Sample Chapter



Cultural Anthropology 11Th Edition by Nanda – Test Bank






Chapter 1: Anthropology and Human Diversity






  1. The critical factor that distinguishes anthropology from other fields of study is:
    1. Its emphasis on rigorous experimentation and analysis of data.
    2. Its exclusive focus on non-Western cultures.
    3. Its use of theories of biological evolution to explain human behavior.
    4. Its interest in describing humankind throughout time and in all parts of the world.
    5. Its focus on the discovery of a single human nature.



  1. One of the most critical goals of cultural anthropology as an academic discipline is to:
    1. Describe, analyze, and explain different cultures.
    2. Increase the level of culture in particular human societies.
    3. Place large numbers of cultural anthropologists in political offices.
    4. Determine the direction of human evolution.
    5. Preserve world heritage for future generations.



  1. To say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in:
    1. Objects and acts regarded as holy by various peoples.
    2. The whole personality of any particular individual.


  1. The integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior.
  2. Studying every culture in the world.
  3. The efforts to find holes in particular theories.



  1. Which of the following correctly identifies the sub-disciplines of anthropology?


  1. Archaeology, Anthropometry, Cultural Anthropology, Paleontology, and Cultural Relativity.


  1. Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology, Cognitive Anthropology, Ethno-history, and Linguistics.


  1. Archaeology, Ethno-history, Anthropometry, Structural Anthropology, and Cultural Anthropology.


  1. Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology, Physical Anthropology, Applied Anthropology and Linguistics.


  1. Archaeology, Phonology, Medical Anthropology, Development Studies, and Cultural Anthropology.



  1. Anthropologists say that human adaptation is biocultural. Which of the following best represents what is meant by this statement?


  1. Human adaptation is both biological and cultural, and anthropologists cannot distinguish between the meanings of these concepts.


  1. Human adaptation involves both biological and cultural dimensions and each influences the other.
  2. Human adaptation is unique among all animals because it is based exclusively on


physiological adaptations.


  1. Human adaptation is the same as that of all animal because culture plays a role in the adaptation of all forms of life.


  1. Human adaptation is based exclusively on culture. Biology is subsumed within the cultural dimension and does not exert an independent influence on humans.



  1. Which of the following studies how languages are related to each other?
    1. Biological anthropology
    2. Human variation
    3. Historical linguistics
    4. Paleo-linguistics
    5. Cultural linguistics



  1. Archaeologists are principally interested in:
    1. Excavating sites and developing museums to preserve ancient landforms.
    2. Collecting artifacts made by ancient peoples.


  1. Tracing the course of human evolution through an examination of the fossilized remains.
  2. Understanding and reconstructing the cultures of past societies.
  3. Tracing the early development of Western civilization.



  1. A primary contribution of urban archaeologists is the development of:
    1. New architecture based on traditional designs.
    2. New methods of city governance.
    3. New knowledge about people who resided at the site.
    4. New insights into agriculture.
    5. New information about traditional Native American lifestyles.



  1. All of the following statements about the understanding of culture in anthropology are correct except:
    1. Culture is biologically and genetically transmitted from person to person.
    2. Culture is the way of life of a particular human society.
    3. Culture is the learned behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups.
    4. Culture is the primary way that human adapt to their environments.



  1. What is ethnography?
    1. It is the reconstruction of past cultures based on material remains.
    2. It is the scientific study of the concept of culture and adaptation.
    3. It is the process of doing qualitative, fieldwork-based research.
    4. It is the protection and exhibition of cultural resources.


  1. It is the process of seeking laws and general principles that govern cultural phenomena.



  1. An emic approach to the study of culture is one that emphasizes:
    1. The description of a culture from the point of view of a member of the culture.


  1. The comparison of similar parts of different cultures.


  1. The study of the ecological adaptation of a culture.
  2. Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.
  3. The search for general laws or principles that can be applied to all human cultures.



  1. Which of the following problems would an applied anthropologist be most likely to study?


  1. The ways in which families are organized to carry out the basic tasks of farming in agricultural societies.


  1. The ways in which health care delivery to American minority communities might be improved.
  2. The ways in which a society’s religious beliefs relate to its artwork.


  1. The relationship between the language members of a culture speak and the ways in which they understand the world.


  1. The percentage of goods and practices in a culture that have their origins in a different culture.



  1. A critical insight of medical anthropology is that:
    1. Disease and medicine never exist independently from culture.
    2. Diseases are universal, biological entities and have little relation to culture.
    3. There is a single, universal medical model that is applicable to all cultures.


  1. Although diseases may have different names and different treatments in different cultures, the same diseases are present in all cultures.


  1. Traditional cultures have a greater number of diseases that modern medicine considers “psychological” than does modern culture.



  1. Psychiatry has been a frequent subject of medical anthropology. One critical finding is:
    1. The Freudian model of psychoanalysis is appropriate to all cultures universally.
    2. People in all cultures experience universal psycho-sexual stages of development.


  1. Schizophrenics are considered ill in Western cultures but are considered religiously enlightened in other cultures.


  1. Doctors are most frequently trained to treat mental disease as a result of either biological dysfunction or psychosocial factors but not both.


  1. Mental illness is always caused by social factors, but because of the influence of drug companies, doctors are reluctant to believe this finding.



  1. One important use of applied archaeology mentioned in the text is:
    1. To settle border disputes between modern nations.
    2. To prove the fundamental truths of evolution.
    3. To demonstrate the ancient presence of humans in the Americas and in China.


  1. To demonstrate that no Europeans were present in North America before Columbus.
  2. To increase agricultural yields by revitalizing ancient irrigation techniques.



  1. Indigenous peoples involve all of the following except:
    1. Members of a society that have occupied a region for a long time.
    2. Members of groups recognized as original inhabitants.


  1. Members of any group who dress as indigenous peoples and participate in native



  1. Members of a group that is recognized as very ancient to a region.
  2. Members of a group that continues to live in a traditional manner.



  1. Which of the following best illustrates why applied anthropology is important today?
    1. It helps us understand which cultures are superior.
    2. It contributes to our understanding of the evolution of human beings.
    3. It provides new forms of technology and new ways of coordinating populations.
    4. It creates the basis for world peace.
    5. It opens up new perspectives and insights in understanding our human differences.



  1. Ethnocentrism is the tendency for:
    1. Every society to view itself as superior to others.
    2. Every society to want to exploit the wealth of other societies.
    3. Every individual to consider him/herself the equal of others.
    4. Every individual to want to see another’s point of view.
    5. Every society to value the group above the individual.


  1. One critical difference between Western ethnocentrism and the ethnocentrism of many other peoples is:
    1. Westerners are more ethnocentric than others.
    2. Westerners are less ethnocentric than others.


  1. Westerners have more often been in a position to impose their view of culture than have others.


  1. Western notions of ethnocentrism include religious superiority while others did not.
  2. Western notions of ethnocentrism were justified while others were not.



  1. A positive value of ethnocentrism for a society is that it:
    1. Decreases the chance of war.
    2. Helps members of a society bond together as a social unit.
    3. Increases an individual’s ability to act independently of others.
    4. Results in a higher standard of living because of an emphasis on progress.
    5. Increases equality between males and females within a society.



  1. Cultural relativism requires that:
    1. All cultures be seen as equally good.
    2. All cultures be seen as equally self-serving.
    3. All cultures be measured against our own.
    4. An individual must give up his/her culture in order to understand another culture.
    5. Values and customs be understood in terms of the culture of which they are a part.



  1. When ethnocentrism becomes very marked and begins to target a specific ethnic group, it can lead to:


  1. Cultural relativism.


  1. Moral superiority.



  1. In Anthropology, the concept of race:


  1. Has been found to be inadequate for scientifically meaningful classification of humans.
  2. Has great scientific utility but no political implication.


  1. Is agreed on by both biological and cultural anthropologists to be very useful in analyzing human behavior.
  2. Is outmoded as there are no patterned biological differences in the human species.
  3. Is no different from racism.



  1. Biopsychological equality is the notion that:
    1. Every person has equal intelligence.
    2. All human groups have equal biological and mental capabilities.


  1. From a biological and psychological perspective humans are, for all practical purposes, the same as other primates.
  2. There should be political programs to assure equal rights of all people.
  3. Human culture is rooted in human biology.



  1. Traits such as skin color, hair color and texture, and nose shape are often chosen to determine race because:
    1. They are easily visible.
    2. They are the most important to human cultures.
    3. They determine physical attractiveness and hence mating behavior.


  1. They have greater biological importance than other traits (regardless of their other cultural importance).


  1. They occur in more consistent, predictable ways than other traits.



  1. Genetic studies indicate:
    1. Individual differences are greater than the sum of differences between groups.
    2. Racial differences can be substantiated genetically.
    3. Traits such as skin color are reliable means of classifying people.
    4. Race is a biological construct and is useful only in science.


  1. It is possible to determine how closely two individuals are related based on observable features.



  1. How has anthropological fieldwork in non-Western areas most changed since the mid-1900s?


  1. Today, anthropologists work among people who are very likely to read their works and comment on them.


  1. Today, anthropologists work primarily in colonial areas, where the native population benefits from scientific study.


  1. Today, anthropologists no longer seek permission to do fieldwork in isolated geographical areas.


  1. Today, anthropologists serve in local governments and can return favors to populations who participate in their research.


  1. Today, anthropologists no longer do long-term fieldwork as they did years ago.



  1. All of the following were considered the highest risk field dangers in a 1990 study of anthropologists except:


  1. Vehicle crashes.



  1. New international conditions have created problems and opportunities for anthropologists


working in the field. What are some of the challenges that J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat associates with doing “ethnography of violence”?


  1. There is often unstable political organization, difficult and dangerous physical conditions, and difficulties in making ethical decisions.


  1. Informants do not want to work with the anthropologist because of lack of anonymity and the anthropologist cannot live in a central location.


  1. Social conditions are difficult, the anthropologist faces challenges in breaking local laws, and newspapers will not publish personal interest stories.


  1. It is difficult to study violence because it is infrequent and cannot be controlled. Also, the anthropologist frequently cannot get official permission to work in areas of violence.


  1. Violence is a cultural concept and anthropologists find it difficult to define this The “ethnography of violence,” according to Kovats-Bernat, is an ethnocentric concept.



  1. Anthropologist J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat argues that when an anthropologist pursues studies of “ethnography of violence,” the anthropologist and informant must have what type of relationship between them?
    1. Self-preservation.
    2. Mutual advantage.
    3. Mutual responsibility.



  1. Within the discipline of anthropology, globalization has:
    1. Decreased the need for anthropologists.
    2. Tended to increase the political involvement of some anthropologists.


  1. Enabled anthropologists to use technology to do fieldwork without leaving their offices.


  1. Allowed anthropologists to become members of native cultures to a greater extent than before.
  2. Made it easier for anthologists to publish their findings.



  1. All of the following are ways that globalization has affected anthropology except:


  1. Anthropologists have become increasingly more politically engaged with indigenous peoples.


  1. Anthropologists have become more active in social action to defend minority populations.


  1. Anthropologists today are more focused on studying relationships and exchanges between populations.


  1. Studies today are more holistic and tend to focus on the particular and specific characteristics of the societies in which the anthropologist is researching.


  1. Anthropologists frequently collaborate with those they study in order to better represent the culture and its changes.



  1. Your textbook argues that jobs for anthropologists are:
    1. Far more plentiful than jobs for sociologists or English majors.
    2. Easily available for those with a BA in the field.
    3. About the same as those available to students in other Liberal Arts disciplines.
    4. Expected to greatly increase in number in the next five to ten years.
    5. Rare and generally only available to those with Masters degrees and PhDs.



  1. During the late 20th century:


  1. The United States has become an increasingly dominant force culturally and socially in the world.


  1. Members of minority groups in the United States have moved to stronger economic and political positions.
  2. The world has become more and more a domain of nationalist strongholds.


  1. White, Protestant, Northern European males have begun to have more power and exert a more dominant force in national decision-making.


  1. Immigrants are less connected with their homelands of origin, leaving them eager to assimilate into United States culture.



  1. Your textbook argues that multiculturalism:
    1. Should be embraced by all Americans.
    2. Should be resisted by all who fear the passing of the American Way of Life.
    3. Is inevitable in an increasingly globalized world.
    4. Exposes a fundamental truth about the nature of human societies and cultures.
    5. Is dangerous to every culture but is also ultimately unstoppable.



  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. There is no such thing as a cultural universal.


  1. There are cultural universals, but there is no single explanation about how they developed.


  1. Anthropologists believe that cultural universals exist because at one time there was a single human culture.
  2. Periodically cultural universals occur, especially at points of evolution.
  3. Human evolution could not occur without cultural universals.



