Sample Chapter



Business Intelligence: A Managerial Perspective On Analytics 3rd Ed By Ramesh Sharda, Dursun Delen – 

Test Bank 


Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 1   An Overview of Business Intelligence, Analytics, and Decision Support


1) Computerized support is only used for organizational decisions that are responses to external pressures, not for taking advantage of opportunities.


Page Ref: 6-7


2) The complexity of today’s business environment creates many new challenges for organizations, such as global competition, but creates few new opportunities in return.


Page Ref: 7


3) In addition to deploying business intelligence (BI) systems, companies may also perform other actions to counter business pressures, such as improving customer service and entering business alliances.


Page Ref: 8


4) The overwhelming majority of competitive actions taken by businesses today feature computerized information system support.


Page Ref: 8


5) The access to data and ability to manipulate data (frequently including real-time data) are key elements of business intelligence (BI) systems.


Page Ref: 8-9


6) One of the four components of BI systems, business performance management, is a collection of source data in the data warehouse.


Page Ref: 10


7) Actionable intelligence is the primary goal of modern-day Business Intelligence (BI) systems vs. historical reporting that characterized Management Information Systems (MIS).


Page Ref: 12


8) Data warehouse and BI initiatives typically follow a process similar to that used in military intelligence initiatives.


Page Ref: 13



9) The two critical partnerships required for BI governance are (a) a partnership between functional area users and/or product/service area employees, and (b) a partnership between representatives of the marketing and vendor sides.


Page Ref: 13

10) The term intelligence in a BI context is used to describe clandestine operations dedicated to stealing corporate secrets, in the manner of the government’s CIA and other covert agencies.


Page Ref: 14


11) Information systems that support such transactions as ATM withdrawals, bank deposits, and cash register scans at the grocery store represent transaction processing, a critical branch of BI.


Page Ref: 15


12) Many business users in the 1980s referred to their mainframes as “the black hole,” because all the information went into it, but little ever came back and ad hoc real-time querying was virtually impossible.


Page Ref: 15


13) The success of BI is assured not because of which personnel would be the most likely to use it, but as a result of pervasive adoption across the organization.


Page Ref: 16


14) BI represents a bold new paradigm in which the company’s business strategy must be aligned to its business intelligence analysis initiatives.


Page Ref: 16


15) Traditional BI systems use a large volume of static data that has been extracted, cleansed, and loaded into a data warehouse to produce reports and analyses.


Page Ref: 17


16) Almost all BI applications are constructed with shells provided by an outsourcing provider who may themselves create a custom solution for a vendor or work with another client.


Page Ref: 18


17) The use of dashboards and data visualizations is seldom effective in finding efficiencies in organizations, as demonstrated by the Seattle Children’s Hospital Case Study.


Page Ref: 21


18) The use of statistics in baseball by the Oakland Athletics, as described in the Moneyball case study, is an example of the effectiveness of prescriptive analytics.


Page Ref: 23


19) Pushing programming out to distributed data is achieved solely by using the Hadoop Distributed File System or HDFS.


Page Ref: 28

20) Volume, velocity, and variety of data characterize the Big Data paradigm.


Page Ref: 29


21) In the Magpie Sensing case study, the automated collection of temperature and humidity data on shipped goods helped with various types of analytics. Which of the following is an example of prescriptive analytics?

  1. A) real time reports of the shipment’s temperature
  2. B) warning of an open shipment seal
  3. C) location of the shipment
  4. D) optimal temperature setting


Page Ref: 4-5


22) In the Magpie Sensing case study, the automated collection of temperature and humidity data on shipped goods helped with various types of analytics. Which of the following is an example of predictive analytics?

  1. A) real time reports of the shipment’s temperature
  2. B) warning of an open shipment seal
  3. C) location of the shipment
  4. D) optimal temperature setting


Page Ref: 4-5


23) Which of the following is NOT an example that falls within the four major categories of business environment factors for today’s organizations?

  1. A) globalization
  2. B) increased pool of customers
  3. C) fewer government regulations
  4. D) increased competition


Page Ref: 7



24) Organizations counter the pressures they experience in their business environments in multiple ways. Which of the following is NOT an effective way to counter these pressures?

  1. A) reactive actions
  2. B) anticipative actions
  3. C) adaptive actions
  4. D) retroactive actions


Page Ref: 7-8


25) Business intelligence (BI) can be characterized as a transformation of

  1. A) data to information to decisions to actions.
  2. B) Big Data to data to information to decisions.
  3. C) actions to decisions to feedback to information.
  4. D) data to processing to information to actions.


Page Ref: 9

26) In answering the question “Which customers are most likely to click on my online ads and purchase my goods?” you are most likely to use which of the following analytic applications?

  1. A) customer profitability
  2. B) propensity to buy
  3. C) customer attrition
  4. D) channel optimization


Page Ref: 11


27) In answering the question “Which customers are likely to be using fake credit cards?” you are most likely to use which of the following analytic applications?

  1. A) channel optimization
  2. B) customer segmentation
  3. C) fraud detection
  4. D) customer profitability


Page Ref: 11


28) When Sabre developed their Enterprise Data Warehouse, they chose to use near-real time updating of their database. The main reason they did so was

  1. A) to provide a 360 degree view of the organization.
  2. B) to aggregate performance metrics in an understandable way.
  3. C) to be able to assess internal operations.
  4. D) to provide up-to-date executive insights.


Page Ref: 11-12



29) Once a data warehouse is in place, the general process of intelligence creation begins with

  1. A) end-user examinations of decision-making impacts.
  2. B) identifying and prioritizing specific BI projects.
  3. C) estimating the cost-benefit ratio of the ROI.
  4. D) establishing the critical partnerships required for BI governance.


Page Ref: 13


30) When middles look across an organization to ensure that project priorities reflect the needs of the entire business, what is their main concern?

  1. A) that their proprietary BI methods are protected from industrial espionage
  2. B) that additional information available through an enterprise data warehouse should assist in decision making
  3. C) that a project does not just serve to sub-optimize one area over others
  4. D) that return on investment (ROI) and total cost of ownership justify the cost—benefit ratio


Page Ref: 13

31) Online transaction processing (OLTP) systems handle a company’s routine ongoing business. In contrast, a data warehouse is typically

  1. A) the end result of BI processes and operations.
  2. B) a repository of actionable intelligence obtained from a data mart.
  3. C) a distinct system that provides storage for data that will be made use of in analysis.
  4. D) an integral subsystem of an online analytical processing (OLAP) system.


Page Ref: 15


32) The very design that makes an OLTP system efficient for transaction processing makes it inefficient for what?

  1. A) end-user ad hoc reports, queries, and analysis
  2. B) transaction processing systems that constantly update operational databases
  3. C) the collection of reputable sources of intelligence
  4. D) transactions such as ATM withdrawals, where we need to reduce a bank balance accordingly


Page Ref: 15


33) What can the BI users in an organization help guide and direct?

  1. A) how to implement and deploy a BI initiative that can be lengthy, expensive, and failure prone
  2. B) how the DW is structured and the types of BI tools and other supporting software that are needed
  3. C) how to decompose the planning and execution into business, organization, functionality, and infrastructure components
  4. D) how the DW is structured and the costs and the appreciation for different classes of potential users


Page Ref: 16


34) If a company’s strategy is properly aligned with DW and BI initiatives, and if the company’s IS organization can be made capable of playing its role in such a project, and if the requisite user community is in place and has the proper motivation, then

  1. A) it is no longer necessary to start BI within the company.
  2. B) it is wise to start BI and establish a BI Competency Center (BICC) within the company.
  3. C) the organization is ready for the introduction of new data-generating technologies, such as radio-frequency identification (RFID).
  4. D) business leaders are required to document their business processes and to sign off on the legitimacy of the information they rely on.


Page Ref: 17

35) What has caused the growth of the demand for instant, on-demand access to dispersed information?

  1. A) the increasing divide between users who focus on the strategic level and those who are more oriented to the tactical level
  2. B) the need to create a database infrastructure that is always online and contains all the information from the OLTP systems
  3. C) the more pressing need to close the gap between the operational data and strategic objectives
  4. D) the fact that BI cannot simply be a technical exercise for the information systems department


Page Ref: 17


36) Today, many vendors offer diversified tools, some of which are completely preprogrammed (called shells). How are these shells utilized?

  1. A) They are used for customization of BI solutions.
  2. B) All a user needs to do is insert the numbers.
  3. C) The shell provides a secure environment for the organization’s BI data.
  4. D) They host an enterprise data warehouse that can assist in decision making.


Page Ref: 18


37) How are descriptive analytics methods different from the other two types?

  1. A) They answer “what-if?” queries, not “how many?” queries.
  2. B) They answer “what-is?” queries, not “what will be?” queries.
  3. C) They answer “what to do?” queries, not “what-if?” queries.
  4. D) They answer “what will be?” queries, not “what to do?” queries.


Page Ref: 20-23



38) Prescriptive BI capabilities are viewed as more powerful than predictive ones for all the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. A) prescriptive BI gives actual guidance as to actions.
  2. B) understanding the likelihood of certain events often leaves unclear remedies.
  3. C) only prescriptive BI capabilities have monetary value to top-level managers.
  4. D) prescriptive models generally build on (with some overlap) predictive ones.


Page Ref: 22


39) Which of the following statements about Big Data is true?

  1. A) Data chunks are stored in different locations on one computer.
  2. B) Hadoop is a type of processor used to process Big Data applications.
  3. C) MapReduce is a storage filing system.
  4. D) Pure Big Data systems do not involve fault tolerance.


