Sample Chapter

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Test Bank For Classical and Contemporary Sociological Theory, 3rd Edition by Scott Appelrouth, Laura D. Edles

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Durkheim’s conviction that society is sui generis means:
  2. society is an unreality; only individuals are real
  3. society does not really exist; only a generic label is used

*c. society is an objective reality that is irreducible to the individuals that compose it

  1. society only exists within the confines of the mind

 

  1. Durkheim defines social facts as:
  2. social phenomenon that is true and universally valid
  3. rituals and symbols that provide for social solidarity within a community
  4. the scientific knowledge base on which social and economic planning are formulated

*d. conditions and circumstances external to the individual that, nevertheless, determine one’s course of action

 

  1. Durkheim was most influenced by Herbert Spencer’s theory on:
  2. the division of religion
  3. the origins of suicide

*c. the evolution of societies

  1. the rules of sociological method

 

  1. According to the authors, Durkheim’s basic theoretical orientation could be considered:
  2. nonrational, individual

*b. nonrational, collective

  1. rational, individual
  2. rational, collective

 

  1. Durkheim defines the collective conscience as
  2. the system of rituals and symbols that distinguish all that is sacred in a society
  3. an essential element in mechanical solidarity which allows the society’s member to engage in common, shared practices

*c. totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society

  1. the realization that society is the source of spiritual power

 

  1. Durkheim’s core concept “division of labor” would be found in which of the following quadrants for action and order?
  2. nonrational, individual
  3. nonrational, collective
  4. rational, individual

*d. rational, collective

 

  1. This type of solidarity is characteristic of small, traditional societies.
  2. organic solidarity
  3. rural solidarity
  4. cult solidarity

*d. mechanical solidarity

 

  1. In The Division of Labor in Society, Durkheim used the term “organic solidarity” to refer to:
  2. solidarity based on workers’ control over the means of production

*b. solidarity based on interdependence

  1. solidarity based on likeness
  2. solidarity based on place

 

  1. The social condition resulting from a lack of moral regulation is called

*a. Anomie

  1. Alienation
  2. Egoism
  3. Profane

 

  1. Durkheim describes the forced division of labor as
  2. a primary aspect of small, tribal societies held together through organic solidarity

*b. an over-specialization of tasks leading to the isolation of individuals and to the disintegration of society

  1. an inherent feature of capitalism
  2. a profane existence

 

  1. Durkheim argues that in organic solidarity the basis of morality is found in our shared differences. He refers to this as
  2. the forced division of labor

*b. the cult of personality

  1. egoism
  2. collective effervescence

 

  1. In The Rules of Sociological Method, Durkheim makes the following points, except?
  2. sociology is a distinct field of study
  3. natural science methods can be applied to social science
  4. the social field is distinct from the psychological realm

*d. social science has a lot to learn about scientific methods

 

  1. According to Durkheim, there will always be “crime” because:
  2. there will always be individuals who cannot control themselves
  3. human beings are inherently evil

*c. crime is necessary for affirming “right” and “wrong”

  1. crime comes second-nature to humans

 

  1. Which one of the following is not true of Durkheim’s work Suicide?
  2. it demonstrated individual pathologies are rooted in social conditions

*b. it showed an increase in social integration within modern societies

  1. proved sociologists can scientifically study social behavior
  2. showed suicide to have social rather than individual roots

 

  1. According to Durkheim, “egoistic” suicide is caused by:
  2. too much social regulation
  3. too much social integration

*c. the lack of integration of an individual into social group/s

  1. social chaos or normlessness

 

  1. According to Durkheim’s work in Suicide, which of the following groups had the highest rate of suicide?
  2. Jews

*b. Protestants

  1. Catholics
  2. Lutherans

 

  1. The Kamikaze who flew to their deaths in WWII exemplify which type of suicide:

*a. altruistic

  1. egoistic
  2. anomic
  3. fatalistic

 

  1. Durkheim defined “religion” as:
  2. the adoration of a God or Gods by an individual or a group
  3. myths about the origins of the world, as practiced by an individual or a group

*c. worship of a social group by individuals

  1. an organization or institution developed to honor or praise a God or Gods

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a ritual?
  2. standing for the National Anthem

*b. an Egyptian ankh

  1. Thanksgiving dinner
  2. communion

 

