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 Community as Partner Theory and Practice in Nursing 7th edition by Anderson Elizabeth – 

 

1. To plan prevention interventions, the nurse should know that which of the following is one of the greatest challenges to global health that leads to health disparities?
A) Access to adequate food
B) Health care
C) Shelter
D) Poverty

CHAPTER 1

 

2. Select the best definition of global health.
A) Differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups
B) Health issues that transcend national boundaries and may best be addressed by cooperative actions
C) Increasing economic, political, social, technological, and intellectual interconnectedness of the world
D) International and global exchanges leading to growing recognition of common threats, as well as opportunities, and a sense of growing solidarity and commitment to collaboration to promote global social justice and equity

 

 

3. Which of the following is a negative effect of globalization on health?
A) Diffusion of ideas
B) Expansion of trade
C) Global stewardship
D) Brain drain

 

 

4. The public health nurse in New York City wishes to prepare for potential health outcomes of climate change. For which client should she develop plans? Select all that apply.
A) Elderly man with cardiovascular disease on diuretic medication
B) Farmer whose crop yield is low
C) Relocated family living in temporary housing
D) Child with asthma
E) Female with a double knee replacement

 

 

5. Reaching which target will meet the goals of the Millennium Declaration? Select all that apply.
A) Halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.
B) Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters.
C) Develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.
D) Continue gender disparity in primary and secondary education.
E) Halve the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

 

 

6. Which of the following is one of the eight goals of the Millennium Development Goals Report?
A) Eradicate poverty and hunger
B) Achieve universal secondary education
C) Reduce child morbidity
D) Improve maternal health morbidity rates

 

 

7. Which of the following is a key strategy to improving maternal health?
A) Decreasing access to skilled birth attendants
B) Preventing pregnancies in women older than 40 years
C) Preventing multiple birth pregnancies
D) Increasing access to prenatal care

 

 

8. Which environmental sustainability target area of the Millennium Development Goals was reached 5 years ahead of schedule?
A) Halve the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
B) Improve the lives of at least 200 million slum dwellers.
C) Address the special needs of the least developed countries, landlocked countries, and small island developing states.
D) Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system.

 

 

9. Which of the following is an extreme poverty and hunger eradication target of the Millennium Development Goals campaign?
A) Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $5 a day.
B) Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
C) Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
D) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

 

 

10. Which of the following is one of the essential elements of primary health care in the globalized 21st century?
A) Prevention and control of worldwide endemic diseases
B) Prevention of worldwide smoking
C) Proper food supplies and nutrition
D) Immunizations against all major common diseases

 

 

11. Which is a true statement regarding the global burden of disease?
A) Approximately 5 million children younger than 5 years die every year.
B) HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of child death in Africa.
C) Lung cancer is contributing to the rise in cancer and heart disease.
D) Mental disorders such as depression are among the 20 leading causes of disability.

 

 

12. Knowing that complications of pregnancy account for 15% of deaths in women of reproductive age worldwide, what focus would best help direct the nurse to decreasing that statistic?
A) Recruit a midwife to provide additional assistance with delivery.
B) Arrange a breastfeeding class for pregnant mothers.
C) Set up a prenatal clinic in a local community.
D) Provide childcare while women attend childbirth classes.

 

 

13. Identify one of the common causes of disability worldwide.
A) Cardiovascular disease
B) Cancer
C) Vision problems
D) Multiple injuries from road accidents

 

 

14. Which of the following contributes to the critical shortage of nurses in low-resource countries? Select all that apply.
A) Challenges related to HIV/AIDS
B) High-stress work environments
C) Gender-based discrimination and violence
D) International migration of nurses
E) High infant and maternal mortality rates

 

 

15. The 2008 WHO Primary Health Care: Now More Than Ever Report reflected the ongoing commitment to the Alma-Ata Declaration and identified four reforms necessary to achieving the “health for all” goal. Which reform would meet this commitment?
A) Universal access to physical health protection
B) Service delivery reforms to reorganize health services around people’s needs and expectations
C) Universal health care insurance reforms
D) Leadership reforms to promote more inclusive and autocratic leadership

 

 

16. Which is a goal of the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH) for using information and communication technology for global networking?
A) Globally unite 5 million nurses through the internet by 2020.
B) Demonstrate the significance of nursing’s contribution to global health.
C) Provide educational and collaborative learning programs.
D) Deliver nursing care using telenursing or telehealth services.

 

 

17. Building on a success of the Millennium Development Goals, the community health nurse can work for health status improvement in sub-Saharan Africa by lobbying:
A) Aid foundations for more food supplies
B) US banks to offer more microloans to women
C) Agricultural corporations to farm the land
D) Local communities to fight for democracy

 

1. Select the best term for professional nurses who have been educated in the processes of population-based nursing and whose principal client is the aggregate community.
A) Community health nursing
B) Community-based practice nursing
C) Community psychology nursing
D) Home care nursing

Chapter 2

 

 

2. Based on Lillian Wald’s work living among the residents of the Henry Street Settlement House in New York City, community health nurses can effect change in a community’s health by:
A) advocating for better housing
B) working to change labor practices, wages
C) analyzing risks and benefits of care decisions
D) teaching preventive practices
E) accessing and using emerging research evidence

 

 

3. Select the number that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) best represents the number of years added to the life expectancy because of public health.
A) 15
B) 20
C) 25
D) 30

 

 

4. As communicable disease declined in the 1960s, which key public health issue became more prominent?
A) Immunizations
B) Workplace safety
C) Cigarette smoking
D) Family planning

 

 

5. Following the decline of communicable diseases and the prevention of chronic diseases related to such things as cigarette smoking and obesity, the World Health Organization began to focus on health promotion in which decade?
A) 1960s
B) 1970s
C) 1980s
D) 1990s

 

 

6. In the 1990s, which was the major concern of policy makers in the United States?
A) High cost of health care
B) Treatment of communicable diseases
C) High-tech medicine to increase life span
D) Fluoridation of drinking water

 

 

7. Explain the focus of community health nursing.
A) Direct clinical care
B) Prevention rather than one-on-one care
C) Family-focused roles
D) Community-focused roles and functions

 

 

8. Which of the following represent nursing activities for the essential public health service?
A) Participate in community assessment and identify potential environmental hazards.
B) Manage chronic conditions in daily life to maximize function.
C) Understand and identify determinants of health and disease.
D) Develop and implement community-based health education.
E) Participate in continuing education and preparation to ensure competence.

 

 

9. To enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety, the nurse can implement which action?
A) Develop programs and services to meet the needs of high-risk populations as well as members of the broader community.
B) Regulate and support safe care and treatment for dependent populations such as children and the frail elderly.
C) Participate in continuing education and preparation to ensure competence.
D) Participate in early identification of factors detrimental to the community’s health.

 

 

10. Which of the following factors is shaping 21st-century health?
A) Communicable diseases
B) Tertiary health care
C) Family planning clinics
D) Health care reform

 

 

11. How can the community health nurse mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems?
A) Develop programs and services to meet the needs of high-risk populations as well as members of the broader community.
B) Explain the significance of health issues to the public and participate in developing plans of action.
C) Establish programs and services to meet special needs.
D) Participate in early identification of factors detrimental to the community’s health.

 

 

12. When doing a presentation on public health nursing, the nurse should include which of the following as a great public health achievement of the 20th century?
A) Environmental sanitation
B) Abolishment of child labor
C) Control of infectious diseases
D) Decline in deaths from pulmonary disease

 

 

13. Which statement best defines health disparities?
A) Gaps between rich and poor, including poverty and health insurance, plus geographic, racial, ethnic disparities
B) Social, economic, and political issues where inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence, and injustice are at the root of ill health and the death of the poor and marginalized people
C) The increased economic, political, social, technological, and intellectual interconnectedness of the world
D) The health issues that transcend national boundaries and may best be addressed by cooperative actions

 

 

14. Although it is true that many of us have improved our standard of living, globally how many people will still live in extreme poverty by 2015?
A) 750 thousand
B) 1 million
C) 1 billion
D) 4 billion

 

 

15. Which statement is most relevant to population?
A) World population
B) Clients living in Chicago with diabetes
C) Immunization clinics held annually in California
D) Poverty in four continents

 

 

16. Community health nurses are tasked with identifying unserved and underserved populations in communities. Which factors should the nurse look for? Select all that apply.
A) Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence against women, men, and children
B) Increase in number of Asian, Pacific Islander, and Hispanic Americans
C) Increase in number of Americans older than 65 years
D) Effects of free trade on government programs
E) Lack of continuing education programs for health care community

 

 

17. Choose the demographic factor that is helping to shaping the future of community health nursing.
A) Decline in smoking
B) Social integration
C) Shift in medical care from chronic to acute illness
D) Increasing ethnic diversity

 

 

1. The concept of prevention is a key component of modern community health practice. Which of the following is an example of primary prevention?
A) Immunization clinic for seasonal influenza
B) Blood pressure screening for hypertension
C) Audiometric testing for hearing impairment
D) Skin test for tuberculosis

Chapter 3

 

2. The concept of prevention is a key component of modern community health practice. Which of the following is an example of secondary prevention?
A) Wearing of protective devices to prevent injury
B) Phenylalanine testing for phenylketonuria in infancy
C) Physical therapy for stroke victims
D) Exercise programs for heart attack victims

 

 

3. The concept of prevention is a key component of modern community health practice. What is the goal of tertiary prevention?
A) General health promotion, such as nutrition, hygiene, exercise, and environmental protection
B) Specific health promotion, such as immunizations and the wearing of protective devices to prevent injuries
C) Detect and treat a problem at the earliest possible stage when disease or impairment already exists
D) Limit disability and rehabilitate or restore affected people to their maximum possible capacities

 

 

4. Which is true of descriptive epidemiology?
A) It focuses on the distribution of frequencies and patterns of health events with groups in a population.
B) It is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to improve health.
C) It is people with a common characteristic, such as gender, age, and place of residence.
D) It seeks to identify associations between a particular disease or health problem and its etiology.

 

 

5. Which defines demography?
A) Statistical study of human populations with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics
B) Information about significant characteristics of a population that influence community needs and the delivery of health care services
C) Descriptions and comparisons of populations according to the characteristics of age; race; sex; socioeconomic status; geographic distribution; and birth, death, marriage, and divorce patterns
D) Health implications that may or may not be addressed by the investigators

 

 

6. When applying epidemiology and demography to the practice of community health, how is the prevalence rate calculated?
A) (Number of new cases of specified health condition during time interval/Estimated midinterval population at risk) × 1,000
B) (Number of current cases of a specified health condition at a given point in time/Estimated population at risk at same point) × 1,000
C) (Number of deaths of infants aged < 1 year during time interval/Total live births during time interval) × 1,000
D) (Number of deaths from puerperal cases during 1 year/Number of live births during same year) × 100,000

 

 

7. How is the specificity of a screening test calculated?
A) True positives/Total diseased
B) True negatives/Total not diseased
C) False negatives/Total diseased or 1 – Sensitivity
D) False positives/Total not diseased or 1 – Specificity

 

 

8. How does the web of causation view a health condition?
A) The result of individual factors
B) As an indirect cause of a condition
C) Interrelated variables are rarely involved in the cause of a particular outcome.
D) Complex interrelationships of numerous factors interacting to increase or decrease the risk of disease

 

 

9. How is the proportionate mortality rate calculated?
A) (Number of deaths due to a specific cause/Total number of deaths from all cases) × 100
B) (Number of deaths of infants aged < 1 year during time interval/Total live births during time interval) × 1,000
C) (Number of deaths from puerperal cases during 1 year/Number of live births during same year) × 100,000
D) (Number of live births during a time interval/Estimated midinterval population) × 1,000

 

 

10. If the community experiences 2,000 motorcycle fatalities, of which 1,900 are male and 100 are female, what would be the proportion of males killed in motorcycle accidents?   _______%

 

 

11. Rates enable researchers to compare different populations in terms of health problems or conditions. When preparing a report to support a research project, using which time frame would be most consistent with the majority of report interpretation data?
A) Day
B) Week
C) Month
D) Year

 

 

12. The nurse is comparing populations with different distributions of obesity. Which rate will be helpful in making a comparison of heart disease mortality?
A) Crude rate
B) Specific rate
C) Adjusted rate
D) Incidence rate

 

 

13. Which describes relative risk?
A) Incidence among those exposed/incidence rate among those not exposed
B) Odds of having the condition when the suspected factor is present/odds of having the condition when not exposed to the factor
C) Measures the difference between the incidence rates for those exposed and those not exposed to the risk factor
D) Identifies whether those in the exposed group will develop the disease or condition when compared with those not exposed

 

 

14. Which is an example of an external relative risk factor?
A) Age
B) Exercise
C) Gender
D) Race

 

 

15. Which defines a dependent variable?
A) Constant characteristic or phenomenon and the health conditions being studied
B) Control group and comparison group of the research study
C) Outcome or result that the investigator is studying which can change
D) Presumed cause of or contributor to variation in the variable

 

 

16. An association may meet all the criteria for causation and later be shown to be false or factitious because of factors that were not known at the time the study was done. Investigators must interpret results with great caution; they rarely consider a cause “proven.” Which is a widely used criterion for evaluating causation?
A) Association is not strong.
B) Association is not specific.
C) Association is temporally correct.
D) Association is the result of a confounding variable.

 

 

17. Which is likely the most comprehensive source of health-related data for the United States?
A) Census data
B) Notifiable disease reports
C) Surveillance data
D) Vital statistics

 

 

18. When using medical and hospital records for community health research, Berkson’s bias refers to what concept?
A) Creating the likelihood of finding a false association between the two or more illnesses
B) Autopsy records have an inherent bias because the client’s illness was fatal.
C) National Electronic Disease Surveillance System provides an integrated surveillance system that transmits public health laboratory and clinical data via the internet.
D) Health records provide a representative or valid picture of community health.

 

 

19. When doing a lecture on the epidemiologic triangle, it is important to differentiate each component. When asked a question about what causes a disease, it is important to understand that this organism is called what?
A) Agent
B) Environment
C) Factor
D) Host

 

 

20. The person–place–time model examines the characteristics of the people affected, place or location, and the time period involved. In studying infant mortality, what is considered an example of the person in the model?
A) Rural community
B) Urban community
C) Infant and maternal factors
D) Trends in mortality

 

 

1. Human ecology is influenced by other factors. To more fully understand human ecology, one must study which links?
A) Pollution and space
B) Human activities and the environment
C) All external conditions and influences affecting life
D) Complete physical, mental, and social well-being interacting within the environment

 

Chapter 4

2. How can the nurse implement the environmental concept emphasized by Florence Nightingale?
A) Use antibiotics to help cure diseases.
B) Use climate control devices for comfort.
C) Keep the client and environment clean.
D) Keep insects away through use of insecticides.

