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Type: (Factual)