  1. The communal function of religion is carried out through the dual processes of ritualization and
  2. routinization

*b. symbolization

  1. profanation
  2. anomie

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered a communal ritual act?
  2. reading a book in the library
  3. checking your bank statement online

*c. doing “the wave” at a sporting event

  1. meditating alone

 

  1. Durkheim called a symbol that is not emotionally charged:
  2. sacred

*b. profane

  1. ritualistic
  2. anomic

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Durkheim’s concepts of sacred and profane is true?
  2. objects can be intrinsically sacred
  3. profane refers to something “above and beyond” the everyday

*c. the same act can be either sacred or profane based upon context

  1. life is an ordered experience except for times of sacred and profane

 

  1. For Durkheim, the division between the sacred and profane establishes

*a. the fundamental conceptual division on which all knowledge is based

  1. the group experience of collective effervescence
  2. the basis for type of social solidarity
  3. all of the above

 

  1. Durkheim defines _________ as obedience based on an energy that conquers our will without regard for consequences
  2. the sacred and profane
  3. traditional authority
  4. social facts

*d. moral authority

 

  1. Durkheim argued society was a supraindividual force which exists independently of the actors who compose it.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Durkheim embraced Comte’s “Law of Three Stages” when developing his concept of society and solidarity.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Durkheim disagreed with Marx by arguing economic specialization was not necessarily “bad” for either the individual or society as a whole.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Organic solidarity automatically emerges once a society has evolved to “modern” status according to Durkheim.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. People living within small traditional societies tend to feel a “oneness” or collective conscience.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The cult of personality is what begins to destroy modern societies according to Durkheim.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. For Durkheim, society without crime is possible but we have yet to achieve the required religiosity.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. According to Durkheim, crime will always be present within societies except for a hypothetical “society of saints.”
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Anomie is the sole source of suicide in modern societies.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Durkheim drew upon religious affiliation for comparative purposes in his classic study of suicide.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. When an individual gives her life for a social group, we call it egoistic suicide.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. For Durkheim, as long as there are societies, there will be religion.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Symbols are practices that unite a social group based on a common experience and focus.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. An object can be intrinsically sacred or profane.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. In “Preliminary Questions” in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Durkheim shows that religion and magic are the same because both form lasting bonds between practitioner and follower.
  2. True

*b. False

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss how Herbert Spencer and Auguste Comte influenced Durkheim’s work.

*a. Varies. Should speak to scientific investigation when covering Comte. Should speak to societal groupings when covering Spencer.

 

Type: E

  1. Briefly define Durkheim’s core concepts as specified by the authors.

*a. Varies. Social Facts, Collective Conscience should be presented and discussed. Durkheim as Nonrational.

 

Type: E

  1. Outline the two forms of solidarity discussed by Durkheim. Explain how each type of solidarity affect and reflect on society. Consider the types of societies in your response.

*a. Varies. Define Mechanical and Organic solidarity and provides examples of each. Must discuss how each functions and the effects on individuals and societies living in each. Must provide examples of each type.

 

Type: E

  1. What is the relationship between the forms of solidarity and the division of labor? On what is each type of solidarity based?

*a. Must discuss how each solidarity type informs the division of labor or visa versa. Should present examples of how each solidarity type functions to portray what each is based on.

 

Type: E

  1. In detail, explain what concept the following quote introduces within The Rules of Sociological Method: “thus, since there cannot be a society in which the individuals do not differ more or less from the collective type…”

*a. Concept of crime should be discussed in great detail.

 

Type: E

  1. What role do symbols and rituals play in maintaining social solidarity? Be descriptive by providing examples from the reading. Your response may include contemporary life examples.

*a. Solidarity based on reciprocal relations/ships through understood symbols and repeated rituals should be focus of response.

 

Type: E

  1. Durkheim argues that the world is divided into two distinct spheres: the sacred and the profane. Provide an outline of these spheres as they apply to contemporary life.

*a. Lists the various types of items and actions that fit within each sphere.

 

Type: E

  1. What social processes create the social and the profane, according to Durkheim? Consider how such processes are moral, and thus religious or spiritual in nature.

*a. Lists the various types of items and actions that fit within each sphere and who benefits from these types existing and their perpetual existence.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Durkheim what does egotistic suicide result from? Explain what groups Durkheim studied and what he found.

*a. Provides examples from the readings of the societies/groups studied and the various causes of this type of suicide.