 

 

3. Which best describes bioaccumulation?
A) Generally accomplished by the way of wind patterns or aquatic system
B) Introduction of substances into ecologic food webs
C) When the accumulation of a pollutant greatly exceeds the rate at which an organism eliminates it
D) Simultaneous action of separate substances or agencies that together produce a greater total effect than the sum of individual effects

 

 

4. If you could only study the effects of pollutants on one ecosystem, the one that would potentially generate the greatest result would be which ecosystem?
A) Air
B) Aquatic
C) Plants
D) Terrestrial

 

 

5. Toxic substances have received a great deal of attention in governmental regulations and the news media. When determining ways to control the effects of exposure, the nurse must consider the anticipated risk. Anticipated risk is primarily determined by what characteristic of a substance?
A) Toxicity
B) Prevalence
C) Neurotoxic effect
D) Amount in the environment

 

 

6. Which of the following toxic substances are most likely to pose a risk to human health, both in prevalence and severity?
A) Cardiotoxins
B) Hepatotoxins
C) Nephrotoxins
D) Neurotoxins

 

 

7. In seeking ways to alleviate problems associated with health, the nurse must be cognizant of which statement that reflects one of nature’s operating principles?
A) Everything has to go somewhere.
B) Everything is not connected to everything else.
C) Everything has the same rate of change.
D) Everything that goes up is dispersed in the air.

 

 

8. Pollution of the environment occurs when these pollutants overwhelm the capacity of the environment to assimilate them without being thrown out of balance. Which statement is correct about pollution?
A) Pollution is an indirect rate function that is correlated to population size.
B) Pollution is a direct rate function that is correlated to the quantity of pollutant.
C) Pollution is a rate function involving the quality of pollutant introduced over a period of time.
D) Pollution is a rate function involving a quantity of pollutant introduced over a period of time.

 

 

9. The nurse can help decrease pollution by beginning which of the following interventions?
A) Minimize use of pollutants.
B) Maximize use of disposable products.
C) Incinerate paper products.
D) Incinerate after use disposable products.

 

 

10. To decrease pollution, one must understand how pollution is produced and how it affects the environment. Which statement will best assist in beginning to understand pollution?
A) The rate of pollution is directly related to population size.
B) The capacity of the environment to assimilate pollution is unlimited.
C) Industrial development can assist with the elimination of pollutants.
D) Movement of populations improves pollution.

 

 

11. What effect would a loss of biodiversity have on the habitats of plants and animals?
A) Clearing of forests to create crop lands
B) Extinction of certain species of plants and animals
C) Overall, continuous increase in temperatures throughout the world
D) Climate changes as a result of soil erosion, climatic conditions, and air pollution

 

 

12. There are several environmental hazards affecting human health. What would be one way the nurse could reduce the effects of a physical hazard on humans?
A) Encourage the use of ear plugs during NASCAR races.
B) Encourage the use of microwave ovens in place of gas ranges.
C) Remove standing water to reduce the mosquito population.
D) Remove dead plants in gardens to prevent destruction of adjacent plants.

 

 

13. Which of the following is a human health hazard that can result from ionizing radiation?
A) Birth defects
B) Fatigue
C) Headache
D) Hepatic system damage

 

 

14. Humans are hosts to a number of disease-causing pathogens and parasites. Which is an example of a vector?
A) Dressings
B) Food
C) Handkerchiefs
D) Insects

 

 

15. Poisoning occurs through cumulative exposure to insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides. What can happen to the human body as a result of poisoning?
A) Alopecia
B) Developmental disabilities
C) Heart disease
D) Respiratory cancer

 

 

16. Several nursing interventions can be used to decrease environmental influences on health. How can a nurse use primary prevention to decrease pollution?
A) Promote routine immunizations to minimize diseases caused by biologic agents.
B) Monitor for signs of hazardous environmental conditions, such as blood lead levels.
C) Assess for signs of illness related to environmental hazards in the community.
D) Treat and monitor disorders caused by environmental conditions.

 

 

17. There are several nursing interventions that can be used to decrease environmental influences on health. How can a nurse use tertiary prevention to keep the environment clean?
A) Decrease environmental pollution.
B) Educate the community on how to keep the environment clean.
C) Involvement with political actions that provide strategies to minimize environmental exposure in populations.
D) Help communities to manage the long-term effects of conditions that are caused by environmental hazards.

 

 

18. Which intervention is appropriate for the community health nurse to advise citizens at risk for the adverse effects of air pollution?
A) It is best to exercise in the early evening hours.
B) Exercise indoors when pollutants are especially high outdoors.
C) It is important to have access to long-acting relief medication when active outdoors.
D) Jogging, instead of walking, is best on high-ozone–level days to reduce the amount of pollution inhaled.

 

 

19. Local water supplies are threatened by organic and synthetic contaminants. Which of the following would be beneficial to Americans to study as the source of threats to water supply? (Select all that apply.)
A) Lakes
B) Rivers
C) Groundwater
D) Ponds

 

 

20. The community health nurse needs to have an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the health of communities. As practitioners of community health, how does this information aid us?
A) Health of any population cannot be affected by its surrounding environment.
B) We should support any claims of perfect disposal schemes for pollutants.
C) Pollutants can travel long distances because there are no perfect disposal schemes.
D) Water treatment systems usually precipitate pollutants to a top sludge.

 

 

1. To maintain a clear focus on ethics, it is helpful to contrast its domain to that of law, in order to avoid the tendency to confuse the two or to simplify the moral struggle to do the right thing by seeking a legal reason for action. Identify which statement best reflects the comparison between ethics and the law.
A) Ethics considers people as inherently good; the law considers them to be basically bad.
B) Ethics proposes what a person must do; the law proposes what a person should do.
C) Ethics imposes individuals to pay penalties; the law has no sanctions.
D) Ethics is a way to enforce the current values of society; the law changes the values of society.

Chapter 5

 

2. Which definition best represents applied ethics?
A) When one considers only his/her individual good or self-interest
B) A branch of ethics that views everything as universally valid or where true moral principles apply
C) A systematic, logical framework for analysis, discourse, and decision making that assists in ensuring decisions are grounded in “good” actions
D) A system that focuses on those traits valued in personal relationships, such as compassion, love, sympathy, and trust

 

 

3. Although many philosophical approaches are discussed in the literature, when looking at the two approaches in applied ethics, deontology and teleology, how is deontology defined?
A) Decisions are made on the basis of the greatest good for the greatest number.
B) Actions are morally right when they are in accord with our nature and end as human beings.
C) A system that allows social and economic positions to be to everyone’s advantage and open to all
D) A rule-based approach in which decisions are made by applying a set of rules of good conduct

 

 

4. When contrasting philosophical approaches in applied ethics, it would be important to know that an example of teleology is what?
A) All nurses need to follow personal moral codes in their personal and professional lives.
B) Nurses should subscribe to professional codes of ethics in their daily actions as a nurse.
C) All individuals in a research study have a complete understanding and informed consent of the study.
D) Preventing communicable disease benefits many more people in the community than does caring for individual illnesses.

 

 

5. Choose the best description of the health care framework of paternalism.
A) The physician holds the role of the father, the nurse is the mother, and the client is the child.
B) The client and health care professional share in determining the options and selecting the best choice for that person.
C) The balance of authority in decision making shifts away from the provider to the user of health care services, and the client is clearly in control of choices among available options.
D) Interventions depend on the ability of the community health nurse to relinquish decision-making control to the community client and to trust its ability to make responsible decisions.

 

 

6. When a nurse is making a career choice, which clinical setting would best support the operative framework of consumerism?
A) Burn/trauma unit
B) Cardiac critical care unit
C) Plastic surgery unit
D) Surgical intensive care unit

 

 

7. Which concept best describes the role of the health care professional, particularly applicable to community health nursing, as that of catalyst?
A) The concept involves understanding the world view, life circumstances, and priorities of those requesting or receiving care and exploring the possible options with them in light of their preferences.
B) The health care professional tries to imagine experiencing the situation of the person seeking care and offers an opinion of the best choice in full consideration of the other party’s individuality.
C) The community is seen to contain all the necessary qualities and resources for change, and the role of the health care professional is to provide the spark that will initiate change, as desired by the community and on its terms.
D) The concept attempts to describe action within political, economic, and social systems on behalf of health interests of communities.

 

 

8. Which definition identifies the core value of European and American health care law and ethics?
A) The avoidance of harm
B) The desire to act in the best interest of others
C) The right of individuals to self-determination
D) The recognition that every person and community has intrinsic value

 

 

9. Which principle provides the umbrella concept of the community-as-partner model?
A) Autonomy
B) Fidelity
C) Justice
D) Veracity

 

 

10. The principle of justice has two aspects, although most often discussions of health-related justice center on distributive justice. It would be important to remember that distributive justice is defined as:
A) The commitment to tell the truth
B) The arena of reward and punishment
C) The fair distribution of rights and resources
D) Faithful in making promises and steadfast in keeping them

 

 

11. The nurse is wondering if the cancer treatments might be more harmful than the progression of the disease because of the dangerous side effects of chemotherapy. What ethical principle is the nurse struggling with in this situation?
A) Autonomy
B) Beneficence
C) Justice
D) Nonmaleficence

 

 

12. A community health nurse has to start an IV on a client. The client has never had an IV. The client asks the community health nurse if this will be a painful procedure. The nurse tells the client the truth: that it will be uncomfortable while the needle is being inserted. What ethical principle is the nurse practicing?
A) Autonomy
B) Fidelity
C) Justice
D) Veracity

 

 

13. Which two ethical principles come into question when community health research projects involve health screening?
A) Autonomy and nonmaleficence
B) Fidelity and veracity
C) Respect for persons and beneficence
D) Beneficence and justice

 

 

14. The diversity and complexity of communities lead inevitably to a plethora of conflicts between and among ethical principles. What potential conflicts are prominent features of many of the Healthy People 2020 National Health Goals?
A) Respect for people and beneficence
B) Autonomy and justice
C) Beneficence and justice
D) Respect for people and autonomy

 

 

15. As the cost of health care increases, so does the population of uninsured and underinsured. Combined with the cost of litigation and extravagant settlements, open access to care is coming into question. What specific ethical quandaries apply to this situation?
A) Autonomy, beneficence, fidelity
B) Respect for people, nonmaleficence, veracity
C) Veracity, justice, nonmaleficence
D) Autonomy, beneficence, justice

 

 

16. Working in partnership with communities requires careful consideration of all seven primary ethical principles and the interplay among them. Which three primary ethical principles are most often threatened by the community health nurse’s commitment to beneficence?
A) Autonomy, respect for people, and nonmaleficence
B) Fidelity, justice, veracity
C) Autonomy, justice, veracity
D) Nonmaleficence, fidelity, respect for people

 

 

17. When an ethical issue arises for the community health nurse, which is the most important nursing responsibility in managing the client care situation?
A) Analyzing the ethical principles at stake at any given decision-making point
B) Following the request of the client and family members exactly as they have verbalized
C) Ensuring the community health care team takes ultimate responsibility for deciding the solution to the situation
D) Remaining neutral and detaching all present beliefs when making ethical decisions

 

 

18. Following a motor vehicle accident, the wife of the victim requests that life support be continued in the absence of any brain function and that the client be allowed to go home on life support. The health care team believes that life support should be discontinued immediately and the client’s organs be donated. Which ethical principle applies to this situation?
A) Autonomy
B) Fidelity
C) Justice
D) Veracity

 

 

19. It is important the community health nurse agree to do no harm to clients in working to heal clients in the least painful and harmful way possible. Which ethical principle applies to the community health nurse?
A) Respect for person
B) Veracity
C) Beneficence
D) Nonmaleficence

 

 

20. The community health nurse has to provide an elderly client with a seasonal influenza immunization. The immunization will cause temporary discomfort at the injection site, but the benefits or protection from getting the flu outweigh any minor discomfort for the client. Which ethical principle applies to the situation?
A) Autonomy
B) Fidelity
C) Beneficence
D) Nonmaleficence

 

 

1. When asked about the beginning of public health nursing, the best response would include which of the following?
A) Public health nursing is a term started in the mid-1900s.
B) The public health nurse provided care to people in communities as far back as the 1890s.
C) Public health nursing began when clinics opened that provided community health assistance.
D) The public health nurse was recognized after the term public health nursing was identified.

Chapter 6

 

2. Which of the following reflects the major constructs of the nursing paradigm?
A) Health, environment, client, and nurse
B) Client, community outreach center, nursing, health, and illness
C) Society, medicine, nursing, and interactions among individuals
D) Psychosocial development, discipline, nursing, and client

 

 

3. Partnerships between community members and health care professionals are critical. For these partnerships to be successful promoting awareness and understanding of a community’s health needs, the partners must have which type of relationship?
A) Independent
B) Dependent
C) Collaborative
D) Autonomous

 

 

4. When planning the integration of health resources in a community, which of the following people would be the best to lead this effort?
A) Physicians
B) Nurse practitioners
C) Social workers
D) Nurses

 

 

5. When developing an agenda in a community to effect change, which person(s) would be primary to engage in the development of this agenda?
A) Community medical director
B) Academic experts
C) Individual client
D) Community members

 

 

6. The historical focus of nursing in the community has been replaced by site-managed care systems in the United States. Where is the primary base when planning interventions for this system? Select all that apply.
A) Community
B) Home
C) Primary care clinic
D) Hospital
E) Long-term care facility

 

 

7. In moving away from a disease prevention health care system, the focus of nursing has shifted to which type of health care?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Both primary and secondary

 

 

8. When planning interventions within a site-managed care system, the planners need to look closely at which type of health care to meet the current model standards?
A) Aggregate community-based health care
B) Individual medical care
C) Family-based health care
D) Family- and community-based health care

 

 

9. Which of the following approaches would be best to implement when trying to modify unhealthy behaviors?
A) Focus on medical professionals curing of diseases.
B) Mobilize community members to focus on curing diseases.
C) Mobilize community members to take an active role in the delivery of services.
D) Mobilize community members to involve in the decision-making process to improve health.

