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Test Bank Of Community Based Corrections 10th Edition by Alarid

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. How many people are currently under some form of correctional supervision in the United States?

 

a. 7 million b. 1.2 million
c. 42 million d. 5 million
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: The Correctional Dilemma
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The release of an offender under conditions imposed by the court for a specified period of time during which the court retains the authority to modify the conditions or to resentence the offender if he or she violates the conditions is:

 

  1. Probation b. Parole

 

  1. Mandatory conditional release d. Electronic monitoring

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. ______ refers to any sanction in which offenders serve all or a portion of their entire sentence in the community.

 

a. Community corrections b. Social justice
c. Restorative justice d. Halfway house
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: The Correctional Dilemma
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5
4. The most common form of community corrections is:
a. Boot camp b. Community restitution
c. Probation d. Parole
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: The Correctional Dilemma
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. From the 1930s to the 1970s, _____ was the primary sentencing philosophy in the United States.

 

  1. determinate sentencing b. three-strikes

 

  1. indeterminate sentencing d. retribution

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. What type of sentence would a judge give an offender under an indeterminate sentencing model?

 

  1. 20 years b. Life

 

  1. 5 to 10 years d. Death

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a determinate sentencing philosophy?

 

  1. mandatory minimums b. truth-in-sentencing

 

  1. discretionary parole d. three strikes laws

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Lack of confidence in correctional programming peaked in 1974 when _____ _____ publication concluded that,

 

“with few exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far had no appreciable effect on recidivism.”

 

  1. Robert Martinson’sb. Andrew von Hirsch’s

 

c. Herbert Packer’s d. James Marquart’s
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: Indeterminate Sentencing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5
9. Determinate sentencing is often referred to as:
a. unconstitutional b. flat-time
c. round time d. a range
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Origins of Determinate Sentencing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5
10. In 1975, _________ was the first state to return to a philosophy of determinate sentencing.
a. Texas b. Maine
c. Oklahoma d. Florida
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. In determinate sentencing, the range of permissible sentences is determined largely by:

 

  1. Legislated statutes b. Treatment goals and objectives

 

  1. Parole boards d. Boards of pardons and clemency

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. _____ require offenders to serve specified portions of their sentence prior to release.

 

  1. Three-strikes laws

 

  1. Mandatory minimum sentencing laws

 

  1. Community-based treatments

 

  1. Faith-based treatment programs

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Truth-in-sentencing laws require offenders to serve at least _________ of their original sentence length before becoming eligible for release.

 

a. 90% b. 85%
c. 75% d. 50%
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Origins of Determinate Sentencing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The concept that communities are made safer by removing unsafe residents is ingrained in American tradition, but correctional policy shifts according to legislators’ perceptions of what the public wants. This relationship is known as:
  2. The swing of the pendulum b. The enigma

 

  1. The revolution d. The paradox

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Surveys have suggested that adults support prisons that emphasize:

 

  1. Rehabilitation b. Retribution

 

  1. Deterrence d. Restitution

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. A recent national opinion poll indicated that the most well-known alternatives to incarceration are probation, house arrest, and:

 

  1. Boot camp b. Electronic monitoring

 

  1. Day reporting centers d. Shock probation

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The three main decision points in the corrections system are bail, sentencing, and:

 

a. reentry b. punishment
c. probation d. diversion
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Points
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. (A) _____ is a monetary payment deposited with the court to ensure a defendant’s return for the next court date, in exchange for the defendant’s release.

 

a. fine b. restitution
c. bail d. retribution
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: Pretrial and the Bail Decision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Any activity or program that is conducted to prepare parolees to return safely to the community and to live as law abiding citizens is known as:

 

  1. Compulsive education b. Prisoner reentry

 

  1. Intensive supervision d. Parole

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Reentry Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. _____ offer graduated levels of supervision and provide rewards for positive behavior, with gradually less supervision when offenders are successful.

 

  1. Intermediate sanctions b. Incarcerative punishments

 

  1. Indeterminate sentences d. Restrictive sanctions

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Sentencing Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. The discretionary release of an offender before the expiration of his or her sentence under conditions established by the releasing authority is:

 

  1. Intensive probation b. Restorative justice

 

  1. Parole d. Mandatory conditional release

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Reentry Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. _____ assumes that offenders who are under community supervision will refrain from committing new crimes or technical violations if he or she feels that the costs outweigh the benefits.