  1. What is hubris?
    1. Excessive pride or confidence that leads to arrogance and insolence.


  1. The belief that one’s society is the most perfect currently existing society.


  1. The belief that all cultures should be evaluated on their own merits rather than by a universal yardstick.
  2. Feelings of insecurity and inferiority caused by rapid culture change.
  3. The belief that working hard will inevitably lead to success.



  1. The current un-contacted population of the world is probably around:
    1. 1,000.
    2. 10,000.
    3. 100,000.
    4. 1,000,000.





  1. Anthropologists only study contemporary, living peoples.



  1. Humans’ capacity for culture is based on our unique biology.




  1. Language is a human symbol system for communication, but it is not considered a means of cultural transmission.



  1. Archaeologists infer culture from material remains of past societies.



  1. Culture is human behavior that is genetically transmitted.



  1. A study that analyzes culture using Western scientific theories is called an etic ethnography.



  1. Applied anthropologists are usually trained in one of the four primary subdisciplines.




  1. Medical anthropologists work in other cultures but are rarely focused on healthcare in the United States.



  1. All humans live in cultures.



  1. Ethnocentrism is always bad.


  1. Cultural relativism is the perceptual bias that prevents us from seeing the logic in other cultures.




  1. Anthropologists have never discovered a valid and consistent way of dividing humanity into a fixed number of races.



  1. All human beings belong to a discrete number of races.




  1. Race is an important social fact but the big differences among human beings are the result of culture.



  1. The American Anthropological Association’s current Code of Ethics has worked well in situations of violence and political danger.



  1. Globalization has changed the ways that anthropologists work and write.




  1. Today, in an effort to better understand the foundations of violence, anthropologists tend to remain as politically and socially isolated as possible during fieldwork.


  1. Anthropology degrees lead to about the same job prospects as other liberal arts degrees.




  1. Members of the cultures that anthropologists study rarely have access to news of the outside world.



  1. Anthropologists believe that there is no such thing as a cultural universal.






  1. What distinguishes anthropology from other academic disciplines?



  1. What is the study of paleoanthropology?



  1. What does it mean to say that we “perform language”?



  1. What do archaeologists study?


  1. Long-term fieldwork in cultural anthropology that involves living with and observing other people is called __________.



  1. Distinguish between the emic and etic perspectives.




  1. Besides providing social, cultural, and political perspectives on health, what else do medical anthropologists do?



  1. How do anthropologists define “indigenous persons”?



  1. Why is work such as applied anthropology important in our world today?



  1. Define ethnocentrism and explain how it can be maladaptive.



  1. How is cultural relativism different from ethnocentrism?




  1. What are the three primary problems with the biological concept of race as a category of human classification?




  1. Based on mathematical models of migration and genealogy, when do scientists believe that all contemporary humans most recently shared a common ancestor?




  1. Why does the current Code of Ethics raise concerns for those anthropologists working under conditions of violence?



  1. What does J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat mean by the concept of “mutual responsibility” under ethnographic conditions of violence?



  1. What are two ways that globalization has affected anthropology?




  1. Why are anthropologists more politically and socially engaged today with the populations they are studying?




  1. How is anthropology different from other social science disciplines as far as occupational skills today?


  1. What is the importance of multiculturalism for anthropology?



  1. What is the current world population, and approximately how many people are considered

“uncontacted” by industrialized cultures?






  1. Consider the “ethnography of violence” that you read about in this chapter. Why is violence an important topic of study for today’s anthropologists? How might ethical concerns be addressed specifically for these situations?




  1. How can anthropology be used in our own society? Choose two social problems that you believe are significant in our lives today and discuss ways that anthropology may contribute to a better understanding of the issues and more effective ways of finding positive resolution.




  1. Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism are two major ways of responding to cultural differences. Explain each, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses with regard to intercultural relationships. Give an example of each from your own cultural background, discussing when you either exhibited or witnessed this response in an event around you. Why do you believe it is important for anthropologists to practice cultural relativism?



  1. We have argued that race is culturally rather than biologically constructed. Enumerate and


explain the critical problems with the biological construction of race. Then, discuss how the concept of “cultural race” (or social race) is used in our society today.



  1. What are two critical issues facing the discipline of anthropology today? Present and discuss each using concepts and ideas that you have learned in Chapter 1.


Chapter 2: Doing Cultural Anthropology






  1. In place of the artificially controlled laboratory, anthropologists rely primarily on:
    1. Ethnography and collaborative research.
    2. Cross-cultural comparison and life histories.
    3. Ethnology and mapping.
    4. Ethnography and cross-cultural comparison.
    5. Life histories and mapping.



  1. Early anthropologists who relied on travelers and missionaries for their fieldwork data were called:


  1. Armchair anthropologists.
  2. Native anthropologists.
  3. Secondhand anthropologists.
  4. Early scholars.



  1. Lewis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor were influenced deeply by the evolutionary theories of:
    1. Franz Boas.
    2. Charles Darwin.
    3. Bronislaw Malinowski.
    4. Margaret Mead.
    5. Carolus Linnaeus.


  1. How would you describe Lewis Henry Morgan’s and Edward Tylor’s evolutionary theories?


  1. It is the study of how humans have changed from simple to complex communication and transportation systems.


  1. It is the study of how societies have harnessed more energy for production over time.


  1. It is the study of how the human body has changed physically from earlier to later forms, sometimes even changing species.


  1. It is the study of the history of human society from simple technology and social institutions to complex ones.
  2. It is the study of how native people classify their natural world.



  1. Lewis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor classified small-scale societies as:


  1. All of the following are associated with Franz Boas, except:
    1. He was a critic of evolution.
    2. He was the first professor of anthropology at Columbia University.
    3. He was a champion of human rights.
    4. He did his fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands.
    5. He trained a generation of U.S. fieldworkers.



  1. Applying one’s own cultural standards of value, worth, and morality to another culture is called:
    1. Participant observation.
    2. Cultural relativism.



  1. Boas insisted that anthropologists must value a culture on its own terms. This idea is called:


  1. Logical positivism.
  2. Cultural relativism.


  1. Which of the following has been a hallmark of American anthropology?
    1. Participant observation.



  1. How is Malinowski’s approach to the study of cultures different from Boas’?


  1. Malinowski was an evolutionist and Boas was a critic of evolutionism.


  1. Their approaches are similar, except that Franz Boas did not actually carry out fieldwork.


  1. Boas focused on the study of child-rearing, while Malinowski focused on the study of history and body measurements.


  1. Malinowski emphasized the notion of function in society, while Boas focused on the study of history and adaptation of culture.


  1. Boas focused on the study of history and adaptation, and Malinowski focused on the study of child-rearing.



  1. Malinowski’s and Boas’ practices of anthropology were alike in many ways as well. All of the following are things that they shared except:
    1. Both were committed fieldworkers.
    2. Both saw other cultures/societies as fully rational.


  1. Both valued the study of history as essential to a deeper understand of societies.
  2. Both were scholars who opposed racism.


  1. Both innovated the approach to fieldwork in anthropology.


  1. The function of an Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to:
    1. Certify and approve departments of anthropology.
    2. Suggest disciplinary actions against researchers who violate ethical standards.
    3. Approve, monitor, and review all university research involving human subjects.
    4. Review articles submitted to academic journals prior to publication.
    5. Fund anthropological research.


  1. The fieldwork technique that involves gathering cultural data by observing people’s behavior and participating in their lives is called:
    1. Cross-cultural survey.
    2. Participant observation.
    3. Laboratory experimentation.
    4. Structured interview.
    5. Stratified random sampling.



  1. What do anthropologists call the feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from rapid immersion in a new and different culture?
    1. Cross-cultural shock.
    2. Culture shock.
    3. Cultural entropy.
    4. Alienation orientation.
    5. Psychological solipsism.



  1. Individuals who serve as guides and teachers for anthropologists in the culture in which they do fieldwork are called by all of the following terms except:




  1. Which of the following best describes an etic perspective in research?


  1. Studying agricultural techniques by measuring the fertility of the soil in laboratory samples.
  2. Studying religion by interviewing people about their belief systems.
  3. Collecting recipes from informants in order to track culinary traditions.


  1. Interviewing respondents about their thoughts on the political organization of their community.


  1. Following herders and writing down their life histories.



  1. What is the primary goal of emic research?
    1. Help insiders make more effective changes to their culture over time.
    2. Help governments better manage minority populations.


  1. Help outsiders determine which cultures are more effective in particular environments.
  2. Help insiders gain a better understanding of their own culture.


  1. Help outsiders understand what it means to be a member of another culture.



  1. Anthropological interview techniques:
    1. Are always the same from field project to field project.
    2. Always involve the same processes and same steps of procedure.
    3. Are no longer used in contemporary fieldwork.
    4. Have been adapted from philosophy.
    5. Are highly varied and are situation-specific.



  1. The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) is:
    1. A database that provides cross-cultural data on a limited number of societies.
    2. A database on all cultures involved in global warfare.
    3. An institution that specializes in anthropological fieldwork.
    4. A group of anthropologists that works in more than a single culture.
    5. A database that provides cross-cultural data on all complex societies.



  1. The Human Relations Area Files:
    1. Does not allow for cross-cultural comparison.
    2. Represents multiple researchers using a single perspective.
    3. Involves multiple perspectives and indexed data.
    4. Is no longer active today.
    5. Is not available in computer searchable formats.



  1. Why did anthropology pay little attention to women prior to the 1970s? All of the following are correct except:
    1. Anthropologists assumed that men’s activities were political and more important than women’s activities, which were domestic.


  1. Many anthropologists assumed that men represented women as well and there was no need to study these as separate genders.


  1. The majority of practicing anthropologists was male and had little access to working with women in other societies.


  1. Anthropologists were all male and there were no women available to study other women.
  2. Men’s roles were much more public and were more easily studied.


  1. Which sentence best describes the primary anthropological value of research among the homeless and drug addicts, such as that produced by Philippe Bourgois?


  1. This research provides accurate information that can help the lives of these individuals by providing more effective recovery programs.


  1. The commercial success of research such as this raises awareness of the plight of these individuals and can provide a great deal of money to improve their communities.


  1. This research allows families to identify and reconnect with their loved ones and intervene to help them.


  1. Through research such as this, the United States is able to provide much more foreign aid to countries that provide the drugs to these addicts.
  2. By providing accurate information, research such as this allows us to chronicle the


problems with state societies and new models for the future.



  1. What is the “gray zone” that Philippe Bourgois describes in his work among the homeless and drug addicts in San Francisco?
    1. It is a geographical area in which drug exchanges take place.


  1. It is a term used to refer to homeless shelters and parks where these individuals interact.


  1. It is a morally ambiguous space that blurs the lines between victims and perpetrators.


  1. It is a term used to describe under-employment because it leads to the destruction of their lives.
  2. It is a judicial term to describe exchanges that are morally wrong, but not illegal.



  1. Which theoretical approach argues that no knowledge is objective and all knowledge is influenced by the observer’s own culture, social position, and gender?
    1. Native anthropology.
    2. Feminist anthropology.
    3. Transcendental ethnography.
    4. Collaborative ethnography.



  1. Anthropologists have become more sensitive to issues of voice and of power and have begun to reflect more critically on their role as observer in another culture primarily as a result of:


  1. Reflectionist ethnology.
  2. Franz Boas.
  3. Feminist anthropology.
  4. Collaborative ethnography.



  1. You Owe Yourself a Drunk (1970) by James Spradley is an example of a(n) __________


  1. Critical
  2. Postmodernist
  3. Collaborative and engaged
  4. Ethnological
  5. Reflectionist



  1. Vincent Lyon-Callo works with homeless people. His style of anthropology is best described as:
    1. Symbolic and interpretive.


  1. Vincent Lyon-Callo’s work with homeless people stresses:


  1. The structural causes of homelessness.


  1. Incorrect beliefs about the homeless among members of the middle class.
  2. The stories and life histories of homeless people.
  3. The techniques the homeless use to survive in urban areas.
  4. Drug and alcohol use among homeless.



  1. Which of the following was primarily known as a native anthropologist?
    1. Zora Neale Hurston
    2. Franz Boas
    3. Bronislaw Malinowski
    4. Vincent Lyon-Callo
    5. James Spradley


  1. Delmos Jones’ study of voluntary organizations among an African-American community in the United States showed him that:


  1. No one worked consistently for the organizations unless they were paid for their work.
  2. Voluntary organizations are highly successful when founded by minority leaders.


  1. His work as a native anthropologist was at the center of the success the African-American community experienced in cultural identity.


  1. There was considerable dissent between leadership of the organizations and the members.
  2. Native anthropology has little or no value in the discipline.