 

Type: E

  1. Compare and contrast Durkheim’s basic theoretical orientation to that of Karl Marx. Specifically discuss Durkheim’s concept of anomie and Marx’s definition for alienation.

*a. Durkheim sought to uncover the preexisting social conditions that shape the parameters for individual behavior. Consequently, he can be said to take a predominantly collectivist approach to order. So too, Durkheim’s emphasis on collective conscience and collective representations indicates an interest in the collective level of society. -Durkheim is primarily nonrationalist in his orientation. He focused on how collective representations and moral sentiments are a motivating force, much more so than “rational” or strategic interests connected to economic or political institutions. Marx’s work is predominantly collectivist and rationalist in orientation. Marx pursued themes that, taken as a whole, underscored his vision of a social order shaped by broad historical transitions and classes of actors (collectivist) pitted against one another in a struggle to realize their economic interests (rationalist).

 

Type: E

  1. Compare Durkheim’s discussion of the division of labor with that of Marx. Discuss how mechanical and organic solidarity are connected to this concept. Also, explain any errors or assumptions you feel (if any) Durkheim makes in his conception of division of labor.

*a. Durkheim explains how the division of labor (or economic specialization) characteristic of modern societies affects individuals as well as society as a whole. While Marx contended that modern, competitive capitalism, and the specialized division of labor that sustained it, resulted in alienation; Durkheim argued that economic specialization was not necessarily “bad” for either the individual or the society as a whole. Instead, he argued that an extensive division of labor could exist without necessarily jeopardizing the moral cohesion of a society or the opportunity for individuals to realize their interests.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Durkheim’s term “social facts” using specifically his discussion of crime from The Rules of Sociological Method. Be sure to specify how “coercive power” plays into this discussion.

*a. Specifically, Durkheim maintains there are two different ways that social facts can be identified. First, social facts are “general throughout the extent of a given society” at a given stage in the evolution of that society (Durkheim 1895/1966:xv,13). Second, albeit related, a social fact is marked by “any manner of action . . . capable of exercising over the individual exterior constraint”

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the various forms of suicide defined by Durkheim. Explain why Durkheim’s work Suicide is significant for the discipline of sociology.

*a. Durkheim and quantitative study. He used the term egoism to refer to the lack of integration of the individual in the social group. He used the term anomie to refer to a lack of moral regulation. Durkheim argued that both of these conditions—egoism and anomie—are “chronic” in modern, industrial society; and that in extreme, pathological form, both egoism and anomie can result in suicide. For Durkheim, egoistic suicide results from a pathological weakening of the bonds between the individual and the social group. Durkheim saw an increase in egoistic suicide as a “natural” outgrowth of the individuation of modern, industrial societies. Durkheim argued that in its extreme form the type of social isolation found in modern societies can be—literally—fatal.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain in detail the connection between social life and religion as outlined by Durkheim. Be sure to include and define key terms introduced within The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Also, attempt to connect contemporary religious practices to Durkheim’s framework.

*a. Durkheim explains that symbols are classified as fundamentally sacred or profane. The sacred refers to the extraordinary, that which is set apart from and “above and beyond” the everyday world. In direct contrast to the sacred realm, is the realm of the everyday world of the mundane or routine, or the profane. Varies for contemporary examples: Examples could include rituals and symbols students’ are familiar with through their respective religions.

 

  1. Phenomenologists are interested primarily in how

*a. people actively produce and sustain meaning.

  1. psychology constructs social interaction.
  2. people use language and symbols.
  3. people emotionally feel about phenomena.

 

  1. Phenomenology investigates the systematic _________ of all existing assumptions regarding the external world.
  2. construction
  3. dismantling
  4. absorption

*d. bracketing

 

  1. Edmund Husserl referred to existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness as
  2. intersubjectivity.

*b. lifeworld.

  1. phenomenology.
  2. typifications.

 

  1. Schutz’s lifeworld is considered to be an intersubjective world; this means
  2. we all share the same material world as others.

*b. we all share the same consciousness.

  1. we all must negotiate an objective world.
  2. we all only know our own world.

 

  1. Drawing upon both Weber and Husserl, Schutz envisioned social action as
  2. An action increasingly rationalized between two individuals in modern society.

*b. An action oriented toward the past, present, or future behavior of another person.

  1. An individualistic nonrational action oriented toward social institutions.
  2. An action oriented toward a lifeworld constructed via psychology.