 

 

10. Which approach to health care is applied through participatory research as a pathway to community empowerment?
A) Medical
B) Health services
C) Community development
D) Medical and health services

 

 

11. There are three essential components for community participation in health programs. Select the answer that best reflects one of the essential components.
A) Framework to define the community
B) Participation is a passive, ongoing process.
C) Decisions made through participation must be effective.
D) People have the right and power to make decisions that affect their lives.

 

 

12. Empowerment through participation has three essential components to which nurses must be sensitive in order for community transformations to occur. Which statement best describes one of the essential components?
A) Shared awareness by members of the health care community
B) Mechanisms to mobilize the community to recognize its needs
C) Suggest ways to develop a culture of community participation.
D) People have the right to choose.

 

 

13. Which best describes how community health nurses can help a community achieve their common goals?
A) Maintenance
B) Transforming
C) Empowerment
D) Implementation

 

 

14. Trust, faith, and hope are significant concepts that relate closely to developing relationships and ultimately empowerment. For empowerment to be successful, people need to utilize which concept?
A) Critical thinking
B) Maintaining the “status quo”
C) Examining the community outside oneself
D) Incorporating theoretical concepts

 

 

15. According to Quinn, which is the most complete definition of a right-relationship?
A) One pattern of organization within the system that supports and encourages actualization at any level.
B) Two patterns of organization within the system that support, encourage, and allow actualization and self-transcendence at any level.
C) Any pattern of organization within the system that supports, encourages, allows, or generates self-transcendence—at any and all levels.
D) Any pattern of organization within the system that supports, encourages, allows, or generates actualization and self-transcendence—at any and all levels.

 

 

16. Community partnerships develop through a process of empowerment. Which characteristic would indicate a community displays empowerment? Select all that apply.
A) Faith in all people of the community
B) Hope that dialogue will be established within the health care community
C) Mandate positive transformations benefiting the community as a whole
D) Discussion grounded in critical thinking without fear of repercussion
E) Power differences between and within communities

 

 

17. Nurses work to empower communities not for domination or control of people, but rather to facilitate the development of others to promote change. Empowerment is gained through critical dialogue. Which characteristic of this dialogue is correct?
A) Enables communities to see individuals as the same to impact change for the betterment of humanity
B) Enables communities to see their inequities to transform their environment through healing interventions
C) Enables communities to envision the key physical characteristics necessary to encourage individual progress of community members
D) Enables communities to negotiate with others who have similar viewpoints about the health of the community

 

 

18. Which of the following represents research that is problem focused and involves all participants?
A) Action
B) Participatory
C) Qualitative
D) Quantitative

 

 

19. Which statement best represents a core principle of participatory and action research?
A) Community members and the researchers should strive to achieve mutual goals.
B) The community health nurse for the research project determines the research agenda.
C) The process should be laissez faire and empower the participation of a wide range of community members.
D) The relationship between health care experts and community members must be kept confidential.

 

 

20. Emancipatory inquiry provides a framework to expand the political consciousness of the disenfranchised in a community. Who identifies the important problems for this inquiry?
A) Community members
B) Community health nurse
C) Community health professionals
D) Community medical director

 

 

1. A community health nurse is working in a large urban city, situated in a culturally diverse area of the country. What does the nurse need to do to be culturally competent?
A) Recognize that people with cultural backgrounds different from our own have unique values, life ways, health practices, and interpersonal styles.
B) Understand and address the total context of the client’s situation, using knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
C) Be aware that people adapt to and borrow traits from another culture and change their own cultural patterns to those of the host society.
D) Remember that an individual’s own traditional beliefs and practices of their culture must always be observed.

Chapter 7

 

2. Which of the following best describes ethnocentric views?
A) Dual patterns of identification of two cultures, lifestyles, and sets of values
B) Belief that one’s own culture or ways of life are better than those of others
C) Belonging to a specific group of individuals who share a common social and cultural heritage
D) Research framework that is used to provide the ability to focus on the culture of the community where the nurse is practicing

 

 

3. Which of the following is an overarching goal of Healthy People 2020?
A) Developing partnerships between individuals and community health
B) Believing that individual health is closely related to community health
C) Decreasing disparities among subgroups of the population
D) Increasing the length and improving the quality of healthy life

 

 

4. Which of the following is a major reason that health disparities exist?
A) No sensitivity to the needs of the individuals to be served
B) Problems experienced in accessing and effectively utilizing health services
C) Belief that individual’s health is not closely related to community health.
D) Common ground exists among clients and communities to encourage culturally competent health care partnerships.

 

 

5. Based on the population trends in the United States, descendants of European whites are emerging as a new minority. Which is a cause for this new minority?
A) Rapid growth rate in the population of racial and ethnic group diversity
B) Nurses that provide care to clients and families who represent global communities
C) Less-frequent interactions with clients of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds whose health beliefs differ from our own
D) Development of required partnerships with individuals of different ethnic groups and community health

 

 

6. Which of the following represents the best way for a new nurse to complete an in-depth self-examination of cultural competence?
A) Acknowledge and be aware of one’s own culture and willingness to explore one’s own feelings and biases
B) Be responsible for having excellent on-the-job motivation and commitment to caring for assigned clients
C) Complete a self-examination of superior social, cultural, and biophysical factors in the community
D) Become involved on a monthly basis in at least one cross-cultural interaction or workshop

 

 

7. Which of the following best defines diversity?
A) Crosses two cultures, lifestyles, and sets of values
B) Condition of being different or having differences
C) Individuals with distinct identity that are related to a larger cultural group
D) Basic knowledge of the different culture’s health traditions in the community where the nurse is practicing

 

 

8. Which of the following best describes the composition of an ethnic group?
A) Associated with minority or majority populations who share the same cultural background
B) Associated with minority populations that do not share the traditions of their social heritage
C) Composed of individuals who share a unique cultural background and social heritage that is passed from one generation to the next generation
D) Composed of individuals that have distinct identity who relate well within the community at large

 

 

9. Which question(s) can be helpful in examining one’s ethnic culture? Select all that apply.
A) What are the common bonds?
B) What cultural rituals are celebrated and with whom?
C) What types of things are shared when people get together?
D) What sexual orientations are celebrated when people get together?
E) What types of foods are prepared when people get together for an event?

 

 

10. A community health nurse is working with a home health client who immigrated to this country 15 years ago. The client has changed the country of origin’s cultural patterns and has adopted the health care belief system of the United States. The community health nurse recognizes this as which type of change in the individual?
A) Acculturation
B) Culture
C) Diversity
D) Ethnicity

 

 

11. Arthur Kleinman studied members of many diverse ethnic groups. His findings showed that cultural beliefs are the basic guidelines people use to:
A) Establish cultural models of health
B) Recognize something is wrong
C) Interpret what might be wrong
D) Organize a plan of appropriate actions
E) Understand the link between cultural beliefs and health and illness

 

 

12. Cultural beliefs based in shared meanings, values, and norms are key guidelines to consider when a person has a health problem. What is the first step an individual has to take when he or she is ill?
A) Examine all possible and probable causes of the illness.
B) Agree that the symptoms represent a problem.
C) Plan of action is decided upon.
D) Appropriate treatment is determined.

 

 

13. Which is most influential when determining how an individual acts when he or she is ill?
A) Community health nurse
B) Ethnic culture
C) Individual who is sick
D) Primary care provider

 

 

14. Each cultural health care system has several recognized sectors. Select the answer that best represents Kleinman’s model.
A) Cultural health care system
B) Popular and cultural health care system
C) Folk, personal, professional
D) Folk, popular, professional

 

 

15. Considering Kleinman’s model, which sector includes the family?
A) Cultural health system
B) Folk
C) Popular
D) Professional

 

 

16. According to Kleinman’s model, lay practitioners and healers are part of which sector?
A) Cultural health system
B) Folk
C) Popular
D) Professional

 

 

17. A community health nurse works with a variety of cultures providing health care services that include acute treatment for illness. Which client most likely would believe that sickness is a punishment from God?
A) Hispanic client
B) Chinese client
C) Female client whose culture is controlled by males
D) German client

 

 

18. Which sector of Kleinman’s model differs in their social and cultural values, beliefs, and assumptions?
A) Cultural health system
B) Folk
C) Popular
D) Professional

 

 

19. Which two sectors of Kleinman’s model are associated with belief systems that are nonscientific or subjective?
A) Folk and professional
B) Popular and cultural health system
C) Popular and professional
D) Popular and folk

 

 

20. Community health nurses must make a commitment to gain knowledge about health beliefs and health practices that can be used in the delivery of culturally competent health care to at-risk populations. This knowledge is associated with which sector of Kleinman’s model?
A) Cultural health system
B) Folk
C) Popular
D) Professional

 

 

1. To promote the health of the community, health policy development is required. Which statement describes public policy?
A) Policy that promotes the welfare of the public
B) Policy that applies to all members of a society and includes prescribed sanctions for failure to comply
C) Policy that applies to groups who have similar interests or special interests, such as professional organizations
D) Policy based on the institution’s mission and goals and that determines how the institution will function and relate to employees

Chapter 8

 

2. Which is an example of health policy?
A) Child labor laws
B) Laws to promote health of citizens
C) Rules for smoking environments for employees and clients
D) State nurses’ associations that determine governing rules for membership

 

 

3. Which is an example of a health care policy decision made at the community level?
A) Health clinic for low-income families
B) Licensure of health care professionals
C) Ensured access to public health care
D) Focus of client safety in hospitals

 

 

4. Florence Nightingale is considered an exemplar of nurses’ involvement in public policy. Nurses continue her work by:
A) Being a part of the policy process and a participant in a positive process
B) Cleaning of hospitals
C) Determining a course of action
D) Licensing of practicing nurses

 

 

5. Which of the following can be used to set an agenda for community health improvements in today’s society?
A) American Nurses Association Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements
B) American Nurses Association Social Policy Statement
C) Contributions set forth by Lillian Wald
D) Healthy People 2020

 

 

6. The community health nurse understands that politics is which of the following?
A) Laws to promote the health of citizens
B) Promoting of the welfare of the public
C) Process of influencing the allocation of scarce resources
D) Applies to all members of a society and includes prescribed sanctions for failure to comply

 

 

7. Which is the second step in the process of policy making?
A) Policy formation
B) Policy adoption
C) Policy evaluation
D) Policy recognition

 

 

8. The basic building blocks of nursing, the steps of the nursing process, are similar to the process used in policy making. In what step of the nursing process would the budget be established for a policy that is being developed?
A) Assessment
B) Diagnosis
C) Planning
D) Implementation

 

 

9. The basic building blocks of nursing, the steps of the nursing process, are similar to the process used in policy making. In what step of the nursing process does adoption of a policy by the appropriate agency occur?
A) Assessment
B) Diagnosis
C) Planning
D) Implementation

 

 

10. Community health nurses must continue to collect data about the policy that has been implemented in a community agency. In what step of the nursing process does the community health nurse continue to collect data?
A) Assessment
B) Diagnosis
C) Evaluation
D) Implementation

 

 

11. Which is an example of an action a nurse can take to influence health policy?
A) Encourage voter registration.
B) Be a passive constituent in the community.
C) Know the executive process.
D) Identify government representatives.

 

 

12. Which health insurance program would the nurse recommend to a 25-year-old client with end-stage renal disease?
A) Medicare
B) Medicaid
C) Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
D) State Children’s Health Insurance Program

 

 

13. Which program provides supplemental foods, nutrition education, and referrals to health care?
A) Medicaid
B) Women, Infants, and Children
C) Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
D) State Children’s Health Insurance Program

 

 

14. Which program would the community health nurse recommend for a 6-year-old child whose family earns too much to qualify for Medicaid but needs financial reimbursement for doctors’ visits, immunizations, and a possible emergency room visit for a suspected broken bone?
A) Medicare
B) Women, Infants, and Children
C) Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
D) State Children’s Health Insurance Program

 

 

15. There are differences between a program funded by the government and a policy formed and funded by the government. Which best describes a program?
A) Process of influencing the allocation of scarce resources
B) Set of principles that is frequently formally agreed upon
C) Based on the institution’s mission and goals
D) Set of actions to achieve a goal

 

 

16. The American Nurses Association legislative initiatives include issues of access, cost, and quality of care. Which is an example of a quality of care initiative?
A) Access to health coverage
B) Appropriate nursing staffing
C) Advanced practice nursing coverage
D) Medical malpractice liability and tort reform

 

 

17. The American Nurses Association legislative initiatives include issues of access, cost, and quality of care. What is an example of a cost of care initiative?
A) Medicare reform
B) Advanced practice nurse coverage
C) Safe health care reporting
D) Safe client handling

 

 

18. The American Nurses Association legislative initiatives include issues of access, cost, and quality of care. What is an example of an access of care initiative?
A) Health coverage
B) Mandatory overtime
C) Medicare reform of prescription drugs
D) Whistle-blowing protection for nurses

 

 

19. Which is one step a community health nurse can take to stay informed on current issues?
A) Identify government representatives about issues.
B) Provide nursing expertise as policies are being designed.
C) Be an advocate by speaking out for those who cannot speak for themselves.
D) Read the local newspaper with attention to local community issues.

 

 

20. Which is the best path a community health nurse can take to be an active constituent?
A) Write letters, make a visit, or call government representatives.
B) Visit websites of local, state, and federal governments.
C) Identify their representative with address and phone number to contact.
D) Be an advocate, which involves speaking for those who cannot speak for themselves.