  1. A major point of the ethnography “Body Ritual among the Nacirema” is to:
    1. Show how foolish people’s rituals are.
    2. Help us look at our own culture from a different perspective.
    3. Promote practices of preventive medicine.
    4. Increase our respect for primitive cultures.
    5. Put a little laughter into our dreary lives.



  1. The attitude toward magic and ritual among the Nacirema indicates that:
    1. Technologically advanced societies do not use magic and ritual.
    2. Too much magic and ritual will destroy a society.
    3. Magic and ritual can be found in a wide variety of cultures.
    4. North American society contains very little magic and ritual.


  1. Only the weakest individuals in a society are likely to make use of magic and ritual.



  1. What is the name of the organization that maintains a statement of ethical guidelines for anthropologists?
    1. Association for American Anthropologists.
    2. American Anthropological Institute.
    3. American Anthropological Association.


  1. Anthropological Ethics Institute.


  1. American Association of Anthropologists.



  1. Informed consent involves all of the following except:


  1. Anthropologists must be involved in a dynamic discussion with participants in order to explain the significance of informed consent.
  2. Individuals should understand the risks and benefits inherent in the research.


  1. Participants must sign a witnessed contract with the anthropologist indicating that they approve of the research study.
  2. Participants must understand how the research data is likely to affect them.
  3. Individuals must be free to decide if they want to participate.



  1. For the academic community, a critical problem with secret research is:
    1. It may endanger the lives of the anthropologists who pursue it.
    2. The scientific community has no way to assess its validity.
    3. It is almost always used for illegal or immoral purposes.


  1. It is unlikely to provide benefits to either anthropologists or the people who are the subjects of such research.


  1. It can rarely be used to support the tenure and promotion of anthropology professors.



  1. All of the following are ethical concerns raised by anthropologists who work in military projects such as Human Terrain Systems (HTS) except:
    1. Inability to obtain informed consent.
    2. Inability to keep the confidentiality of informants.
    3. Secretive nature of so much of the research data.
    4. Safety of informants.
    5. Inability to pay the informants adequately.



  1. In anthropology, the issue of human rights:
    1. Is not relevant, because anthropologists believe in cultural relativism.
    2. Can be difficult, as different cultures define rights differently.


  1. Is at the forefront of doing anthropological research, as researchers are not allowed to work in countries where there is warfare.
  2. Is not important, because there are no inalienable human rights.
  3. Prevents anthropologists from doing research overseas.



  1. Anthropologists and activists have argued that female genital operations are all of the following except:


  1. Are grave violations of human rights.
  2. Are affirmations of the value of women.
  3. Should be legal in European nations.
  4. Should be banned in European nations.
  5. Should not be studied because they are not important.




  1. The gathering and interpretation of information based on intensive, firsthand study is called ethnography.



  1. Franz Boas spent most of his professional career at the University of Berlin in Germany.



  1. Today, virtually all anthropologists rely on Boas’ basic and fundamental insights into the



  1. In the late 19th century, Haddon led a team of scientists to do research on the Torres Straits. This lay the basis for anthropology in the United States.



  1. Bronislaw Malinowski spent only 6 months on the Trobriand Islands.



  1. Anthropologists rarely work with groups of more than 50 individuals.




  1. It is common for anthropologists to feel confused and disoriented when they first arrive to their field sites.



  1. Allison Truitt’s work on motorcycles in Vietnam had no formal research hypothesis.




  1. Most anthropological data comes in the form of extensive field notes, audio recordings, and photographs.



  1. Cross-cultural comparisons began formally in social science with the publication of Herbert

Spencer’s Descriptive Sociology.



  1. The HRAF is an attempt to facilitate cross cultural analysis.




  1. Once Franz Boas began teaching women and producing female PhDs, the bias against women in anthropology began to diminish rapidly.


  1. Phillip Bourgois’ work with the homeless and drug addicts in San Francisco has led to a better understanding of issues of economic change, cultural structures, and the effects on individual lives.


  1. Postmodernism has been accepted now by all anthropologists.



  1. Engaged anthropologists refrain from choosing sides in political contests.




  1. The most important ethical responsibility in anthropological fieldwork is to protect the interests of the people whom you are studying.




  1. Project Camelot was a great example of collaborative success between anthropology and the U.S. military.




  1. Anthropologists working for government and industry often conduct secret research and this poses no ethical challenges to the discipline.


  1. The Human Terrain Systems was a successful project that allowed anthropologists to work alongside soldiers during war so that cultural sensitivity in the ranks could be maintained.



  1. Anthropologists generally agree that they should defend Western notions of human rights.






  1. What do anthropologists use as the basis for cross-cultural comparisons?



  1. What did early 19th century evolutionists mean by the concept of societies as “living fossils”?



  1. Boas’ style of fieldwork was known as __________ __________.



  1. What is participant observation?



  1. The research of Bronislaw Malinowski focuses on the concept of __________.



  1. What is an “IRB”?



  1. How would you best describe culture shock?


  1. Compare and contrast the emic and etic perspectives. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each?



  1. What are two criticisms associated with the Human Relations Area Files database?



  1. What is the “gray zone” that Philippe Bourgopis describes as part of his work with the homeless and drug addicts in San Francisco?




  1. What are the primary reasons that anthropological research has had such a bias against women during its history?



  1. What changes did postmodernism bring to anthropological fieldwork?



  1. Name at least 3 challenges associated with collaborative ethnography.



  1. Who are the Nacirema, and why is this study important in anthropology?



  1. What is a “native” anthropologist?



  1. What are the ethical responsibilities for anthropologists in the field?



  1. Why is informed consent an important part of doing ethical research?



  1. What was “Project Camelot”?



  1. Today, how have ethnographers’ roles changed in the field?



  1. What is FGO, and why is it important in anthropology?




  1. Culture shock is a phenomenon that can occur to anyone who faces a new environment where the rules and behaviors are different from what they know. What is the role of culture shock in anthropological fieldwork? When does it occur, and why does it happen? Give examples in your own life when you have faced culture shock.




  1. What is cross-cultural comparison, and why is this important in our study of humans and culture? What can we learn through cross-cultural comparisons?




  1. Anthropology has faced various challenges in its history from the study of women to that of more marginal populations, such as those of the homeless and drug addicts. Choose one of these challenges and discuss it in detail, noting what the challenges have been, why the challenges occurred, and how they have been handled differently in anthropological research today.




  1. Define participant observation and discuss why it is important in the anthropological mission.




  1. Why are ethical considerations so important to the practice of anthropology? Use examples from the book and discuss each of the ethical responsibilities required of anthropologists. What kinds of ethical dilemmas would you imagine are quite common during fieldwork?


Chapter 3: The Idea of Culture






  1. Pierre Bourdieu coined the term HABITUS to mean:
    1. Behavior that is acquired through individual and social experience.
    2. Actions that are repeated within sacred rituals.
    3. Places where humans reside.
    4. Excess material goods that are discarded.
    5. Modes of experience that individuals create without tradition.



  1. A child raised outside of human society and culture would be:
    1. Entirely normal except for a lack of language.
    2. Rapidly able to participate in normal culture once allowed a chance.
    3. Innocent, unable to lie, cheat, or dissemble.
    4. Craftier, more logical, and more violent than a cultured individual.


  1. Completely unable to understand culture.



  1. One of the earliest definitions of human culture is that “complex whole which includes


knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society.” Who introduced this definition?

  1. Margaret Mead.
  2. Pierre Bourdieu.
  3. Sir Edward Tylor.
  4. Franz Boas.
  5. Bronislaw Malinowski.



  1. Anthropologists consider that all of the following are characteristics of culture except:
    1. Practiced by as few as one individual.
    2. Patterned and integrated.
    3. In some way adaptive.
    4. Made up of learned behaviors.
    5. Involving symbols.



  1. Theoretical perspective is critical in anthropology because:
    1. Theory does not tolerate diverse opinions.
    2. It allows us to explore different perspectives.
    3. Anthropology must be similar to other sciences.
    4. Not every researcher is capable of understanding culture.
    5. Anthropology is a democratic science.



  1. The theory of sociobiology views a culture as:
    1. The visible expression of genetic coding.


  1. As a way for members of society to understand who they are.


  1. The mechanism that drives individuality and self-expression.
  2. The result of little other than its own history.
  3. A result of the sum total of personalities that makes it up.



  1. Social birth refers to:
    1. The biological act of giving birth through social ritual.
    2. The ceremonial transition from childhood to adolescence.


  1. The spiritual awakening of an individual through the completion of his or her designated rite of passage.


  1. The point where a person is considered a human being and a member of human society.
  2. The event where women collectively give birth in a social setting.



  1. In which society are some children believed to be born chichuru (spirit children) if they have physical abnormalities?


  1. Western Brazil.
  2. Northeastern Ghana.
  3. Northern Africa.
  4. Eastern South America.
  5. Southwestern Europe.



  1. Anthropologists consider that the concept of humanness and the recognition of human status is:
    1. A biological designation.
    2. A sociological achievement.
    3. A cultural designation.
    4. Patterned and integrated throughout cultures.
    5. A cultural universal.



  1. Which of the following best defines the concept of enculturation?
    1. It is the process of being born and raised within a human society.
    2. It is a ritual in which the individual is formally introduced to society.
    3. It is the process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group.
    4. It is the outcome of two cultures coming into contact and adapting to each other.
    5. It is the sum of all behaviors that an individual learns in childhood.



  1. All of the following are characteristics that are emphasized in Inuit enculturation except:
    1. Emotional restraint.
    2. Physical acuity.



  1. An anthropological perspective that focuses on culture as the principal force in shaping the typical personality of a society is called:


  1. Culture and personality theory.
  2. Personification theory.
  3. Symbolic anthropology.



  1. Anthropologists who are interested in the ways in which people in different cultures classify their world often use a theory called:
    1. Interpretive anthropology.



  1. Ethnobotany is:
    1. The study of the way members of different cultures classify plants.
    2. The study of the dietary habits of members of different cultures.


  1. The use of words from other languages to describe plants in North American forests.
  2. The method that anthropologists use to discover what is edible in any culture.


  1. The study of the way members of different cultures understand health, sickness, and healing.



  1. Structural anthropology is largely concerned with:
    1. The ways in which people build houses and public buildings.
    2. The ways that biology and culture interact.
    3. The ways in which different parts of a single culture affect each other.


  1. The ways in which members of different cultures classify and understand their environments.
  2. Underlying patterns of thought common to all humanity.



  1. All of the following are characteristics of cultural symbols except:
    1. They contain condensed meanings.
    2. They are used to create meaning.
    3. They can be both objects and ideas.
    4. They are used to store information.
    5. They are easily defined.



  1. Anthropologists study symbols because:
    1. They can represent an entire constellation of ideas and emotions.
    2. They only hold meaning when in tactile form, such as a flag.
    3. They have single, unique meanings that are easily learned.
    4. They reflect the concerns of particular individuals in culture.


  1. They are highly complex and members of a culture are unable to understand them without help from anthropologists



  1. Some anthropologists argue that football is so popular in America because:


  1. It is more violent than other sports.


  1. It is easier to show commercials during football games than during other sorts of sports.


  1. People are willing to pay more money for football tickets than for those of other sports.
  2. It manipulates dangerous and controversial themes in American culture.
  3. Members of the team are more equal in football than in other sports.



  1. Ethnographic research on the spread of HIV/AIDS has shown that:
    1. Ideas about disease transmission are not affected by cultural views.


  1. NGOs have no interest in understanding how the cultural sphere interacts with human health and economic systems.


  1. Governments are providing information on disease prevention that is non-biased and unaffected by cultural practices.
  2. Behavior does not play a role in disease transmission.
  3. Cultural systems and values can impact efforts to improve human health.



  1. The Ju’hoansi people of Nambia are an example of how the spread of AIDS is influenced by:
    1. Environmental conditions.
    2. Government prevention programs.
    3. Economic conditions.
    4. An increase in sex work.
    5. Religious extremism.



  1. Comparing culture to a system implies that:
    1. A change in one part of culture will result in changes in other parts of culture.
    2. Culture is a means to an end.
    3. Each cultural pattern has the same meaning for every individual.
    4. A culture has no immediate relationship to its natural environment.
    5. No part of culture can work unless every part of culture works.



  1. Conflict is likely to be found:
    1. Only in large scale industrialized societies.
    2. Only in societies that have capitalist economic systems.
    3. Only in societies that have a social hierarchy and separation into classes or castes.
    4. Only in societies that claim to have principles of equality but do not follow them.
    5. In all sorts of societies.