Page Ref: 27-28

40) Big Data often involves a form of distributed storage and processing using Hadoop and MapReduce. One reason for this is

  1. A) centralized storage creates too many vulnerabilities.
  2. B) the “Big” in Big Data necessitates over 10,000 processing nodes.
  3. C) the processing power needed for the centralized model would overload a single computer.
  4. D) Big Data systems have to match the geographical spread of social media.


Page Ref: 27-28


41) The desire by a customer to customize a product falls under the ________ category of business environment factors.


42) An older and more diverse workforce falls under the ________ category of business environment factors.


43) Organizations using BI systems are typically seeking to ________ the gap between the organization’s current and desired performance.


44) ________ is an umbrella term that combines architectures, tools, databases, analytical tools, applications, and methodologies.



45) A(n) ________ is a major component of a Business Intelligence (BI) system that holds source data.


46) A(n) ________ is a major component of a Business Intelligence (BI) system that is usually browser based and often presents a portal or dashboard.


47) ________ cycle times are now extremely compressed, faster, and more informed across industries.


48) The fraud ________ analytic application helps determine fraudulent events and take action.

49) Sabre used executive ________ to present performance metrics in a concise way to its executives.


50) Some organizations refer to the project prioritization process as a form of BI ________.


51) Applications based upon sensor and location data that contribute to the exponential growth of collected raw data is called ________ identification.


52) Data warehouses are intended to work with informational data used for online ________ processing systems.


53) Many BI consultants and practitioners involved in successful BI initiatives advise that a framework for ________ is a necessary precondition.


54) As the number of potential BI applications increases, the need to justify and prioritize them arises. This is not an easy task due to the large number of ________ benefits.


55) ________ analytics help managers understand current events in the organization including causes, trends, and patterns.


56) ________ analytics help managers understand probable future outcomes.

Page Ref: 20


57) ________ analytics help managers make decisions to achieve the best performance in the future.


58) The Google search engine is an example of Big Data in that it has to search and index billions of ________ in fractions of a second for each search.


59) The filing system developed by Google to handle Big Data storage challenges is known as the ________ Distributed File System.


60) The programing algorithm developed by Google to handle Big Data computational challenges is known as ________.


61) The environment in which organizations operate today is becoming more and more complex.

Business environment factors can be divided into four major categories. What are these categories?

62) What are the four major components of a Business Intelligence (BI) system?


63) What is a typical set of issues, as described in section 1.4, that the BI governance team needs to address?


64) What is the intent of the analysis of data that is stored in a data warehouse?

Answer:  The intent of the analysis is to give management the ability to analyze data for insights into the business, and thus provide tactical or operational decision support whereby, for example, line personnel can make quicker and/or more informed decisions.

Page Ref: 15

65) Mention four possible functions that a BI Competency Center (BICC) would serve within an organization, and give a brief description of each.


66) Business applications can be programmed to act on what real-time BI systems discover. Describe two approaches to the implementation of real-time BI.


67) List and describe three levels or categories of analytics that are most often viewed as sequential and independent, but also occasionally seen as overlapping.

68) How does use predictive analytics to respond to product searches by the customer?


69) Describe and define Big Data. Why is a search engine a Big Data application?


70) What storage system and processing algorithm were developed by Google for Big Data?



Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 2   Data Warehousing


1) In the Isle of Capri case, the only capability added by the new software was increased processing speed of processing reports.


Page Ref: 38


2) The “islands of data” problem in the 1980s describes the phenomenon of unconnected data being stored in numerous locations within an organization.


Page Ref: 41


3) Subject oriented databases for data warehousing are organized by detailed subjects such as disk drives, computers, and networks.


Page Ref: 42


4) Data warehouses are subsets of data marts.


Page Ref: 43


5) One way an operational data store differs from a data warehouse is the recency of their data.


Page Ref: 43-44


6) Organizations seldom devote a lot of effort to creating metadata because it is not important for the effective use of data warehouses.


Page Ref: 46


7) Without middleware, different BI programs cannot easily connect to the data warehouse.


Page Ref: 48-49


8) Two-tier data warehouse/BI infrastructures offer organizations more flexibility but cost more than three-tier ones.


Page Ref: 50


9) Moving the data into a data warehouse is usually the easiest part of its creation.


10) The hub-and-spoke data warehouse model uses a centralized warehouse feeding dependent data marts.


Page Ref: 52

11) Because of performance and data quality issues, most experts agree that the federated architecture should supplement data warehouses, not replace them.


Page Ref: 54


12) Bill Inmon advocates the data mart bus architecture whereas Ralph Kimball promotes the hub-and-spoke architecture, a data mart bus architecture with conformed dimensions.


Page Ref: 55


13) The ETL process in data warehousing usually takes up a small portion of the time in a data-centric project.


Page Ref: 59


14) In the Starwood Hotels case, up-to-date data and faster reporting helped hotel managers better manage their occupancy rates.


Page Ref: 66


15) Large companies, especially those with revenue upwards of $500 million consistently reap substantial cost savings through the use of hosted data warehouses.


Page Ref: 68


16) OLTP systems are designed to handle ad hoc analysis and complex queries that deal with many data items.


Page Ref: 70


17) The data warehousing maturity model consists of six stages: prenatal, infant, child, teenager, adult, and sage.


Page Ref: 73


18) A well-designed data warehouse means that user requirements do not have to change as business needs change.


19) Data warehouse administrators (DWAs) do not need strong business insight since they only handle the technical aspect of the infrastructure.


Page Ref: 82


20) Because the recession has raised interest in low-cost open source software, it is now set to replace traditional enterprise software.


Page Ref: 83

21) The “single version of the truth” embodied in a data warehouse such as Capri Casinos’ means all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) decision makers get to see the same results to queries.
  2. B) decision makers have the same data available to support their decisions.
  3. C) decision makers get to use more dependable data for their decisions.
  4. D) decision makers have unfettered access to all data in the warehouse.


Page Ref: 40


22) Operational or transaction databases are product oriented, handling transactions that update the database. In contrast, data warehouses are

  1. A) subject-oriented and nonvolatile.
  2. B) product-oriented and nonvolatile.
  3. C) product-oriented and volatile.
  4. D) subject-oriented and volatile.


Page Ref: 40


23) Which kind of data warehouse is created separately from the enterprise data warehouse by a department and not reliant on it for updates?

  1. A) sectional data mart
  2. B) public data mart
  3. C) independent data mart
  4. D) volatile data mart


Page Ref: 43


24) All of the following statements about metadata are true EXCEPT

  1. A) metadata gives context to reported data.
  2. B) there may be ethical issues involved in the creation of metadata.
  3. C) metadata helps to describe the meaning and structure of data.
  4. D) for most organizations, data warehouse metadata are an unnecessary expense.


25) A Web client that connects to a Web server, which is in turn connected to a BI application server, is reflective of a

  1. A) one tier architecture.
  2. B) two tier architecture.
  3. C) three tier architecture.
  4. D) four tier architecture.


Page Ref: 49-50

26) Which of the following BEST enables a data warehouse to handle complex queries and scale up to handle many more requests?

  1. A) use of the web by users as a front-end
  2. B) parallel processing
  3. C) Microsoft Windows
  4. D) a larger IT staff


Page Ref: 51


27) Which data warehouse architecture uses metadata from existing data warehouses to create a hybrid logical data warehouse comprised of data from the other warehouses?

  1. A) independent data marts architecture
  2. B) centralized data warehouse architecture
  3. C) hub-and-spoke data warehouse architecture
  4. D) federated architecture


Page Ref: 53


28) Which data warehouse architecture uses a normalized relational warehouse that feeds multiple data marts?

  1. A) independent data marts architecture
  2. B) centralized data warehouse architecture
  3. C) hub-and-spoke data warehouse architecture
  4. D) federated architecture


Page Ref: 53


29) Which approach to data warehouse integration focuses more on sharing process functionality than data across systems?

  1. A) extraction, transformation, and load
  2. B) enterprise application integration
  3. C) enterprise information integration
  4. D) enterprise function integration


30) In which stage of extraction, transformation, and load (ETL) into a data warehouse are data aggregated?

  1. A) transformation
  2. B) extraction
  3. C) load
  4. D) cleanse


Page Ref: 59

31) In which stage of extraction, transformation, and load (ETL) into a data warehouse are anomalies detected and corrected?

  1. A) transformation
  2. B) extraction
  3. C) load
  4. D) cleanse


Page Ref: 59


32) Data warehouses provide direct and indirect benefits to using organizations. Which of the following is an indirect benefit of data warehouses?

  1. A) better and more timely information
  2. B) extensive new analyses performed by users
  3. C) simplified access to data
  4. D) improved customer service


Page Ref: 61


33) All of the following are benefits of hosted data warehouses EXCEPT

  1. A) smaller upfront investment.
  2. B) better quality hardware.
  3. C) greater control of data.
  4. D) frees up in-house systems.


Page Ref: 68


34) When representing data in a data warehouse, using several dimension tables that are each connected only to a fact table means you are using which warehouse structure?

  1. A) star schema
  2. B) snowflake schema
  3. C) relational schema
  4. D) dimensional schema


35) When querying a dimensional database, a user went from summarized data to its underlying details. The function that served this purpose is

  1. A) dice.
  2. B) slice.
  3. C) roll-up.
  4. D) drill down.


Page Ref: 70-71

36) Which of the following online analytical processing (OLAP) technologies does NOT require the precomputation and storage of information?

  1. A) MOLAP
  2. B) ROLAP
  3. C) HOLAP
  4. D) SQL


Page Ref: 71-72


37) Active data warehousing can be used to support the highest level of decision making sophistication and power. The major feature that enables this in relation to handling the data is

  1. A) country of (data) origin.
  2. B) nature of the data.
  3. C) speed of data transfer.
  4. D) source of the data.


Page Ref: 77


38) Which of the following statements is more descriptive of active data warehouses in contrast with traditional data warehouses?