 

 

1. The community health nurse recommends a blog on diabetes to a client. Which is the definition of a blog?
A) Online diary that offers chronological sharing opportunities
B) Worldwide collection of networks in communication using special protocols
C) Words and commands entered into a search box to identify desired information
D) List of websites found on the internet that have been organized by a hierarchy determined by the author of the directory

Chapter 9

 

2. Which is the name for the part of the internet that supports the use of information exchange, including pictures, sounds, and movies, using graphical user interface?
A) Boolean searching
B) Directory
C) Home page
D) World Wide Web

 

 

3. The nurse plans to use a mashup when demonstrating data. Which is the definition of a mashup?
A) When two or more sources of data are combined to create an online tool, often using mapping features
B) Tool that uses computer programs to search the internet for websites and indexes those sites by keywords
C) Single word and command that are entered into a search box to identify desired information
D) A descriptive term that can be used to search documents that is useful to identify large amounts of information on a topic

 

 

4. Which of the following would the community health nurse use for an online collaborative writing opportunity that allows multiple community health nurses to add to a growing document?
A) Favorites
B) Hyperlink
C) Web browser
D) Wiki

 

 

5. Which best describes HTML?
A) List often compiled as a help feature on websites or search engines to assist the new user
B) Format for creating documents for communication with browser program
C) Provider of internet access
D) Internet address shown on the browser in the locator bar

 

 

6. Which electronic resource would be most helpful in locating full-text articles to support informed community health nursing decisions?
A) CINAHL
B) ERIC
C) MEDLARS
D) MEDLINE

 

 

7. Which source for health information, available electronically, will enable the community health nurse to learn about the many characteristics of a community and to identify trends or patterns?
A) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
B) United States Census Bureau
C) American Heart Association
D) American Cancer Society

 

 

8. Which electronic resource would be most helpful in locating current immunization information?
A) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
B) United States Census Bureau
C) March of Dimes
D) American Cancer Society

 

 

9. The community health nurse needs to locate information about end-stage renal disease, including vital statistics and health insurance facts. Which electronic resource will be most helpful in locating the information?
A) National Library of Medicine
B) United States Census Bureau
C) March of Dimes
D) National Center for Health Statistics

 

 

10. The community health nurse is looking for local information about geographic location of city services. Which electronic resource would most likely provide this information?
A) State government website
B) City government website
C) Nonprofit organization website
D) Community agency website

 

 

11. What information is found on the American Cancer Society (ACS) website that would be useful to the community health nurse when teaching a health class for those recovering from cancer?
A) Smoking cessation
B) Location of ACS offices
C) Research projects
D) Volunteer opportunities

 

 

12. A community health nurse is searching for information about heart disease in Chicago, Illinois. What is the best search string to enter to locate this information?
A) Heart disease
B) Heart disease, Illinois
C) Heart disease, Dade County
D) Heart disease AND Chicago, Illinois

 

 

13. The community health nurse is trying to increase the precision of a search. What would assist in this process?
A) Boolean searching
B) Use of a directory
C) Keyword searching
D) Search string

 

 

14. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about physical therapy among the developmentally disabled. Which would be the best search string to locate this information?
A) Physical therapy
B) Physical therapy OR developmentally disabled
C) Physical therapy AND developmentally disabled
D) Physical therapy NOT developmentally disabled

 

 

15. Which is the best source for identifying useful search engines?
A) Search Engine Watch
B) Directory on the Internet
C) Librarians Internet Index
D) National Institute of Medicine

 

 

16. The community health nurse has to evaluate nursing research articles on community health nursing and diabetes for credibility and reliability. Which is one of the best databases to search for these articles?
A) CINAHL
B) DIRLINE
C) ERIC
D) Google

 

 

17. A client tells the community health nurse that he looked up information about his respiratory inhaler on the internet. Which would be the community health nurse’s best response?
A) “That is excellent that you reviewed information on the internet about the medication.”
B) “The internet does not provide credible information about medications. You must check with the pharmacist about the side effects of any medication.”
C) “You should only check with your primary care provider about the uses and adverse effects of the medication.”
D) “I would like to review the information with you. On what specific website did you locate the information?”

 

 

18. The community health nurse is asked by a client about internet addresses. When responding, the nurse needs to understand that an internet address, also called the URL, provides:
A) Clues about the origin of the website
B) Programs needed to view websites on the internet
C) A tool that uses computer programs to search the internet for websites by keywords
D) A pull-down menu with commands to navigate the computer, internet, or a website

 

 

19. The community health nurse is asked by a client what the designation of “.com” means? The accurate response by the nurse would be which of the following?
A) Organization site
B) Government site
C) Educational site
D) Commercial site

 

 

20. The community health nurse is evaluating the credibility of the information retrieved electronically about end-stage renal disease. What is the best question to ask about credibility?
A) Who wrote the information?
B) When was the information last updated?
C) Does the website show institutional affiliation?
D) Is the information true, and can it be confirmed with at least two other sources?

 

 

1. Which objective meets Healthy People 2020 disaster preparedness goals of addressing preparation, prevention, response, and recovery?
A) Develop and maintain a workforce for national health campaigns.
B) Ensure timely and effective communications.
C) Evaluate quality improvement.
D) Ensure national security.

Chapter 10

 

2. As in other areas of community health practice, disaster management has its own terminology and classification schemes. Which describes vulnerabilities?
A) Normal conditions of existence are disrupted, and the level of suffering exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community to respond to it.
B) Social, economic, physical, or environmental factors that increase individual or community susceptibility to the effects of hazards or that inhibit ability to expect, manage, or recover from a disaster
C) The potential exists to cause disruption or damage to the community (e.g., earthquake, flood, typhoon, or cyclone).
D) A vast ecological breakdown in the relation between humans and their environment: a serious or sudden event on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope, often with outside or international aid

 

 

3. Which describes a man-made disaster?
A) Chemical spill
B) Droughts
C) Earthquakes
D) Wildfires

 

 

4. Disaster epidemiology focuses on the range of short-term and long-term negative effects of community disasters. A study of the people of Fukushima, Japan, after the earthquake in 2011 showed what negative effect?
A) Higher risk of cancer in general Japanese population
B) Lower levels of cesium in the elderly
C) Overpopulation
D) Environmental contamination

 

 

5. Which is the first priority in the Disaster Paradigm?
A) Assess hazards.
B) Detect.
C) Evacuate and transport victims and casualties.
D) Incident command

 

 

6. Treatment for disaster victims depends on the type of emergency or disaster, scene safety, and resources needed and available. The client has a triage classification of yellow. What is the client’s care priority?
A) Comfort care
B) Delayed care
C) Immediate care
D) Urgent care

 

 

7. When treating a disaster victim, which is the last step of the START triage system?
A) Rescuers instruct persons at the scene of the incident to move to a designated area away from the scene.
B) For those unable to move, rescuers assess and designate patients to a general category.
C) Rescuers locate patients in the immediate care priority and address airway or severe bleeding issues.
D) For those with potential or suspected injuries, rescuers recheck as often as resources and time permit.

 

 

8. Many nursing skills needed in emergency or disaster situations are familiar to nurses. What is an example of a routine nursing activity that needs to be completed during stage 2 of preparedness?
A) Develop/implement prevention strategies for worksites, community sites, and home.
B) Participate in agency or community vulnerability assessments and strategies for improvement.
C) Locate/be able to respond to institutional emergency plans.
D) Organize and participate in community immunization activities.

 

 

9. Which is an example of primary prevention activity for control of infectious diseases at the individual level?
A) Teach barrier precautions to all health care workers.
B) Screen and treat all sexually transmitted diseases.
C) Mandate that health care workers are immunized for hepatitis A and B.
D) Provide an adequate supply of gloves and sharps containers in client care areas.

 

 

10. An infectious agent that has invaded its host and found conditions hospitable will replicate until it can be shed. Which indicates that an infection is in the incubation period?
A) Shed pathogens without any disease symptoms
B) Before shed of pathogens
C) Shed of the pathogen agent
D) Disease symptoms first appear.

 

 

11. Which would the nurse consider an outbreak of infectious disease?
A) Identification of the occurrence of new cases in a population
B) Unexpected occurrence of an infectious disease in a limited geographic area during a limited period of time
C) Steady occurrence of disease over a large geographic area or worldwide
D) Unexpected increase of an infectious disease in a geographic area over an extended period of time

 

 

12. Which of the following describes the reservoir in the chain of transmission?
A) The organism capable of producing infection or infectious disease
B) The environment in which a pathogen lives and multiplies
C) The means by which an infectious agent is transported from the host
D) The method whereby the infectious agent is transmitted from one host to another host

 

 

13. Which describes the direct mode of transmission for infectious agents?
A) Fomite
B) Person to person
C) Vector
D) Vehicle

 

 

14. Which indicates virulence of an infectious agent?
A) Immune response in the host
B) Ability to produce serious disease in the host
C) Power to invade and infect large numbers of people
D) Ability to produce disease in those infected with the agent

 

 

15. Spraying for mosquitoes is designed to:
A) Control the agent
B) Eradicate the nonhuman reservoir
C) Control the human reservoir
D) Improve host resistance and immunity

 

 

16. There are several different kinds of immunity, each providing resistance in different ways to different pathogens. Which indicates there is a natural immunity?
A) Innate resistance to a specific antigen or toxin
B) Derived from actual exposure to the specific infectious agent
C) When the body produces its own antibodies against an antigen as a result of infection with the pathogen or through a vaccine
D) Temporary resistance that has been donated to the host through transfusions of plasma, proteins, immunoglobulin, or antitoxins

 

 

17. Which indicates there is secondary vaccine failure?
A) The failure of a vaccine to stimulate any immune response
B) The waning of immunity following an initial immune response
C) Vaccine failure caused by improper storage or improper administration route
D) State in which those not immune will be safe if a certain proportion of the population has been vaccinated

 

 

18. Infectious diseases require organized, public efforts for their prevention and control because of their potential to spread and cause communitywide or worldwide emergencies. What laws prevail over federal laws related to health?
A) Local
B) Public health
C) State
D) International

 

 

19. What is missing from this documentation? “1/13/10: John Brown received on 1/13/10 ABC vaccine by Great manufacturer, lot number # 12345 by Flo First. The client received 12/2009 Vaccine Information Statement.
A) The documentation is complete.
B) Title and address of the individual administering the vaccine
C) Client name and date of immunization
D) Vaccine manufacturer and vaccine lot number

 

 

20. Which principle for effective risk communication is probably the most difficult to achieve?
A) Early announcement
B) Trust
C) Transparency
D) Listening

 

 

1. The nurse is using the community-as-partner model to complete a community health assessment. Which model would best be used for the community health assessment?
A) Disease oriented
B) Medical
C) Organ focused
D) Systems

Chapter 11

 

2. When using the community-as-partner model, which of the following would represent the concept of person?
A) Population or an aggregate
B) A network of people and their surroundings
C) Resource for everyday life, not the objective of living
D) Based on definitions of the other three concepts, it is prevention.

 

 

3. The nurse is using the community-as-partner model to complete a community health assessment. Which does the flexible line of defense represent?
A) Level of health the community has reached over time
B) Internal mechanisms that act to defend against stressors
C) Buffer zone representing a dynamic level of health resulting from a temporary response to stress
D) Tension-producing stimuli that have the potential of causing disequilibrium in the system

 

 

4. What do the mortality and morbidity rates represent in the community-as-partner model?
A) Degree of reaction
B) People
C) Flexible line of defense
D) Normal line of defense

 

 

5. What does high rate of immunity represent in the community-as-partner model?
A) Normal line of defense
B) Flexible line of defense
C) Lines of resistance
D) Degree of reaction

 

 

6. What do the demographics of the population represent in the community-as-partner model?
A) Degree of reaction
B) People
C) Flexible line of defense
D) Normal line of defense

 

 

7. What are stressors in the community-as-partner model?
A) Level of health the community has reached over time
B) Internal mechanisms that act to defend against stressors
C) Buffer zone representing a dynamic level of health resulting from a temporary response to stress
D) Tension-producing stimuli that have the potential of causing disequilibrium in the system

 

 

8. The nurse is using the community-as-partner model to complete a community health assessment. Which assessment is completed first?
A) Community core
B) Community subsystems
C) Perceptions about community
D) Degree of reaction

 

 

9. Using the community-as-partner model to complete a community health assessment, the nurse gathers birth and death statistics for the community. What does this represent in the community core?
A) History of the community
B) Demographics and ethnicity
C) Vital statistics
D) Values, beliefs, and religion

 

 

10. When completing a community assessment, which source of information would be best to find the marital status of people in a community?
A) The census
B) The State Department of Health
C) The Chamber of Commerce
D) The library

 

 

11. A community health nurse is completing a community assessment and needs to identify the monitoring, maintenance, and promotion of public health in the community. Which is the best source for this information?
A) Law enforcement department
B) County health planning board
C) County health department
D) State vital statistics office

 

 

12. A community health nurse is completing a community assessment and needs to identify extracommunity and intracommunity health services. Which is the best source for this information?
A) Chamber of commerce
B) County health planning board
C) County health department
D) City health planning board

 

 

13. The community health nurse is reviewing services provided at a county clinic. Which best describes the types of services that could occur as part of a well-child examination?
A) Physical assessment, education, and prescriptions filled
B) Physical assessment, referral for illness, immunizations, and screening
C) Physical assessment and monitoring for ongoing medical issues
D) Treatment and care instructions for chronic pediatric health conditions

 

 

14. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about median household income, specifically the percentage of households below poverty level in the community. Which is the best source for these data?
A) Census records
B) Chamber of commerce
C) Department of Labor
D) Local union office

 

 

15. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about sanitation in the community. Which is the best source for this information?
A) Planning office
B) Waste and water treatment plants
C) Air control board
D) Census data

 

 

16. Three nursing students are trying to locate source information about the adequacy, accessibility, and acceptability of education. Which is the best source for this information?
A) Teachers and staff
B) Students and staff
C) School administrator
D) Local board of education

 

 

17. Where can the community health nurse locate educational status information, including years of school completed, school enrollment by type of school, and language spoken?
A) Census data
B) Teachers and staff
C) School administrator
D) Local board of education

 

 

18. The community health nurse needs to get a formal announcement about an upcoming health promotion program. Which is the best example of a formal communication method that can be used in the community?
A) Word of mouth
B) Posters
C) Hand-delivered flyers
D) Newspaper

 

 

19. Where can the community health nurse locate information about private transportation sources and the number of individuals with a transportation disability who use these sources?
A) Local airport
B) State highway department
C) Local and city transportation authorities
D) Census data

 

 

20. Physical examination components are used in assessing individuals and communities. What information is obtained during a systems review of a community?
A) Housing, businesses, churches, and hangouts
B) Climate, terrain, natural boundaries, and resources
C) Listening to community sounds and residents
D) Walk through community

 

 

1. When analyzing data, what would the nurse look for to identify if data were missing?
A) End point
B) Gaps
C) Qualitative
D) Quantitative

Chapter 12

 

2. In the last step of data analysis, what would the nurse develop?
A) Community health needs
B) Community nursing diagnosis
C) Patterns of health responses
D) Trends in health care use

 

 

3. Which phase of a community analysis should the nurse complete first?
A) Categorization
B) Comparison
C) Inference elaboration
D) Summarization

 

 