 

  1. General deterrence b. Specific deterrence

 

  1. Absolute deterrence d. Initial deterrence

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Protecting the Public Through Specific Deterrence

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. _____ is focused on crime victims and emphasizes offender responsibility to repair the injustice the offender has caused. The philosophy is known as:

 

  1. Restorative justice b. Community justice

 

  1. Community restitution d. Social justice

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Restorative Justice

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Restorative justice is most effective with _____ crimes.

 

  1. Drug b. Nonviolent

 

  1. Public order d. Sexual

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Restorative Justice

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. _____ is a form of corrections that uses current best practices or interventions for which there is consistent and solid scientific evidence showing that they work to meet intended outcomes is known.

 

  1. Evidence-based practice b. Outcome-based education

 

  1. Evaluative-based practice d. Empirical research

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. Using an intermediate sanction as a stiffer punishment for offenders who would have ordinarily been sentenced to probation or other lesser sanctions is known as:

 

  1. Community service b. Net widening

 

  1. Prison population reduction d. Deferring sentence

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Evaluating Effectiveness

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The most commonly used dependant variable when evaluating the effectiveness of treatment programs is:

 

  1. Financial goals and objectives b. Recidivism

 

c. Restitution collected d. Number of probationers employed
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Outcome Measures in Evaluation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3
28. Which of the following is often used as a measure of recidivism?
a. Rearrest b. Reconviction
c. Reincarceration d. All of these choices
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: Outcome Measures in Evaluation

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The public demands correctional programs that satisfy both _________ and public safety objectives.

 

  1. Treatment b. Punishment

 

  1. Restoration d. Counseling

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Outcome Measures in Evaluation

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Our nation’s crime control policies over the last three decades have resulted in a steady increase of convicted misdemeanants and felons in the correctional system today.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

 

  1. Community corrections are sanctions that may be completed after a defendant serves time in prison.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The most common form of community supervision is probation.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Nearly 3% of the total adult population in the United States is under some form of correctional supervision.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Until the 1990s, determinate sentencing was the primary sentencing philosophy in the United States.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Robert Martinson found that correctional rehabilitation programs were effective at reducing recidivism.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. All states have adopted mandatory minimum sentencing laws for certain types of offenses and require that a minimum period of time be served before release can be considered.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Parole is allowed at the federal level.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The most well-known community-based corrections are probation, house arrest, and electronic monitoring,.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. “Redeemability” is convincing the public that offenders can change their ways.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Due to the fiscal crisis, there is growing consensus that jail and prison facilities should be used for the most serious offenders.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Prison is Expensive

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. Bail is one of the three major decision points in the corrections system.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Points

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Pretrial supervision is reserved for those who have not yet been convicted.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Pretrial and the Bail Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Less than half of all prisoners will ever be released from prison.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Reentry Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Parole is used for offenders who have not yet been convicted.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. In contrast to mainstream criminal justice that is focused on the punishment of the offender, restorative justice is centered on the victim throughout the process and emphasizes the offender’s responsibility to repair the injustice and wrong caused to the victim.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Restorative Justice

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. Specific deterrence attempts to deter the general public.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Protecting the Public Through Specific Deterrence

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. “Evidence­based practices” means using the experience and opinions of individuals in the field who have supervised caseloads for a long time to decide the impact a program has on participants.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. “Net Widening” results in a cost increase instead of a cost savings.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Evaluating Effectiveness

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Recidivism can be measured as re-arrest, reconviction, or re-incarceration.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Outcome Measures in Evaluation

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. The release of a convicted offender under conditions imposed by the court for a specified period of time during which the court retains the authority to modify the conditions or to resentence the offender if he or she violates the conditions is known as __________.

 

ANSWER:                                     probation

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Community service, house arrest, day fines, and boot camps are examples of ____________________.

 

ANSWER:                                     intermediate sanctions

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. _____ sentencing provides a range of punishments and allows the parole board to determine when an offender has been rehabilitated.

 

ANSWER:                                     Indeterminate

 

REFERENCES:                         Indeterminate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. _____ became the first state to return to a determinate sentencing structure.

 

ANSWER:Maine

 

REFERENCES:Origins of Determinate Sentencig

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. A “flat sentence” is the same as a _____ sentence.