  1. A) strategic decisions whose impacts are hard to measure
  2. B) detailed data available for strategic use only
  3. C) large numbers of users, including operational staffs
  4. D) restrictive reporting with daily and weekly data currency


Page Ref: 81


39) How does the use of cloud computing affect the scalability of a data warehouse?

  1. A) Cloud computing vendors bring as much hardware as needed to users’ offices.
  2. B) Hardware resources are dynamically allocated as use increases.
  3. C) Cloud vendors are mostly based overseas where the cost of labor is low.
  4. D) Cloud computing has little effect on a data warehouse’s scalability.


40) All of the following are true about in-database processing technology EXCEPT

  1. A) it pushes the algorithms to where the data is.
  2. B) it makes the response to queries much faster than conventional databases.
  3. C) it is often used for apps like credit card fraud detection and investment risk management.
  4. D) it is the same as in-memory storage technology.


Page Ref: 85


41) With ________ data flows, managers can view the current state of their businesses and quickly identify problems.

42) In ________ oriented data warehousing, operational databases are tuned to handle transactions that update the database.


43) The three main types of data warehouses are data marts, operational ________, and enterprise data warehouses.


44) ________ describe the structure and meaning of the data, contributing to their effective use.



45) Most data warehouses are built using ________ database management systems to control and manage the data.


46) A(n) ________ architecture is used to build a scalable and maintainable infrastructure that includes a centralized data warehouse and several dependent data marts.


47) The ________ data warehouse architecture involves integrating disparate systems and analytical resources from multiple sources to meet changing needs or business conditions.


48) Data ________ comprises data access, data federation, and change capture.

49) ________ is a mechanism that integrates application functionality and shares functionality (rather than data) across systems, thereby enabling flexibility and reuse.


50) ________ is a mechanism for pulling data from source systems to satisfy a request for information. It is an evolving tool space that promises real-time data integration from a variety of sources, such as relational databases, Web services, and multidimensional databases.


51) Performing extensive ________ to move data to the data warehouse may be a sign of poorly managed data and a fundamental lack of a coherent data management strategy.

52) The ________ Model, also known as the EDW approach, emphasizes top-down development, employing established database development methodologies and tools, such as entity-relationship diagrams (ERD), and an adjustment of the spiral development approach.


53) The ________ Model, also known as the data mart approach, is a “plan big, build small” approach. A data mart is a subject-oriented or department-oriented data warehouse. It is a scaled-down version of a data warehouse that focuses on the requests of a specific department, such as marketing or sales.


54) ________ modeling is a retrieval-based system that supports high-volume query access.


55) Online ________ is arguably the most commonly used data analysis technique in data warehouses.


56) Online ________ is a term used for a transaction system that is primarily responsible for capturing and storing data related to day-to-day business functions such as ERP, CRM, SCM, and point of sale.

57) In the Michigan State Agencies case, the approach used was a(n) ________ one, instead of developing separate BI/DW platforms for each business area or state agency.


58) The role responsible for successful administration and management of a data warehouse is the ________, who should be familiar with high-performance software, hardware, and networking technologies, and also possesses solid business insight.


59) ________, or “The Extended ASP Model,” is a creative way of deploying information system applications where the provider licenses its applications to customers for use as a service on demand (usually over the Internet)


60) ________ (also called in-database analytics) refers to the integration of the algorithmic extent of data analytics into data warehouse.

61) What is the definition of a data warehouse (DW) in simple terms?


62) A common way of introducing data warehousing is to refer to its fundamental characteristics. Describe three characteristics of data warehousing.


63) What is the definition of a data mart?

data mart is a subset of a data warehouse, typically consisting of a single subject area (e.g., marketing, operations). Whereas a data warehouse combines databases across an entire enterprise, a data mart is usually smaller and focuses on a particular subject or department.

Page Ref: 43


64) Mehra (2005) indicated that few organizations really understand metadata, and fewer understand how to design and implement a metadata strategy. How would you describe metadata?


65) According to Kassam (2002), business metadata comprise information that increases our understanding of traditional (i.e., structured) data. What is the primary purpose of metadata?


66) In the MultiCare case, how was data warehousing able to reduce septicemia mortality rates in MultiCare hospitals?


67) Briefly describe four major components of the data warehousing process.


68) There are several basic information system architectures that can be used for data warehousing. What are they?

69) More data, coming in faster and requiring immediate conversion into decisions, means that organizations are confronting the need for real-time data warehousing (RDW). How would you define real-time data warehousing?

70) Mention briefly some of the recently popularized concepts and technologies that will play a significant role in defining the future of data warehousing.



Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 3   Business Reporting, Visual Analytics, and Business Performance Management


1) The WebFOCUS BI platform in the Travel and Transport case study decreased clients’ reliance on the IT function when seeking system reports.


Page Ref: 97


2) The dashboard for the WebFOCUS BI platform in the Travel and Transport case study required client side software to operate.


Page Ref: 98


3) Data is the contextualization of information, that is, information set in context.


Page Ref: 99


4) The main difference between service level agreements and key performance indicators is the audience.


Page Ref: 101


5) The balanced scorecard is a type of report that is based solely on financial metrics.


Page Ref: 103


6) The data storage component of a business reporting system builds the various reports and hosts them for, or disseminates them to users. It also provides notification, annotation, collaboration, and other services.


Page Ref: 104


7) In the FEMA case study, the BureauNet software was the primary reason behind the increased speed and relevance of the reports FEMA employees received.


Page Ref: 104-105


8) Google Maps has set new standards for data visualization with its intuitive Web mapping software.


Page Ref: 109


9) There are basic chart types and specialized chart types. A Gantt chart is a specialized chart type.


Page Ref: 111-112

10) Visualization differs from traditional charts and graphs in complexity of data sets and use of multiple dimensions and measures.


Page Ref: 114-115


11) When telling a story during a presentation, it is best to avoid describing hurdles that your character must overcome, to avoid souring the mood.


Page Ref: 117


12) For best results when deploying visual analytics environments, focus only on power users and management to get the best return on your investment.


Page Ref: 118


13) Information density is a key characteristic of performance dashboards.


Page Ref: 119


14) In the Dallas Cowboys case study, the focus was on using data analytics to decide which players would play every week.


Page Ref: 121


15) One comparison typically made when data is presented in business intelligence systems is a comparison against historical values.


Page Ref: 122


16) The best key performance indicators are derived independently from the company’s strategic goals to enable developers to “think outside of the box.”


Page Ref: 126


17) The BPM development cycle is essentially a one-shot process where the requirement is to get it right the first time.


Page Ref: 126-127


18) With key performance indicators, driver KPIs have a significant effect on outcome KPIs, but the reverse is not necessarily true.


19) With the balanced scorecard approach, the entire focus is on measuring and managing specific financial goals based on the organization’s strategy.


Page Ref: 134

20) A Six Sigma deployment can be deemed effective even if the number of defects are not reduced to 3.4 defects per million.


Page Ref: 136


21) For those executives who do not have the time to go through lengthy reports, the best alternative is the

  1. A) last page of the report.
  2. B) raw data that informed the report.
  3. C) executive summary.
  4. D) charts in the report.


Page Ref: 100


22) All of the following are true about external reports between businesses and the government EXCEPT

  1. A) they can include tax and compliance reporting.
  2. B) they can be filed nationally or internationally.
  3. C) they are standardized for the most part to reduce the regulatory burden.
  4. D) their primary focus is government.


Page Ref: 100-101


23) Kaplan and Norton developed a report that presents an integrated view of success in the organization called

  1. A) metric management reports.
  2. B) balanced scorecard-type reports.
  3. C) dashboard-type reports.
  4. D) visual reports.


Page Ref: 103


24) Which component of a reporting system contains steps detailing how recorded transactions are converted into metrics, scorecards, and dashboards?

  1. A) data supply
  2. B) business logic
  3. C) extract, transform and load
  4. D) assurance


25) Which of the following is LEAST related to data/information visualization?

  1. A) information graphics
  2. B) scientific visualization
  3. C) statistical graphics
  4. D) graphic artwork


Page Ref: 105

26) The Internet emerged as a new medium for visualization and brought all the following EXCEPT

  1. A) worldwide digital distribution of visualization.
  2. B) immersive environments for consuming data.
  3. C) new forms of computation of business logic.
  4. D) new graphics displays through PC displays.


Page Ref: 109


27) Which kind of chart is described as an enhanced variant of a scatter plot?

  1. A) heat map
  2. B) bullet
  3. C) pie chart
  4. D) bubble chart


Page Ref: 111


28) Which type of visualization tool can be very helpful when the intention is to show relative proportions of dollars per department allocated by a university administration?

  1. A) heat map
  2. B) bullet
  3. C) pie chart
  4. D) bubble chart


Page Ref: 111


29) Which type of visualization tool can be very helpful when a data set contains location data?

  1. A) bar chart
  2. B) geographic map
  3. C) highlight table
  4. D) tree map


30) Which type of question does visual analytics seeks to answer?

  1. A) Why did it happen?
  2. B) What happened yesterday?
  3. C) What is happening today?
  4. D) When did it happen?


Page Ref: 116


31) When you tell a story in a presentation, all of the following are true EXCEPT

  1. A) a story should make sense and order out of a lot of background noise.
  2. B) a well-told story should have no need for subsequent discussion.
  3. C) stories and their lessons should be easy to remember.
  4. D) the outcome and reasons for it should be clear at the end of your story.


