Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank Of Criminological Theory Context And Consequences 6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen, Richard A. Ball

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The _____ school of criminology argued that one aspect of American society, the city, contained potent criminogenic forces.

*a. Chicago

  1. New York
  2. Boston
  3. Los Angeles

Answer location: page 36-37

 

  1. The _____ movement was troubled by the plight of the urban poor, and argued that the poor were pushed by the environment into lives of crime.
  2. Reformist
  3. Retreatist

*c. Progressive

  1. Darwinist

Answer location: page 38

 

  1. The Age of _____ assumed that the government could be trusted to create and administer agencies that would affect needed social reform.
  2. Rehabilitation
  3. Retribution
  4. Retraining

*d. Reform

Answer location: page 38

 

  1. _____ concluded that Chicago’s development and organization was not random or idiosyncratic, but rather patterned, and could be understood in terms of basic social processes.
  2. Binet
  3. Marx

*c. Park

  1. Bonger

Answer location: page 38

 

  1. ______ concluded that neighborhood organization was instrumental in preventing or permitting delinquent careers.

*a. Shaw and McKay

  1. Freud
  2. Binet
  3. Adler

Answer location: page 39

 

  1. _____ contended that cities grow radically in a series of concentric zones or rings.
  2. Durkheim
  3. Weber

*c. Burgess

  1. Sutherland

Answer location: page 39

  1. According to Burgess, which zone was a particular cause for concern and study?
  2. The Zone of the Workingmen’s Home

*b. The Zone in Transition

  1. The Residential Zone
  2. The Commuters Zone

Answer location: page 39

 

  1. According to _____, disorganized neighborhoods helped to produce and sustain criminal traditions, which could be transmitted through successive generations of boys.
  2. Beccaria
  3. Freud
  4. Marx

*d. Shaw and McKay

Answer location: page 41

 

  1. According to Shaw and McKay, what is needed for the creation of high rates of delinquency?

*a. A breakdown of control

  1. A breakdown in religion
  2. Rational choice
  3. Low IQ

Answer location: page 43

 

  1. _____ substituted for social disorganization the concept of differential social organization.
  2. Park

*b. Sutherland

  1. Burgess
  2. Shaw and McKay

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. Sutherland argued that social groups were arranged _____.
  2. similarly

*b. differentially

  1. randomly
  2. culturally

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. The term _____ refers to criminal behavior being learned through social interactions.
  2. conflict
  3. social bond

*c. differential association

  1. social disorganization

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. According to Sutherland, crime occurs when _____ favorable to crime outweigh those that are unfavorable to crime.
  2. imitations

*b. ratio of definitions

  1. differential associations
  2. social disorganization

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. According to Sutherland, ______ are offenses committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.
  2. professional crimes

*b. white-collar crimes

  1. occupational crimes
  2. corporate crimes

Answer location: page 46

 

  1. ______ is defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good.
  2. Definition
  3. Collective association

*c. Collective efficacy

  1. Neighborhood watch

Answer location: page 49

 

  1. _____ social control involves residents’ behaving proactively—not passively—when they see wayward behavior such as by calling the authorities, intervening when there is trouble, and telling unruly teenagers to quiet down.
  2. Familial

*b. Informal

  1. Formal
  2. Communal

Answer location: page 49

 

  1. According to Anderson, a _____ shapes how disrespected parties should react.
  2. moral obligation
  3. subculture
  4. collective obligation

*d. code of the street

Answer location: page 55

 

  1. According to Anderson, the code of the street is a(n) _______ to the conditions prevailing in destitute urban communities.
  2. ecological adaptation

*b. cultural adaptation

  1. social adaptation
  2. environmental adaptation

Answer location: page 55

 

  1. In his social learning theory, _____ attempted to specify the mechanisms and processes through which criminal learning takes place.
  2. Robert Merton
  3. Edwin Sutherland

*c. Ronald Akers

  1. Shaw and McKay

Answer location: page 56

 

  1. According to Akers, ______, or modeling, determines if people become involved in crime.
  2. social reinforcements
  3. punishments
  4. definitions

*d. imitation

Answer location: page 60

 

  1. According to Akers, ______, also defined as rewards and punishments, determine whether any behavior is repeated.

*a. social reinforcements

  1. punishments
  2. definitions
  3. imitation

Answer location: page 60

 