 

ANSWER:determinate

 

REFERENCES:The Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The three main decision points in the corrections system are bail, sentencing, and _____.

 

ANSWER:reentry

 

REFERENCES:The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Points

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Examples of ___________ sentencing policies include mandatory minimums, truth in sentencing, three strikes laws, and sentencing guidelines.

 

ANSWER:determinate

 

REFERENCES:Origins of Determinate Sentencing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Correctional policy is in many ways a ____________, because it shifts according to the tide of public perception and what is important to vocal constituents and public interest groups.

 

ANSWER:                                     paradox

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. __________ is a monetary payment deposited with the court to ensure the return of a defendant charged with a crime.

 

ANSWER:                                     bail

 

REFERENCES:                         Pretrial and the Bail Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. Correcting an inadequacy of an offender is known as _____.

 

ANSWER:rehabilitation

 

REFERENCES:Rehabilitation through Risk/Need/Responsivity

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. The _____ assumes at a basic level that offender compliance and active participation are integral to the offender’s own success on community supervision.

 

ANSWER:                                     participation process model

 

REFERENCES:                          An Integrated Theory of Community Supervision: The Participation Process Model

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Any activity or program to prepare parolees to return safely to the community is called

 

_______________________.

 

ANSWER:                                     prisoner reentry

 

REFERENCES:                         Reentry Decision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The philosophy and sanction of allowing the offender to remain in the community with the responsibility of repairing the injustice caused to the victim is ___________________.

 

ANSWER:                                     restorative justice

 

REFERENCES:                         Restorative Justice

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. ___________________________is using current best practices or interventions for which there is consistent and solid scientific evidence showing that they work to meet the intended outcomes.

 

ANSWER:                                     Evidence-based practices

 

REFERENCES:                         Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Return to criminal behavior, usually measured as either rearrest, reconviction, or reincarceration is called

 

__________.

 

ANSWER:                                     recidivism

 

REFERENCES:                         Evaluating Effectiveness

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. What does a “continuum of sanctions” mean in the sentencing process? If you were a judge, how would you apply this continuum?

 

ANSWER:                                     Figure 1.1 shows the wide variety of community-based sanctions available, including

 

residential programs (e.g., halfway houses and therapeutic communities), economic sanctions (e.g., restitution, fines, and forfeitures), and nonresidential or outpatient options (e.g., probation, parole, and electronic monitoring). As a judge, I would apply this continuum by comparing the risks and needs presented by the offender to the ability of the chosen sanction to control the risk and meet the needs. At the most restrictivepunitive end of the continuum, I would reserve institutional corrections only for those offenses warranting retributive sentencing or to prevent any further crime by the offender until programming could be completed addressing the needs of the offender that would serve to diminish the probability of future criminal acts. As the degree of risk and severity of needs decrease, the sanction chosen from the continuum would be reduced commensurately all the way down to regular probation.

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. What recent factors have contributed to correctional growth?

 

ANSWER:                                     Box 1.1 shows the latest government statistics regarding the number of people

 

currently on some form of correctional supervision. As of December 31, 2006 there were 4.2 million offenders on probation, and nearly 800,000 on parole, which is considerably more than the 2.3 million offenders incarcerated in jail and prison. Over the last 7 years, there was an average increase of 2.4 percent of prisoners and 1.7 percent of those on community supervision each year in the corrections system (Bonczar 2008; Glaze & Bonczar 2008). The number of female offenders has grown as well, although women have always been underrepresented in the criminal justice system in comparison to their numbers in the general population. Sources say that in the last 15 years, the number of women on probation and parole has doubled. While this sounds like a lot, women still comprise only 12 percent of all parolees and 23 percent of probationers today.

 

Although the increase is showing signs of slowing down some, the rise of convicted offenders is directly related to a number of factors including: changes in sentencing laws, an increase of probation and parole violators returning to prison, a decreased rate of release on discretionary parole, and differential police responses to drug offenses (Beck 2000).