 

  1. Which term did Schutz use to explain what provides actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world?
  2. intersubjectivity
  3. feeling rules

*c. stocks of knowledge

  1. verstehen

 

  1. The process of constructing personal “ideal-types” based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features is termed
  2. verstehen
  3. reification.

*c. typification.

  1. habitualization.

 

  1. Differentiating various realms of social experience, Schutz use the term umwelt to
  2. refer to the overt feelings experienced via social institutions.
  3. refer to the unfelt subconscious feelings of the individual.

*c. refer to the realm of directly experienced social reality.

  1. refer to the realm of indirectly experienced social reality.

 

  1. What process outline by Berger and Luckmann contains psychological advantages of narrowed choices which allow us to engage in constructive actions on a daily basis?
  2. typification
  3. reification.
  4. institutionalization

*d. habitualization

 

  1. Social order and interaction would break down within society according to Berger and Luckmann if we were without
  2. typification.
  3. externalization.

*c. intersubjectivity.

  1. habitualization.

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, it is through __________ that human life becomes coherent, meaningful, and continuous.

*a. institutions

  1. communication
  2. symbols
  3. minds

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, typificatory schemes refer
  2. to a wholly subjective state that functions as the genesis of human consciousness.

*b. to patterns of apprehension in terms of which face-to-face encounters are structured.

  1. to well-defined, rigid forms of interaction.
  2. to participants’ attempts to construct their social world in highly unique ways.

 

  1. Reification refers to the process where

*a. man, the producer of a world, is apprehended as its product.

  1. man comprehends that he is the producer of the world.
  2. man internally fights against “bad faith.”
  3. man builds and destroys his product daily.

 

  1. Objectivation and reification are related to Karl Marx’s concept of
  2. prolétariat.
  3. surplus value.

*c. alienation.

  1. capital.

 

  1. For Berger and Luckmann, objectivation refers to
  2. the process of socialization through which the legitimation of the institutional order is assured.
  3. the moment of production in which individuals create and recreate their social worlds.
  4. the process of seeing others as stereotypes.

*d. the process whereby individuals apprehend everyday life as an ordered, patterned reality that imposes itself upon them.

 

  1. Which of the following descriptors would not be found within an ethnomethodologist’s understanding of how human social behavior occurs?
  2. local
  3. ideal
  4. practical

*d. effective

 

  1. Based upon their theoretical orientation, ethnomethodologists are usually criticized for neglecting which dimensions within society?
  2. Collective/non-rational
  3. Individual/rational

*c. Collective/rational

  1. Individual/non-rational

 

  1. The term _________ reflects Smith’s dual rational and nonrational approach to action and individual and collective approach to order
  2. accounting
  3. breaching
  4. indexicality

*d. standpoint

 

  1. Which term refers to the vital process that sustains reality because it is what enables us to believe that social life is coherent and that meaning is shared?
  2. Ethnomethodological indifference
  3. Breaching experiments

*c. Accounting practices

  1. Indexicality

 

  1. Ethnomethodologists’ perspective on action and order would be found within which quadrant in our figure of theoretical orientation?
  2. Collective/rational
  3. Collective/nonrational
  4. Individual/rational

*d. Individual/nonrational

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, the reality of everyday life is organized around the “here” of my body and the “____” of my present
  2. there
  3. where

*c. now

  1. day

 

  1. __________________infuses the ethnomethodological interest in the details of mundane everyday action and the production of order with a rigorous methodology and focus on the fundamental, taken-for-granted structures of conversational interaction.
  2. Foundation Knowledge

*b. Conversation analysis

  1. Production of order
  2. Lifeworld

 

  1. The notion of ___________________underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.

*a. bifurcation of consciousness

  1. standpoint
  2. feminism
  3. discrimination

 

  1. Berger and Luckmann stress that “no individual internalizes the totality of what is objectivated as reality in his society . . . [and that] there are always elements of subjective reality that have not originated in _____________.
  2. standpoint
  3. phenomenology
  4. ethnomethodology

*d. socialization

 