  1. Which of the following is the most effective way to reduce crime according to Shaw and McKay?
  2. Harsh penalties

*b. Reorganize communities

  1. Reverse offenders’ criminal learning
  2. Rehabilitation

Answer location: page 62

 

  1. Which of the following is the most effective way to stop individuals from reoffending or from recidivating according to the Chicago school?
  2. Community efficacy
  3. Reorganize communities

*c. Reverse offenders’ criminal learning

  1. Rehabilitation

Answer location: page 62

 

  1. Interventions based on differential association and social learning theory often attempt to ______.
  2. place offenders in prison
  3. change their attitudes, values, and beliefs
  4. address past problems

*d. remove offenders from settings that encourage crime and place into settings that provide prosocial reinforcement

Answer location: page 62

 

  1. The strategy of _____ was the creation of neighborhood committees in Chicago’s disorganized slum areas.

*a. CAP

b.MFY

  1. CIA
  2. NHW

Answer location: page 63

 

  1. Because Shaw and McKay attributed crime to the combination of weak controls and learning criminal cultural values, their theory has been called a:
  2. combined model.
  3. integrated model.

*c. mixed model.

  1. collective model.

Answer location: page 43

 

  1. Which is not one of the three levels of community control?
  2. private
  3. parochial
  4. public

*d. educational

Answer location: page 48

 

  1. A “cultural orientation in which the law and its agents are viewed as illegitimate, unresponsive, and ill equipped to ensure public safety” is the definition for:

*a. legal cynicism

  1. cultural disorganization
  2. cultural attenuation
  3. law enforcement cynicism

Answer location: page 52

 

  1. are one’s own attitudes or meanings that one attached to given behavior
  2. Differential reinforcements.

*b. Definitions

  1. Differential associations
  2. Imitations

Answer location: page 58

 

  1. As the United States entered the 20th century, a new vision of crime emerged—a vision suggesting that crime was a social product.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 36

 

  1. Chicago was of interest to researchers because the rapid expansion was so successful.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 37

 

  1. Burgess and other Chicago sociologists believed that disorganization was the source of a range of social pathologies, including crime.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 39

 

  1. Sutherland emphasized the importance of neighborhood organization in preventing or permitting juvenile waywardness.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 39

 

  1. According to Shaw and McKay’s research, juveniles were drawn into crime through their association with older siblings or gang members.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 41

 

  1. Sutherland accepted individualist explanations of crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. Differential association does not take into account crimes by the affluent.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 46

 

  1. Collective efficacy is evenly distributed across neighborhoods.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 49

 

  1. Overall, research is supportive of the social learning theory.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 61

 

  1. According to the Chicago criminologists, the solution to juvenile waywardness was to eradicate the pathologies that lie within the individual.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 63

 

  1. Burgess delineated six zones of city development.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 39-40

 

  1. Sutherland argued there was one major culture.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 44

 

  1. Sutherland presented nine principles or influential statements on the causes of crime.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 45

 

  1. According to Sampson, collective was meant to suggest that residents in an area had a shared expectation for control.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 49

 

  1. In existing research, the strongest predictor of criminal involvement typically is definitions favorable to crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 61

 

  1. Definitions and imitation are most influential for initial forays into crime.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 60

 

Type: E

  1. Describe the life of the migrants and immigrants settling in Chicago.

*a. little economic relief. They faced a harsh reality—pitiful wages; working 12-hour days, 6 days a week, in factories that jeopardized their health and safety; living in tenements that “slumlords built jaw-to-jaw . . . on every available space” (p. 64).

 

Type: E

  1. According to Shaw and McKay, how are criminal values transmitted?

*a. Transmitted down through successive generations of boys, much the same way that language and other social forms are transmitted

 

Type: E

  1. According to Sutherland, what determines whether a person embraces crime as an acceptable way of life?

*a. The ratio of these definitions or views of crime—whether criminal or conventional influences are stronger in a person’s life—determines whether the person embraces crime as an acceptable way of life.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Sampson, what is the importance of collective efficacy?

*a. Social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good. Thus, collective was meant to suggest that the residents in an area had a shared expectation for control—that is, they could count on neighbors to agree that certain situations—for example, teens hassling passersby or pushers selling drugs on a corner—were inappropriate and deserving of a reaction. In turn, efficacy was meant to suggest that the residents could count on their neighbors to exert human agency and actu­ally to do something to solve the problem

 

Type: E

  1. What is the “code of the street?”

*a. A set of informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior, particularly violence. The rules prescribe both proper comportment and the proper way to respond if challenged. They regulate the use of violence and so supply a rationale allowing those inclined to aggression to precipitate violent encounters in an approved way.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Akers, what is the importance of social reinforcements?