Page Ref: 117

32) Benefits of the latest visual analytics tools, such as SAS Visual Analytics, include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) mobile platforms such as the iPhone are supported by these products.
  2. B) it is easier to spot useful patterns and trends in the data.
  3. C) they explore massive amounts of data in hours, not days.
  4. D) there is less demand on IT departments for reports.


Page Ref: 118


33) What is the management feature of a dashboard?

  1. A) operational data that identify what actions to take to resolve a problem
  2. B) summarized dimensional data to analyze the root cause of problems
  3. C) summarized dimensional data to monitor key performance metrics
  4. D) graphical, abstracted data to monitor key performance metrics


Page Ref: 122


34) What is the fundamental challenge of dashboard design?

  1. A) ensuring that users across the organization have access to it
  2. B) ensuring that the organization has the appropriate hardware onsite to support it
  3. C) ensuring that the organization has access to the latest web browsers
  4. D) ensuring that the required information is shown clearly on a single screen


Page Ref: 122



35) Contextual metadata for a dashboard includes all the following EXCEPT

  1. A) whether any high-value transactions that would skew the overall trends were rejected as a part of the loading process.
  2. B) which operating system is running the dashboard server software.
  3. C) whether the dashboard is presenting “fresh” or “stale” information.
  4. D) when the data warehouse was last refreshed.


Page Ref: 125


36) Dashboards can be presented at all the following levels EXCEPT

  1. A) the visual dashboard level.
  2. B) the static report level.
  3. C) the visual cube level.
  4. D) the self-service cube level.


Page Ref: 125


37) Why is a performance management system superior to a performance measurement system?

  1. A) because performance measurement systems are only in their infancy
  2. B) because measurement automatically leads to problem solution
  3. C) because performance management systems cost more
  4. D) because measurement alone has little use without action


Page Ref: 131-132

38) Why is the customer perspective important in the balanced scorecard methodology?

  1. A) because dissatisfied customers will eventually hurt the bottom line
  2. B) because customers should always be included in any design methodology
  3. C) because customers understand best how the firm’s internal processes should work
  4. D) because companies need customer input into the design of the balanced scorecard


Page Ref: 132-133


39) All of the following statements about balanced scorecards and dashboards are true EXCEPT

  1. A) scorecards are less preferred at operational and tactical levels.
  2. B) dashboards would be the preferred choice to monitor production quality.
  3. C) scorecards are best for real-time tracking of a marketing campaign.
  4. D) scorecards are preferred for tracking the achievement of strategic goals.


Page Ref: 134



40) What is Six Sigma?

  1. A) a letter in the Greek alphabet that statisticians use to measure process variability
  2. B) a methodology aimed at reducing the number of defects in a business process
  3. C) a methodology aimed at reducing the amount of variability in a business process
  4. D) a methodology aimed at measuring the amount of variability in a business process


Page Ref: 135-136


41) A(n) ________ is a communication artifact, concerning business matters, prepared with the specific intention of relaying information in a presentable form.


42) Travel and Transport created an online BI self-service system that allowed ________ to access information directly.


43) There are only a few categories of business report: informal, ________, and short.


44) ________ management reports are used to manage business performance through outcome-oriented metrics in many organizations.



45) In the Delta Lloyd Group case study, the ________ is the stage of the reporting process in which consolidated figures are cited, formatted, and described to form the final text of the report.

46) In the Blastrac case study, Tableau analytics software was used to replace massive ________ that were loaded with data from multiple ERP systems.


47) ________ charts are useful in displaying nominal data or numerical data that splits nicely

into different categories so you can quickly see comparative results and trends.


48) ________ charts or network diagrams show precedence relationships among the project activities/tasks.


49) ________ are typically used together with other charts and graphs, as opposed to by themselves, and show postal codes, country names, etc.


50) Typical charts, graphs, and other visual elements used in visualization-based applications usually involve ________ dimensions.


51) Visual analytics is widely regarded as the combination of visualization and ________ analytics.



52) Dashboards present visual displays of important information that are consolidated and arranged on a single ________.


53) With dashboards, the layer of information that uses graphical, abstracted data to keep tabs on key performance metrics is the ________ layer.



54) In the Saudi Telecom company case study, information ________ software allowed managers to see trends and correct issues before they became problems.


55) Performance dashboards enable ________ operations that allow the users to view underlying data sources and obtain more detail.

56) With a dashboard, information on sources of the data being presented, the quality and currency of underlying data provide contextual ________ for users.


57) Business performance management comprises a ________ set of processes that link strategy to execution with the goal of optimizing business performance.

58) In the Mace case study, the IBM Cognos software enabled the rapid creation of integrated reports across 60 countries, replacing a large and complex ________.


59) A strategically aligned metric is also known as a key ________.


60) The ________ perspective of the organization suggested by the balanced scorecard focuses on business processes and how well they are running.


61) List and describe the three major categories of business reports.


62) List five types of specialized charts and graphs.

63) According to Eckerson (2006), a well-known expert on BI dashboards, what are the three layers of information of a dashboard?


64) List five best practices of dashboard design.



65) What are the four processes that define a closed-loop BPM cycle?

66) List and describe five distinguishing features of key performance indicators.


67) What are the three nonfinancial objectives of the balanced scorecard?


68) Six Sigma rests on a simple performance improvement model known as DMAIC. What are the steps involved?

69) What are the basic ingredients of a good collection of performance measures?



70) In the Expedia case study, what three steps were taken to convert drivers of departmental performance into a scorecard?


Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 4   Data Mining


1) In the Cabela’s case study, the SAS/Teradata solution enabled the direct marketer to better identify likely customers and market to them based mostly on external data sources.


Page Ref: 146-147


2) The cost of data storage has plummeted recently, making data mining feasible for more firms.


Page Ref: 149


3) Data mining can be very useful in detecting patterns such as credit card fraud, but is of little help in improving sales.


Page Ref: 149


4) If using a mining analogy, “knowledge mining” would be a more appropriate term than “data mining.”


Page Ref: 150


5) The entire focus of the predictive analytics system in the Infinity P&C case was on detecting and handling fraudulent claims for the company’s benefit.


Page Ref: 151


6) Data mining requires specialized data analysts to ask ad hoc questions and obtain answers quickly from the system.


Page Ref: 152


7) Ratio data is a type of categorical data.


Page Ref: 153


8) Interval data is a type of numerical data.


Page Ref: 153


9) In the Memphis Police Department case study, predictive analytics helped to identify the best schedule for officers in order to pay the least overtime.


Page Ref: 155-156



10) In data mining, classification models help in prediction.


Page Ref: 157

11) Statistics and data mining both look for data sets that are as large as possible.


Page Ref: 159


12) Using data mining on data about imports and exports can help to detect tax avoidance and money laundering.


Page Ref: 162


13) In the cancer research case study, data mining algorithms that predict cancer survivability with high predictive power are good replacements for medical professionals.


Page Ref: 170


14) During classification in data mining, a false positive is an occurrence classified as true by the algorithm while being false in reality.


Page Ref: 173


15) When training a data mining model, the testing dataset is always larger than the training dataset.


Page Ref: 174


16) When a problem has many attributes that impact the classification of different patterns, decision trees may be a useful approach.


Page Ref: 177


17) In the 2degrees case study, the main effectiveness of the new analytics system was in dissuading potential churners from leaving the company.


Page Ref: 180


18) Market basket analysis is a useful and entertaining way to explain data mining to a technologically less savvy audience, but it has little business significance.


Page Ref: 183


19) The number of users of free/open source data mining software now exceeds that of users of commercial software versions.


Page Ref: 187


20) Data that is collected, stored, and analyzed in data mining is often private and personal. There is no way to maintain individuals’ privacy other than being very careful about physical data security.


Page Ref: 192-193

21) In the Cabela’s case study, what types of models helped the company understand the value of customers, using a five-point scale?

  1. A) reporting and association models
  2. B) simulation and geographical models
  3. C) simulation and regression models
  4. D) clustering and association models


Page Ref: 147


22) Understanding customers better has helped Amazon and others become more successful. The understanding comes primarily from

  1. A) collecting data about customers and transactions.
  2. B) developing a philosophy that is data analytics-centric.
  3. C) analyzing the vast data amounts routinely collected.
  4. D) asking the customers what they want.


Page Ref: 148


23) All of the following statements about data mining are true EXCEPT

  1. A) the process aspect means that data mining should be a one-step process to results.
  2. B) the novel aspect means that previously unknown patterns are discovered.
  3. C) the potentially useful aspect means that results should lead to some business benefit.
  4. D) the valid aspect means that the discovered patterns should hold true on new data.


Page Ref: 151-152


24) What is the main reason parallel processing is sometimes used for data mining?

  1. A) because the hardware exists in most organizations and it is available to use
  2. B) because the most of the algorithms used for data mining require it
  3. C) because of the massive data amounts and search efforts involved
  4. D) because any strategic application requires parallel processing


Page Ref: 153



25) The data field “ethnic group” can be best described as

  1. A) nominal data.
  2. B) interval data.
  3. C) ordinal data.
  4. D) ratio data.


Page Ref: 154


26) The data field “salary” can be best described as

  1. A) nominal data.
  2. B) interval data.
  3. C) ordinal data.
  4. D) ratio data.


Page Ref: 154

27) Which broad area of data mining applications analyzes data, forming rules to distinguish between defined classes?

  1. A) associations
  2. B) visualization
  3. C) classification
  4. D) clustering


Page Ref: 157


28) Which broad area of data mining applications partitions a collection of objects into natural groupings with similar features?