  1. From the perspective of ecological functionalism, the Hindu taboo on eating beef is:
    1. Symbolic of other types of relationships in society.
    2. Adaptive to the long-run conditions of drought and crop shortages in India.
    3. Based on a conscious understanding of ecological anthropology by Indians.


  1. Maladaptive in India, considering the large numbers of people who do not have enough to eat.


  1. Which of the following theoretical perspectives most takes account of issues of conflict and struggle within cultures?


  1. Neo-Marxism.
  2. Ecological functionalism
  3. Symbolic anthropology.



  1. Norms are best described as:
    1. Symbolic meanings about values and beliefs.
    2. Values held only by older members of a society.
    3. Ideas people in a society share about the way things ought to be done.


  1. Behaviors present in large hierarchical societies but absent in small egalitarian societies.


  1. The same as laws in most societies.



  1. Research on the degree to which people within a single culture share knowledge has shown that:
    1. Within a single culture, most people agree on most things most of the time.
    2. Large, hierarchical cultures have much disagreement, but small cultures have little.
    3. Small cultures have much disagreement, but large, hierarchical cultures have little.


  1. Cultures show increasing amounts of disagreement after they reach their culture climax.
  2. Substantial amounts of disagreement are present in all cultures.



  1. When we compare dominant and sub-cultures within a society, it is clear that:
    1. Dominant cultures are more powerful than sub-cultures.
    2. Dominant cultures are inferior to sub-cultures.
    3. Most members of sub-cultures are between the ages of 15 and 25.


  1. Members of sub-cultures come closer to achieving their ideal pattern than do members of the dominant culture.


  1. While members of the dominant culture usually control the government, members of sub-cultures usually control the media.



  1. Norms and values are both:
    1. Controlled entirely by the dominant culture.
    2. Timeless and unchanging because they are encoded in law and government.
    3. Constantly changing and open to re-negotiation.


  1. The result of substantial agreement between members of the dominant culture and members of sub-cultures.
  2. Timeless and unchanging because they are encoded in religion and mythology.



  1. The change in the biological structure or lifeway of an individual that allows for better survival is called:


  1. Environmental determinism.
  2. Biological manipulation.
  3. Natural selection.



  1. Cultural adaptation differs from biological adaptation in that the former:
    1. Allows humans to respond to problems on a relatively immediate basis.
    2. Has no relationship to the demands of the natural environment.
    3. Plays only a small role in human behavioral change.
    4. Has no connection with human biological differences.
    5. Does not help human populations reproduce and expand their numbers.



  1. The ability of humans to change their behavior in response to environmental demands is called:


  1. Mimicry
  2. Environmental determinism



  1. Karen houses are generally:
    1. Built by men but owned by women.
    2. Built with adobe brick.
    3. Built without windows.
    4. Built with their main living floor two or three feet below ground level.
    5. Built in the shade under trees.


DIF: Applied REF:   66 OBJ:   8
MSC: Pickup


  1. All of the following are adaptive aspects of a Karen house except:
    1. It is made of bamboo.
    2. It is raised about 6 feet off the ground.
    3. It has a peaked roof.
    4. It does not contain a kitchen.
    5. It has a place for water containment on the verandah.



  1. What is a primary innovation?
    1. A modification made to an older object.
    2. An object or idea that is genuinely new and different.
    3. An innovation recently drawn from another culture.
    4. An object which has yet to be discovered.
    5. An object that has been rediscovered.



  1. Pure cultures, free from outside influence:
    1. Have never existed.


  1. Existed until the 15th century in many parts of the world.


  1. Are more common in Africa than in other parts of the world.
  2. Have fewer traits than those in frequent contact with the outside.
  3. Tend to be much more ethnocentric than other cultures.



  1. The process of movement of culture traits from one society to another is called:



  1. As culture traits move from one society to another:
    1. Their meanings tend to remain unchanged.
    2. They tend to lose their meanings.
    3. Their meanings tend to change.
    4. They lose their logical integration into culture.


  1. They tend to become less and less important to the society in which they originated.



  1. Transculturation is:
    1. The movement of people from one culture to another.
    2. The result of the conquest of one culture by another.
    3. A political program aimed at creating a single world culture.


  1. The notion that cultural traits are transformed as they are adopted and new cultural forms result.
  2. The idea that people should be raised simultaneously in at least two cultures.



  1. Which of the following would a materialist be likely to study in trying to understand the events of 9/11?
    1. Economic situations in the Middle East.
    2. The material objects used in the attack.
    3. How the Middle East perceives the United States.
    4. The history of Islam.
    5. How the attacks fit into the larger pattern of culture.



  1. Today, most anthropologists agree that culture is:
    1. A system of environmental adaptation.
    2. The way that humans lend meaning to the world.
    3. Largely a creation of anthropology with no real meaning in society at large.
    4. A mental template for organizing and understanding the world.
    5. Anthropologists do not agree on a single meaning of culture.




  1. Sir Edward Tylor’s early definition of culture was intended as a way of explaining the differences between human societies.



  1. All cultures are made up of learned behaviors.



  1. Language has many symbolic components, but it is not considered a symbol system.



  1. Child-rearing practices in all cultures are designed to produce knowledgeable adults.




  1. Inuit children are protected from the harsh environment and physical challenges until it is time for them to transition into adulthood.




  1. Anthropologists have discovered that all humans use similar methods for classifying the world around them.




  1. Ethnoscience is a theoretical approach that focuses on the way in which members of a culture classify their world.



  1. The mudyi tree is a central symbol for the Ndembu.




  1. Interpretive anthropologists would argue that football is a sport that is heavily laden with sexuality.




  1. Cultures are systems, so a change in one aspect of a culture is likely to result in changes in other aspects of the culture.



  1. Conflict is present in large hierarchical societies, but absent in small egalitarian societies.



  1. To an extent, most members of society share norms and values upon which they all agree.




  1. A subculture is a group that has differing values and beliefs from the dominant culture in the same society.


  1. All anthropologists agree that culture is a shared set of norms and values.




  1. One advantage of cultural adaptation over biological adaptation is that culture can usually change more rapidly than biology.


  1. A Karen house is a type of religious temple in Thailand.




  1. Because he understood Karen culture, anthropologist James Hamilton was able to make many improvements to Karen house building.



  1. Diffusion is generally a peaceful process that benefits all of the cultures involved.


  1. One example of transculturation is when young people in the Middle East use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to show the repression occurring within their countries.


  1. Fully understanding an issue requires using many theoretical perspectives.






  1. What are the six characteristics of culture?



  1. Define what a symbol is and provide an example.



  1. Compare Tylor’s 1873 definition of culture with that which is most used today. How are they alike and different?



  1. What do anthropologists mean by the term “social birth”?



  1. The process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group is called __________.




  1. Define cognitive anthropology and give an example of a cognitive approach in the discipline.



  1. What is structural anthropology?



  1. Why do many anthropologists believe that football is so popular in the United States?


  1. What does Clifford Geertz mean by saying that “culture is like a novel”?



  1. Why do functionalist anthropologists frequently compare cultures to biological organisms?


  1. Describe Marvin Harris’ analysis of Hindu cows in India using an ecological functionalist



  1. How would you best describe a neo-Marxist theoretical approach?



  1. Compare and contrast the concepts of norms and values.


  1. How is a subculture different from a dominant culture?



  1. What advantages does cultural adaptation have over biological adaptation?



  1. What are the disadvantages of cultural adaptation over biological adaptation?



  1. Name three adaptive aspects of a Karen house in northwestern Thailand.



  1. __________ is the movement of cultural traits from one society to another.



  1. Name two primary ways that culture changes.



  1. Define transculturation and give an example of it.




  1. Why is theory essential to the study of anthropology? Give examples of what you mean.




  1. Discuss the ways in which culture helps human beings survive, focusing on the functions and adaptive characteristics of culture.




  1. Describe a spectator sport from the perspective of an anthropologist who believes that the primary purpose of culture is to make human social life meaningful.


  1. What is the role of culture change in our world today? Discuss and use examples of innovation, diffusion, and transculturation in your answer.



  1. Define culture using at least four different theoretical approaches.


Chapter 4: Communication






  1. Animal forms of verbal communication are called:
    1. Response systems.
    2. Animal vocal communication systems.
    3. Call systems.
    4. Stimulus-generated systems.
    5. Stimulus-response systems.



  1. A linguistic capacity to describe things that are not present is called:




  1. When we say that human language is “conventional,” we mean that:
    1. Humans are very conservative and rarely change their way of speaking.


  1. The words in human languages have no inherent relationship to the things they stand for.
  2. All languages follow the same grammatical rules or conventions.
  3. Human language was invented at a convention.


  1. All human languages have basically the same structure and differences among them are only superficial.



  1. Human speech is infinitely productive. This means that:


  1. Humans can combine words into new, meaningful utterances that they have never heard before.
  2. Human beings never become tired of talking.
  3. The more human beings talk, the more productive they are economically.
  4. Every normal adult can produce an infinite number of sounds.


  1. Human speech is always directed toward some productive purpose.



  1. Charles Hockett argues that the following two steps were critical in the evolution of human language:
    1. Productivity and displacement.
    2. Displacement and blending.
    3. Blending and dual structure.
    4. Blending and duality of patterning.
    5. Duality of pattern and productivity.



  1. When learning language, the human instinct is to:


  1. Learn the language your father speaks.
  2. Learn the language your mother speaks.
  3. Learn the language of the group in which you are socialized.
  4. Humans do not have an instinct to learn language.
  5. Learn as many languages as possible.



  1. Human children appear to be programmed to learn language instinctively before the age of:


  1. 6 months.
  2. 3 years.
  3. 6 years.
  4. 12 years.
  5. 21 years.



  1. When researchers tried to teach human language to chimpanzees and gorillas, they found that:


  1. These animals were incapable of using language in ways that resembled those used by human beings.


  1. While these animals were able to master the use of verbs, they were unable to produce new words.


  1. There was very little difference between the linguistic capacities of humans and our nearest primate relations.


  1. Language skills were never masterfully demonstrated in the chimpanzees or gorillas.


  1. Language soon became as essential to the trained chimpanzees and gorillas as it is to humans.



  1. Studies of the ways in which children learn language show that:
    1. A language must be consciously taught; otherwise a child will not learn it.


  1. Children in different societies learn to speak their native languages at different ages because some languages are harder to learn than others.


  1. Formal education is required for a child to learn to speak his or her native language grammatically.


  1. Human beings have an inborn predisposition for learning language and will speak grammatically even if not taught to do so.
  2. Boys learn to speak much earlier than girls.



  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
    1. Human speech must be learned through a speech community.
    2. There is a critical period in which language acquisition must occur in humans.


  1. Children raised in isolation are never able to fully overcome this language disability.
  2. Children begin experimenting with actual language sounds by the age of 6 months.
  3. There is some limited biological basis for learning one language over another.



  1. Many linguists argue that there is a universal grammar. This is:
    1. A set of words that means the same thing in every language.


  1. A set of principles, conditions, and rules that underlie all languages.


  1. A single word order in which different parts of speech must appear in all languages.


  1. A simple way of speaking that can be understood by everyone all over the world.


  1. An alphabet in which all languages and the sounds that make them up can be written.



  1. When anthropologists examine language across different cultures, they find that:
    1. Children learn to speak very early when the culture has written language.
    2. Children learn to speak early when mothers and babies interact a lot.
    3. Children speak in the same way in all cultures regardless of different languages.
    4. Children learn to speak at the same time in all cultures and with equal competence.


  1. Children raised with their mothers speak better than children raised with other relatives.



  1. Which of the following is not a subsystem of language?



  1. The International Phonetic Alphabet is a means of:
    1. Writing all of the sounds of all human languages.
    2. Teaching children to read at very early ages.
    3. Communicating between people who speak different languages.
    4. Translating easily among European languages.
    5. Preserving languages threatened with extinction.



  1. In English, bit and pit have different meanings. Thus, /b/ and /p/ are:



  1. In linguistic studies, phonemes are:
    1. Used to call other linguists.
    2. The set of all possible sounds that humans can make.
    3. The set of sounds used in any particular language.
    4. Never used to make words.
    5. The same in every language.



  1. Bound morphemes differ from free morphemes in which of the following ways?
    1. The former have strictly one meaning, the latter have more than one meaning.


  1. The former occur either in nouns or in verbs but never in both, while the latter may


occur in both.

  1. The former never stand alone as complete words; the latter do.


  1. The former can be pronounced only one way, while the latter may have more than one pronunciation.


  1. The former exist in all human languages; the latter exist in English only.



  1. The English word “cats” has how many morphemes?


  1. 4 morphemes: c-a-t-s.
  2. 2 morphemes: cat-s.
  3. No morphemes.
  4. 1 morpheme: cat.
  5. 3 morphemes: ca-t-s.