*a. Social reinforcements—rewards and punishments—determine whether any behavior is repeated. The continued involvement in crime, therefore, depends on exposure to social reinforcements that reward this activity. The stronger and more persistent these reinforcements (i.e., the more positive the consequences), the greater the likelihood that criminal behavior will persist.

 

Type: E

  1. How was differential association theory both a social-psychological theory and a structural theory?

*a. As a social-psychological theory, differential association explained why any given individual was drawn into crime. As a structural theory, differential social organization explained why rates of crime were higher in certain sectors of American society: Where groups are organized for crime (e.g., in slums), definitions favoring legal violations flourish; therefore, more individ­uals are likely to learn—to differentially associate with—criminal values.

 

Type: E

  1. Why is collective efficacy not evenly distributed across communities?

*a. in communities marked by a concentration of new immigrants, resi­dential instability, and the grinding economic deprivation of “concentrated disadvantage,” collective efficacy is weak (see also Sampson, Morenoff, & Earls, 1999). Sampson et al. (1997) predicted that these communities would not have the social capital to assert informal social controls and to keep the streets safe. By contrast, collective efficacy is high in more affluent communities marked by long-term residential stability. Again, Sampson and his colleagues argued that people in these areas do not have to be best friends—only that they believe that their neighbors share their view of when control should be exercised. For social control to be exercised, observes Sampson (2012, pp. 152–153), the context does not necessarily have to be “characterized by dense, intimate, and strong neighborhood ties (e.g., through friends or kin)…. Put differently, a person can perceive trust and infer shared expectations about public behavior without having to know their neighbors in the ‘urban villagers’ sense of cohesion.”

 

Type: E

  1. What role does imitation and social reinforcements play in Akers’s social learning theory?

*a. People can become involved in crime through imitation—that is, by modeling criminal conduct. Second, and most significant, Akers contended that defini­tions and imitation are most instrumental in determining initial forays into crime.

 

Type: E

  1. What methodological advances did the Chicago school make?

*a. Quantitatively, they showed the value of mapping crime by geographic area. Anticipating by decades what would later be called “hot spots” of crime, they showed that criminal acts were not randomly distributed but highly concentrated. For them, place mattered. What was it about places with a lot of crime that differentiated them from places without much crime? However, they also valued qualitative methods. The members of the Chicago school were not armchair criminologists but rather walked inner-city streets and interviewed offend­ers about their personal histories. These revelations allowed their statistics to come to life. Each spot on their maps was not simply a data point but a delinquent with his or her own story. They did not lose touch with the humanity of those they studied, which is perhaps one reason why they sought solutions to crime in social reform rather than in prison construction.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain systemic theory.

*a. The perspective argues that neighborhoods are characterized by a system of social networks and ties. Dense social networks and strong social ties create the capacity of residents to come together to exert informal social control. Thus, if neighbors know, interact with, and care about one another, they are likely to watch one another’s houses and tell rowdy teens in the neighborhood to “quiet down or I’ll tell your parents.” But if they lack close relationships, they are likely to “mind their own business” and not expect that others will rescue them when they are in danger (see also Warner & Clubb, 2013).

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Kornhauser’s idea of cultural disorganization.

*a. neighborhood conditions affect allegiance to conventional values. It is difficult to create “common ground” and “shared understandings,” observed Kornhauser (1978, p. 77), when there is transiency (people moving in and out of an area), when there is heterogeneity (people from different racial and ethnic groups), when new problems exist that traditional values do not address effectively (people find values imported from the “old country” are obsolescent in modern society), and when following conventional mandates seem irrelevant to the achievement of goals (people who obey the rules do not seem to get ahead). In inner-city neighborhoods conventional values are not rejected but rather fall into “disuse.”