 

REFERENCES:                         The Correctional Dilemma

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_1__An_Overview_of_Community_Corrections__Goals_and_Evidence_Based_Practices

 

 

  1. What is the value in public opinion poll research compared to social science research?

 

ANSWER:                                     Public opinion research on sentencing preferences demonstrated higher validity when

 

the public was given diverse sentencing options and adequate information, such as program descriptions and detailed information about an offense or an offender. However, readers are cautioned that exposure to information may have only short-term effects rather than lasting effects, since many beliefs about crime and punishment are based on emotional rather than rational arguments (Maruna and King, 2008). This reliance on emotional reactions may lead to temporary increases in funding for particular programs, policies, or sanctions. However, it may also lead to the continuance of having punishments that do not achieve the desired outcomes. A good example is three-strikes legislation that has not always resulted in removing only the most serious offenders from society. Conversely, valid social science research removes the emotional response and measures the degree of effectiveness of programs based on the program’s ability to achieve desired outcomes/goals.

 

REFERENCES:                         The Paradox

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. Will evidence-based practices (EBP) be just another passing fad?

 

ANSWER:                                     Decreasing risk, increasing rehabilitation, and restorative justice are important

 

components in changing offenders’ attitudes and behaviors, leading to the prevention of

 

future criminal behavior. Part of the challenge therein, lies in public recognition of the

 

importance that community corrections serves to increase public safety and in the

 

method of choice for those who break the law. One of the ways to accomplish such an

 

image change is through evidence-based practices. EBP is not based on intuition,

 

speculation, anecdotal evidence, or tradition (e.g., “that’s the way we’ve always done it

 

around here”).

 

Rather, EBP is grounded in empirical data and research in studying what works. The

 

idea behind EBP in corrections is that agencies should use only the most successful

 

programs. The programs that are the best are effective in changing offender behavior

 

—whether that behavior is reducing re­arrest, reducing technical violations, increasing

 

the number of drug free days, or the number of days offender is working or employed

 

while on supervision. Each goal will need a way to be measure empirically—meaning

 

accurate data needs to be recorded electronically for later evaluation. To the extent

 

that EPB is successful in describing programs that work and reduce crime and fear of

 

crime then it will be accepted. However, in the past the public has relied upon

 

recidivism as the variable that comes to their minds when discussing success. If

 

recidivism is not reduced then it is possible that EPB will not be accepted on a long

 

term basis.

 

REFERENCES:                         Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

 

 

Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Each year, approximately __________ state and federal prisoners are released from prison.

 

a. 1 million b. 800,000
c. 2 million d. 500,000

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Release from prison after 100% of a sentence has been served is known as _____ release.

 

  1. expiration

 

  1. mandatory

 

  1. discretionary

 

  1. surety

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. A parole board makes decisions about _____ release.

 

  1. discretionary b. expiration

 

  1. mandatory d. surety

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. _____ is the conditional release of a convicted offender from a correctional institution, under the continued custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence under supervision in the community.

 

  1. probation b. parole

 

  1. work release d. furlough

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. The word parole is derived from the French parole d’honneur, which means:

 

  1. word of honor b. contract of consent

 

  1. ticket of leave d. discretionary release

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         The Origins of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Three European prison administrators are credited for putting parole into practice. _____ was the first Spanish prison administrator to institute a system of parole.

 

  1. Sir Walter Crofton

 

  1. Manuel Montesinos

 

  1. Alexander Maconochie

 

  1. John Augustus

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Manuel Montesinos

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. Sir Walter Crofton, who had studied Maconochie’s innovations on Norfolk Island, became the administrator of the

 

__________ prison system in 1854.

 

a. British b. American
c. Irish d. Australian
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Alexander Maconochie used a _____ system, whereby the duration of a sentence would be decided by the prisoner’s good conduct.

 

  1. determinate b. demerit

 

  1. checks and balances d. marks

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The American prison reformer who introduced parole to the Elmira Reformatory in New York in 1876 was:

 

  1. Walter Crofton b. William Penn

 

  1. Zebulon R. Brockway d. Jeremy Bentham

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         The Development of Parole in the United States

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the four concepts that underlie the development of parole in the United States?

 

  1. Reduction in length of incarceration as reward for good conduct

 

  1. Supervision of parolee

 

  1. Imposition of indeterminate sentence

 

  1. Reduction of prison populations

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Four Justifications of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. The first state to pass a law recognizing good time as a reward for a good behavior was:

 

  1. New York b. Pennsylvania

 

  1. Massachusetts d. Vermont

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Reward for Good Prison Conduct

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Under the system established at the Elmira Reformatory, volunteer citizens known as _____ supervised parolees.