  1. “The dog food under the table he fed” has what kind of error?




  1. The relationship between language and culture is illustrated by the fact that:
    1. All languages have the same number of words.
    2. The most complex societies have the most complex languages.


  1. The vocabulary of a language emphasizes those features of the environment that are culturally most significant.
  2. All languages contain words for all aspects of the physical environment.
  3. Some words are the same in all cultures.



  1. According to Ferdinand de Saussure, language can best be separated into language (langue) and speech (parole). The difference between these two things is best described as:
    1. Language is written and speech is spoken.


  1. Language is an arbitrary and abstract system of signs that exists independently of any speaker, speech is the actual performance of language by an individual speaker.


  1. Language is the actual performance of speech by an individual speaker, while speech is an arbitrary and abstract system of signs that exists independently of any speaker.


  1. Language is formal and proper; speech is often slang.
  2. Language does not exist if speech does not occur.



  1. Anthropologists Heather Horst and Daniel Miller studied high levels of cell phone use among Jamaicans in two different communities. Which of the following statements best illustrates why Jamaicans use cell phones so regularly?


  1. They are used to engage in long casual conversations about daily life.
  2. They are used primarily to create social networks and request needed resources.


  1. They are used as emergency technology in case the individual is in any kind of



  1. They are used primarily among young people who are dating via cell phone.
  2. They are used to order groceries and supplies on a daily basis.



  1. Sociolinguistics is helpful to anthropologists in understanding culture because:
    1. People’s speech varies depending on their position in a social structure or social
    2. Speech is a constant, while social structure is variable.
    3. Speech is always consistent within a social group.
    4. The ways in which people speak determine their position in the social structure.


  1. The distribution of irregular verbs can indicate the relative importance of different actions in a cultural system



  1. A dialect is:
    1. A language that contains fewer than 1,500 words.
    2. Language that is used in informal social settings.
    3. Language that is used by less powerful groups in society.
    4. Speech that consciously breaks the grammatical rules of language.
    5. A language that does not have a logical system of grammar.



  1. A study of speech norms in the United States indicated that:
    1. Social class has no effect on speech patterns.
    2. Each social class has only one norm regarding pronunciation.


  1. Variation of speech patterns is most characteristic of upwardly mobile social classes.


  1. The lowest classes make the most effort to impress others by using different speech forms in different situations.


  1. Studies of linguistic variation make no real contribution to understanding social class differences.



  1. Linguists view African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as:
    1. Inferior to Standard Spoken American English (SSAE).
    2. Neither superior nor inferior to SSAE.
    3. More complicated but less abstract than SSAE.
    4. Simpler than SSAE but more abstract.
    5. Linguists do not recognize the existence of AAVE.



  1. Which of the following is an example of code-switching?


  1. Conversations in which people try to avoid committing themselves to any specific position or course of action.


  1. Conversations in which people attempt to offer a particular deal or advantage without specifying exactly what it is.


  1. Conversations in which people try to let some people know that they are lying to other people.


  1. Conversations in which, even after repeated attempts, people fail to understand each other.


  1. Conversations in which people talk to some people in one language while talking to others in a different language.



  1. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that:
    1. The best way to study language is with subjects in a laboratory.


  1. The vocabulary and structure of a language influence how its speakers perceive reality.
  2. The ability to use language determines an individual’s intelligence.
  3. Formal education increases vocabulary.
  4. There is no connection between language and other aspects of culture.



  1. One aspect of language that appears to contradict the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is that human languages are similar in that:
    1. They are all created by humans.
    2. There are only so many ways that humans can interpret the world around them.


  1. Anything that can be said in one language can be translated into every other human language.
  2. They are only so many words that can be invented in a language.
  3. Every language uses the same set of sounds.



  1. A Tuareg man wears his veil at different positions on his face in different social situations. This is an example of:
    1. Universal grammar.
    2. Nonverbal communication.
    3. The universal relationship between language and action.
    4. The genetic patterning of behavior.
    5. Bad manners.



  1. Haptics refers to:
    1. The study and analysis of touch.
    2. The variation in musical taste among cultures.
    3. The methods linguists use to describe phonemes.
    4. The study of this history of linguistic change.
    5. Any fieldwork in linguistic anthropology



  1. Researchers who study interpersonal space generally refer to three different ranges of space. They are:


  1. Friendly distance, antagonistic space, neutral space.
  2. Intimate distance, personal distance, and social distance.
  3. Built space, social distance, and personal distance.
  4. City space, peri-urban space, and rural space.
  5. Fixed space, negotiated distance, and individual space.



  1. Which of the following best characterizes the cross-cultural meaning of smiling?
    1. A smile always means that people are happy.


  1. Smiling is a reasonably good indicator of happiness or nonviolent intent.


  1. In most cultures, people smile just before they kill.
  2. The meaning of a smile varies from culture to culture.
  3. Americans are virtually unique in equating smiling with happiness.



  1. A Pidgin is:
    1. A language of contact and trade that includes a mixture of other languages.
    2. A language that can be taught to parrots and other non-human animals.
    3. A language made by blending of other, earlier languages.
    4. The language of lower class or oppressed groups in a society.


  1. The language dialect speakers use when conversing with speakers of the standard version of a language.



  1. A fundamental principle of language is that:


  1. The more phonemes a language has, the more different ideas can be expressed in it.


  1. The more material goods a culture has, the more talkative its members will be.
  2. Oppressed groups rarely contribute words to the language of their oppressors.
  3. Language always reflects the history of those who use it.


  1. The more primitive a culture, the more likely its members are to be dependent on senses such as smell and hearing rather than language.



  1. Which of the following is the most noticeable object of linguistic change?



  1. An important method comparative linguists use to draw conclusions about the relationship between two languages is:
    1. Determining the amount of core vocabulary they share.
    2. Establishing the biological relationship between the speakers of the languages.
    3. Showing that the linguistic style of one group diffused to members of the other.
    4. Examining the degree of intracultural variation in the languages.


  1. Determining if they share complex and unusual words not found in other languages.



  1. Your investigation of two different languages reveals that their basic vocabularies differ by 28 percent. Using Glottochronology, you determine that some historical event caused the groups speaking these languages to separate:


  1. 500 years ago.
  2. 1000 years ago.
  3. 1500 years ago.
  4. 2000 years ago.
  5. Insufficient information to answer question.


  1. All of the following are reasons why language is being lost today in such great numbers except:
    1. Nation-states often try to suppress linguistic diversity.
    2. Global trade favors more populous languages from more wealthy nations.


  1. Linguistic minorities are increasingly working to teach their languages to their children.


  1. It is more profitable and advantageous to speak languages that are numerically superior.
  2. A vast majority of media is conducted in a few languages.



  1. Which of the following statements about language and culture in the United States is incorrect?
    1. Simply sharing the same language is not sufficient for effective communication.
    2. As of 2011, 31 states have enacted legislation to make English their state’s official
    3. English is the national language of the United States.
    4. In 2007, it was calculated that about 1 in every 8 U.S. residents was an immigrant.
    5. The U.S. has increasingly become a multilingual society.





  1. Communication among nonhuman animals can be as complex as human language.




  1. All children, regardless of culture, go through the same stages and sequence for language learning.




  1. The ability of humans to use language depends partially on the linkage between the visual and auditory areas of the brain.




  1. Even though biologically capable of capable of making the sounds of human language, no chimp has ever produced voluntary speech-like verbalization.




  1. Even a child brought up in isolation will automatically be able to speak the language of his or her parents.


  1. All the sounds used in the different languages of the world can be represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet.



  1. Each language has its own set of phonemes.



  1. Some languages do not have syntactic structure.


  1. The vocabulary of a language reflects the culture of the people who speak it.


  1. The actual performance of a language by an individual speaker (parole) is arbitrary and abstract.




  1. In some cultures, the speech form used depends on the relative social status of the individuals speaking.




  1. Most of the Jamaican cell phone users studied by Horst and Miller only gave gifts to return earlier favors.



  1. If a person speaks a more “proper” form of English (such as SSAE instead of AAVE), then their thought process will become more complex and rational.



  1. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis argues that because the human brain is similar regardless of cultures, then all language is similar as well.


  1. Wearing clothes with designer labels on them can be considered a form of nonverbal communication.



  1. The study of the social use of space is called kinesics.




  1. The core vocabulary is a list of words which designate things, actions, and activities likely to be named in all the world’s languages.


  1. There is one language spoken by the majority of the world’s people.




  1. In more than one half of the states of the U.S., English has been designated as the official state language.



  1. When a language is lost, so also are many important cultural elements.






  1. What are the three things that make human language unique?



  1. What is the “language instinct”?


  1. What is the importance of a speech community for a human child?




  1. What success did Dr. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh have in teaching sign language to the bonobo chimpanzee Kanzi?



  1. What is an allophone?



  1. What are the four components of any language?



  1. How do linguists define a “word”?




  1. How does Ferdinand de Saussure distinguish between language and speech, and why is this important for anthropologists?




  1. What did anthropologists Horst and Miller find to be the primary uses of cell phones among Jamaicans?



  1. According to Keith Basso, why do Apache Indians find white speech so offensive?



  1. Define sociolinguistics and give an example of it.



  1. What is AAVE, and how is it related to social stratification?



  1. What is code switching?



  1. Why is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis significant to linguistic studies?




  1. What arguments are there against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Why is this approach not accepted by every linguist today?



  1. The study of the cultural use of interpersonal space is called _________.



  1. What is chronemics?


  1. How can linguists determine the age of a language?




  1. Some global forces do not lead toward linguistic homogenization. What two factors today do not show linguistic homogenization?



  1. Describe the goals of U.S. English, Inc.






  1. Using infant and child language acquisition as your example (how language is learned), discuss how language is both a biological and a cultural characteristic.




  1. How does language shape a people’s concept of reality? What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and why is it only partially accepted by anthropologists?




  1. Technology plays an increasingly vital role today in our forms of communication. Choose three forms of technology that are used frequently today for communication and describe how these have changed the ways that people communicated.




  1. Nonverbal communication is an important aspect of human communication. Discuss, with the use of examples, some of the ways in which humans communicate nonverbally.




  1. Discuss each of the unique features of human language and the ways in which these are related to the development of culture as the main adaptive strategy of the human species.


Chapter 5: Making a Living






  1. Ecological anthropologists are most interested in:
    1. Interactions between humans and their environments.
    2. Controlling human population growth.
    3. Protecting the natural environment.
    4. Increasing the world’s food supply.
    5. Assessing the effectiveness of different methods of making a living.



  1. The earliest human food-getting strategy was:



  1. As the Kayapo of the Xingu River Basin in South America demonstrate, people in non-industrial societies:
    1. Do not understand their environment.
    2. Have very simple methods for managing their resources.
    3. Would be better off with modern technology.
    4. Are committed to becoming modernized
    5. Have adapted to their environments without the use of modern science.


  1. In the United States today, what percentage of the population currently is involved in agricultural production?
    1. 5%.
    2. 0%.
    3. 5%.
    4. 0%.
    5. 12%.



  1. Historically, the greatest source of environmental degradation has been:
    1. Slash and burn farming practiced by traditional peoples.
    2. Consumer desires and energy needs in wealthy nations.
    3. Slash and burn farming practiced by modern peasants.
    4. Traditional agriculture done without soil erosion control techniques.
    5. Collection and burning of wood for cooking fires in large cities in poor nations.



  1. Which of the following terms indicates the yield per person per hour of labor invested?


  1. Population density.




  1. One of the major changes that the 20th century brought to the Inuit was:
    1. Opportunities to enter the commercial fur trade and government employment.


  1. Almost complete extinction in the inland hunting grounds, forcing Inuit to live on the seacoast.


  1. Persecution by the government, leading to a reduction in Inuit numbers by more than 75 percent.
  2. Schooling opportunities that led most Inuit to migrate to more temperate climates.


  1. Almost complete extinction in native fisheries, forcing Inuit to move away from the coastline.



  1. Sea ice is critical to the Inuit because:
    1. It allows animal herds to migrate from one area to another.
    2. It connects different Inuit communities.
    3. It is used as a highway and as a building material.
    4. It is their only supply of fresh water.


  1. It allows supply planes to land, bringing needed food and equipment as well as tourists.


  1. For the Gwich’in, the most important result of climate change has been:


  1. The increased presence of outside industries that have negative impacts on local culture.
  2. The need to find more sophisticated ways of keeping warm as their area cools.
  3. Increased contact with outsiders and increasing ability to sell furs and native crafts.
  4. The decrease in size and health of the caribou herd on which they depend.
  5. Increased ability to use snowmobiles to hunt caribou and fur bearing mammals.