4. Which is the last phase of a community analysis that has to be completed by the community health nurse?
A) Categorization
B) Comparison
C) Inference elaboration
D) Summarization

 

 

5. When analyzing community assessment data, data can be categorized in a variety of ways. Which of the following would be categorized as socioeconomic characteristics?
A) Area boundaries
B) Educational attainment
C) Public spaces
D) Ethnic and racial groupings

 

 

6. The community health nurse will be analyzing community assessment data. Which of the following is an example of demographic characteristics?
A) Number and size of neighborhoods
B) Occupation and income categories
C) Rental or home ownership patterns
D) Sex and family size

 

 

7. Models are used by community health nurses in an organization for analysis of community health data. Which is the core in the community assessment wheel model?
A) Lines of resistance
B) Major focus for analysis
C) Strengths of the analysis
D) Stressors for the subsystem of the analysis

 

 

8. In which phase of a community analysis does the nurse examine data for gaps?
A) Categorization
B) Comparison
C) Inference elaboration
D) Summarization

 

 

9. The community health nurse is synthesizing what is known about the community into succinct phrases. In which phase of a community analysis does the nurse develop phrases?
A) Categorization
B) Comparison
C) Inference elaboration
D) Summarization

 

 

10. The community health nurse is synthesizing what is known about the community into succinct phrases. These phrases form the basis for which of the following in the community assessment?
A) Community nursing diagnoses
B) Plan for the community health program
C) Steps to take in implementation of the community health program
D) Goals to evaluate the effectiveness of the community health program

 

 

11. The community’s core and subsystems, its lines of defense and resistance, its stressors, and its degree of reaction comprise assessment parameters for the community nurse who views the community as partner. To what does analyzing data on these parameters with the community lead?
A) Statement that synthesizes assessment data
B) Describes a situation and implies an etiology
C) Diagnoses that represent human responses to actual or potential health problems that nurses are licensed to treat
D) Diagnosis of the community group, population, or cluster of people with at least one common characteristic

 

 

12. Which is the nurse’s first step in the process of deriving community nursing diagnoses?
A) Associated inferences are identified that explain the derivation of continuation of the problem.
B) Assessment data are categorized and studied for inferences that are descriptive of potential or actual health problems amenable to nursing interventions.
C) Documentation of the nursing diagnosis using a three-part statement of the problem, etiology, and signs and symptoms.
D) Plan community nursing diagnoses on the basis of identification of only community goals and resources as well as the community priorities.

 

 

13. During which stage of the nursing process does the nurse test the completeness and validity of her community nursing diagnosis?
A) Assessment
B) Planning
C) Implementation
D) Evaluation

 

 

14. To derive a community nursing diagnosis, community assessment data are analyzed and inferences are presented. What statement indicates an example of a descriptive, rather than an etiologic, inference?
A) Lack of obstetric and family practitioners in Rosemont
B) High prevalence of dental caries among children at Temple Elementary School in Rosemont
C) Lack of dental assessment and treatment at the Third Street Clinic
D) Low median household income in CT 4104 and associated limited economic resources for purchasing dental care

 

 

15. “Risk for suffocation related to discard of refrigerators without doors as manifested by parental concern for safety” is a nursing diagnosis statement. Is there something that could be added to make this statement more complete?
A) A description of the problem, response, or state
B) Identification of factors etiologically related to the problem
C) Signs and symptoms characteristic of the problem
D) Nothing is missing; it is a complete community nursing diagnosis.

 

 

16. “Ineffective airway clearance related to smoke inhalation.” What statement could be added to make this a more completely stated community nursing diagnosis?
A) A description of the problem, response, or state
B) Identification of factors etiologically related to the problem
C) Signs and symptoms characteristic of the problem
D) Nothing is missing; it is a complete community nursing diagnosis.

 

 

17. Which statement would make the following nursing diagnosis complete? “Lack of support groups and programs for single parents, the elderly, and person with STDs as manifested by high percentage of deaths in these age groups in 6 months of sexually transmitted diseases.”
A) There is a high mortality rate from sexually transmitted diseases.
B) Adolescents have a high death rate.
C) The elderly have a high death rate.
D) Support groups will decrease the mortality rate from STDs.

 

 

18. “Ineffective community coping related to deficits in community social support services.” What part of the nursing diagnosis would follow the added statement of “as manifested by”?
A) A description of the problem, response, or state
B) Identification of factors etiologically related to the problem
C) Signs and symptoms characteristic of the problem
D) Nothing is missing; it is a complete community nursing diagnosis.

 

 

19. “Readiness for enhanced community coping related to community sense of power to manage stressors as manifested by monthly community meetings to identify and talk about stress concerns.” What should the nurse add to make this a more complete nursing diagnosis?
A) A description of the problem, response, or state
B) Identification of factors etiologically related to the problem
C) Signs and symptoms characteristic of the problem
D) Nothing is missing; it is a complete community nursing diagnosis.

 

 

20. “Ineffective community therapeutic regimen management related to decreased rate of childhood immunizations as manifested by participation of 20% of the community in preventive health services, with an infant mortality rate of 42% and a morbidity rate of infants of 64%.” Which statement within the diagnosis would be considered the etiologic statement?
A) Ineffective community therapeutic regimen management
B) Decreased rate of childhood immunizations
C) Participation of 20% of the community in preventive health services
D) Infant mortality rate of 42% and a morbidity rate of infants of 64%

 

 

1. The community health nurse has assessed the community’s health, analyzed the data, and derived community nursing diagnoses. Once the assessment is analyzed and the diagnoses chosen, the nurse would then focus on what step?
A) Community analysis
B) Formulate a community-based plan
C) Implement a community health program
D) Evaluate a community health program

Chapter 13

 

2. Validating community nursing diagnoses with community residents is an important step for establishing and maintaining a partnership. Which is a key principle that the community health nurse needs to keep in mind about this partnership?
A) Community leaders cannot have access to confidential privileged information.
B) Community organizations have the right to choose not to participate in health planning.
C) Community residents have the right not to identify their own health needs.
D) Community leaders and organizations are not involved in negotiation of specific programs.

 

 

3. The community health nurse is using principles of change theory to direct the planning process. What occurs during the moving stage?
A) Client system becomes aware of a problem and the need for change.
B) Problem is diagnosed, and solutions to the problem are identified.
C) From alternative solutions, one is chosen that is most appropriate for the situation.
D) The program for solving the problem is planned in detail and begun.

 

 

4. The community health nurse is using principles of change theory to direct the planning process. During what stage do the accomplished changes become integrated into the values of the client system?
A) Intervention
B) Moving
C) Refreezing
D) Unfreezing

 

 

5. The community health nurse is using principles of change theory to direct the planning process. What would the nurse expect during the unfreezing stage?
A) Identification of a need for change
B) Identification of problems
C) Consideration of alternatives
D) Adaption of plan to circumstances

 

 

6. Planned change is a well-thought-out effort designed to make something happen; all efforts are directed and targeted to produce change. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when does planning a community health program occur?
A) Stage 1: Identification and development of a felt need and desire for the change
B) Stage 2: Development of a change relationship between the community health nurse and the community
C) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
D) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions

 

 

7. Planned change is a well-thought-out effort designed to make something happen; all efforts are directed and targeted to produce change. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when are community nursing diagnoses validated?
A) Stage 1: Identification and development of a felt need and desire for the change
B) Stage 2: Development of a change relationship between the community health nurse and the community
C) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
D) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions

 

 

8. Planned change is a well-thought-out effort designed to make something happen; all efforts are directed and targeted to produce change. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when does implementation of a community health program occur?
A) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
B) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions
C) Stage 5: Transformation of intentions into actual change
D) Stage 6: Stabilization and evaluation

 

 

9. Planned change is a well-thought-out effort designed to make something happen; all efforts are directed and targeted to produce change. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, in how many stages does specific assessment occur?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

 

 

10. What is an appropriately written measurable goal for the following diagnosis: “A nursing diagnosis of ineffective community coping related to inadequate resources for problem solving as manifested by 5% representation of all segments of the community in problem solving has been identified by the community health nurse.”
A) To know who participates in community actions
B) To be aware of communication among community members
C) To increase by 30% all segments of the community in problem solving in 30 days
D) To realize common and competing interests among groups when solving community problems by next week

 

 

11. A community health nurse is taking care of a client in the community who has severe diarrhea. A nursing diagnosis of fluid volume deficit related to active fluid loss as manifested by diarrhea has been identified for this client. What is an appropriately written measurable goal for this diagnosis?
A) The client will understand the importance of drinking more fluids by tomorrow.
B) The client will have fewer episodes of diarrhea in 24 hours.
C) The client will be aware that moist mucous membranes indicate resolution of fluid volume deficit.
D) The client will increase fluid intake to at least 1,500 mL within 1 day.

 

 

12. Organizations that report actual or potential health problems of the elderly have been contacted to attend a community meeting to report the findings of the community assessment. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when would this report be implemented?
A) Stage 1: Identification and development of a felt Need and desire for the change
B) Stage 2: Development of a change relationship between the community health nurse and the community
C) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
D) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions

 

 

13. All community organization staff members have been informed by the community health nurse of the elderly community health needs, and each organization has desired to become involved in the planning process. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when would this activity occur?
A) Stage 1: Identification and development of a felt need and desire for the change
B) Stage 2: Development of a change relationship between the community health nurse and the community
C) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
D) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions

 

 

14. A community health nurse proposed that a survey questionnaire to assess the target population’s perception of their health concerns be developed. When drafting a questionnaire, what is the maximum amount of time that the whole questionnaire should take to complete?
A) 5 minutes
B) 10 minutes
C) 15 minutes
D) 20 minutes

 

 

15. After considering the results of the questionnaire about elderly needs in the community, the staff from several community organizations begin to discuss the possibility of offering classes on how to avoid falls in the home once a week. According to Reinkemeyer’s stages of planned change, when would this activity occur?
A) Stage 1: Identification and development of a felt need and desire for the change
B) Stage 2: Development of a change relationship between the community health nurse and the community
C) Stage 3: Clarification or diagnosis of the community’s problem, need, or objective
D) Stage 4: Examination of alternative routes and tentative goals and intention of actions

 

 

16. Once there has been validation of the nursing diagnoses with the community, what is the next step in planning a community-based health program?
A) Identify measurable community health goals.
B) Establish a sequence of actions and a time schedule for achieving goals.
C) List resources needed to accomplish the plan.
D) Acknowledge potential obstacles to planned actions and revised actions.

 

 

17. The American Heart Association and the community health nurse have selected topics that are congruent with survey questionnaire results to be included in classes for spouses of individuals who have had a myocardial infarction. What does this represent in a plan for a community-based health program?
A) Community health goal
B) Program activity
C) Learning objective
D) Collaboration

 

 

18. Once goals and objectives have been written for the community-based health program, what is the next step?
A) Identify resources needed to accomplish the plan.
B) List potential revisions that might be made to the plan.
C) Document the plan in a concise, standardized, and retrievable form.
D) Identify the community assessment strengths of the health program.

 

 

19. Constraints are the difference between needs and resources. What is an example of a universal constraint when planning a community-based health program?
A) Staff
B) Physical space
C) Equipment
D) Time

 

 

20. In partnership with the community, what is the last step in planning a community-based health program?
A) List the sequence of actions and prepare a time schedule for achieving goals
B) Identify resources needed to accomplish the plan.
C) Outline revisions to the plan as goals and objectives are achieved or changed
D) Record the plan in a concise, standardized, and retrievable form

 

 

1. The community health nurse is involved in carrying out the community-based plan. When carrying out this plan, the nurse is utilizing which phase of the nursing process?
A) Assessment
B) Planning
C) Implementation
D) Evaluation

Chapter 14

 

2. The community health nurse is involved in carrying out the community-based plan. What is the highest priority for the nurse to remember about the people of the community when carrying out the community-based plan?
A) The people in the community do not need to assume any responsibility for implementation.
B) The community health nurse will care for the individuals in the community.
C) The people in the community need to feel a sense of ownership of the program.
D) The community health nurses will interact professionally with individuals while carrying out the community plan.

 

 

3. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about ways to promote health and prevent disease among Americans. What government agency within the Public Health Service would the nurse contact to be most helpful in providing this information?
A) Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
B) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
C) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
D) Health Resources and Services Administration

 

 

4. The nurse in the community wants to implement a new program. To be more certain of success, the nurse should be sure to use which primary step in implementing a unified program?
A) Bring together the agency and the target population.
B) Use a piecemeal approach to emphasize each piece.
C) Emphasize the agency involvement to get everyone excited about the change.
D) Widely publicize the program immediately before implementation.

 

 

5. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about specific programs of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Which program would provide referrals services for consumers and professionals?
A) Healthfinder
B) Healthy People
C) Healthy Communities, Worksites, and Schools
D) National Health Information Center

 

 

6. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about specific programs of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Which program identifies objectives for the nation?
A) Dietary Guidelines for Americans
B) Healthy People
C) Healthy Communities, Worksites, and Schools
D) National Health Information Center

 

 

7. The community health nurse is trying to locate information about specific programs of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Which program would help the nurse focus on ways the communities can adapt the national Healthy People objectives for local use?
A) Dietary Guidelines for Americans
B) Healthy People
C) Healthy Communities, Worksites, and Schools
D) National Health Information Center

 

 

8. Which is the highest priority for success of a unified program between agency personnel who implement a community health program and the target population of program recipients?
A) Collaboration
B) Agency ownership for program
C) Limited time for publicizing the program
D) Limited need for coordination between these groups

 

 

9. The idea of a health program based on unified goals and objectives is central to the Healthy People documents. In 1979, the first “health” initiative for the United States promoted five goals. Which population should the health professional target for increasing their independence?
A) Adolescents
B) Children
C) Older adults
D) Young adults

 

 

10. Which is a goal for Healthy People 2020?
A) Create social and physical environments that promote health.
B) Increase the span of healthy life for Americans.
C) Reduce health disparities among Americans.
D) Achieve access to preventive services for all Americans.

 

 

11. Healthy People 2020 has four primary goals. Which community activity would address one of these goals?
A) Provide free dental screenings to all school age children.
B) Open a senior wellness clinic.
C) Overhaul the health insurance system.
D) Decrease co-payments of medication prescriptions.