 

Type: E

  1. List Akers’s four central concepts.

*a. Akers’s social learning incorporates four central concepts: (1) differential association, (2) imitation, (3) definitions, and, (4) most importantly, differential social reinforcement

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Sutherland’s theory of differential association. Make sure to discuss the role of learning within the theory of differential association. How is this theory different from the theories from Chapter 2?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 43-46

 

Type: E

  1. Provide a description and summary of Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory. Draw the concentric zones and explain the differential rates of crime across the zones.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 39-43

 

Type: E

  1. Describe and explain Robert Sampson’s collective efficacy theory. How is this theory similar to Shaw and McKay’s theory? How is it different? What is the key component of this theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 47-50

 

Type: E

  1. How does Akers’s social learning theory extend Sutherland’s differential association theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 57-61

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the differences between street families and decent families. How does each type arise in the inner city? What are the different values and codes of behavior expressed by each type of family? Finally, how does the code of the street not only impact street families but also decent families?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 54-56

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss why neighborhoods with high levels of legal cynicism have high rates of crime.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 52-53

 

  1. What is the difference between interactional and normative differential association. Give an example of each.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 58

 

Type: E

  1. Describe and give an example of general and specific definitions.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 58

 

Type: E

  1. Explain, according to Akers, how do people initially begin engaging in crime and why they continue in criminal behavior?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 60

  1. Most criminological theories examine why it is that some individuals develop an orientation to commit crime whereas other do not. This is called what?
  2. Crime
  3. Routine activity

*c. Criminality

  1. Risk factors

Answer location: page 350

 

  1. Theories such as routine activity theory and rational choice theories focus on what occurs in _____ situation.

*a. the present

  1. the past
  2. the future
  3. a violent

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to the routine activity theorists, _____ is a necessary condition for any specific crime to be committed.
  2. motivation

*b. opportunity

  1. poverty
  2. capital

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to Cohen and Felson, for a predatory crime to take place, the three essential ingredients—motivated offenders, suitable targets, and an absence of guardianship—must _____.

*a. converge in time and space

  1. converge in time only
  2. occur independently of one another
  3. converge in a specific sequence

Answer location: page 354

 

  1. According to routine activity theorists, if we decrease opportunities, what will happen?
  2. Crime will be displaced

*b. Crime will be reduced

  1. Criminals will find new opportunities
  2. Crime will increase

Answer location: page 353

 

  1. A criminal event requires a/an _____ offender who has the opportunity to act.
  2. selfish
  3. opportunistic
  4. goal-oriented

*d. motivated

Answer location: page 354

  1. Which of the following is an essential ingredient for crime to occur according to routine activity theorists?
  2. Motivated offenders
  3. Suitable targets
  4. An absence of guardianship

*d. All of the above

Answer location: page 354

 

  1. Routine activity theory has been used on the micro level to explain which individuals in society are most likely to be _____.
  2. criminals

*b. victims

  1. guardians
  2. desisters

Answer location: page 356

 

  1. With which theory is routine activity theory most compatible?
  2. Differential association theory
  3. Conflict

*c. Rational choice

  1. Strain

Answer location: page 357

 

  1. _____ theory argues that it is necessary to study not just the routines of potential victims but also the routines of potential offenders and how they select their targets to victimize.
  2. Perceptual deterrence theory
  3. Environmental criminology theory

*c. Offender search theory

  1. Human ecology theory

Answer location: page 357

 

  1. According to Clarke, the best bet to reduce crime was to tinker with _____ so that the choice of crime would be knifed off or, in the least, discouraged.
  2. victims

*b. environments

  1. offenders
  2. home security systems

Answer location: page 359-360

 

  1. An example of a(n) _____ strategy is when security guards are hired for the express purpose of making crime difficult.
  2. Natural
  3. Mechanical
  4. Smart

*d. Organized

Answer location: page 360

  1. According to Eck, offenders have ______, usually people they know such as spouses, family members, neighbors, or clergy.
  2. controllers
  3. guardians
  4. managers

*d. handlers

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. According to Eck, _____ are those who are responsible for the proper functioning of a particular place.
  2. guardians
  3. handlers

*c. managers

  1. controllers

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. _____ is the possibility that when crime is made more difficult in one location, offenders will move on and commit their crimes in another location.
  2. Desistence

*b. Displacement

  1. Deterrence
  2. Targeting

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. _____ are deep-rooted inclinations or dispositions to commit crime.