 

a. trustees b. sureties
c. guardians d. bobbies
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: Release from an Indeterminate Sentence
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Under the medical model, the court set a minimum and maximum release date and the parole board determined when the appropriate time was to release the offender back into the community. This is a(n) _________ sentence.
  2. indeterminate b. determinate

 

  1. mandatory d. presumptive

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         The Medical Model

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. In the 1970s there was a move away from individualism, rehabilitation, and sentence indeterminacy towards giving the offender a more punitive sentence based on the offense. This type of sentencing practice is:

 

  1. indeterminate sentencing b. determinate sentencing

 

  1. split sentencing d. rehabilitative sentencing

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The _____ is based on the concept of just deserts and even-handed punishment that calls for fairness in criminal sentencing, in that all persons convicted of a similar offense will receive a like sentence.

 

  1. Justice model b. Casework era

 

  1. Medical model d. Service broker model

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Under ____________ release, offenders reentered society when correctional authorities and board members believed they were ready or they had improved their lives enough to earn the privilege to be released.
a. Crofton’s Parole b. mandatory
c. discretionary d. good time
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Studies have shown that first time offenders in states without discretionary parole actually served _____ time in prison than in states that retained parole boards.

 

  1. less b. more

 

  1. the same d. ten years less

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Reasons presented by the American Probation and Parole Association and the Association of Paroling Authorities to justify keeping parole include:

 

  1. Parole boards can impose prisoner participation in treatment programs.

 

  1. Victims have a greater say in parole board hearings than the automatic releases.

 

  1. Release decisions are made by a computer under automatic release.

 

  1. All of these choices

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. As of 2005, ___ states and the federal system had replaced discretionary release with mandatory release by abolishing parole boards for all offenses, and another five states had abolished discretionary release for violent offenses.

 

a. 2 b. 43
c. 15 d. all

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The _____ has the highest concentration of parolees in the United States.

 

  1. Northeast b. South

 

  1. Southeast d. Northwest

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Characteristics of Parolees

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Parolees typically serve _____ under supervision in the community?

 

a. 3 months b. 6 months
c. 1-2 years d. more than 3 years
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: Characteristics of Parolees
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

22. About _____ of parolees are removed from parole for too many rule violations.
a. 20% b. 30%
c. 40% d. 60%
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Characteristics of Parolees
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4
23. Parole success rates are _____ (than) probation success rates.
a. higher b. equal to
c. lower d. more than double

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The function of parole has changed its traditional role. It is now tasked primarily with:

 

  1. protecting the public from released offenders

 

  1. rehabilitating the offender

 

  1. providing community help services for the offender

 

  1. meeting the multiple treatment needs of the offender

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Contemporary Functions of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Using parole for population control has had detrimental effects on postrelease supervision because of escalating

 

________ sizes.

 

  1. caseload b. court docket

 

  1. jail populations d. resource agency

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Contemporary Functions of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. The conditional release of an inmate with a terminal illness is:

 

  1. mercy pardon b. conditional pardon

 

  1. medical parole d. mandatory release

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Saving Medical Costs

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. Sixty-five percent of state and federal prison systems and 44 percent of city/county jails have a ________ parole policy, but few states utilize this option.

 

a. medical b. family
c. good time d. juvenile
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: Saving Medical Costs
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. Approximately _____ are on parole in the United States.

 

a. 900,000 b. 820,000
c. 1 million d. 750,000
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Characteristics of Parolees
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Only about _____ people are released on medical parole in the United States.

 

a. 200 b. 300
c. 500 d. 1000
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: Saving Medical Costs
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The terms “parole” and “mandatory release” are synonymous terms.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Discretionary release is decided by the parole board.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Georg Michael Obermaier was warden at Norfolk Island in 1842 and implemented humane prison reforms and a rudimentary form of parole.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         The Origins of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Credit for developing an early form of our current parole system goes to Alexander Maconochie, who was in charge of the English penal colony at Norfolk Island.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Felons were transported to American colonies as a partial solution to the poor economic conditions and unemployment in England.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

  1. The English Government designated Australia as a convict settlement and paid for the transportation and maintenance of English prisoners shipped to Australia.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. The Irish System was developed by Sir Walter Crofton and involved the conditional release of offenders into the community under supervision.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The first use of parole in the United States was at Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         The Development of Parole in the United States