  1. The lifeworld is the taken-for-granted backdrop within which all situations are measured and given meaning.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications are Schutz’s attempts to clarify Durkheimian notions of social action.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Each human has his/her own biographically articulated stock of knowledge.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Social life is only possible via shared interpretative schemes and language.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Schutz’s conceptions can be classified as rational and collective.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Berger and Luckmann’s work can best be described as theoretically multidimensional phenomenological sociology.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Habitualized actions over time become taken-for-granted institutions that individuals are subject to.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Unlike Marx, Berger and Luckmann viewed reification as inherent to the human condition.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. In contrast to phenomenology, ethnomethodology pays attention to the procedures individuals use to interpretatively produce intelligible forms of action.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The central difference between phenomenology and ethnomethodology is that phenomenology is resolutely sociological while ethnomethodology is deeply influenced by psychology.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Ethnomethodologists’ perspective on action and order would be found within the individual/nonrational quadrant in our figure of theoretical orientation.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, the reality of everyday life is organized around the “here” of my body and the “there” of my present.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Conversation analysis infuses the ethnomethodological interest in the details of mundane everyday action.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The notion of “standpoint” underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Berger and Luckmann stress that “no individual internalizes the totality of what is objectivated as reality in his society.”

*a. True

  1. False

 

Type: E

  1. Define Husserl’s lifeworld and how the concept of bracketing plays into it.

*a. Edmund Husserl is commonly considered the founder of phenomenology. Husserl developed what he called “transcendental phenomenology,” which holds that there is no pure subjective subject or pure objective object. Rather, all consciousness is consciousness of something, Husserl used the term lifeworld (Lebenswelt) to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness (Wagner 1973:63). Husserl (1913) explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections. In doing so, Husserl made the lifeworld, or “thinking as usual” in everyday life situations, a legitimate object of investigation. Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain how Schutz’s intersubjectivity connects to Emile Durkheim.

*a. Schutz’s emphasis on shared consciousness and meaning recalls Émile Durkheim’s conceptualization of “collective conscience.” Durkheim used this term to refer to the “totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society” that “forms a determinate system which has its own life” (1893/1984:38–39).2 However, in contrast to Durkheim, Schutz does not conceptualize the preorganized and pregiven elements of the lifeworld as acting on the individual with the external power of constraint. Rather, in accordance with the basic premises of symbolic interactionism (see Chapter 5), Schutz views one’s “natural attitude” as based on the acceptance, interpretation, redefinition, and modification of cultural elements by the individual (Wagner 1973:64).

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the role Max Weber played in Schutz’s work on meaning.

*a. In casting interpretive understanding, or Verstehen, as the principal objective of sociology, Weber offered a distinctive counter to those who sought to base sociology on the effort to uncover universal laws applicable to all societies. Schutz sought to expand on Weber’s conceptualization of Verstehen and interpretive sociology (verstedhende Soziologie) by formulating his own concept of meaning. In other words, while agreeing with Weber that social science must be interpretive, Schutz finds that Weber had failed to state clearly the essential characteristics of understanding (Verstehen), of subjective meaning (gemeinter Sinn), or of action (Handeln) (Walsh:xxi).

 

Type: E

  1. Define and differentiate stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications.

*a. Schutz sets out several interrelated concepts that help clarify the Weberian notion of social action and interpretive understanding. These concepts include lifeworld and intersubjectivity, discussed previously, and stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications. Stocks of knowledge (Erfahrung) provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world. Although Schutz sometimes uses the terms “recipe” and “typification” interchangeably, typification is the process of constructing personal “ideal-types” based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features.

 

Type: E

  1. Define umwelt and mitwelt and show how they connect to stocks of knowledge.

*a. The elements in our stock of knowledge do not contain the same weight or value in every situation. Schutz uses the terms umwelt and mitwelt to differentiate various realms of social experience based on the level of intimacy/immediacy. Specifically, the umwelt is the realm of directly experienced social reality. Umwelt experiences (we relations) are a product of face-to-face relationships and are defined by a high degree of intimacy, as actors are in one another’s immediate copresence. By contrast, the mitwelt (world of contemporaries) is the realm of indirectly experienced social reality. In mitwelt relations, people are experienced only as “types,” or within larger social structures, rather than individual actors.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the differences and similarities between habitualization and institutionalization.

*a. Habitualization, that is, the process by which the flexibility of human actions is limited. All activity is subject to habitualization, as repeated actions inevitably become routinized. Habitualization carries with it the psychological advantage that choices are narrowed. That an action may be “performed again in the future in the same manner and with the same economical effort” provides a stable background from which human activity can proceed (Berger and Luckmann 1966:53–4). Habitualized actions set the stage for institutionalization, for “institutionalization occurs whenever there is a reciprocal typification of habitualized action by types of actors” (Berger and Luckmann 1966:54). That is, it is when habitualized actions are shared and/or “available to all members of the particular social group” (ibid.) that institutions are born.