*a. Criminal motivations

  1. Background factors
  2. Rational choices
  3. Routine activities

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. Which of the following are the most prominent rational choice theorists?
  2. Marx and Engels
  3. Cloward and Ohlin

*c. Cornish and Clarke

  1. Sykes and Matza

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. According to rational choice theorists, crime involves a concrete _____ that must be made to commit crime.
  2. rationality

*b. choice

  1. motivation
  2. skill

Answer location: page 362

  1. A key assumption of rational choice theory is that the decisions that offenders make are _____.
  2. unconscious
  3. independent

*c. purposive

  1. insane

Answer location: page 363

 

  1. ______ merges the insights of economics with those of social psychology.
  2. Rational choice
  3. Situational crime prevention
  4. Bounded rationality

*d. Behavioral economics

Answer location: page 364

 

  1. _____ proposes that individuals refrain from breaking the law when the costs outweigh the benefits.
  2. Rational choice
  3. Routine activity

*c. Perceptual deterrence

  1. Social control

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. A ______ is a person who has the propensity or inclination to offend.
  2. suitable target
  3. capable guardian
  4. victim

*d. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. A ______ is an object—person or property—that the offender would like to take or control.

*a. suitable target

  1. capable guardian
  2. victim
  3. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. A _____ can be friends or family, security personnel, or dogs. A person can be a guardian of his or her own person or property
  2. suitable target

*b. capable guardian

  1. victim
  2. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

  1. _____ showed that offenders make a series of choices about whether to offend, which target to victimize, how to complete the crime effectively, and how to avoid detection, in their book about St. Louis, Missouri robbers.
  2. Cohen and Felson
  3. Clarke and Cornish

*c. Wright and Decker

  1. Sykes and Matza

Answer location: page 364

 

  1. The key to crime control is:
  2. severity

*b. certainty

  1. celerity
  2. nonintervention

Answer location: page 373

 

  1. This theory seeks to explain the likelihood that a person will come to see an act of crime as an action alternative—that is, as possible—and choose to carry out such an act.
  2. deterrence theory
  3. crime science
  4. rational choice theory

*d. situational action theory

Answer location: page 374

 

  1. The nature of opportunity affects what, where, how, and against whom crimes are committed

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to the routine activity theory and rational choice theories, crime occurs in the context of the everyday lives that offenders and their victims lead.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. Routine activity theory was initially stated as a micro-level theory of crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. According to routine activity theory, offenders do not wander randomly looking for crime opportunities; rather they engage in patterned behaviors, typically traveling to certain areas but not others and traveling only so far from home.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 358

  1. Routine activity theory is interested in offenders and how steps might be taken to change the criminality of motivations of lawbreakers.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 358

 

  1. Organized strategies are where space is designed in such a way that people are channeled to go where they will do no harm or receive no harm.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. Felson has expanded the concept of guardianship to that of “controllers.”
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. Mental templates are holistic conceptualizations that are based on experience and routines.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 358

 

  1. Advocates of opportunity reduction usually emphasize the importance of strategies that involve the use of police.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. According to rational choice theories, crime is not simply due to underlying motivations or predispositions; it also involves a concrete choice or, a sequence of choices.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theory’s main proposition is that the decision to offend depends on the objective risks of being sanctioned or gaining rewards, rather than the perceptions of costs and benefits.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theory assumes rationality.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theory has focused disproportionately on the “cost” side of the cost-benefit analysis.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 371

 

  1. Theories of offender choice and opportunity do not consider how criminal motivations or criminality develops over time.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 376

 

  1. Theories of offender choice and opportunity have important policy implications in that they can help us to make any given place less conducive to crime.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 376

 

  1. In situational action theory, the moral filter consists of moral propensity and moral context.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 375

 

Type: E

  1. What is environmental criminology?

*a. Examine how features of the physical and social envi­ronment present or limit criminal opportunities.

 

Type: E

  1. What makes opportunity theories attractive?

*a. The attractiveness of opportunity theories of crime is that they avoid larger discussions of whether the United States is excessively unequal or excessively morally permissive and argue that crime can be prevented meaningfully without a major cultural or social revolu­tion. Instead, by changing a few locks and installing a few alarms—or similar modest interventions—we can make ourselves safer.

 

Type: E

  1. The term routine carried two meaning according to Cohen and Felson. What are these two meanings?

*a. it was a technical term that referred to the “every­day activities” that people in society followed—when and where they worked, attended school, recreated, and stayed home. More implicit, the term routine meant to imply the mundane in life, not the special or abnormal.