 

 

12. The nursing practice model defines intervention as primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. Which is an example of primary prevention?
A) Tine test for tuberculosis
B) Denver Developmental Screening Test for developmental delays
C) Community blood pressure screenings for elderly clients
D) Weekly adult exercise and fitness sessions

 

 

13. The nursing practice model defines intervention as primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. Which is an example of tertiary prevention?
A) Breast self-examinations
B) Therapy programs for sexually abused children
C) Immunizations against certain diseases
D) Tine test for tuberculosis

 

 

14. The community health nurse is taking care of a client with a minor traumatic brain injury resulting from an automobile accident. The client developed pneumonia and is on IV antibiotics at home. Which level of prevention does this address?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Chronic care

 

 

15. The community health nurse needs to develop objectives for an upcoming program to improve health. Which type of objective attribute can be achieved through population-based and health service intervention?
A) Drive action
B) Measurable
C) Prevention oriented
D) Useful and relevant

 

 

16. The community health nurse plans to implement a specific program that will involve use of the new community center that includes a pool and clubhouse. Which would be the best intervention when looking at who and how this center will be utilized?
A) Focus on entire population
B) Policy development and enforcement
C) Reflect community priorities and needs
D) Promote health through epidemiologic evidence

 

 

17. There is often an impatience and eagerness associated with new programs, often forgetting the initial reason for implementing the program was to improve health. Considering this, when evaluating the overall effectiveness of the program, the nurse must consider which of the following?
A) How many participated in the program
B) Short-term health improvements
C) Public marketing within the community
D) Sustainability of the lifestyle change

 

 

18. The model for population- and community-based practice is public health nursing. Which is the most important cornerstone criterion for public health nursing?
A) Entire populations
B) Case management
C) Health teaching
D) Coalition building

 

 

19. When should the evaluation plan be established for a community health program?
A) During implementation of the program
B) Before the program is implemented
C) Essential after implementation of the program
D) When promoting health partnerships only with schools

 

 

20. The community health nurse considers specific interventions for population-based nursing practice when developing plans to address the problems identified in the community. Which action is based upon the cornerstones for public health nursing?
A) Focus on individual family
B) Policy development and enforcement
C) Reflect individual priorities and needs
D) Promote health through epidemiologic evidence

 

 

1. The nurse evaluates the responses of the community to a health program to measure progress that is being made toward the program’s goals and objectives. When evaluating these responses, the nurse understands that this is part of what nursing process?
A) Assessment
B) Evaluation
C) Planning
D) Implementation

Chapter 15

 

2. Which evaluation principle requires the program to be rooted in the real community and based on assessment of the community?
A) Strengthen programs
B) Use multiple approaches
C) Design evaluation to address real issues
D) Create a participatory process

 

 

3. Which evaluation principle enhances the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of both professionals and nonprofessionals?
A) Allow for flexibility
B) Build capacity
C) Create a participatory process
D) Use multiple approaches

 

 

4. The community health nurse is working with a community health program. What type of evaluation is important to use in revising a community program?
A) Effective
B) Impact
C) Summative
D) Formative

 

 

5. The community health nurse is completing an evaluation of a health program. If the nurse wants to evaluate the immediate impact of a parenting class, which question would be best for the nurse to ask the participants?
A) “What time would be best for this class to meet?”
B) “Can you tell me how you will change your behavior based on what you learned?”
C) “How can we better provide information to this group?”
D) “Did you learn what you expected to learn?”

 

 

6. During the evaluation process, the community health nurse collects information and knows that evaluation criteria must be timely and comprehensive. What type of evaluation is best when beginning to plan a community health program?
A) Formative
B) Impact
C) Outcome
D) Managed

 

 

7. The community health nurse is evaluating a community health program. What would the nurse be trying to determine when evaluating the reasons for having a program or set of activities?
A) Cost efficiency
B) Effectiveness
C) Progress
D) Relevancy

 

 

8. What type of evaluation would the nurse use to measure whether the community health program activities changed the initial reason for the program?
A) Formative
B) Impact
C) Outcome
D) Process

 

 

9. What component of evaluation would help the community health nurse measure the relationship between the benefits of a program and the costs of presenting the program?
A) Cost efficiency
B) Effectiveness
C) Progress
D) Relevancy

 

 

10. What question might the community health nurse ask when reviewing progress of the health program?
A) “Is there a need for the program?”
B) “Are program activities following the intended plan?”
C) “What are the costs of a program?”
D) “Were program objectives met?”

 

 

11. Observation is one method of collecting data for a case study. What does a participatory observer do during data collection?
A) Collects data about the program while working within the group.
B) Remains an outsider in the agency or organization during the data collection.
C) Does not assume a working role in data collection within the agency.
D) Reviews and examines the program for designated periods.

 

 

12. The community health nurse is participating in nominal evaluation research. The nominal group technique will
A) use large survey studies.
B) use a structured group meeting.
C) involve a series of questionnaires to a designated panel of respondents.
D) distribute the initial questionnaire to a preselected group.

 

 

13. The community health nurse is participating in Delphi technique research. The Delphi technique will
A) allow all individuals to present their ideas before the entire group.
B) promote individual cooperation with the group’s decisions.
C) collect independently expressed thoughts through the use of respondent questionnaires.
D) decrease selective perception.

 

 

14. A community health nurse is participating in a survey. What type of evaluation would the nurse use when looking at the results of a survey?
A) Formative
B) Outcome
C) Process
D) Summative

 

 

15. The community health nurse is using a survey that yields similar or nearly similar results each time the survey is administered. Achieving similar results for the same variable is an example of
A) Consistency
B) Reliability
C) Validity
D) Variability

 

 

16. The community health nurse is documenting the results of a survey as part of the evaluation of a community health program. A survey is very valuable to answer questions about:
A) Cost efficiency
B) Effectiveness
C) Outcome
D) Relevance

 

 

17. An experimental design has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of a preventive health fair. An experimental design is very useful to answer questions about:
A) Cost efficiency
B) Outcome
C) Progress
D) Relevancy

 

 

18. The community health nurse is constructing a monitoring chart for program plan. Information is needed on inputs, process, and outputs. What statement would be considered an output?
A) Resources necessary to carry out the program
B) Personnel, equipment, and finances needed for the program
C) Expected results of the program
D) Program activities, their sequence, and timing

 

 

19. A monitoring chart measures progress and can be used to evaluate whether a program is on schedule and within budget. What evaluation method is perfectly suited for a monitoring chart?
A) Formative
B) Outcome
C) Process
D) Summative

 

 

20. Two of the most common methods of analyzing the economic costs and benefits of a community health program are cost–benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. What occurs in cost-effectiveness analysis?
A) Consequences or benefits of a program are valued in dollar terms.
B) Different program benefits are compared in relation to cost.
C) Programs with similar goals and objectives are compared.
D) It is determined whether total benefits exceed total costs.

 

 

1. Who is considered to make up the school community? Select all that apply.
A) School-aged children and adolescents
B) Parents and guardians
C) School personnel
D) Neighborhood residents, business owners, and service providers
E) Facebook friends

Chapter 16

 

2. Each state mandates certain requirements to maintain the health of school-aged children. Vision and hearing screening programs are required. When planning new student hearing and vision dates, the nurse understands that if school starts September 1, the screening should be scheduled no later than what time?
A) By the end of September
B) By the end of the school year
C) By the end of October
D) By the end-of-the-year break

 

 

3. A community health nurse is developing a workshop on health promotion and development for a group of school-aged children. The nurse would incorporate which goal into the development of this workshop?
A) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
B) Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life.
C) Increase quality and years of a healthy life.
D) Eliminate health disparities.

 

 

4. Which provider is the most suitable to provide health care to school-aged children?
A) Parents and guardians
B) School nurse or public health nurse
C) Pediatric nurse practitioner
D) Family nurse practitioner

 

 

5. The school nurse has observed many overweight children, children easily fatigued while running around the playground, and children choosing nonnutritious snacks. Which is the highest priority area of Healthy People 2020 that the school nurse should emphasize in a health promotion program?
A) Inadequate physical activity
B) Unhealthy dietary patterns
C) Tobacco use and addiction
D) Unintentional injury
E) Proper backpack posture

 

 

6. A community health nurse is developing a program on internal and external environmental issues for school nurses. In describing Healthy People 2020, which goal would the community health nurse emphasize for this group?
A) Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
B) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
C) Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
D) Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life.

 

 

7. Immunizations are required by state law to be current and on file for all children. Immunization requirements must be strictly supported by the school administration. What information is important for the nurse to keep in mind when evaluating if a child is in compliance with this law?
A) Compliance is expected by the first day of school.
B) Immunizations must be complete by the end of the first month of school.
C) Children have until 60 days after school starts to complete immunization requirements.
D) 90 days after school starts is the final date that immunizations must be completed.

 

 

8. What would be a good topic for a health education program that addresses mental health issues affecting children in the United States?
A) Recognizing signs and symptoms of depression
B) Problem-solving and decision-making skills
C) Date rape and acquaintance rape
D) Peer harassment

 

 

9. The school nurse is developing a health education program on domestic violence for parents that addresses the effects on children and sources of help for the whole family. What major issue affecting children does this address?
A) Mental health issues
B) Interpersonal violence
C) Sexuality
D) Environmental hazards

 

 

10. The school nurse is developing a program on breast self-examination and testicular self-examination. At which grade level should implementation of this program begin?
A) Third grade
B) Fifth grade
C) Seventh grade
D) Ninth grade

 

 

11. Before planning a health promotion program, the school health nurse needs to:
A) Observe how the students and teacher interact in the classroom.
B) Plan to conduct the program when the classroom teacher is not available.
C) Involve just parents planning the program because of limited teacher availability.
D) Only verbally market the program a few days prior to implementation.

 

 

12. The community health nurse is planning a health promotion program for school-aged children for Red Ribbon Week. The goal of this type of program would include which of the following?
A) How to avoid teen pregnancies
B) Healthy cardiovascular promotion measures
C) Increase awareness of the dangers associated with alcohol and tobacco
D) Review common eating disorders and how to prepare healthy lunches

 

 

13. The school nurse is implementing a muscle mover club in the elementary school. What goal would the nurse document when requesting the implementation of this program?
A) Encourage physical activity
B) Reward anaerobic exercise
C) Importance of pet exercise responsibilities
D) Educate on methods to promote cardiovascular function

 

 

14. When writing a proposal as to the importance of implementing a program aimed at decreasing childhood obesity, the nurse emphasizes which statistic?
A) One of two children is obese as children.
B) One of eight preschoolers is overweight.
C) Twenty-five percent of school-aged children experience obesity.
D) One of five children is considered obese.

 

 

15. The community health nurse is involved in a creative program that promotes health and generates a more social school atmosphere. What would be the most appropriate program that can be implemented with groups such as teachers or staff in a school setting?
A) Late breakfast meetings; “second cup of coffee meeting”
B) Grandparents’ day
C) Monthly health bulletin board
D) Monthly blood pressure assessments

 

 

16. What is an example of a primary prevention strategy that the school nurse can implement to influence the school climate and reduce bullying?
A) Determine whether bullying/sexual harassment policies are in place in the school system.
B) Assess for bullying behaviors using a student questionnaire, such as the Peer Relations Questionnaire.
C) Have a school conference day to disseminate the results of the survey and launch a multicomponent plan to tackle the problem.
D) Implement effective adult supervision during recess, lunchtime, and classroom/bathroom breaks.

 

 

17. What is an example of a secondary prevention strategy that the school nurse can implement to influence the school climate and reduce bullying?
A) Conduct a teacher/staff in-service program to educate the members of the school community about the problem of bullying.
B) Have a parent meeting to discuss preventing school violence and explain that addressing and stopping bullying is an important component of violence prevention.
C) Have teacher–student discussion groups to reinforce antibullying messages and contribute to changing the school culture.
D) Formally assess for bullying behaviors on an annual basis.

 

 

18. What is an example of tertiary prevention strategy that the school nurse can do to influence the school climate and reduce bullying?
A) Continue school meetings and teacher–student discussion groups about bullying, sexual bullying/harassment, and violence in the school setting.
B) Have separate counseling of bullies and victims.
C) Involve parents of bullies and victims in monthly discussions.
D) Develop individual care plans for students, both bullies and victims, addressing physical, mental, and behavioral health needs.

 

 

19. What would be a health promotion strategy for school-aged children and their families that could be implemented that would involve the community?
A) Have a community parade celebrating being drug free.
B) Conduct a survey to assess student opinion and food preferences for school lunches.
C) Perform a plate waste study to determine what children are eating in school.
D) Stuff payroll envelopes with health promotion material.

 

 

20. A program is being developed to collaborate with local law enforcement to conduct a gun safety awareness program that includes handgun issues. This is a health promotion strategy for a partnership at what level?
A) School
B) Community
C) Parents
D) Teachers

 

 

1. Which is a basis for faith community nursing?
A) Economic recovery and easing poverty through education
B) Spirituality and health of mind and body throughout the life span
C) Supporting responsible motherhood through financially rewarding employment opportunities
D) Fostering national interfaith communities

Chapter 17

 

2. Partnerships between local health departments and faith-based organizations potentially can do much to deliver services and reduce health disparities experienced by vulnerable groups. Which Healthy People 2020 goal is consistent with this philosophy of faith communities?
A) Individual health is closely related to community health.
B) Increase quality and years of life with elimination of preventable disease.
C) Develop partnerships between individual and community health.
D) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

 

 

3. Which has contributed to the movement of nursing in faith communities?
A) Dissatisfaction with the disease-focused holistic model
B) Access to health care and insurance coverage
C) Decrease in lay ministry responsibilities in faith-based communities
D) Need for ongoing chronic disease management in faith-based communities

 

 

4. Nursing in faith communities is based on which type of nursing?
A) Religious
B) Holistic
C) Compassionate
D) Participant

 

 

5. A nurse is designing and planning to implement a health promotion program in partnership with local faith communities. Which community planning guide would be helpful?
A) Creative Nursing Journal
B) Faith Community Nursing: Developing a Quality Practice
C) International Journal for Human Caring
D) Journal of Holistic Nursing

 

 

6. The role of the nurse with faith communities is dictated as always by the needs of the people. Which is a common role of the nurse in this setting?
A) Advocate
B) Leader
C) Manager
D) Research expert

 

 

7. Which nurses would be ideal for faith community nursing, if the work is less physically demanding and provides flexibility in the work schedule?
A) Ambulatory care
B) Critical care
C) Nurse practitioner
D) Retired

 

 

8. A nurse has been hired to be the parish nurse in a new church community. Which is the best strategy for identifying the needs of this faith community?
A) Distribute an educational needs survey to the women’s auxiliary.
B) Attend meetings for the representative different groups.
C) Form an ad hoc committee with formal leaders to study the health ministry.
D) Make decisions with input from the local community.