  1. A) associations
  2. B) visualization
  3. C) classification
  4. D) clustering


Page Ref: 158


29) The data mining algorithm type used for classification somewhat resembling the biological neural networks in the human brain is

  1. A) association rule mining.
  2. B) cluster analysis.
  3. C) decision trees.
  4. D) artificial neural networks.


Page Ref: 158



30) Identifying and preventing incorrect claim payments and fraudulent activities falls under which type of data mining applications?

  1. A) insurance
  2. B) retailing and logistics
  3. C) customer relationship management
  4. D) computer hardware and software


Page Ref: 160


31) All of the following statements about data mining are true EXCEPT

  1. A) understanding the business goal is critical.
  2. B) understanding the data, e.g., the relevant variables, is critical to success.
  3. C) building the model takes the most time and effort.
  4. D) data is typically preprocessed and/or cleaned before use.


Page Ref: 163-168

32) Which data mining process/methodology is thought to be the most comprehensive, according to rankings?

  1. A) SEMMA
  2. B) proprietary organizational methodologies
  3. C) KDD Process
  4. D) CRISP-DM


Page Ref: 171


33) Prediction problems where the variables have numeric values are most accurately defined as

  1. A) classifications.
  2. B) regressions.
  3. C) associations.
  4. D) computations.


Page Ref: 172


34) What does the robustness of a data mining method refer to?

  1. A) its ability to predict the outcome of a previously unknown data set accurately
  2. B) its speed of computation and computational costs in using the mode
  3. C) its ability to construct a prediction model efficiently given a large amount of data
  4. D) its ability to overcome noisy data to make somewhat accurate predictions


Page Ref: 173



35) What does the scalability of a data mining method refer to?

  1. A) its ability to predict the outcome of a previously unknown data set accurately
  2. B) its speed of computation and computational costs in using the mode
  3. C) its ability to construct a prediction model efficiently given a large amount of data
  4. D) its ability to overcome noisy data to make somewhat accurate predictions


Page Ref: 173


36) In estimating the accuracy of data mining (or other) classification models, the true positive rate is

  1. A) the ratio of correctly classified positives divided by the total positive count.
  2. B) the ratio of correctly classified negatives divided by the total negative count.
  3. C) the ratio of correctly classified positives divided by the sum of correctly classified positives

and incorrectly classified positives.

  1. D) the ratio of correctly classified positives divided by the sum of correctly classified positives and incorrectly classified negatives.


Page Ref: 174

37) In data mining, finding an affinity of two products to be commonly together in a shopping cart is known as

  1. A) association rule mining.
  2. B) cluster analysis.
  3. C) decision trees.
  4. D) artificial neural networks.


Page Ref: 182


38) Third party providers of publicly available datasets protect the anonymity of the individuals in the data set primarily by

  1. A) asking data users to use the data ethically.
  2. B) leaving in identifiers (e.g., name), but changing other variables.
  3. C) removing identifiers such as names and social security numbers.
  4. D) letting individuals in the data know their data is being accessed.


Page Ref: 192-193


39) In the Target case study, why did Target send a teen maternity ads?

  1. A) Target’s analytic model confused her with an older woman with a similar name.
  2. B) Target was sending ads to all women in a particular neighborhood.
  3. C) Target’s analytic model suggested she was pregnant based on her buying habits.
  4. D) Target was using a special promotion that targeted all teens in her geographical area.


Page Ref: 193-194



40) Which of the following is a data mining myth?

  1. A) Data mining is a multistep process that requires deliberate, proactive design and use.
  2. B) Data mining requires a separate, dedicated database.
  3. C) The current state-of-the-art is ready to go for almost any business.
  4. D) Newer Web-based tools enable managers of all educational levels to do data mining.


Page Ref: 194


41) In the opening vignette, Cabela’s uses SAS data mining tools to create ________ models to optimize customer selection for all customer contacts.


42) There has been an increase in data mining to deal with global competition and customers’ more sophisticated ________ and wants.


43) Knowledge extraction, pattern analysis, data archaeology, information harvesting, pattern searching, and data dredging are all alternative names for ________.


44) Data are often buried deep within very large ________, which sometimes contain data from several years.


45) ________ represent the labels of multiple classes used to divide a variable into specific groups, examples of which include race, sex, age group, and educational level.


46) In the Memphis Police Department case study, shortly after all precincts embraced Blue CRUSH, ________ became one of the most potent weapons in the Memphis police department’s crime-fighting arsenal.


47) Patterns have been manually ________ from data by humans for centuries, but the increasing volume of data in modern times has created a need for more automatic approaches.


48) While prediction is largely experience and opinion based, ________ is data and model based.


49) Whereas ________ starts with a well-defined proposition and hypothesis, data mining starts with a loosely defined discovery statement.


50) Customer ________ management extends traditional marketing by creating one-on-one relationships with customers.


51) In the terrorist funding case study, an observed price ________ may be related to income tax avoidance/evasion, money laundering, or terrorist financing.


52) Data preparation, the third step in the CRISP-DM data mining process, is more commonly known as ________.


53) The data mining in cancer research case study explains that data mining methods are capable of extracting patterns and ________ hidden deep in large and complex medical databases.

54) Fayyad et al. (1996) defined ________ in databases as a process of using data mining methods to find useful information and patterns in the data.


55) In ________, a classification method, the complete data set is randomly split into mutually exclusive subsets of approximately equal size and tested multiple times on each left-out subset, using the others as a training set.


56) The basic idea behind a ________ is that it recursively divides a training set until each division consists entirely or primarily of examples from one class.


57) As described in the 2degrees case study, a common problem in the mobile telecommunications industry is defined by the term ________, which means customers leaving.


58) Because of its successful application to retail business problems, association rule mining is commonly called ________.


59) The ________ is the most commonly used algorithm to discover association rules. Given a set of itemsets, the algorithm attempts to find subsets that are common to at least a minimum number of the itemsets.


60) One way to accomplish privacy and protection of individuals’ rights when data mining is by ________ of the customer records prior to applying data mining applications, so that the records cannot be traced to an individual.

61) List five reasons for the growing popularity of data mining in the business world.

62) What are the differences between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio data? Give examples.

63) List and briefly describe the six steps of the CRISP-DM data mining process.


64) Describe the role of the simple split in estimating the accuracy of classification models.

65) Briefly describe five techniques (or algorithms) that are used for classification modeling.

66) Describe cluster analysis and some of its applications.


67) In the data mining in Hollywood case study, how successful were the models in predicting the success or failure of a Hollywood movie?

68) In lessons learned from the Target case, what legal warnings would you give another retailer using data mining for marketing?



69) List four myths associated with data mining.

70) List six common data mining mistakes.


Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 5   Text, Web, and Social Analytics


1) Text analytics is the subset of text mining that handles information retrieval and extraction, plus data mining.


Page Ref: 206


2) Categorization and clustering of documents during text mining differ only in the preselection of categories.


Page Ref: 206-207


3) Articles and auxiliary verbs are assigned little value in text mining and are usually filtered out.


Page Ref: 207


4) In the patent analysis case study, text mining of thousands of patents held by the firm and its competitors helped improve competitive intelligence, but was of little use in identifying complementary products.


Page Ref: 208-209


5) Regional accents present challenges for natural language processing.


Page Ref: 210


6) In the Hong Kong government case study, reporting time was the main benefit of using SAS Business Analytics to generate reports.


Page Ref: 212


7) In the financial services firm case study, text analysis for associate-customer interactions were completely automated and could detect whether they met the company’s standards.


Page Ref: 219


8) In text mining, if an association between two concepts has 7% support, it means that 7% of the documents had both concepts represented in the same document.


Page Ref: 225


9) In sentiment analysis, sentiment suggests a transient, temporary opinion reflective of one’s feelings.


Page Ref: 229


10) Current use of sentiment analysis in voice of the customer applications allows companies to change their products or services in real time in response to customer sentiment.


Page Ref: 232

11) In sentiment analysis, it is hard to classify some subjects such as news as good or bad, but easier to classify others, e.g., movie reviews, in the same way.


Page Ref: 235


12) Generally, making a search engine more efficient makes it less effective.


Page Ref: 243


13) Search engine optimization (SEO) techniques play a minor role in a Web site’s search ranking because only well-written content matters.


Page Ref: 246


14) Clickstream analysis does not need users to enter their perceptions of the Web site or other feedback directly to be useful in determining their preferences.


Page Ref: 250


15) Since little can be done about visitor Web site abandonment rates, organizations have to focus their efforts on increasing the number of new visitors.


Page Ref: 256


16) Decentralization, the need for specialized skills, and immediacy of output are all attributes of Web publishing when compared to industrial publishing.


Page Ref: 262


17) Consistent high quality, higher publishing frequency, and longer time lag are all attributes of industrial publishing when compared to Web publishing.


Page Ref: 262


18) Web site visitors who critique and create content are more engaged than those who join networks and spectate.


Page Ref: 263



19) Descriptive analytics for social media feature such items as your followers as well as the content in online conversations that help you to identify themes and sentiments.


Page Ref: 264


20) Companies understand that when their product goes “viral,” the content of the online conversations about their product does not matter, only the volume of conversations.


Page Ref: 265-266

21) In the opening vignette, the architectural system that supported Watson used all the following elements EXCEPT

  1. A) massive parallelism to enable simultaneous consideration of multiple hypotheses.
  2. B) an underlying confidence subsystem that ranks and integrates answers.
  3. C) a core engine that could operate seamlessly in another domain without changes.
  4. D) integration of shallow and deep knowledge.


Page Ref: 203


22) In text mining, tokenizing is the process of

  1. A) categorizing a block of text in a sentence.
  2. B) reducing multiple words to their base or root.
  3. C) transforming the term-by-document matrix to a manageable size.
  4. D) creating new branches or stems of recorded paragraphs.