 

Type: E

  1. Felson suggested that blocking crime opportunities can be heightened through three strategies. Identify and briefly explain these three strategies.

*a. First are natural strategies, where space is designed in such a way that people are channeled “to go where they will do no harm or receive no harm” (p. 150). For example, signs and access to only certain doors might “naturally” lead people to enter a building only through a door where surveillance is high (i.e., many people are around). Second are organized strategies, where security guards are hired for the express purpose of making crime difficult. Third are mechanical strategies, where “alarms, cameras, and other hardware are employed to control access and provide surveillance.”

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Eck’s concept of “controllers.”

*a. Those who discourage crime. Uses a “crime triangle” to visually represent this convergence and how controllers can limit opportunity and thus crime (see Figure 13.1). Hence, “each of these three elements . . . has a potential ‘controller’—a person (or people) whose role it is to protect them. If a controller is present, then the opportunity for crime either is diminished or vanishes”

 

Type: E

  1. What is “problem oriented policing?”

*a. From this perspective, police would define a problem, such as juve­nile violence in a neighborhood or drug selling in a particular building, and then devise strategies to make these specific offenses more difficult to commit.

 

Type: E

  1. What is bounded rationality?

*a. Offenders make choices that might be based on limited information, made under pressure, insufficiently planned, and/or attentive only to the immediate risks of apprehension rather than to the long-term consequences of their actions.

 

Type: E

  1. What two conclusions were reached from Pratt, Cullen, Blevins, Daigle, and Madenson’s 2006 meta-analysis of the existing perceptual deterrence research?

*a. First, perceptual deterrence due to legal sanc­tions is likely a modest to weak cause of crime. It is at most one factor involved in the choice of crime, and its effects are dwarfed by a range of other factors (such as those identified by other theories of crime). This means that interventions aimed only at increasing the perceived likelihood of being punishment are likely to leave a host of other criminogenic risk factors untouched. Second, for per­ceptual deterrence theory to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of crime, it must develop a richer perspective of how deterrence is specified by the nature of costs and benefits, by individual differences, and by the complex ways in which perceptions are formed and influence behavior.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Felson and other opportunity theorists, what is the key to stopping crime?

*a. First, perceptual deterrence due to legal sanc­tions is likely a modest to weak cause of crime. It is at most one factor involved in the choice of crime, and its effects are dwarfed by a range of other factors (such as those identified by other theories of crime). Second, for per­ceptual deterrence theory to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of crime, it must develop a richer perspective of how deterrence is specified by the nature of costs and benefits, by individual differences, and by the complex ways in which perceptions are formed and influence behavior.

 

Type: E

  1. What is offender search theory?

*a. Study of the routines of potential offenders and how they select their targets to victimize. Offenders play an active role in producing criminal oppor­tunities. Where they are willing to travel and how they interpret their social environment when they get to their destination help to determine which targets they come into contact with and which targets they see as attractive and capable of being victimized. Ultimately, the distribution of offenses across time and space will be a by-product of this intersection between the routine activities of both victims and offenders.

 

Type: E

  1. What three ways does emotion shape criminal decision making?

*a. Negative emotions—such as fear, guilt, and shame—can serve as costs that make the choice of crime less likely; positive emotions about crime can serve as benefits; “emotional states” change the “context of crime.”

 

Type: E

  1. Explain routine activity theory. What are the main concepts? Define each one. What did Cohen and Felson say was the key reason for the rises in predatory offenses after World War II?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 352-362

 

Type: E

  1. What is situational crime prevention? How can crime opportunities be blocked or made less attractive? Finally, what prompted Clarke to come up with the idea of situational crime prevention?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 359-364

 

Type: E

  1. What are the tenets of rational choice theories? What are the criticisms of the theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 362-369

 

Type: E

  1. What is perceptual deterrence theory? Identify and explain the three ways in which this perspective differs from rational choice theory. Why did this theory emerge? Finally, identify the advantages of this approach.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 362-369

 

Type: E

  1. What is Eck’s concern? How does he see crime? Explain Eck’s “crime triangle. Feel free to draw the triangle if it helps you explain yourself better. Also, explain the following concepts as they relate to Eck’s ideas: Handlers, guardians, and managers.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 360-362

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the complex process of human choice. What is the role of emotion?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 364-369

 

Type: E

  1. Explain situational action theory. What is its causal model?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 374-375