 

 

9. After assessing the community’s educational preferences, the nurse plans intervention programs based on the results. The faith community is interested developing a walking map. Which information should the nurse include? Select all that apply.
A) Quarter-mile markers, noted by a community element such as a “no parking” sign
B) One-mile loop around the worship center
C) Extension trails to shopping malls, a recreational park, or neighborhood school yards
D) Places to stop for food and drink
E) Safe and accessible walking trails

 

 

10. The nurse establishes a Healthy Heart Club. Which the leading indicator of Healthy People 2020 does this program support?
A) Access to health care
B) Physical activity
C) Overweight and obesity
D) Mental health

 

 

11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and emergency cardiovascular care classes for the faith community are examples of which level of prevention activity?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Illness

 

 

12. The faith community nurse is organizing a health fair for a faith community. How many weeks should the nurse allow for the preparation phase?
A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6

 

 

13. Involving nursing volunteers from the community ensures that the diversity of the community can be mirrored in the faith community nursing team. Other than cultural factors, what other factor is an essential concern of program problem identification and solution?
A) Economic
B) Emotional
C) Physical
D) Social

 

 

14. Which activity occurs during the first phase of the MAP-IT process?
A) A coalition of individuals who care about the faith community’s health is formed.
B) Areas of greatest need in the faith community are identified.
C) Concrete action steps that can be monitored and make a difference are planned.
D) Progress of the health program over time is mapped.

 

 

15. Which activity occurs during the “P” phase of the MAP-IT process?
A) A coalition of individuals who care about the faith community’s health is formed.
B) Areas of greatest need in the faith community are identified.
C) Strategies and action steps to achieve community vision are planned.
D) A plan of concrete action steps that can be monitored and make a difference is implemented.

 

 

16. After the planning phase of the MAP-IT process, which would the nurse do next?
A) Form a coalition of individuals who care about the faith community’s health.
B) Identify areas of greatest need in the faith community.
C) Plan strategies and action steps to achieve the community vision.
D) Implement a plan of concrete action steps that can be monitored and make a difference.

 

 

17. When using the MAP-IT process, which activity will the nurse perform last?
A) A coalition of individuals in the faith community is provided with a progress report.
B) Progress in all areas of greatest need in the faith community is reviewed.
C) Concrete action steps that can be monitored and make a difference are implemented.
D) Progress of the individual health program over time is mapped.

 

 

18. Building a healthy community takes time, careful planning, and a great deal of organization. Shaping the future of decision making for health care delivery is a primary role of the faith-based nursing ministry. This ministry also may assist with:
A) Maintaining cost-effectiveness
B) Deciding where best to build community clinics
C) Implementing the Affordable Care Act
D) Helping to integrate faith into the health care

 

 

19. Based on the “10 Tips to a Great Plate,” what might the nurse suggest to a group of parents that would help them try to get their children to eat healthier? Select all that apply.
A) Make half your grains whole grains.
B) Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk.
C) Eat larger portions but less frequently.
D) Make a list of foods to eat less often.
E) Drink water instead of sugary drinks.

 

 

1. Nurses throughout history and in modern times have been concerned about vulnerable populations. During a conversation, the word marginalized is used when talking about a group of people. The nurse asks what that means. Which answer is most accurate?
A) Treat someone or something as unimportant
B) Lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence
C) Blame society for the health issues that arise
D) Experience limited resources with high risk for morbidity

Chapter 18

 

2. Nurses throughout history and in modern times have been concerned about vulnerable populations. To understand how to assist these populations, the nurse must first understand that the term vulnerable refers to what population?
A) Process in which individuals in certain groups seem not to matter to the rest of society.
B) Focus on the health needs of populations who have been relegated to the margins of society.
C) Treat someone or something as if the individual is of no consequence or is unimportant.
D) Social group who experiences limited resources and consequent high relative risk for morbidity and premature mortality.

 

 

3. The community health nurse is reviewing the needs of vulnerable groups in the community. To focus more specifically, what group would be the best representation of a vulnerable population?
A) Men
B) Caucasians
C) Heterosexuals
D) Individuals with HIV/AIDS

 

 

4. The community health nurse is reviewing the needs of marginalized groups in the community. When planning educational needs, which group would be considered a marginalized group?
A) Migrants
B) Children
C) Men
D) Minorities

 

 

5. The community health nurse is aware that research needs to be designed to increase understanding of the determinants of health disparities and culturally appropriate strategies and interventions to reduce and eliminate health disparities in underserved and vulnerable populations. What organization would offer the most information as the nurse begins research in that area?
A) WHO
B) NINR
C) Office of Minority Health
D) Institute of Medicine

 

 

6. The community health nurse is adapting a program for vulnerable and marginalized populations. Which overarching goal for Healthy People 2020 directly applies to the issue of health disparity?
A) Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
B) Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
C) Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life.
D) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

 

 

7. The community health nurse knows that health disparities affect many groups. What is a commonality of marginalized groups?
A) Less likely to obtain health care
B) Equal access to treatment for cancer
C) Insurance coverage is inexpensive to obtain with HIV/AIDS.
D) Ability to complete major life activities without ongoing assistance

 

 

8. A community health nurse is trying to locate information commonalities among marginalized groups. The nurse is interested in knowing about the number of noninstitutionalized individuals who have a limitation in usual activities due to a chronic condition. Which group would provide the most pertinent information to the nurse?
A) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
B) The U.S. Census Bureau
C) The World Health Organization
D) The National Center for Health Statistics

 

 

9. The community health nurse is trying to adapt a program for the most marginalized population. The nurse desires to focus on the group that is vulnerable to disabilities and disease. Which group would most meet the desire of this nurse?
A) Homeless
B) Migrants
C) Immigrants
D) Persons with chronic disease

 

 

10. The economic crisis, foreclosures, the collapse of the housing market, job shortages, and devastating natural events have affected individuals who are homeless and those at risk for homelessness despite efforts over the last decade to end homelessness. Affordable housing exceeds the means of many families. The reason a nurse would ask about the income of a family in an at-risk community would be to assess if they fall below what percentage of income which would make them at high risk for homelessness?
A) 20%
B) 25%
C) 30%
D) 35%

 

 

11. The community health nurse knows that there are some alarming facts about the homeless. If the community health nurse wants to target a project around a large group of homeless people, in which state would it be best to begin this project?
A) Utah
B) Virginia
C) Michigan
D) California

 

 

12. Primary prevention measures to prevent people who are at risk for homelessness from becoming homeless are one of the first steps in health promotion for this population. What is an example of a primary prevention health promotion strategy for people who are homeless?
A) Health care needs must be addressed first for a homeless individual.
B) Identify the barriers homeless people encounter in receiving health care.
C) Categorize homeless needs as housing, health care, or employment.
D) Obtain emergency financial assistance so utilities are not discontinued.

 

 

13. Primary prevention measures to prevent people who are at risk for homelessness from becoming homeless are one of the first steps in health promotion for this population. What is an example of secondary prevention health promotion strategy for people who are homeless?
A) Emergency financial assistance
B) Financial advisement
C) Evaluation of community resources
D) Legal assistance

 

 

14. A common concern for homeless people is following medication and treatment regimens. The community health nurse should be vigilant of what common condition among homeless people?
A) Frequently medications can be easily refrigerated.
B) Difficult-to-follow special dietary restrictions
C) Food is allowed in the sleeping area of the shelter.
D) Medicine is sold for cash or swapped for benefits.

 

 

15. The community health nurse is reviewing education system barriers for the homeless in the community. What is an example of a school success barrier?
A) Inability to complete assignments
B) School fees
C) Lack of immunization/medical records
D) Lack of previous school records

 

 

16. The community health nurse is reviewing education system barriers for the homeless in the community. What is an example of enrollment barrier?
A) Frequent mobility
B) Poor health
C) Transportation
D) Isolation

 

 

17. What is an important point for the nurse to remember when designing a sexual health education and health care program for homeless adolescents?
A) Conduct focus groups to allow parents to have a voice in planning their adolescent sexual health needs.
B) Establish trust with a respectful and nonjudgmental attitude.
C) Use large media, such as posters, to deliver health information.
D) Provide sexual health information that is narrowly focused in nature.

 

 

18. Public health nurses working in the community can lobby for changes in legislation that can prevent homelessness as primary prevention. What is an example of legislation that can be supported?
A) Transportation
B) Case management services
C) Raising the minimum wage
D) Sources for funding programs

 

 

19. Refugees and immigrants typically experience three phases as they assimilate into the country of destination, with each phase having specific health care implications. What phase is connected to how well the immigrant or refugee assimilates into the American culture?
A) Acute
B) Primary
C) Transition
D) Resolution

 

 

20. The public health nurse is adapting a program for a vulnerable or marginalized population. What type of program would be best for offering screening procedures such as dental, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose, vision, hearing, and lead poison?
A) Health fair
B) Positive parenting
C) Community health education
D) Diabetes education

 

 

1. Health promotion, disease prevention and control, wellness, risk factor reduction, and preventive health care are some of the terms applied to workplace health programs. Health promotion centers on which type of strategies?
A) Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention
B) A partnership between medicine and health
C) Safety and health of all American workers
D) Reducing injuries, illnesses, and deaths on the job

Chapter 19

 

2. A business is interested in partnering with the community for health promotion programs specific to their workplace. In looking at hiring an individual for this lead position, the business knows the best person to fill this position would be which of the following?
A) Employer
B) Nurse practitioner
C) Occupational health nurse
D) Primary care provider

 

 

3. What is an example of a health promotion program that can be planned, implemented, and evaluated that teaches a healthy safety behavior to a diverse group of employees?
A) Membership at a health club
B) Back care
C) Hearing conversation
D) Risk profiles and screenings

 

 

4. Health promotion in the workplace falls within three basic program types. What is an example of a behavior change activity?
A) Low-fat foods in the cafeteria
B) On-site aerobic classes
C) Smoking cessation
D) Sunscreen dispenser by walking trail

 

 

5. The nurse is planning a health promotion program. The nurse is writing a sample business plan to teach healthy behaviors to a diverse group of employees and their families. What would the nurse put in the method section?
A) Short summary of the health promotion plan
B) How, when, and where the plan will be put into action
C) List of outcomes of the health promotion program
D) An accurate projection of program costs

 

 

6. The nurse is planning a health promotion program. The nurse is writing a sample business plan to teach healthy behaviors to a diverse group of employees and their families. Where would the nurse find the outcomes of the health promotion program in the business plan?
A) Executive summary
B) Methods
C) Expected benefits
D) Costs

 

 

7. The occupational health nurse is administering a health risk appraisal to employees of a medium-sized business. The employee asks what this risk appraisal is. What response by the nurse is most accurate?
A) Easily administered, confidential instrument used to determine life expectancy based on current risk behaviors
B) Instrument that calculates the amount of benefit that can occur with current lifestyle behaviors
C) Appraisal used as a teaching tool that gives feedback about unhealthy behaviors
D) Often completed with paper and pencil, a form to allow for accurate individualized reports

 

 

8. Most health promotion programs involve lifestyle behavioral changes. What occurs during the precontemplation stage?
A) The employee is considering making an effort to change behavior.
B) The employee is weighing the pros and cons of change.
C) The employee may not know how to make change and considers it impossible.
D) The employee is made aware of benefits of change.

 

 

9. Most health promotion programs involve lifestyle behavioral changes. The person has decided to try and change a behavior and is ready for information and skills to maintain the behavioral change. The nurse would document this in which stage of the change process?
A) Contemplation
B) Preparation
C) Action
D) Maintenance

 

 

10. Most health promotion programs involve lifestyle behavioral changes. What action would indicate the employee is in the maintenance stage?
A) The employee is observed practicing the new behaviors.
B) The employee is sharing the newly learned behavior with coworkers.
C) The employee is hesitant and needs support, incentives, and sincere encouragement.
D) The employee states new behavior requires a lot of effort and is afraid of relapsing.

 

 

11. Marketing is an essential part of successful program implementation. The employee uses a computer to answer a health-related quiz and receives the answer and rationale the next day. What marketing strategy was used?
A) Electronic mail message
B) Health newsletter
C) Letter from the company president
D) Wellness program announcement

 

 

12. The evaluation process provides an opportunity to determine the outcomes derived by the health promotion program and directs improvement of employee health services. Which of the following represents a structural evaluation?
A) Determine whether the health promotion activity was appropriate for the setting.
B) Analysis of employee demographics and their health status needs
C) Documentation and record keeping maintenance
D) Review whether the health promotion program was designed to meet workplace needs.

 

 

13. The evaluation process provides an opportunity to determine the outcomes derived by the health promotion program and directs improvement of employee health services. What common method of evaluation can be used to determine morbidity and mortality differences?
A) Chart and record reviews
B) Interviewing of employees
C) Observation of employees
D) Postprogram rating scales

 

 

14. The evaluation process provides an opportunity to determine the outcomes derived by the health promotion program and directs improvement of employee health services. The occupational health nurse is focused on whether the program leads to positive outcomes. What type of evaluation is being used?
A) Outcome
B) Process
C) Program
D) Structural

 

 

15. The effects of intimate partner violence spill into the workplace and can affect employment productivity. What is an element of a domestic violence awareness program that addresses primary prevention of intimate partner violence against women?
A) Promote employee counseling and intervention.
B) Implement domestic violence screening questions on preemployment and annual health examinations.
C) Support a company policy with a statement that clearly demonstrates concern and commitment to employees who may be experiencing violence at home.
D) Maintain a workplace environment in which all employees, regardless of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or religion, are treated with respect and dignity.

 

 

16. The effects of intimate partner violence spill into the workplace and can affect employment productivity. What would represent a tertiary prevention plan for intimate partner violence against women?
A) Provide adequate security to employees.
B) Support a company policy of zero tolerance against violence of all people.
C) Support a company policy that rewards collaboration, collegiality, and teamwork.
D) Promote policies that raise the status of women in the company.