 

Type: E

  1. Show how externalization, objectivation, and reification are connected by defining each concept and also by explaining the relationship between reification and Marx’s work.

*a. Berger and Luckmann use the terms externalization, objectivation, and reification to refer to the process by which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity. Externalization and objectivation enable the actor to confront the social world as something outside of herself. Institutions appear external to the individual, as historical and objective facticities. They confront the individual as undeniable facts. Reification is “an extreme step” in the process of objectivation. In reification, “the real relationship between man and his world is reversed in consciousness. For instance, we reify our social roles in such a way that we say, “I have no choice in the matter. I have to act this way” (ibid.:91). Objectivation and reification are related to the Marxist concept of alienation (Berger and Luckmann 1966:197,200).

 

Type: E

  1. Explain how externalization, objectivation, institutionalization, and internalization are connected in Berger and Luckmann’s work.

*a. The final step in the process of externalization, objectivation, and institutionalization is  internalization. Internalization is “the immediate apprehension or interpretation of an objective event as expressing meaning” (1966:129), that is, the process through which individual subjectivity is attained. Internalization means that “the objectivated social world is retrojected into consciousness in the course of socialization.” The three moments of externalization, objectivation, and internalization are not to be understood “as occurring in a temporal sequence,” but rather as a simultaneous, dialectical process. Nevertheless, it is in intergenerational transmission that the process of internalization is complete.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the primary similarity and the central difference between phenomenology and ethnomethodology.

*a. Phenomenologists and ethnomethodologists analyze the taken-for-granted everyday world that is the basis for all human conduct. Phenomenologists seek to explain how people actively produce and sustain meaning. Ethnomethodologists focus less on meaning and subjectivity and more on the actual methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. In contrast to phenomenology, which as indicated above has close ties to psychology and philosophy, ethnomethodology has close ties to linguistics and mainstream sociology. Ethnomethodologists are more interested in how actors assure each other that meaning is shared than the actual meaning structures themselves.

 

Type: E

  1. Define the term “ethnomethodological indifference” and its role in the relationship between ethnomethodology and other sociological theoretical perspectives.

*a. Ethnomethodologists strive for “ethnomethodological indifference,” an attitude of detachment that is rooted in neither intellectual naïveté nor condescension (Garfinkel and Sacks 1970:346). They seek to suspend belief in a rule-governed order in order to observe how the regular, coherent, connected patterns of social life are described and explained in ways that create that order itself (Zimmerman and Wieder 1970:289). That is, they seek to understand how people see, describe, and jointly develop a definition of the situation (ibid.). Students should contrast this from the structural functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives as well as the sociological imagination.

 

Type: E

  1. Define the concept of bifurcation of consciousness. This term underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.

*a. Smith uses this term to refer to a separation or split between the world as you actually experience it and the dominant view to which you must adapt (e.g., a masculine point of view). The notion of bifurcation of consciousness underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world. Conversely, the dominant group enjoys the privilege of remaining oblivious to the worldview of the Other, or subordinate group, since the Other is fully expected to accommodate to them.

 

Type: E

  1. What examples can you think of that support or refute Smith’s position on relations of

ruling.

*a. Thus, Smith (1990b:6) describes relations of ruling as including not only forms such as “bureaucracy, administration, management, professional organization and media,” but also “the complex of discourses, scientific, technical, and cultural, that intersect, interpenetrate, and coordinate” them. Smith (1987:4) maintains that behind and within the “apparently neutral and impersonal rationality of the ruling apparatus” is concealed a “male subtext.” Women are “excluded from the practices of power within textually mediated relations of ruling” (ibid.).

Thus, for instance, official psychiatric evaluations replace the individual’s actual lived experience with a means for interpreting it; the individual becomes a case history, a type, a disease, a syndrome, and a treatment possibility (Seidman 1994:216). Smith goes on to suggest that because sociology too relies on these same kinds of texts, it too is part and parcel of the relations of ruling.

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Husserl’s intersubjective lifeworld and explain the roles both Durkheim and Weber played in influencing Schutz’s work.