Page Ref: 207


23) All of the following are challenges associated with natural language processing EXCEPT

  1. A) dividing up a text into individual words in English.
  2. B) understanding the context in which something is said.
  3. C) distinguishing between words that have more than one meaning.
  4. D) recognizing typographical or grammatical errors in texts.


Page Ref: 210


24) What data discovery process, whereby objects are categorized into predetermined groups, is used in text mining?

  1. A) clustering
  2. B) association
  3. C) classification
  4. D) trend analysis


Page Ref: 224



25) In the research literature case study, the researchers analyzing academic papers extracted information from which source?

  1. A) the paper abstract
  2. B) the paper keywords
  3. C) the main body of the paper
  4. D) the paper references


Page Ref: 226


26) In sentiment analysis, which of the following is an implicit opinion?

  1. A) The hotel we stayed in was terrible.
  2. B) The customer service I got for my TV was laughable.
  3. C) The cruise we went on last summer was a disaster.
  4. D) Our new mayor is great for the city.


Page Ref: 230

27) In the Whirlpool case study, the company sought to better understand information coming from which source?

  1. A) customer transaction data
  2. B) delivery information
  3. C) customer e-mails
  4. D) goods moving through the internal supply chain


Page Ref: 231


28) What do voice of the market (VOM) applications of sentiment analysis do?

  1. A) They examine customer sentiment at the aggregate level.
  2. B) They examine employee sentiment in the organization.
  3. C) They examine the stock market for trends.
  4. D) They examine the “market of ideas” in politics.


Page Ref: 232


29) How is objectivity handled in sentiment analysis?

  1. A) It is ignored because it does not appear in customer sentiment.
  2. B) It is incorporated as a type of sentiment.
  3. C) It is clarified with the customer who expressed it.
  4. D) It is identified and removed as facts are not sentiment.


Page Ref: 234



30) In text analysis, what is a lexicon?

  1. A) a catalog of words, their synonyms, and their meanings
  2. B) a catalog of customers, their words, and phrase
  3. C) a catalog of letters, words, phrases and sentences
  4. D) a catalog of customers, products, words, and phrase


Page Ref: 236


31) What types of documents are BEST suited to semantic labeling and aggregation to determine sentiment orientation?

  1. A) medium- to large-sized documents
  2. B) small- to medium-sized documents
  3. C) large-sized documents
  4. D) collections of documents


Page Ref: 237


32) What does Web content mining involve?

  1. A) analyzing the universal resource locator in Web pages
  2. B) analyzing the unstructured content of Web pages
  3. C) analyzing the pattern of visits to a Web site
  4. D) analyzing the PageRank and other metadata of a Web page


Page Ref: 241

33) Breaking up a Web page into its components to identify worthy words/terms and indexing them using a set of rules is called

  1. A) preprocessing the documents.
  2. B) document analysis.
  3. C) creating the term-by-document matrix.
  4. D) parsing the documents.


Page Ref: 244


34) Search engine optimization (SEO) is a means by which

  1. A) Web site developers can negotiate better deals for paid ads.
  2. B) Web site developers can increase Web site search rankings.
  3. C) Web site developers index their Web sites for search engines.
  4. D) Web site developers optimize the artistic features of their Web sites.


Page Ref: 246



35) What are the two main types of Web analytics?

  1. A) old-school and new-school Web analytics
  2. B) Bing and Google Web analytics
  3. C) off-site and on-site Web analytics
  4. D) data-based and subjective Web analytics


Page Ref: 251


36) Web site usability may be rated poor if

  1. A) the average number of page views on your Web site is large.
  2. B) the time spent on your Web site is long.
  3. C) Web site visitors download few of your offered PDFs and videos.
  4. D) users fail to click on all pages equally.


Page Ref: 254


37) Understanding which keywords your users enter to reach your Web site through a search engine can help you understand

  1. A) the hardware your Web site is running on.
  2. B) the type of Web browser being used by your Web site visitors.
  3. C) most of your Web site visitors’ wants and needs.
  4. D) how well visitors understand your products.


Page Ref: 255


38) Which of the following statements about Web site conversion statistics is FALSE?

  1. A) Web site visitors can be classed as either new or returning.
  2. B) Visitors who begin a purchase on most Web sites must complete it.
  3. C) The conversion rate is the number of people who take action divided by the number of visitors.
  4. D) Analyzing exit rates can tell you why visitors left your Web site.


Page Ref: 256

39) What is one major way in which Web-based social media differs from traditional publishing media?

  1. A) Most Web-based media are operated by the government and large firms.
  2. B) They use different languages of publication.
  3. C) They have different costs to own and operate.
  4. D) Web-based media have a narrower range of quality.


Page Ref: 262



40) What does advanced analytics for social media do?

  1. A) It helps identify your followers.
  2. B) It identifies links between groups.
  3. C) It examines the content of online conversations.
  4. D) It identifies the biggest sources of influence online.


Page Ref: 264


41) IBM’s Watson utilizes a massively parallel, text mining—focused, probabilistic evidence-based computational architecture called ________.


42) ________, also called homonyms, are syntactically identical words with different meanings.


43) When a word has more than one meaning, selecting the meaning that makes the most sense can only be accomplished by taking into account the context within which the word is used. This concept is known as ________.


44) ________ is a technique used to detect favorable and unfavorable opinions toward specific products and services using large numbers of textual data sources.


45) In the Mining for Lies case study, a text based deception-detection method used by Fuller and others in 2008 was based on a process known as ________, which relies on elements of data and text mining techniques.


46) At a very high level, the text mining process can be broken down into three consecutive tasks, the first of which is to establish the ________.

47) Because the term-document matrix is often very large and rather sparse, an important optimization step is to reduce the ________ of the matrix.

48) ________ is mostly driven by sentiment analysis and is a key element of customer experience management initiatives, where the goal is to create an intimate relationship with the customer.


49) When viewed as a binary feature, ________ classification is the binary classification task of labeling an opinionated document as expressing either an overall positive or an overall negative opinion.


50) Web pages contain both unstructured information and ________, which are connections to other Web pages.


51) Web ________ are used to automatically read through the contents of Web sites.

52) A(n) ________ is one or more Web pages that provide a collection of links to authoritative Web pages.


53) A(n) ________ engine is a software program that searches for Web sites or files based on keywords.


54) In the retail case, the company deployed SAS for Customer Experience Analytics to better understand the quality of customer traffic on their Web site, classify order rates, and see which ________ had the most visitors.


55) ________ Web analytics refers to measurement and analysis of data relating to your company that takes place outside your Web site.


56) A ________ Web site contains links that send traffic directly to your Web site.

57) ________ statistics help you understand whether your specific marketing objective for a Web page is being achieved.


58) In the Social Network Analysis (SNA) for Telecommunications case, SNA can be used to detect ________, i.e., those visitors who about to leave the website and persuade them to stay with you.


59) ________ is a connections metric for social networks that measures the ties that actors in a network have with others that are geographically close.


60) ________ is a segmentation metric for social networks that measures the strength of the bonds between actors in a social network.


61) How would you describe information extraction in text mining?


62) Natural language processing (NLP), a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, is an important component of text mining. What is the definition of NLP?


63) In the security domain, one of the largest and most prominent text mining applications is the highly classified ECHELON surveillance system. What is ECHELON assumed to be capable of doing?


64) Describe the query-specific clustering method as it relates to clustering.

65) Identify, with a brief description, each of the four steps in the sentiment analysis process.


66) In what ways does the Web pose great challenges for effective and efficient knowledge discovery through data mining?


67) What is search engine optimization (SEO) and why is it important for organizations that own Web sites?

68) What is the difference between white hat and black hat SEO activities?


69) Why are the users’ page views and time spent on your Web site important metrics?


70) What are the three categories of social media analytics technologies and what do they do?


Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 6   Big Data and Analytics


1) In the opening vignette, the CERN Data Aggregation System (DAS), built on MongoDB (a Big Data management infrastructure), used relational database technology.


Page Ref: 277


2) The term “Big Data” is relative as it depends on the size of the using organization.


Page Ref: 279


3) In the Luxottica case study, outsourcing enhanced the ability of the company to gain insights into their data.


Page Ref: 283-284


4) Many analytics tools are too complex for the average user, and this is one justification for Big Data.


Page Ref: 284


5) In the investment bank case study, the major benefit brought about by the supplanting of multiple databases by the new trade operational store was providing real-time access to trading data.


Page Ref: 288


6) Big Data uses commodity hardware, which is expensive, specialized hardware that is custom built for a client or application.


Page Ref: 289


7) MapReduce can be easily understood by skilled programmers due to its procedural nature.


Page Ref: 291


8) Hadoop was designed to handle petabytes and extabytes of data distributed over multiple nodes in parallel.


Page Ref: 291


9) Hadoop and MapReduce require each other to work.


Page Ref: 295



10) In most cases, Hadoop is used to replace data warehouses.


Page Ref: 295

11) Despite their potential, many current NoSQL tools lack mature management and monitoring tools.


Page Ref: 295


12) The data scientist is a profession for a field that is still largely being defined.


Page Ref: 298


13) There is a current undersupply of data scientists for the Big Data market.


Page Ref: 300


14) The Big Data and Analysis in Politics case study makes it clear that the unpredictability of elections makes politics an unsuitable arena for Big Data.


Page Ref: 301


15) For low latency, interactive reports, a data warehouse is preferable to Hadoop.


Page Ref: 306


16) If you have many flexible programming languages running in parallel, Hadoop is preferable to a data warehouse.