  1. Under most conditions, foraging requires:
    1. Strong, capable leadership.
    2. Complex and sophisticated tools.
    3. Clear and enforceable ideas about land ownership.
    4. The presence of nearby agricultural people.
    5. Independence and mobility.



  1. The peoples of the Great Sandy Desert in Australia traditionally made a living by:
    1. Market trade.



  1. A major characteristic of the environment which shapes aboriginal Australian survival is:


  1. The absence of plants.


  1. The generally benign climate.
  2. Climatic stability throughout the year.


  1. The shortage of water.


  1. The presence of big game animals.



  1. In their adaptation to their harsh environment, the Australian aboriginals survived by:
    1. Expanding their population.
    2. Using a wide variety of food sources.
    3. Hunting big game animals.
    4. Practicing vegetarianism.
    5. Using effective rituals to increase their food supply.



  1. The major areas of pastoralism are found in:
    1. East Africa, the Australian desert, and the Canadian arctic.
    2. North America, the highlands of South America, and the Pacific Islands.
    3. East Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Subarctic.
    4. Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa.
    5. South American tropical forests, the Australian desert, and North Africa.



  1. A critical form of cultural knowledge typically passed from fathers to elder sons in Maasai society is:
    1. Hunting techniques in a marginal environment.
    2. Environmental knowledge and how livestock is moved.
    3. Market trade and economic partners.
    4. Traditional healing techniques.
    5. Means of contacting the supernatural and asking for abundance.



  1. Among the Maasai, pasture land is:
    1. Owned by individual families.
    2. Passed from mother’s brother to sister’s son.


  1. Rented from the neighboring Nuer.
  2. Owned collectively rather than individually.
  3. Far less important than garden land and, therefore, ecologically degraded.




  1. The Maasai have faced increasing difficulties practicing transhumant pastoralism primarily because:
    1. Global warming has made grasslands scarce.
    2. Government taxation policies have radically reduced the sizes of their herds.


  1. Men now have the choice of herding or working in the tourist industry and most frequently choose the later.


  1. Cattle diseases have made herding impossible in much of the land the Maasai inhabit.
  2. The required grazing land has been taken from them.



  1. Which of the following best illustrates transhumant pastoralism?


  1. The male cattle pastoralists of East Africa have two settlements and move their herds between these, while the women stay in the permanent dwelling year-round.


  1. The Saami reindeer herders and their families move across the frozen landscape


during the winter months and in the summer take jobs as day laborers.


  1. The Yarahmadzai of Iran move with the entire village during the year from settlement to settlement, never knowing where they will be next.


  1. The Quechua herd their alpacas from one pasture to another as needed, depending on the climate. They never move their residence.


  1. Central Asian yak herders all live in one settlement permanently year-round and supplement the food for their animals. They do not switch settlements seasonally.



  1. In addition to milk and meat products derived from their herds of camels, sheep, and goats, the Yarahmadzai do all of the following except:
    1. Gather dates.
    2. Trade with agriculturalists.
    3. Work for cash in nearby towns.
    4. Cultivate grain.
    5. Raise chickens.



  1. Like most horticulturalists, the Lua’ traditionally plant:
    1. Only one main crop.
    2. A variety of crops with rotating harvesting seasons.
    3. Whatever crops bring the highest price in the world market.
    4. Corn, beans, and squash.
    5. Year after year, in the fields closest to their villages.



  1. The main subsistence crop of the Lua’ is:


  1. Corn



  1. In Lua’ horticulture, women:
    1. Play no role in cultivation but only process food.
    2. Harvest rice along with the men.
    3. Do all cultivation jobs except driving a tractor.
    4. Take care of the animals rather than work in the fields.


  1. Plant and harvest kitchen gardens but do not participate in growing or harvesting the principal crop.



  1. The horticultural cycle of the Lua’ indicates that they:
    1. Have little knowledge about the best growing conditions for a particular crop.
    2. Plant and harvest according to the government’s willingness to buy their crops.


  1. Use their highly effective knowledge of their environment for subsistence and cash crops.
  2. Were better off l00 years ago when they were foragers in the same environment.


  1. Are unable to participate in cash cropping since they are distant from markets where their products would be in demand.


  1. A major change in Lua’ subsistence patterns in the last several decades is:
    1. Their growing isolation from other Thai hill tribes.
    2. An increase in the diversity of crops planted.
    3. A growing dependence on a few main crops which they sell to the market.


  1. An increase in wild game in the forest so that they no longer need to depend on cultivation.
  2. Expulsion from their lands because of the Vietnam War.



  1. The defining characteristic of horticulture is that:
    1. It is the most inefficient utilization of the environment.


  1. Fields are not used permanently but remain fallow for some time after being cultivated.
  2. Plows and labor-intensive methods are used.
  3. It cannot support populations over 25 persons per square mile.
  4. It is found only in the New World.



  1. Which of the following is a culture change that has occurred recently in Musha, Egypt?
    1. Women are becoming better educated than men.
    2. The population has decreased over the last 100 years.
    3. The income from cash crops is not as important as it once was.
    4. Few people leave the village to work.
    5. Tractors are now used for many purposes.



  1. Musha, in Upper Egypt, is a typical contemporary peasant village in that the peasants:
    1. Are isolated from the outside world.
    2. Are in almost total control of their economy.
    3. Have hardly changed their culture in hundreds of years.
    4. Are highly constrained by government intervention.
    5. Are influential in government planning.



  1. Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, more complex state societies are called:




  1. Agriculture is characterized by a:
    1. Simple technology, such as the use of a digging stick.
    2. Low population densities when compared with other food getting strategies.
    3. Relatively complex techniques of water and soil control.
    4. Slashing and burning of forest cover.


  1. Nomadic movement of village populations.


  1. Preindustrial agriculture uses all of the following techniques except:
    1. Selective livestock breeding.
    2. Crop rotation.



  1. Which of the following was a critical change in rural America related to the increase in beef consumption in the late 20th century?


  1. Increasing wealth of farmers (along with the increasing tendency of their children to leave the farm).


  1. Increasing presence of Wal-mart and other superstores and decline of family-owned businesses.


  1. Increasing domination by large corporate farming operations and decline of family farm.


  1. Increasing opportunities in rural America leading populations to return from cities to rural areas.
  2. Increasing importance of education in rural school districts.



  1. Increasing beef consumption led to changes in the meat packaging industry. These included:
    1. Increased importance of unions.
    2. Increasing use of unskilled immigrant labor.
    3. Rising wages for workers.
    4. Increasing need for highly educated work force.
    5. Movement of meat packing industry from rural to urban areas.



  1. Extremely difficult working conditions in the meat packing industry:
    1. Have only occurred since the 1960s.
    2. Have improved dramatically now that most of the process is automated.
    3. Have been “normal” since the 19th
    4. Are a much greater problem for female workers than male workers.
    5. Have almost disappeared as the result of the unionization of the industry.



  1. A major characteristic of industrialism is that it:
    1. Is an energy-conserving strategy.
    2. Restrains population growth.
    3. Is incompatible with urbanization.


  1. First occurred at the same time in different parts of the Western and non-Western world.


  1. Invariably expands beyond its own boundaries.



  1. A critical way in which industrial production differs from other productive systems is:
    1. Increased dependence on male labor.
    2. Substantially reduced working hours and greater free time.
    3. The focus of production moves from food to other goods.
    4. Increased dependence on female labor.


  1. Increasing economic equality among members of society.


  1. One result of the increased globalization of food is:
    1. The revival of the family farm.
    2. Increased reliance on food that is easy to ship.
    3. Increased dependence on fast food and junk food.
    4. Increased power of groups such as the Slow Foods movement.



  1. A study about different types of vegetables consumed today found that what percentage of varieties of these vegetables is now extinct?
    1. 35%.
    2. 59%.
    3. 74%.
    4. 85%.
    5. 97%.



  1. The globalization of food has resulted in large increases in the wealth and power of:
    1. The governments of poor nations.


  1. Rural populations in poor nations.
  2. Rural populations in wealthy nations.
  3. Already wealthy city dwellers in wealthy nations.
  4. Multinational corporations involved in agriculture.





  1. The physical environment affects culture, but culture does not affect the physical environment.



  1. The change from foraging to food production was revolutionary in that it happened within a very short period of time.



  1. The example of the Kayapo of the Xingu River Basin in South America shows that traditional people were often capable of destroying their own environments.



  1. Because of global warming, the Gwich’in in northeastern Alaska are facing a high reduction in the number of seals they harvest each year.



  1. The yield per person per unit of land is known as the population density.



  1. Most contemporary foragers have been pushed back by more dominant cultures and are currently found in marginal areas of the world.


  1. Today, only a very small percentage of the world’s people live by foraging.


  1. Global warming has made it easier for the Inuit to hunt year-round and has therefore increased the number of Inuit living traditional lifestyles.



  1. Pastoralism is mainly found in areas that are too dry to support human populations through agriculture.



  1. Pastoralism can be either transhumant or nomadic.



  1. Yarahmadzai herders virtually never work for cash.



  1. The historic Maasai subsistence strategy takes account of the fact that in some years there will be drought.



  1. In the last fifty years, the Lua’ have increasingly moved from horticulture to agriculture.



  1. In Musha, Egypt, wheat and cotton are among the most important crops.


  1. An important source of income for the Egyptian village of Musha is the money sent back to the village by migrant labor.



  1. The demand for beef in America rose dramatically in the stock boom of the 1920s.



  1. It is likely that difficult and dangerous conditions in the meat packing industry will soon result in new, strong government regulation of that industry.



  1. Industrialism has led to increased equality among people worldwide.


  1. The global food industry has led to increased poverty in rural America.



  1. Agriculture requires more capital investment than horticulture.






  1. Name the three basic criteria of each subsistence strategy.



  1. What are the five basic subsistence strategies that anthropologists recognize?


  1. Name two major changes that have occurred to the Inuit people’s subsistence strategy during the past few decades.



  1. The number of individuals supported per square mile of earth is called __________.



  1. What major challenges are the Gwich’in of northeastern Alaska facing as a result of global warming?



  1. Name four characteristics of a foraging society.



  1. Define foraging.


  1. Describe the Maasai practice of “drought reserve.”



  1. How is pastoralism different from ranching?



  1. Compare and contrast transhumant and nomadic pastoralism.



  1. What are the primary steps in swidden cultivation?



  1. __________ are rural, food-producing populations that are incorporated into larger state societies.



  1. Describe an agricultural two-year cycle using what you have learned from Musha, Egypt.



  1. How is agriculture different from horticulture?



  1. What does it mean to say that horticulture is a “mixed subsistence strategy”?



  1. Name three advantages of using a plow in agriculture.



  1. Define industrialism as a subsistence strategy.



  1. The integration of resources, labor, and capital into a global network is called __________.



  1. Why did the American beef industry experience a boom after World War II?


  1. Is it better for us to eat local foods? Why?






  1. Compare foraging, horticulture, and agriculture in terms of (a) technology, (b) main features of social organization, and (c) relation to population density and productivity.



  1. Describe ways in which seasonal variation in the environment structures the activities of the

Gwich’in, the Yarahmadzai, the Lua’, and Musha, the Egyptian village.


  1. What is the environmental impact of horticulture versus agriculture as subsistence strategies? Examine each subsistence system and then provide examples of environmental impact for each.



  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of industrializing the production of our food, such as the example of the American beef industry? What alternatives can you imagine to the global food industry we use today?



  1. Discuss the relationship between the physical environment and subsistence strategy, using three examples from the text.


Chapter 6: Economics






  1. The critical elements of any economic system are:
    1. Reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange.
    2. Production, distribution, and consumption.
    3. Currency, capital, and exchange.
    4. Government, exchange, and consumption.
    5. Agriculture, trade, and taxation.



  1. In economics, economizing behavior is:
    1. Behavior designed to save money for a household.
    2. Choosing to buy a generic rather than a name brand product.
    3. Attempting to increase profits by investing savings.
    4. Only present in capitalist market economies.


  1. Making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit.



  1. Economics is defined as:
    1. The study of financial fluctuations within a particular society.


  1. The study of the ways in which the choices people make combine to determine how their society uses resources for production and distribution.
  2. The study of the interaction between culture, politics, and finances.
  3. The study of how the financial market influences a society’s financial and cultural
  4. The study of activities that affect distribution, exchange, and consumption.



  1. In Western cultures dominated by capitalism, extremely high emphasis is placed on:
    1. Family and kinship connections.
    2. Wealth and material prosperity.
    3. Reciprocal relations of gift giving.
    4. Behaving appropriately for one’s social position.