*a. Husserl used the term lifeworld (Lebenswelt) to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness (Wagner 1973:63). Husserl (1913) explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections. In doing so, Husserl made the lifeworld, or “thinking as usual” in everyday life situations, a legitimate object of investigation. Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world. Durkheim used the term collective conscience to refer to the “totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society” that “forms a determinate system which has its own life” (1893/1984:38–39). However, in contrast to Durkheim, Schutz does not conceptualize the preorganized and pregiven elements of the lifeworld as acting on the individual with the external power of constraint. Rather, in accordance with the basic premises of symbolic interactionism (see Chapter 5), Schutz views one’s “natural attitude” as based on the acceptance, interpretation, redefinition, and modification of cultural elements by the individual  (Wagner 1973:64). Schutz sought to expand on Weber’s conceptualization of Verstehen and interpretive sociology (verstedhende Soziologie) by formulating his own concept of meaning. Starting with Weber’s conceptualization of action as behavior to which a subjective meaning is attached, and drawing heavily on Husserl (as well as Bergson), Schutz envisions social action as an action oriented toward the past, present, or future behavior of another person or persons.

 

Type: E

  1. Define stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications drawing upon your own life for concrete examples. Be sure to explain how these concepts differ between different individuals.

*a. Stocks of knowledge (Erfahrung) provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world. Schutz (1970:98) also refers to stocks of knowledge as “cookery-book knowledge.” Just as a cookbook has recipes and lists of ingredients and formulas for making something to eat, so, too, we all have a “cookbook” of recipes, or implicit instructions, for accomplishing everyday life. Indeed, according to Schutz (1970:99), most of our daily activities, from rising to going to bed, “are performed by following recipes reduced to automatic habits or unquestioned platitudes.” Although Schutz sometimes uses the terms “recipe” and “typification” interchangeably, typification is the process of constructing personal “ideal-types” based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features.  Schutz’s conceptualization of typification is more individualistic and interactive than the collectivistic sociological notion of “stereotype.” While stereotypes are, by definition, pregiven and somewhat stagnant or fixed, building on Weber’s notion of “ideal-type,” Schutz emphasizes that typification is a process through which actors isolate the generic characteristics that are relevant for their particular interactive goal. In sum, the language we learn and the social structures within which we live provide us with a stockpile of typifications and recipes that make the world both intelligible and manageable. This does not mean, however, that specific elements of the cultural realm are the same for every person. Rather, stocks of knowledge are “biographically articulated”; every individual has a unique stock of knowledge because no two individuals have the same biographical or subjective experience.

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the family unit in Berger and Luckmann’s terms. How does habitualization, institutionalization play into the family unit? Be sure to include all terms you feel play a relevant role in your family experience.

*a. The three moments of externalization, objectivation, and internalization are not to be understood “as occurring in a temporal sequence,” but rather as a simultaneous, dialectical process. Nevertheless, it is in intergenerational transmission that the process of internalization is complete. As Berger and Luckmann (1966:61) maintain: only with the transmission of the social world to a new generation (that is, internalization as effectuated in socialization) does the fundamental social dialectic appear in its totality. To repeat, only with the appearance of a new generation can one properly speak of a social world. In other words, every individual is born into an environment within which she encounters the significant others who are in charge of her socialization. One does not choose one’s own significant others; rather, they are imposed on her. In the process of socialization, the stocks of knowledge that the individual experiences as a preexisting objective reality are imposed on her. The individual is thereby “born into not only an objective social structure but also an objective social world” (1966:131). Berger and Luckmann differentiate two types of socialization based on the extent to which individuals are active and conscious of the process of internalization. Primary socialization refers to “the first socialization an individual undergoes in childhood, through which he becomes a member of society” (1966:130–1). On the other hand, secondary socialization refers to subsequent processes of socialization that induct “an already socialized individual into new sectors of the objective world of his society” (ibid.). Whereas primary socialization is predefined and taken for granted, secondary socialization is acquired in a more conscious way (e.g., training for a new job). It is for this reason that primary socialization has so much more of an impact on the individual than secondary socialization. Primary socialization is distinguished by the fact that it cannot take place without an emotionally shared identification of the child with his significant others: you have to love your mother, but not your teacher (1966:141).

 

Type: E

  1. Explain in detail the following quote from Berger and Luckmann: “only with the transmission of the social world to a new generation…does the fundamental social dialectic appear in the totality. To repeat, only with the appearance of a new generation can one properly speak of a social world.”