Page Ref: 306


17) In the Dublin City Council case study, GPS data from the city’s buses and CCTV were the only data sources for the Big Data GIS-based application.


Page Ref: 309-310


18) It is important for Big Data and self-service business intelligence go hand in hand to get maximum value from analytics.


Page Ref: 313


19) Big Data simplifies data governance issues, especially for global firms.


Page Ref: 313



20) Current total storage capacity lags behind the digital information being generated in the world.


Page Ref: 315

21) Using data to understand customers/clients and business operations to sustain and foster

growth and profitability is

  1. A) easier with the advent of BI and Big Data.
  2. B) essentially the same now as it has always been.
  3. C) an increasingly challenging task for today’s enterprises.
  4. D) now completely automated with no human intervention required.


Page Ref: 279


22) A newly popular unit of data in the Big Data era is the petabyte (PB), which is

  1. A) 109
  2. B) 1012
  3. C) 1015
  4. D) 1018


Page Ref: 281


23) Which of the following sources is likely to produce Big Data the fastest?

  1. A) order entry clerks
  2. B) cashiers
  3. C) RFID tags
  4. D) online customers


Page Ref: 281-282


24) Data flows can be highly inconsistent, with periodic peaks, making data loads hard to manage. What is this feature of Big Data called?

  1. A) volatility
  2. B) periodicity
  3. C) inconsistency
  4. D) variability


Page Ref: 282


25) In the Luxottica case study, what technique did the company use to gain visibility into its customers?

  1. A) visibility analytics
  2. B) data integration
  3. C) focus on growth
  4. D) customer focus


Page Ref: 283-284

26) Allowing Big Data to be processed in memory and distributed across a dedicated set of nodes can solve complex problems in near—real time with highly accurate insights. What is this process called?

  1. A) in-memory analytics
  2. B) in-database analytics
  3. C) grid computing
  4. D) appliances


Page Ref: 286


27) Which Big Data approach promotes efficiency, lower cost, and better performance by processing jobs in a shared, centrally managed pool of IT resources?

  1. A) in-memory analytics
  2. B) in-database analytics
  3. C) grid computing
  4. D) appliances


Page Ref: 286


28) How does Hadoop work?

  1. A) It integrates Big Data into a whole so large data elements can be processed as a whole on one computer.
  2. B) It integrates Big Data into a whole so large data elements can be processed as a whole on multiple computers.
  3. C) It breaks up Big Data into multiple parts so each part can be processed and analyzed at the same time on one computer.
  4. D) It breaks up Big Data into multiple parts so each part can be processed and analyzed at the same time on multiple computers.


Page Ref: 291


29) What is the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) designed to handle?

  1. A) unstructured and semistructured relational data
  2. B) unstructured and semistructured non-relational data
  3. C) structured and semistructured relational data
  4. D) structured and semistructured non-relational data


Page Ref: 291


30) In a Hadoop “stack,” what is a slave node?

  1. A) a node where bits of programs are stored
  2. B) a node where metadata is stored and used to organize data processing
  3. C) a node where data is stored and processed
  4. D) a node responsible for holding all the source programs


Page Ref: 292

31) In a Hadoop “stack,” what node periodically replicates and stores data from the Name Node should it fail?

  1. A) backup node
  2. B) secondary node
  3. C) substitute node
  4. D) slave node


Page Ref: 292


32) All of the following statements about MapReduce are true EXCEPT

  1. A) MapReduce is a general-purpose execution engine.
  2. B) MapReduce handles the complexities of network communication.
  3. C) MapReduce handles parallel programming.
  4. D) MapReduce runs without fault tolerance.


Page Ref: 295


33) In the Big Data and Analytics in Politics case study, which of the following was an input to the analytic system?

  1. A) census data
  2. B) assessment of sentiment
  3. C) voter mobilization
  4. D) group clustering


Page Ref: 301


34) In the Big Data and Analytics in Politics case study, what was the analytic system output or goal?

  1. A) census data
  2. B) assessment of sentiment
  3. C) voter mobilization
  4. D) group clustering


Page Ref: 301


35) Traditional data warehouses have not been able to keep up with

  1. A) the evolution of the SQL language.
  2. B) the variety and complexity of data.
  3. C) expert systems that run on them.
  4. D) OLAP.


Page Ref: 303



36) Under which of the following requirements would it be more appropriate to use Hadoop over a data warehouse?

  1. A) ANSI 2003 SQL compliance is required
  2. B) online archives alternative to tape
  3. C) unrestricted, ungoverned sandbox explorations
  4. D) analysis of provisional data


Page Ref: 306

37) What is Big Data’s relationship to the cloud?

  1. A) Hadoop cannot be deployed effectively in the cloud just yet.
  2. B) Amazon and Google have working Hadoop cloud offerings.
  3. C) IBM’s homegrown Hadoop platform is the only option.
  4. D) Only MapReduce works in the cloud; Hadoop does not.


Page Ref: 308


38) Companies with the largest revenues from Big Data tend to be

  1. A) the largest computer and IT services firms.
  2. B) small computer and IT services firms.
  3. C) pure open source Big Data firms.
  4. D) non-U.S. Big Data firms.


Page Ref: 311


39) In the health sciences, the largest potential source of Big Data comes from

  1. A) accounting systems.
  2. B) human resources.
  3. C) patient monitoring.
  4. D) research administration.


Page Ref: 320


40) In the Discovery Health insurance case study, the analytics application used available data to help the company do all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) predict customer health.
  2. B) detect fraud.
  3. C) lower costs for members.
  4. D) open its own pharmacy.


Page Ref: 323-324


41) Most Big Data is generated automatically by ________.



42) ________ refers to the conformity to facts: accuracy, quality, truthfulness, or trustworthiness of the data.


43) In-motion ________ is often overlooked today in the world of BI and Big Data.


44) The ________ of Big Data is its potential to contain more useful patterns and interesting anomalies than “small” data.

45) As the size and the complexity of analytical systems increase, the need for more ________ analytical systems is also increasing to obtain the best performance.


46) ________ speeds time to insights and enables better data governance by performing data integration and analytic functions inside the database.


47) ________ bring together hardware and software in a physical unit that is not only fast but also scalable on an as-needed basis.


48) Big Data employs ________ processing techniques and nonrelational data storage capabilities in order to process unstructured and semistructured data.


49) In the world of Big Data, ________ aids organizations in processing and analyzing large volumes of multi-structured data. Examples include indexing and search, graph analysis, etc.


50) The ________ Node in a Hadoop cluster provides client information on where in the cluster particular data is stored and if any nodes fail.


51) A job ________ is a node in a Hadoop cluster that initiates and coordinates MapReduce jobs, or the processing of the data.


52) HBase is a nonrelational ________ that allows for low-latency, quick lookups in Hadoop.


Page Ref: 293


53) Hadoop is primarily a(n) ________ file system and lacks capabilities we’d associate with a DBMS, such as indexing, random access to data, and support for SQL.


54) HBase, Cassandra, MongoDB, and Accumulo are examples of ________ databases.

55) In the eBay use case study, load ________ helped the company meet its Big Data needs with the extremely fast data handling and application availability requirements.


56) As volumes of Big Data arrive from multiple sources such as sensors, machines, social media, and clickstream interactions, the first step is to ________ all the data reliably and cost effectively.


57) In open-source databases, the most important performance enhancement to date is the cost-based ________.


58) Data ________ or pulling of data from multiple subject areas and numerous applications into one repository is the raison d’être for data warehouses.


59) In the energy industry, ________ grids are one of the most impactful applications of stream analytics.

60) In the U.S. telecommunications company case study, the use of analytics via dashboards has helped to improve the effectiveness of the company’s ________ assessments and to make their systems more secure.


61) In the opening vignette, what is the source of the Big Data collected at the European Organization for Nuclear Research or CERN?

62) List and describe the three main “V”s that characterize Big Data.

63) List and describe four of the most critical success factors for Big Data analytics.

64) When considering Big Data projects and architecture, list and describe five challenges designers should be mindful of in order to make the journey to analytics competency less stressful.


65) Define MapReduce.


66) What is NoSQL as used for Big Data? Describe its major downsides.

67) What is a data scientist and what does the job involve?



68) Why are some portions of tape backup workloads being redirected to Hadoop clusters today?


69) What are the differences between stream analytics and perpetual analytics? When would you use one or the other?

70) Describe data stream mining and how it is used.



Business Intelligence, 3e (Sharda/Delen/Turban)

Chapter 7   Business Analytics: Emerging Trends and Future Directions


1) Oklahoma Gas & Electric employs a two-layer information architecture involving data warehouse and improved and expanded integration.


Page Ref: 328


2) In the classification of location-based analytic applications, examining geographic site locations falls in the consumer-oriented category.


Page Ref: 330


3) In the Great Clips case study, the company uses geospatial data to analyze, among other things, the types of haircuts most popular in different geographic locations.


Page Ref: 331-332


4) From massive amounts of high-dimensional location data, algorithms that reduce the dimensionality of the data can be used to uncover trends, meaning, and relationships to eventually produce human-understandable representations.


Page Ref: 333


5) In the life coach case study, Kaggle recently hosted a competition aimed at identifying muscle motions that may be used to predict the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.


Page Ref: 336


6) Content-based filtering approaches are widely used in recommending textual content such as news items and related Web pages.


Page Ref: 339


7) The basic premise behind social networking is that it gives people the power to share, making the world more open and connected.


Page Ref: 340


8) Cloud computing originates from a reference to the Internet as a “cloud” and is a combination of several information technology components as services.


Page Ref: 342


9) Web-based e-mail such as Google’s Gmail are not examples of cloud computing.