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Reducing the prison population was one of the four justifications for the development of a parole system in the United States.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Four Justifications of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Between the 1840s and 1940s, American prisons were supported by tax payers.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Reducing the Cost of Incarceration

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The medical model made the assumption that all criminality was caused by psychiatric problems and the undesirable behaviors could be modified only through professional counseling.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         The Medical Model

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. In the 1970s there was a dramatic change from a focus on individualism, rehabilitation, and indeterminate sentences to determinate sentencing.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. In contrast to the rehabilitative ideal, the just deserts or justice model changes the focus of the system from the offender to the offense.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Parole is split into either discretionary release or mandatory release.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Under discretionary release, offenders are released no matter how many disciplinary reports they have had or how they acted while incarcerated.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Parolees typically serve more than one year of time on supervision.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Less than half of all parolees are able to successfully complete their parole term.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. Most authorities agree that it is not feasible to control prison populations in the long term by the use of parole board action.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Contemporary Functions of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Medical parole occurs when medical doctors and experts in the community advise the prison officials that they must release a prisoner because their medical condition is such that they are going to cost more than the average offender per day to incarcerate.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Saving Medical Costs

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

  1. ________________ is the conditional release of an offender from confinement in a correctional institution by a parole board.

 

ANSWER:                                     discretionary release

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The English word parole is derived from the French phrase, ___________, which means word of honor.

 

ANSWER:                                     Parole d’honneur

 

REFERENCES:                         The Origins of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The _____ system was used by Alexander Maconochie and granted credits to inmates for good behavior and hard work.

 

ANSWER:                                     marks

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Alexander Maconochie was in charge of the penal colony on _____.

 

ANSWER:                                     Norfolk Island

 

REFERENCES:                         Alexander Maconochie

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

  1. Sir Walter Crofton refined the scheme originated by Maconochie, into what is known today as the

 

__________________, or Irish system.

 

ANSWER:ticket-of-leave

 

REFERENCES:Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. The ___________ was renowned for its three classes of penal servitude: strict imprisonment, indeterminate sentences, and ticket-of-leave.

 

ANSWER:                                     Irish System

 

REFERENCES:                         Irish System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

  1. Federal parole began in June 1910, due to legislation that established the first three federal __________.

 

ANSWER:penitentiaries

 

REFERENCES:The Development of Parole in the United States

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The rehabilitative ideal known as the __________ model dominated American corrections between the 1930s and the 1960s.

 

ANSWER:                                     medical

 

REFERENCES:                         The Medical Model

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The _____ model emphasizes the seriousness of the crime when determining release.

 

ANSWER:                                     justice or just deserts

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. First-time offenders on mandatory release serve __________ time on average in prison than do first timers with discretionary release.

 

ANSWER:                                     less

 

REFERENCES:                         Parole Today

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. The lowest parole rates in the country are in the ______.

 

ANSWER:                                     south

 

REFERENCES:                         Characteristics of Parolees

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. More parolees are removed from parole because of _____ than for the commission of new crimes.

 

ANSWER:                                     rule violations

 

REFERENCES:                         Characteristics of Parolees

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Medical parole is also known as _____.

 

ANSWER:                                     compassionate release

 

REFERENCES:                         Saving Medical Costs

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. The conditional release from prison to the community for prisoners with terminal illnesses who do not pose an undue risk to public safety is ________ .

 

ANSWER:                                     medical release

 

REFERENCES:                         p. 53

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Discuss Manuel Montesinos and Georg Michael Obermaier and their contributions to discretionary release and the development of parole.

 

ANSWER:                                     In 1835 Col. Manuel Montesinos was appointed governor of the prison at Valencia,

 

Spain, which held about 1,500 convicts. He organized the institution using military-type

 

discipline, and he encouraged prisoner vocational training and education. The novelty of

 

his plan was that there were practically no officers to watch the prisoners, who

 

nevertheless made few, if any, attempts to escape. Each prisoner could earn a one-

 

third reduction in the term of his sentence by good behavior and positive

 

accomplishments. The number of prisoner recommitments while Montesinos was

 

governor was significantly reduced. Despite all his efforts, the law that allowed this

 

program was subsequently repealed, and Montesinos ultimately resigned.