  1. As social complexity and population increase, the differences between economic systems is mostly measured as a difference in:


  1. Access to productive resources.
  2. Management of distribution systems.
  3. Quantity of consumption of goods and services.
  4. Fitness and leisure activities available to the population.
  5. Political organizations.


6.Material goods, natural resources, or information used to create other goods or information is known as the:


  1. Economic system.
  2. Consumption resources.
  3. Distributive resources.
  4. Productive resources.
  5. Economizing behavior.



  1. In foraging (hunting and gathering) societies, land:
    1. Is generally owned by individuals who are generous about letting others use it.
    2. Is customarily used by certain groups, but others are not denied access to it.
    3. Is owned by the corporate group and not the individual.
    4. Is owned by chiefs or headmen, who have the right to sell it if desired.
    5. Is privately and exclusively owned by men.



  1. Where resources are scarce and large areas are needed to support the population, territorial boundaries are:
    1. Strictly defended and the cause of high amounts of conflict.
    2. Loosely marked, but strictly defended by military coalitions.
    3. Usually not defended.
    4. Strictly marked, but loosely defended during certain seasons.
    5. Marked and privately owned by influential members of the community.



  1. How do contemporary pastoralists primarily obtain access to land for grazing?
    1. Through contracts with landowners as they pass through areas.
    2. Through legal documents that allow them permanent use rights.
    3. Through labor exchange with agriculturalists as they pass through the areas.
    4. Through warfare and acquisition of property as they migrate through areas.
    5. Through inheritance of private property.



  1. Which of the following is most essential in pastoralist societies?
    1. Rights of ownership of land.
    2. Rights of access to land.
    3. The ability to sell land.
    4. The ability to acquire land through inheritance.
    5. The ability to transfer rights of land ownership as part of a marriage contract.


  1. Land in horticultural societies is:
    1. Owned by individuals.
    2. Owned by chiefs or headmen.
    3. Owned by men but worked by women.
    4. Communally owned by kin groups.
    5. Not owned by anyone.


12.Among the Lacandon Maya, an extensive cultivating society:

  1. Individuals have the right to buy and sell any land use.
  2. Individuals retain right to land they have cleared even if they leave it fallow.
  3. Individuals and families must petition the chief yearly for an allotment of land.
  4. Individuals may not buy and sell land but heads of families may do so.
  5. Individuals may only gain access to land through inheritance.



  1. Among extensive cultivators, one of the key factors that determines whether land will be considered exclusive and defended is:


  1. Contact with Western cultures (societies that have Western contact defend, others do not).


  1. The types of crops planted (lands where tree crops are planted are defended but root crops are not).


  1. The presence of irrigation works (lands with such works are defended, others are not).


  1. The presence of warrior societies (cultures with warrior societies defend lands, others do not).


  1. The relationship of land and population (societies with high population density defend lands, others do not).



  1. In agricultural societies, the principal form of resources is:


  1. The idea of private ownership of land tends to develop in societies where:
    1. Material and labor investment in land becomes substantial.
    2. Land is freely available to all.
    3. Population is declining.
    4. Technology is not widespread.
    5. Men hunt and women gather.



  1. Peasants generally:
    1. Own the land that they farm.
    2. Support a wealthy, landowning class.
    3. Have higher standards of living than horticulturalists.
    4. Become landowners if they work hard enough.
    5. Survive only by doing part time factory work for wages.



  1. The right of an individual or family to use a piece of land and pass that land to descendants, but not to sell or trade the land is called:
    1. Private property.
    2. Rights of lien.
    3. Patrimonial rights.


  1. Usufruct right.


  1. Rights of inheritance.



  1. One critical economic difference between a firm and a household is:
    1. Firms look for profit in their cash transactions, households rarely do.


  1. Firms have no obligations to the communities in which they are found; households have many.


  1. Firms may grow with relative ease, but the structure of households limits their growth.


  1. Firms may expand their size through hiring new members but the membership of a household is fixed.


  1. Firms usually behave in a manner that is economically rational, households rarely do.



  1. A high degree of specialization of labor:
    1. Is characteristic of all human societies.
    2. Occurs more among horticulturalists than pastoralists.
    3. Is unrelated to the food-getting strategy of a group.
    4. Exists only in industrialized societies.
    5. Tends to correlate with high population and agricultural intensification.



  1. Marcel Mauss, and many other anthropologists, theorized that an important function of gift giving is to:
    1. Hold societies together.
    2. Expand the technological base of a society.
    3. Build up the economic resources of some families at the expense of other families.
    4. Provide an outlet for the innate human desire to give and receive gifts.
    5. Build up the power of the state.



  1. Generalized reciprocity is the dominant form of exchange in:
    1. Foraging societies.
    2. Pastoral societies.
    3. Peasant agricultural societies.
    4. State societies.



  1. In a system of balanced reciprocity, giving a gift to someone:
    1. Carries no obligations for either the giver or the receiver.


  1. Starts a pattern in which the giver will continue to present gifts and the recipient will show gratitude.
  2. Requires that the recipient return a more-or-less equivalent gift at a later date.
  3. Demands a counter-gift if the recipient is the same gender as the giver.
  4. Is only permitted if the giver is an adult and the recipient a child.


23.For the Trobriand Islanders, the central part of the Kula trade is:

  1. The opportunity to prove their manhood by taking long sea voyages.
  2. Trading for types of food that are unavailable on their home island.
  3. Trading for bracelets and armbands.
  4. The opportunity to meet potential mates.
  5. The after-parties that accompany all trading.



  1. Balanced reciprocity is most typical of what kinds of trading relationships?
    1. Industrialized peoples with market economies.
    2. Non-industrialized peoples without market economies.
    3. Non-industrialized peoples with market economies.
    4. Foraging societies with no formal economies.
    5. Exchange between household economies and firms.



  1. Kluckhohn showed when the Navajo traded with outsiders:
    1. They were extremely careful to be honest and fair.


  1. They engaged in silent trade, placing the goods they wanted to trade in the open and accepting whatever their trading partners gave.
  2. They were particularly interested in jewelry and less interested in money.
  3. It was considered morally acceptable to deceive.
  4. They generally got taken.



  1. All of the following were part of historical moments in the development of Belizean cuisine except:


  1. Settlement by European Baymen that introduced processed and preserved breads and meats.


  1. Migration of Belizeans to the U.S. where they developed a more distinct national Belizean cuisine that they then re-introduced to Belize.


  1. Increasing numbers of tourists to Belize that cause development of more international cuisine to cater to the tourists’ needs.


  1. Reliance on an economy of slavery in which the slaves were fed on large amounts of imported rations.


  1. Growing numbers of indigenous peoples in Belize beginning to market local products and foods.



  1. Because formal government is not present in the kula trading groups:


  1. It is important that relations between partners remain friendly to reinforce the close ties of the participants.


  1. Disorder often disrupts the stability of the trade networks.
  2. Some groups are able to achieve economic dominance over others.
  3. Participants are able to trade without fear of government laws and prohibitions.


  1. It is often difficult for trading networks to remain stable and maintain reciprocal relationships.


28.Which of the following might a chief at a potlatch be likely to do?

  1. Ask God for forgiveness of his sins.
  2. Brag about his wealth and power.
  3. Praise the wealth and power of the people he has invited.
  4. Demand that his followers worship him.
  5. Demand that those whom he invited give him gifts.


  1. When a group collects goods and then gives them out to their own members or members of other groups, they are participating in:
    1. Reciprocity
    2. A market economy.
    3. Redistribution
    4. The institutionalization of unequal wealth.
    5. The kula trade.



  1. Which of the following best describes the economics of potlatch of the tribes of the Pacific Northwest Coast?
    1. An irrational destruction of valuable property.
    2. An imitation of European parties and feasting.
    3. The most fundamental reason why these tribes have such a low standard of living.


  1. A method increasing productivity and distributing food and goods to a large dispersed population.
  2. An expression of a cultural value that emphasizes charity and helping the poor.



  1. Leveling mechanisms are ways of evening out the distribution of wealth in society. Which of the following is not an example of a leveling mechanism?


  1. The Mexican cargo system whereby wealthy adults take turns in sponsoring religious feasts.


  1. The inheritance pattern by which all of a man’s children share equally in his property.
  2. Witchcraft accusations against especially prosperous persons.
  3. The welfare and social security systems of modern industrialized nations.
  4. A public stock offering by a private firm in a capitalist society.



  1. In Mexico, a cargo is:
    1. The amount of a handicraft that can be produced in a single day.
    2. The requirement that women carry water and cook food for the family.
    3. The quantity of a crop that can be carried from field to village.
    4. The obligation of a son-in-law to provide for his wife’s parents.


  1. A religious office held for a year and requiring substantial financial outlay.


  1. Today’s market exchange system can be characterized by the phrase, “caveat emptor,” which means:


  1. “Let the buyer beware.”


  1. “All trade is equal.”
  2. “You break it, you buy it.”
  3. “Fair trade is empty trade.”
  4. “Heed all warnings.”



  1. The difference between a productive resource and a capital resource is:


  1. Capital resources can exist only in modern industrialized nations. Productive resources exist everywhere.


  1. Capital resources can exist only in modern industrialized nations. Productive resources exist only in traditional societies.


  1. The ownership of capital resources makes one wealthy, but the ownership of productive resources does not.


  1. Capital resources are used to generate profit for their owners, while productive resources do not necessarily have this function.
  2. Capital resources can be sold or inherited, productive resources cannot.



  1. Which of the following best describes capitalism?
    1. An economic system that has become predominant in the last 300 years.
    2. A system designed to provide equal life-chances for all.
    3. A system designed to minimize differences in wealth among people.
    4. A critical means governments use to control the economy.
    5. An idea present in all societies.



  1. Which of the following is one of the fundamental attributes of capitalism?
    1. People in capitalist societies sell their labor for wages in order to survive.
    2. Government plays a very little role in the regulation of the economy.
    3. All people in capitalist societies are involved in capitalism.


  1. Ownership of capital resources is spread roughly evenly throughout the population.
  2. People receive approximately the full value of their labor.



  1. When discussing anthropological research, Francisco Aguilera states that:


  1. Anthropologists often have difficulty incorporating their beliefs into the corporate world.


  1. Anthropologists do not use their participant-observer methodology outside of work conducted in the field.
  2. Disciplines in the social sciences have little to offer corporate businesses.


  1. Anthropologists are more apt at talking about culture than people from other disciplines.
  2. Anthropologists have better analytical skills than people from other disciplines.


  1. Anthropologist Eleanor Wynn’s work in a corporation demonstrates:


  1. The ease of using anthropological skills outside of an academic setting.


  1. How anthropologists are able to achieve independent status and recognition when conducting research for a corporation.


  1. The difficulty anthropologists experience when trying to find jobs outside of academia.
  2. The limited area of research available to anthropologists.
  3. How anthropological skills are essential at the corporate level.



  1. The economic production of Turkish women:
    1. Is slight and has little impact on the overall economy.
    2. Is best understood in terms of their social obligations and relations of reciprocity.
    3. Is clearly demonstrated in women’s basket weaving.


  1. Is best understood through the lens of market exchange.
  2. Is believed to have high monetary value in Turkish society.



  1. There are many people in the United States who resist capitalism. Some common ways they do so are:
    1. Joining unions.
    2. Becoming college professors.
    3. Starting their own small companies.
    4. Garage sales, hunting, and gardening.





  1. It is not necessary for every society to have an economic system.



  1. All economic behavior can be explained by financial profit and gain.




  1. Productive resources are goods, natural resources, or information that is used to create other goods.



  1. Foraging societies are likely to have rigid boundaries and defend them against encroachers.



  1. Capital is the productive resources that can be used to increase financial wealth.




  1. A household is similar to a firm because both are defined as groups that are united by kinship and have goals to increase their size indefinitely.


  1. In modern capitalist societies, people rarely get much of their identity through work.




  1. One universal aspect of the division of labor is that women have the major responsibility for child care.




  1. Industrialization and specialization have limited the access people have to goods and services.



  1. There are three types of reciprocity: generalized, neutral, and balanced.




  1. Balanced reciprocity is typical of trading relationships among non-industrialized people without market economies.




  1. Since they can be used in gardening, the key items exchanged in the Kula trade have great economic value.


  1. The objective of negative reciprocity is to gain material advantage without having to give anything in return.


  1. In Belize, there is a long tradition of national cuisine.



  1. The potlatch is an example of negative reciprocity.




  1. A leveling mechanism is a practice or form of social organization that evens out wealth in a society.




  1. Research in Zinacantan shows that the obligations to take on cargoes (or religious offices) generally prevents anyone from becoming wealthy.