Page Ref: 342

10) Service-oriented DSS solutions generally offer individual or bundled services to the user as a service.


Page Ref: 343


11) In service-oriented DSS, an application programming interface (API) serves to populate source systems with raw data and to pull operational reports.


Page Ref: 344


12) Data-as-a-service began with the notion that data quality could happen in a centralized place, cleansing and enriching data and offering it to different systems, applications, or users, irrespective of where they were in the organization, computers, or on the network.


Page Ref: 346


13) IaaS helps provide faster information, but provides information only to managers in an organization.


Page Ref: 346


14) The trend in the consumption of data analytics is away from in-memory solution and towards mobile devices.


Page Ref: 347


15) While cloud services are useful for small and midsize analytic applications, they are still limited in their ability to handle Big Data applications.


Page Ref: 348


16) Analytics integration with other organizational systems makes it harder to identify its impact on the organization.


Page Ref: 348


17) One way in which computerization has benefitted organizations is by reducing information anxiety.


Page Ref: 350


18) ES/DSS were found to improve the performance of new managers but not existing managers.


19) Use of automated decision systems (ADSs) is likely to result in a reduction of middle management.


Page Ref: 351

20) In designing analytic systems, it must be kept in mind that the right to an individual’s privacy is not absolute.


Page Ref: 352


21) What kind of location based analytics is real-time marketing promotion?

  1. A) organization-oriented geospatial static approach
  2. B) organization-oriented location-based dynamic approach
  3. C) consumer-oriented geospatial static approach
  4. D) consumer-oriented location-based dynamic approach


Page Ref: 330


22) GPS Navigation is an example of which kind of location based analytics?

  1. A) organization-oriented geospatial static approach
  2. B) organization-oriented location-based dynamic approach
  3. C) consumer-oriented geospatial static approach
  4. D) consumer-oriented location-based dynamic approach


Page Ref: 330


23) What new geometric data type in Teradata’s data warehouse captures geospatial features?

  1. A) NAVTEQ
  3. C) GIS
  4. D) SQL/MM


Page Ref: 331


24) A British company called Path Intelligence has developed a system that ascertains how people move within a city or even within a store. What is this system called?

  1. A) Pathfinder
  2. B) PathMiner
  3. C) Footpath
  4. D) Pathdata


25) Today, most smartphones are equipped with various instruments to measure jerk, orientation, and sense motion. One of these instruments is an accelerometer, and the other is a(n)

  1. A) potentiometer.
  2. B) gyroscope.
  3. C) microscope.
  4. D) oscilloscope.


Page Ref: 336

26) Content-based filtering obtains detailed information about item characteristics and restricts this process to a single user using information tags or

  1. A) keywords.
  2. B) passphrases.
  3. C) key-pairs.
  4. D) reality mining.


Page Ref: 339


27) Service-oriented thinking is one of the fastest growing paradigms in today’s economy. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of service-oriented DSS?

  1. A) reusability
  2. B) substitutability
  3. C) extensibility
  4. D) originality


Page Ref: 343


28) All of the following are components in a service-oriented DSS environment EXCEPT

  1. A) information technology as enabler.
  2. B) data as infrastructure.
  3. C) process as beneficiary.
  4. D) people as user.


Page Ref: 343


29) Which component of service-oriented DSS can be defined as data that describes the meaning and structure of business data, as well as how it is created, accessed, and used?

  1. A) application programming interface
  2. B) analytics
  3. C) operations and administration
  4. D) metadata management


30) Which component of service-oriented DSS can be described as a subset of a data warehouse that supports specific decision and analytical needs and provides business units more flexibility, control, and responsibility?

  1. A) information delivery portals
  2. B) information services with library and administrator
  3. C) extract, transform, load
  4. D) data marts


Page Ref: 345

31) Which component of service-oriented DSS can be described as optimizing the DSS environment use by organizing its capabilities and knowledge, and assimilating them into the business processes?

  1. A) information delivery portals
  2. B) information services with library and administrator
  3. C) extract, transform, load
  4. D) data marts


Page Ref: 345


32) Which component of service-oriented DSS includes such examples as optimization, data mining, text mining, simulation, automated decision systems?

  1. A) application programming interface
  2. B) analytics
  3. C) operations and administration
  4. D) metadata management


Page Ref: 345


33) Which of the following is true of data-as-a-Service (DaaS) platforms?

  1. A) Knowing where the data resides is critical to the functioning of the platform.
  2. B) There are standardized processes for accessing data wherever it is located.
  3. C) Business processes can access local data only.
  4. D) Data quality happens on each individual platform.


Page Ref: 345-346


34) Which of the following offers a flexible data integration platform based on a newer generation of service-oriented standards that enables ubiquitous access to any type of data?

  1. A) EAI
  2. B) EII
  3. C) IaaS
  4. D) ETL


35) When new analytics applications are introduced and affect multiple related processes and departments, the organization is best served by utilizing

  1. A) business flow management.
  2. B) multi-department analysis.
  3. C) process flow analysis.
  4. D) business process reengineering.


Page Ref: 349

36) Research into managerial use of DSS and expert systems found all the following EXCEPT

  1. A) managers spent more of their time planning.
  2. B) managers saw their decision making quality enhanced.
  3. C) managers spent more time in the office and less in the field.
  4. D) managers were able to devote less of their time fighting fires.


Page Ref: 350-351


37) Why do analytics applications have the effect of redistributing power among managers?

  1. A) The more information and analysis managers have, the more power they possess.
  2. B) Sponsoring an analytics system automatically confers power to a manager.
  3. C) New analytics applications change managers’ job expectations.
  4. D) New analytics systems lead to new budget allocations, resulting in increased power.


Page Ref: 351


38) Services that let consumers permanently enter a profile of information along with a password and use this information repeatedly to access services at multiple sites are called

  1. A) consumer access applications.
  2. B) information collection portals.
  3. C) single-sign-on facilities.
  4. D) consumer information sign on facilities.


Page Ref: 353


39) Which of the following is true about the furtherance of homeland security?

  1. A) There is a lessening of privacy issues.
  2. B) There is a greater need for oversight.
  3. C) The impetus was the need to harvest information related to financial fraud after 2001.
  4. D) Most people regard analytic tools as mostly ineffective in increasing security.


40) Which of the following is considered the economic engine of the whole analytics industry?

  1. A) application developers and system integrators
  2. B) analytics user organizations
  3. C) analytics industry analysts and influencers
  4. D) academic providers and certification industries


Page Ref: 361


41) In the opening vignette, the combination of filed infrastructure, geospatial data, enterprise data warehouse, and analytics has enabled OG&E to manage its customer demand in such a way that it can optimize its ________ investments.


42) A critical emerging trend in analytics is the incorporation of location data. ________ data is the static location data used by these location-based analytic applications.

43) The surge in location-enabled services has resulted in ________ mining, the analytics of massive databases of historical and real-time streaming location information.


44) The Radii mobile app collects information about the user’s habits, interests, spending patterns, and favorite locations to understand the user’s ________.


45) Predictive analytics is beginning to enable development of software that is directly used by a consumer. One key concern in employing these technologies is the loss of ________.


46) Collaborative filtering is usually done by building a user-item ratings matrix where each row represents a unique user and each column gives the individual item rating made by the user. The resultant matrix is a dynamic, sparse matrix with a huge ________.


47) ________, which stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, is an effective and efficient Web development technique for creating interactive Web applications.

48) ________ (IaaS) promises to eliminate independent silos of data that exist in systems and infrastructure and enable sharing real-time information for emerging apps, to hide complexity, and to increase availability with virtualization.


49) IaaS, AaaS and other ________-based offerings allow the rapid diffusion of advanced analysis tools among users, without significant investment in technology acquisition.


50) A major structural change that can occur when analytics are introduced into an organization is the creation of new organizational ________.


51) When an organization-wide, major restructuring is needed, the process is referred to as ________.


52) A research study found that employees using ADS systems were more ________ with their jobs.

53) Analytics can change the way in which many ________ are made by managers and can consequently change their jobs.


54) As face-to-face communication is often replaced by e-mail, wikis, and computerized conferencing, leadership qualities attributed to physical ________ could become less important.


55) Location information from ________ phones can be used to create profiles of user behavior and movement.


56) For individual decision makers, ________ values constitute a major factor in the issue of ethical decision making.

57) Firms such as Nielsen provide ________ data collection, aggregation, and distribution mechanisms and typically focus on one industry sector.


58) Possibly the biggest recent growth in analytics has been in ________ analytics, as many statistical software companies such as SAS and SPSS embraced it early on.


59) Analytics industry analysts and ________ include professional organizations that provide advice to analytics industry providers and users.


60) Southern States Cooperative used analytics to prepare the customized catalogs to suit the targeted ________ needs, resulting in better revenue generation.


61) How does Oklahoma Gas and Electric use the Teradata platform to manage the electric grid?

62) How do the traditional location-based analytic techniques using geocoding of organizational locations and consumers hamper the organizations in understanding “true location-based” impacts?


63) In what ways can communications companies use geospatial analysis to harness their data effectively?


64) Describe the CabSense application used by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.



65) What are recommender systems, how are they developed, and how is the data used to build a recommendation system obtained?



66) Web 2.0 is the popular term for describing advanced Web technologies and applications. Describe four main representative characteristics of the Web 2.0 environment.


67) What is mobile social network and how does it extend the reach of popular social networks?



68) What is cloud computing? What is Amazon’s general approach to the cloud computing services it provides?

69) Data and text mining is a promising application of AaaS. What additional capabilities can AaaS bring to the analytic world?


70) Describe your understanding of the emerging term people analytics. Are there any privacy issues associated with the application?