 

Georg Michael Obermaier became governor of a prison in Munich, Germany, in 1842

 

where he found approximately 700 rebellious prisoners being kept in order by more

 

than 100 soldiers (Wines 1919). In a short time he gained the men’s confidence,

 

removed their chains, discharged nearly all of their guards, and appointed one of them

 

superintendent of each of the industrial shops. His success in reforming prisoners was

 

so great that reportedly only 10 percent of prisoners relapsed into crime after their

 

discharge. He was aided by two favorable circumstances: Many of the men had no

 

fixed term of imprisonment, and discharged inmates were supervised by prison aid

 

societies.

 

REFERENCES:                         The Origins of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.1 – 3

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Compare Crofton’s ticket­of­leave and Maconochie’s marks system? How do they compare to the contemporary

 

U.S. system?

 

ANSWER:                                     In 1837 Alexander Maconochie proposed to the House of Commons a system whereby

 

the duration of the sentence would be determined not by time but by the prisoner’s

 

industry and good conduct. He proposed a marks system by which “marks” or credits

 

would be credited daily to prisoners in accordance with their behavior and the amount

 

of labor they performed. As prisoners demonstrated evidence of good behavior and a

 

good work ethic, their freedom and privileges gradually increased. Marks were

 

deducted for negative behavior. Maconochie’s system allowed prisoners to move from

 

strict imprisonment, to labor in work gangs, through conditional release around the

 

island, and finally to complete restoration of liberty (Morris, 2002). It should be noted

 

the primary condition attached to the release was to not incur further law violations and

 

the behavior of the releasee was not supervised in the sense that it is today.

 

Sir Walter Crofton, who had studied Maconochie’s innovations on Norfolk Island,

 

became the administrator of the Irish prison system in 1854. Crofton adopted the use of

 

the marks system inside prison. Under Crofton’s administration, the Irish system

 

became renowned for its three levels: strict imprisonment, indeterminate sentence, and

 

ticket of leave. Each prisoner’s classification was determined by the marks he or she

 

had earned for good conduct and achievement in industry and education, a concept

 

borrowed from Maconochie’s experience on Norfolk Island. The ticket­of­leave

 

system was different from the one in England. The general written conditions of the

 

Irish ticket-of-leave were supplemented with instructions designed for closer

 

supervision and control and thus resembled the conditions of parole in the United States

 

today. Ticket of leave men and women residing in rural areas were under police

 

supervision, but a civilian employee called the inspector of released prisoners

 

supervised those living in Dublin. The inspector had the responsibility of securing

 

employment for the ticket of leave person, visiting his or her residence, and verifying

 

employment. The Irish system of ticket of leave had the confidence and support of the

 

public and of convicted criminals.

 

REFERENCES:                         The Origins of Parole

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.2 – 5

 

COBC.ALAR.13.3 – 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. What was the medical model and why did it lose favor?

 

ANSWER:                                     Parole was seen as a major adjunct to the rehabilitation philosophy that dominated

 

American corrections from the 1930s through the 1960s. This rehabilitative ideal, called

 

the medical model, assumed that criminal behavior had its roots in environmental and

 

psychosocial aspects of the offender’s life and that these behaviors could be corrected.

 

This meant that every offender would be dealt with on an individual basis to determine

 

the causes of his or her criminal behavior.

 

Under the old punitive model of corrections, the question was “What did he do?” The

 

medical model was more concerned with why criminals commit crime and what can be

 

done to improve the convict’s situation. According to the medical model, if prison staff

 

could diagnose and treat “badness,” then the lawbreaker should be released when

 

“cured.” The mechanisms for accomplishing this were the indeterminate sentence and

 

parole. The release decision was thus shared between the court, which sets a minimum

 

and a maximum period of incarceration, and the correctional system. The parole

 

board’s responsibility was to determine the optimal release time at which the inmate is

 

most ready to reenter the community as a responsible citizen.

 

REFERENCES:                         The Medical Model

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. What is the justice model of corrections? What factors were associated with its emergence in the 1970s?