*a. Externalization and objectivation enable the actor to confront the social world as something outside of herself. Berger and Luckmann (1966:58) emphasize that institutions are “experienced as possessing a reality of their own, a reality that confronts the individual as an external and coercive fact.” Internalization is “the immediate apprehension or interpretation of an objective event as expressing meaning” (1966:129), that is, the process through which individual subjectivity is attained. Internalization means that “the objectivated social world is retrojected into consciousness in the course of socialization” (ibid.:61).  The three moments of externalization, objectivation, and internalization are not to be understood “as occurring in a temporal sequence,” but rather as a simultaneous, dialectical process. Nevertheless, it is in intergenerational transmission that the process of internalization is complete. In other words, every individual is born into an environment within which she encounters the significant others who are in charge of her socialization. One does not choose one’s own significant others; rather, they are imposed on her. In the process of socialization, the stocks of knowledge that the individual experiences as a preexisting objective reality are imposed on her. The individual is thereby “born into not only an objective social structure but also an objective social world” (1966:131). Berger and Luckmann differentiate two types of socialization based on the extent to which individuals are active and conscious of the process of internalization. Primary socialization refers to “the first socialization an individual undergoes in childhood, through which he becomes a member of society” (1966:130–1). On the other hand, secondary socialization refers to subsequent processes of socialization that induct “an already socialized individual into new sectors of the objective world of his society” (ibid.).

 

Type: E

  1. Define in detail ethnomethodology. Provide real world examples of how you could apply an ethnomethodological analysis to a social situation. Compare and contrast ethnomethodology and phenomenology. For extra credit, explain the connection between Garfinkel’s focus on “accounting practices” and his early education/time spent with Talcott Parsons at Harvard.

*a. Ethnomethodology literally means the study of the methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. The basic premise of ethnomethodology is that “people do what they do, right there and then, to be reasonable and effective and they do so for pervasively practical reasons and under unavoidably local conditions of knowledge, action and material resources” (Boden 1990:189). Like phenomenology, ethnomethodology is concerned with how individuals make sense of their everyday circumstances. Both emphasize that “we accept as unquestionable the world of facts which surrounds us” (Schutz 1970:58; emphasis added), and both pay attention to the methods or procedures that individuals use to interpretively produce the recognizable, intelligible forms of action that, paradoxically, they treat as “facts.” In short, both are intrigued by the “suspension of doubt” that sustains our everyday world. Phenomenologists and ethnomethodologists analyze the taken-for-granted everyday world that is the basis for all human conduct. Phenomenologists seek to explain how people actively produce and sustain meaning. Ethnomethodologists focus less on meaning and subjectivity and more on the actual methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. In contrast to phenomenology, which as indicated above has close ties to psychology and philosophy, ethnomethodology has close ties to linguistics and mainstream sociology. Ethnomethodologists are more interested in how actors assure each other that meaning is shared than the actual meaning structures themselves.

 

Type: E

  1. Define the concept of bifurcation of consciousness. This term underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.

*a. Smith uses this term to refer to a separation or split between the world as you actually experience it and the dominant view to which you must adapt (e.g., a masculine point of view). The notion of bifurcation of consciousness underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world. Conversely, the dominant group enjoys the privilege of remaining oblivious to the worldview of the Other, or subordinate group, since the Other is fully expected to accommodate to them. The “governing mode” of the professions, then, creates a bifurcation of consciousness in the actor: “It establishes two modes of knowing, experiencing, and acting—one located in the body and in the space that it occupies and moves into, the other passing beyond it” (ibid.:82). Of course, bifurcation of consciousness reflects Smith’s own experience of living in “two worlds”: the dominant, masculine-oriented, “abstract” world of the sociologist, and the “concrete” world of wife and mother. The key point, as Smith (2005:11) notes, is that “the two subjectivities, home and university, could not be blended.” In this way, Smith’s concept of bifurcation of consciousness recalls W. E. B. Du Bois’s concept of “double consciousness,” which he used to describe the experiential condition of black Americans.6 In both cases, it is the oppressed person who must adapt to the “rules of the game” that do not reflect her interests or desires, even though, in both cases, the dual subjectivities provide a uniquely “clairvoyant” vantage point (in Du Bois’s terms). Thus, for instance, women in male-dominated professions (e.g., law enforcement, construction) acclimate themselves to sexist and even misogynistic talk about them.