 

 

17. Self-management programs teach problem-solving skills in addition to health education. Self-management programs are successful in helping clients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and arthritis to make lifestyle behavior changes that improve pain, fatigue, physical function, and emotions. Which statement is an example of tertiary prevention as it relates to chronic diseases?
A) Offering routine blood sugar screenings
B) Providing classes on why exercise is important for people with arthritis
C) Planning an education program on how to prevent the development of chronic disease
D) Participating in a biofeedback program to reduce stress

 

 

18. Farming is one of the few industries in which the families, who often share the work and live on the premises, are also at risk for injuries, illness, and death. What is an example of a potential hazard of elemental exposure for agricultural workers?
A) Fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides
B) Risk of transferable disease; zoonoses
C) Silos, grain bins, manure pits
D) Cumulative trauma: noise and ergonomics

 

 

19. The occupational health nurse is assessing for employee signs and symptoms of being a victim of workplace bullying, harassment, or horizontal violence. What observation would indicate the employee is a potential victim?
A) Feeling edgy, irritable, easily startled, and constantly on guard
B) Employee turnover rate is higher than industry standards.
C) Higher rates of absenteeism and disability insurance claims
D) Employees request transfer from a certain department more often than from others.

 

 

20. There are personal protective equipment and injury prevention objectives for agricultural workers. The particular health hazard is falling and/or airborne debris encountered during repair of agricultural machinery. What personal protective equipment would indicate that the employee understands correct prevention techniques?
A) Acoustic earmuffs
B) Nonslip safety shoes
C) Hard hat
D) Seat belt

 

 

1. Which statement represents the priority for the older adults, their families, and the health care system?
A) A focus on disease prevention for institutionalized elders is critical.
B) Wellness programs are necessary for the expanded elder communities to thrive.
C) Health promotion and disease prevention are of increasing importance.
D) Noninstitutionalized elders require health promotion to improve health status.

Chapter 20

 

2. When considering what age group would be a priority for health promotion planning, the nurse considers the older adult. What statement would confirm that this is a priority group?
A) The number of older Americans has doubled in the past 100 years.
B) The percentage of older Americans has more than tripled since 1900.
C) Older Americans are more prevalent in the South but less prevalent in the North.
D) California has twice the number of older Americans than any other state.

 

 

3. A child born in 2010 could expect to live 77.9 years compared with about 29 years in 1900. What is the main reason for this phenomenal growth?
A) Decreased mortality of adults
B) Decreased morbidity of children
C) Decreased mortality of children and young adults
D) Decreased morbidity of adults and older adults

 

 

4. The majority of older persons have at least one chronic condition and many have multiple conditions. From 2009 to 2011, what was the most frequently occurring condition of the elderly?
A) Arthritis
B) Cancer
C) Diabetes
D) Hypertension

 

 

5. When looking at disabilities in the older population, which statement, as of 2011, is true and would direct the nurse in planning interventions to assist with optimizing independence in this age group?
A) Older men report more disabilities than do older women.
B) 38% of older men report at least one disability.
C) Over one third of older adults reported at least one severe disability.
D) Women are more likely to have at least one severe disability.

 

 

6. Accessibility and affordability of health care are challenges for the elderly, particularly for rural and poor elders. What type of service that is often limited for the elderly needs to be increased to address these challenges?
A) Preventive
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Chronic disease

 

 

7. As functional status and sensory acuity begin to decline, the elderly become vulnerable to an assortment of abusive and neglectful situations. A survey in 2004 showed a significant increase in substantiated cases of elder abuse. What definition would have been used when looking at what constituted elder abuse?
A) Maltreatment of an older person residing in his or her own home
B) Maltreatment of an older person residing in a residential facility
C) Neglect inflicted when the safety or health of older people is threatened by their living alone
D) Knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable population

 

 

8. As functional status and sensory acuity begin to decline, the elderly become vulnerable to an assortment of abusive and neglectful situations. What assessment of the elderly would support self-neglect?
A) Maltreatment of an older person residing in his/her own home
B) Maltreatment of an older person residing in a residential facility
C) Neglect inflicted when the safety or health of older people is threatened by their living alone
D) Knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable population

 

 

9. Community nurses need to be familiar with state abuse reporting laws and how to work with state adult protective services agencies. In a 2004 survey of State Adult Protective Services agencies, the National Center on Elder Abuse noted an increase in substantiated elder abuse cases from 2000 to 2004. What statement would help direct the need for change in identifying this type of abuse?
A) The National Center on Elder Abuse found a 10.5% increase in substantiated cases.
B) The National Center on Elder Abuse found a 13.4% increase in substantiated cases.
C) The National Center on Elder Abuse found a 15.6% increase in substantiated cases.
D) The National Center on Elder Abuse found a 16.5% increase in substantiated cases.

 

 

10. Many community-dwelling elders are virtually prisoners in their homes. Why are people older than 65 years more likely to be victims of crime in or near their own homes?
A) Lack of access to transportation
B) Victims of frequent scams
C) Live in high-crime neighborhoods
D) Fear being mugged or robbed

 

 

11. Mental health issues faced by the elderly include social isolation and loneliness, depression, suicide, and alcohol addiction. What individuals are at highest risk for social isolation?
A) People aged 65 years or older
B) Elderly people living in a nursing home
C) Individuals who are in frail health
D) Individuals retired from career work

 

 

12. Which statement made by an older adult client, regarding the client’s adjustment to the aging process, poses the greatest concern for the nurse conducting an assessment?
A) “I used to enjoy dancing and jogging so much, but now I have arthritis in my knees, so it’s hard to even walk.”
B) “I’ve given my grandchildren money for college so they can live a better life than I had.”
C) “Growing old certainly presents all sorts of challenges. I wish I knew then what I know now.”
D) “As I age I’ve found it is harder to do the things I love doing, but I guess it will all be over soon enough.”

 

 

13. Falls are the most common accidents experienced by people older than 70 years. It is estimated that about two thirds of falls among the elderly are preventable. What risk factor is most common and would alert the nurse to place the client on fall risk precautions?
A) Osteoporosis
B) Hypertension
C) Poor vision
D) Middle ear disturbance

 

 

14. Health promotion and health protection are two elements of primary prevention. What definition would the nurse use when explaining health promotion?
A) Emphasis on helping people change their lifestyles
B) Protecting people from disease and injury
C) Providing annual immunizations
D) Eliminating exposure to environmental health hazards

 

 

15. What is the goal of individual- or family-focused health promotion and health protection interventions?
A) Design interventions to increase the individual’s or family’s knowledge, skills, and competence to make health decisions
B) Involvement in activities that maximize health promotion and health protection behaviors
C) Empowerment of the elderly and their families to make rational health decisions
D) Activities and programs that are directed toward community elders

 

 

16. What is a category of health promotion and health protection intervention that targets the individual or family?
A) Health screenings
B) Crime prevention activities
C) Health fairs in the community
D) Collaboration with organizations to provide comprehensive services to elderly

 

 

17. Elderly populations, in general, are open to new health practices and respond to a variety of approaches that have the potential to improve their health. To plan effective health programs, community health nurses should validate proposed goals and strategies with the targeted elderly group. What is an action step for working with older adults in the community?
A) Try to incorporate outreach activities into the program.
B) Anticipate needs of those with poor hearing.
C) Maintain a fast pace for activities to maintain relatively short sessions.
D) Allow plenty of time for elders to share life experiences.

 

 

18. People older than 65 years need regular primary health care services to maintain health and prevent disabling chronic illness and life-threatening conditions. What is a health promotion service that can form the basis for a community nursing intervention?
A) Referral to existing national pharmacy assistance programs
B) Continuous source of tertiary care
C) Connection to acute illness support groups
D) One-stop shopping for health care

 

 

19. Adequate nutrition is important for older adults to maintain health, prevent disease, and slow progression of existing chronic illnesses. What makes nutrition classes more effective?
A) Limit recipe sharing of nondiabetic diets.
B) Eliminate existing negative habits.
C) Include ethnic food preferences.
D) Use colorful single-page, small-print pamphlets.

 

 

20. The benefits of exercise are well established across the life span. Exercise activity for elders must be suitable to health and functional status. What is the best approach to exercise in the elderly?
A) Staying active throughout the day
B) Participate in 20 minutes of high-intensity exercise three times a week.
C) Participate in 20 to 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.
D) Low-impact activity schedules 3 times a day for 20 minutes at each session

 

 

1. Rural health has different meanings in different parts of the world. Rural health is often referred to as what in developing countries?
A) Basic public health services
B) Native or aboriginal populations
C) Timely access to appropriate, effective, affordable services
D) Limited services to individuals living in low population density

Chapter 21

 

2. One creative approach to rural health is the concept of clinical peripherality. What does clinical peripherality encompass?
A) Remoteness from primary and secondary care
B) Low population density regions with remoteness from tertiary and specialty care
C) Inaccessibility of any primary and acute health care services in rural America
D) Rapid availability of services for decisions that might affect quality, cost, or access to care

 

 

3. There are common definitions of rural and urban areas in this country. What would the nurse expect when an area is defined as urban clusters by the U.S. Bureau of the Census?
A) Nonadjacent blocks of less than 2,000 people
B) Populations of 2,500 people not adjacent to urbanized areas
C) Census blocks of 25,000 people in urbanized areas
D) Combined census blocks of 50,000 people

 

 

4. There is a vast array of definitions of “rural.” When looking at health planning and policy, what agency would be the most helpful to the nurse?
A) Institute of Medicine
B) U.S. Office of Technology Assessment
C) U.S. Bureau of the Census
D) White House Office of Management and Budget

 

 

5. A health care provider is interested in grants or incentives that would attract someone to a restricted area. What agency would be the best to contact to investigate this idea?
A) Educational Research Service
B) Institute of Medicine
C) Rural Assistance Center
D) U.S. Department of Agriculture

 

 

6. There are several social and geographic factors that have an impact on the health status and health behavior of rural residents. Individuals who have made a study of rural health during the past 20 years are most often concerned with what care issue?
A) Access
B) Cost
C) Quality
D) Inferiority

 

 

7. The National Center for Health Statistics published a study comparing urban and rural populations on population health indicators such as smoking, obesity, chronic disease, substance abuse, suicide, and child health. When comparing the health status of rural populations with that of urban populations, what would be an accurate statement?
A) Urban populations are more obese than rural populations.
B) Rural populations have more instances of chronic disease than urban populations.
C) Rural populations are less likely to experience substance abuse than are urban populations.
D) Rural populations have healthier children than urban populations.

 

 

8. There is an assumption that adequate health services are a necessary condition for population health. Which statement best represents population health?
A) Health behaviors that are embedded in relationships that tie individuals to their family and friends, their neighborhoods, and their communities
B) Planning for and implementing an equitable allocation or distribution of available health care resources
C) Combination of vital and health statistical data from multiple sources, used to derive information about the health needs, health resources, use of health services, and outcomes by the people in a defined region
D) Approach that focuses on interrelated conditions and factors that influence the health of populations over the life course, identifies systematic variations in their patterns of occurrence, and applies the resulting knowledge to policies and actions to improve the health and well-being of those populations

 

 

9. A few recent studies make it clear that much of rural America is demographically different from urban America. A nurse wants to do research involving an older population. What area of the country would best serve as her research base?
A) Great Plains
B) Indian country
C) Mississippi delta
D) Southeastern black belt

 

 

10. The most telling demographic marker as a determinant of health and health behavior is counties in the country designated as experiencing persistent poverty. What percentage of the population is living below the federal poverty level in these counties?
A) 10% for two successive census periods
B) 15% for three successive census periods
C) 20% for three successive census periods
D) 25% for two successive census periods

 

 

11. When federal agencies such as the Health Resources and Services Administration target programs to special populations, it has been found that poverty is strongly correlated to what health behavior?
A) Prenatal care
B) Premature death
C) Mental health care
D) Dental care

 

 

12. The disparities facing rural populations go beyond demographics to include an alarming array of health status indicators and health behaviors. When planning interventions for high-risk behaviors, which health behavior would be considered high in urban populations?
A) Adults who smoke
B) Adults overweight or obese
C) Adolescents who had five or more drinks in one episode
D) Total tooth loss among adults aged 65 years and older

 

 

13. The sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents place them at risk for unhealthy behaviors and poor health status. Compounding these factors, rural residents are less likely to have health insurance than are their urban counterparts. Basing a health clinic in this area would assist what percentage of uninsured in rural counties with fewer than 2,500 people?
A) 15%
B) 19%
C) 23%
D) 27%

 

 

14. Rural populations face all of the same preventable illnesses that are faced by urban populations. How can the prevention of the major contributors to preventable death be addressed?
A) Primary care practices
B) Secondary care practices
C) Tertiary care practices
D) Public health department clinics

 

 

15. There are several issues that challenge prevention partnerships in rural communities. What is one threat to the health of the public that affects rural populations disproportionately?
A) Substance abuse
B) Tooth decay
C) Adult obesity
D) Depression

 

 

16. Childhood obesity rates in the United States are on the rise, and the immediate and long-term medical and social consequences of childhood obesity are staggering. During the past four decades, rates have consistently increased. Which population has the highest childhood obesity rates and would be the best population to begin interventions to help curb obesity?
A) Middle income groups
B) Upper socioeconomic groups
C) Low-income groups
D) Lower middle class

 

 

17. Childhood obesity rates are highest among low-income populations and among racial/ethnic minorities. Research has demonstrated that this trend applies to rural youth, where the prevalence of obesity and overweight has been shown to be higher than state and national averages and higher than rates among youth in urban areas. What is an environmental health strategy that is appropriate for rural populations to assist in the prevention of obesity?
A) Physical activity
B) Low-fat, low-calorie diet
C) Low-cost bariatric surgery
D) Nutrition education sessions

 

 

18. Many rural communities have assessed how activity friendly they are. What assessment tool is especially useful for local rural community leaders seeking to build partnerships and involve community members in identifying needs and designing and implementing active living interventions?
A) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Activity Friendly Tool
B) SPACES instrument
C) Irvine-Minnesota Inventory
D) Rural Active Living Assessment

 

 

19. A major issue that affects rural youth is substance abuse. In most rural communities, what finding about rural teens has been reported by recent studies?
A) Alcohol is the most used and abused substance.
B) Lower rate of binge drinking in rural teens than urban teens.
C) Methamphetamine is the most commonly used substance.
D) Lower rate of driving while intoxicated than urban teens.

 

 

20. With help from the Maine Office of Substance Abuse, county educators, law enforcement, and public health leaders determined that if they could change student attitudes, they could begin to address youth drinking. What did the approach address?
A) Norms and accessibility
B) Norms and enforcement
C) Accessibility, availability, and enforcement
D) Norms, availability, and enforcement