 

ANSWER:                                     In the 1970s, individualism, rehabilitation, sentence indeterminacy, and parole all

 

seemed to fall from grace and appeared to be on their way out. A national commission

 

stated, “One of the movements we are currently witnessing in the criminal justice field

 

is the trend toward the establishment of determinate or ‘fixed’ sentencing of criminal

 

offenders” (National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals

 

1973). The correctional system’s failure to reduce the steadily increasing crime rate

 

and its inability to reduce recidivism, rehabilitate offenders, or make predictive

 

judgments about offenders’ future behavior brought about public disillusionment,

 

disappointment, and resentment. Concern also arose that wide and unfair disparities

 

existed in sentencing based on the offender’s race, socioeconomic status, and place of

 

conviction (Petersilia, 2000b). The pendulum began to swing, and by the late 1970s it

 

seemed to have moved 180 degrees from the rehabilitative ideal to the “just deserts”

 

approach to criminal correction.

 

In contrast to the rehabilitative ideal, the just deserts or justice model changes the focus

 

of the system from the offender to the offense. Liberals and conservatives alike

 

embraced determinate sentencing and the abolition of parole, but for different reasons

 

(Cullen and Gilbert, 1982). The Vietnam War, the Kent State shootings, and the Attica

 

prison uprising convinced many liberals that the state could not be trusted to administer

 

rehabilitation in a just and humane manner. The indeterminate sentence was too vague

 

and without due process protections to limit discretion. The just deserts approach was

 

perceived as providing fair punishment. For conservatives, the 1974 publication by

 

Robert Martinson was interpreted that few correctional treatment programs worked

 

and the indeterminate sentence, parole, and treatment programs were too “soft” on

 

crime. Determinate sentencing and the just deserts approach was seen as a return to a

 

punishment oriented correctional system. (Cullen and Gilbert, 1982).

 

REFERENCES:                         From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

 

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Chapter_3__History_of_Parole_and_Mandatory_Release

 

 

  1. Differentiate between mandatory release and discretionary release and explain the role of parole.

 

ANSWER:                                     There are two types of post-prison supervision: discretionary and mandatory release.

 

Individuals on mandatory release enter the community automatically at the expiration of their maximum term minus credited time off for good behavior. Mandatory release is decided by legislative statute or good-time laws. In contrast to mandatory release, individuals released on discretionary release enter the community because members of a parole board have decided that the prisoner has earned the privilege of being released from prison while still remaining under supervision of an indeterminate sentence. Parole is the conditional release of a convicted offender from a correctional institution, under the continued custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence in the community under supervision. Historically, parole referred only to discretionary release. But as laws and release methods changed, “parolees” became a more general concept that has incorporated mandatory supervision. Parole is a broad concept that refers to post-prison supervision of both mandatory and discretionary released offenders. Parolees on both mandatory release and discretionary release are supervised by a parole officer and adhere to similar conditions. If these conditions are not followed, either type of parolee (mandatory or discretionary) can be returned to prison for the remainder of the sentence.

 

REFERENCES:                         Introduction

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.4 – 5

 

  1. Explain the concept of medical parole and discuss the pros and cons releasing offenders due to medical conditions.

 

ANSWER:                                     Medical parole, also known as compassionate release, is an option for some elderly

 

prisoners or prisoners with terminal illnesses who are no longer viewed as a risk to

 

public safety if released to the community. Due to the high costs of health care and the

 

increased age of prisoners in America, there has been an increase in the discussion

 

surrounding medical parole. To be eligible for medical parole, prisoners must have a

 

medical condition that is terminal, permanently limits them from movement, or a

 

medical condition that could be treated less expensively in a community treatment

 

facility instead of a prison.

 

Medical parole is not the widely used, despite the arguments showing it to be a more

 

cost-effective and humane approach to hospice care for inmates and their families.

 

Two-thirds of prison systems and nearly half of all city/county jails have a medical

 

parole policy, but only about 300 people are released each year on medical parole

 

(Hammett, Harmon, & Maruschak, 1999).

 

Pros of medical parole include a decrease in health care costs for prison/jail systems,

 

as well as a more humane approach for inmates who are suffering from terminal

 

illnesses or who are very elderly. Cons are that the public often does not support

 

medical parole due to the type of crime committed. The victim and his or her family

 

may also oppose medical parole. This lack of public and victim support was evident in

 

the Susan Atkins case. Susan Atkins was a follower of Charles Manson and was

 

convicted for highly publicized murders. She developed brain cancer and was

 

transferred to community hospice to live out her final days, rather than being released

 

on medical parole, because of the victim’s family’s wishes that she remain

 

incarcerated.

 

REFERENCES:                         Saving Medical Costs

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: COBC.ALAR.13.5 – 4

 

 

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