  1. A capital good is anything that is used to make something else.



  1. Exchanging one’s labor for a wage is a fundamental component of capitalism.



  1. All individuals living in a capitalist society must participate in this economic system.







  1. What are the three components of economics?




  1. What do anthropologists mean by economizing behavior? Is this always linked to financial gain?



  1. What is meant by the term “productive” resources?



  1. Under what conditions do we expect to find foragers defending their territory?



  1. What are the two most critical resources for pastoralists?



  1. Name three distinctions between a household and a firm.




  1. Under what conditions do we expect an increasingly specialized and complex division of labor?



  1. What are the three types of reciprocity?



  1. How does generalized reciprocity also serve as a social mechanism in foraging societies?



  1. Describe how gift-giving creates a social relationship, according to Marcel Mauss.




  1. Belize has long been affected by global economic forces. Recently, however, two contradictory trends have developed in Belize cuisine. What are these?



  1. Describe the ceremonial exchange that takes place in kula.




  1. The competitive feast of the Kwakiutl at which chiefs distribute and destroy goods to validate their claims to prestige is called a(n) __________.




  1. A practice, value, or aspect of social organization that results in a lessening of the true disparities of wealth in a society is called a(n) __________.



  1. Name three leveling mechanisms that exist in the Chiapas district of Mexico.


  1. The predominant form of exchange in capitalist societies is __________.



  1. What are the three fundamental attributes of capitalism?



  1. Present and discuss two examples of anthropological work in the corporate world.




  1. Anthropologist Francisco Aguilera argues that anthropologists bring three unique capacities to the corporate community. What are these?



  1. What is meant by the term “new product ethnography”?








  1. Land is a changing aspect of each economic system. Describe the role of land under foraging, pastoralist, horticultural, and capitalist systems. How is it used and valued differently from one to another economic system?




  1. Write an essay in which you discuss the sorts of gift giving that are appropriate between a boss and an employee. Are such gifts examples of reciprocity (generalized, balanced, or negative) or redistribution? Why?




  1. There are examples of feasts (or holidays) similar to potlatches in modern American society. Give an example of one such celebration and explain its similarities to the potlatch.


  1. Are you a resister to capitalism? Explain the ways in which you are, or are not, with reference to the definition of capitalism provided in this chapter.




  1. Anthropology provides various techniques that can be useful in our market economy today. Choose two qualities of anthropology that you think would be particularly helpful to business and discuss the advantages each would bring to the corporate world. Provide examples.


Chapter 7: Kinship






  1. Kinship is important to the study of anthropology because:
    1. It explains political rights and obligations for all industrialized societies.
    2. It determines the economic system of all societies.


  1. It plays the key role in determining rights and obligations in nonindustrial societies.
  2. It determines the foundation of all market economies in industrialized societies.
  3. It is the only social institution present in foraging and tribal societies.



  1. The ties on which kinship systems are based:
    1. Are scientifically accurate reflections of biological ties.
    2. Are culturally specified ties that rest on biological and conjugal relationships.
    3. Are defined culturally and have no relationship at all to biological ties.


  1. Are remembered only in societies that have developed writing.
  2. Are understood only by members of a society.



  1. A correct conclusion from the chapter regarding kinship in modern, complex societies is that kinship:
    1. Has no place in these societies.
    2. Is more important than other forms of belonging, such as citizenship.


  1. Is more important as a basis of social relationships than in more traditional societies.


  1. Plays an important but not central role in establishing rights and relationships.
  2. Is more important among the lower than the upper classes.



  1. A central function of kinship in almost every society is that it provides for:
    1. The basis of government.
    2. The transfer of property between generations.
    3. Recruitment for jobs.
    4. Loans of money.


  1. The division of friends from enemies.



  1. All of the following are basic functions of kinship except:
    1. It reveals who is biologically related to whom.
    2. It defines the members of society on which an individual can depend for help.
    3. It sets up the transfer of property from one to another generation.


  1. It sets up the succession within family as social positions are transferred across generations.
  2. It serves as a way of structuring society.


  1. Which of the following is a distinction between unilineal and bilateral kinship systems?
    1. Unilineal kinship systems involve tracking descent through both parents’ lines.


  1. In bilateral kinship systems, the kin groups do not overlap.


  1. In unilineal kinship systems, the kin groups do not overlap.
  2. In bilateral kinship systems, there are no cousins.
  3. In unilineal kinship systems, there is no designated mother or father.



  1. In a system of unilineal descent:
    1. The grandfather is recognized as the only father.


  1. Descent groups, which include relatives from both the father’s and the mother’s side, are formed.
  2. A household is composed of a man, his wife, his sons, and their children.
  3. A man is not allowed to marry his cousin.


  1. An individual belongs to the descent group of either the mother or the father, but not both.



  1. Corporate descent groups tend to exist in societies with:
    1. Industrial economic systems.
    2. Unilineal descent.
    3. High geographic mobility.
    4. A complex social stratification system.


  1. In classic anthropological descriptions of Korean villages, the focus in kinship has been on:
    1. Patriarchal authority.
    2. Matrilineal descent.
    3. Sharing of property equally by brothers.
    4. Importance of the mother’s brother.



  1. Traditionally in Korean villages, the eldest son inherited most of his parents’ property. In return, he was required to:
    1. Educate his brothers and sisters at the university.
    2. Worship his parents as ancestors after their death.
    3. Sell the remaining property at the best price he could get.
    4. Live in a lavish life style to bring prestige to his family.
    5. Live in relative poverty, assuring that brothers and sisters were well cared for.



  1. The reality of kinship relations in a Korean village described by Soo Choi emphasizes:
    1. Kinship behavior closely follows kinship rules.
    2. Brothers always ally with each other against sisters.
    3. Ancestor worship is an empty ritual form.
    4. Individuals manipulate kinship rules to gain advantage.
    5. Women are unable to exploit kinship ties to their advantage.


  1. Korean village women legally:
    1. Have no right to their parents’ property.
    2. Have the right to a large cash settlement at marriage.
    3. Cannot inherit any land if they have been given a large cash settlement at marriage.
    4. Are entitled to an equal share of family property.
    5. Are entitled to a share of family property equal to half that given to a male.



  1. All of the following correctly express the differences between a lineage and a clan except:


  1. Members of a lineage can trace their common ancestors, but members of a clan cannot.


  1. Members of a lineage tend to live together or near each other, whereas members of a clan tend to be spread over different local communities.
  2. Members of a lineage recognize a blood tie, whereas members of a clan do not.


  1. Lineages have primarily domestic and economic functions, whereas clans more frequently have political and religious functions.


  1. Lineages consist of fewer members than do clans.



  1. One of the most important functions of the clan across cultures is to:
    1. Regulate marriage.
    2. Manage economic affairs of the family.
    3. Preserve the environment by sacred identification.
    4. Determine political positions.
    5. Educate young people.



  1. In a patrilineal society:
    1. Inheritance and succession flow in the male line.
    2. Men marry their female cross cousins.
    3. Women have no rights.
    4. Children avoid their relatives on their mother’s side.
    5. There is no Oedipal conflict.



  1. The Nuer are a patrilineal society in which clans and lineages function as a type of political structure. This is called:
    1. A segmentary lineage system.
    2. A segmentary corporate system.
    3. A unilineal political system.
    4. A bilateral lineage system.
    5. Political usufruct rights.



  1. In a society with matrilineal descent, the person with the most authority and responsibility for a woman and her child is her:



  1. In general, where you find matrilineal descent groups, you also find:
    1. Societies dependent on pastoralism.
    2. Men do most of the housework.
    3. Men go to live with their wife’s family after marriage.


  1. Women hold almost all of the public political roles.
  2. A woman is likely to be married to more than one man.



  1. In a matrilineal society:
    1. There is no concern over who the child’s biological father is.
    2. Women occupy the politically important positions.
    3. Inheritance and succession pass from the mother’s brother to her son.
    4. Men are afraid of women.
    5. Marriages are extremely stable.



  1. In a system of double descent, as among the Yako of Nigeria:


  1. Kinship is of no importance, and one can call on whichever individuals one wants for aid.


  1. An individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother.
  2. Kinship is important, but there are no corporate kin groups.
  3. Kinship is doubly important, because there are no other units of cooperation.
  4. Each married couple makes a joint decision about whose kin they will live with.



  1. When a daughter marries in Minangkabau society, where does she go to live?
    1. Into her family’s “big” house.


  1. Into her husband’s family’s “big” house.


  1. Into a new big house that she and her husband build.
  2. Into her father’s mother’s house.


  1. The newly married couple goes to live with her cross cousins.



  1. In Minangkabau culture, rice land that belongs to a matrihouse is controlled by:
    1. The senior male.
    2. The senior female.
    3. The first born son.
    4. The first born daughter.
    5. The nuclear family unit.



  1. A kinship system in which the establishment of rights and obligations is based on both maternal and paternal lines is called a:
    1. Bilateral system.
    2. Patrilineal system.
    3. Clan system.
    4. Lineage system.
    5. Kindred system.


  1. Bilateral kinship systems:
    1. Are found in most foraging and industrial societies.
    2. Are the most common kinship systems in tribes.
    3. Exist only among hunters and gatherers.
    4. Are found everywhere except in the United States and Europe.
    5. Are the same as double descent systems.



  1. An important kinship feature in a bilateral kinship system is:



  1. In Northern India, much of the underlying logic of the kinship system is based on all of the following except:
    1. Relative age.



  1. In Northern India, relations on the wife’s side:


  1. Are accorded the same status as relations on the husband’s side.
  2. Are forbidden to speak with relations on the husband’s side.


  1. Are prohibited from having any contact with children from the marriage.
  2. Are accorded lower status than relations on the husband’s side.


  1. Are required to joke with relations from the husband’s side.



  1. The system used for classifying kin in the United States includes distinctions based on:
    1. Generation, relative age, and collaterality.
    2. Sex of linking relative, bifurcation, and generation.
    3. Generation, consanguineal versus affinal kin, and sex of linking relative.
    4. Bifurcation, relative age, and generation.
    5. Consanguineal versus affinal kin, gender, and generation.



  1. All of the following are expressed in the American kinship terminology except:
    1. Affinal kinship.


  1. A critical factor that makes Northern Indian kinship terminology difficult for Americans is:


  1. The use of different terms for kin from the mother’s side and father’s side of the
  2. The fact that all older males within one’s family are called father.


  1. The fact that women are only rarely allowed to use a kin name when addressing members of her own family.


  1. The fact that the same individual may be called by as many as three different kin names on different occasions.


  1. The fact that some people that are much younger than you, must be called father or mother.



  1. The kinship system of the United States is most similar to that of:
    1. The Eskimo.
    2. The Yanomamo.
    3. The Hawaiian.
    4. The Hopi.
    5. The Omaha.



  1. Consanguine refers to kin that is:
    1. Related by marriage.
    2. Related by remarriage.
    3. Related by matrilineal lines only.
    4. Related by matrilineal lines only.
    5. Related by blood.



  1. The kinship classification systems that emphasize the importance of the unilineal kin group are:
    1. The Eskimo, the Omaha, and the Hawaiian.
    2. The Sudanese and the Crow.
    3. The Iroquois and the Hawaiian.
    4. The Crow, the Omaha, and the Iroquois.
    5. The Sudanese and the Eskimo.



  1. One aspect of Omaha kinship that might strike many Americans as unusual is:
    1. Everyone is called by the same name.
    2. A male can be called “mother.”


  1. Brothers are not distinguished from sisters.
  2. The term “myself” can mean either the person speaking, or one of his or her brothers or sisters.
  3. People in many generations may be called “mother’s brother.”



  1. Parallel cousins are found in the Iroquois system of kinship and are defined as:
    1. Mother’s sisters’ children or father’s brothers’ children.


  1. Mother’s brothers’ children or father’s sisters’ children.
  2. Mother’s brothers’ children or father’s brothers’ children.


  1. Mother’s sisters’ children or father’s sisters’ children.


  1. Cousins that are descended from the same ancestor.



  1. Which kinship system is the matrilineal equivalent of the Omaha system?



  1. The Sudanese kinship system uses:
    1. The same term for cousins on the mother’s side and cousins on the father’s side.


  1. The same term for father and father’s brother.


  1. The same terms for brothers and sisters and cousins.


  1. A different term for almost every category of relative.
  2. The same term for father’s brother and mother’s brother.



  1. Current American immigration policies gives preference to the following family members:
    1. Spouses only.
    2. Children only.
    3. Spouses and children.
    4. Brothers and sisters.



  1. Transnationalism is:


  1. The pattern of close ties and frequent visits between immigrants and those remaining in their home country.
  2. The pattern of immigrating to a new country.
  3. The pattern of splitting time equally between two countries.
  4. The pattern of creating new ties in the country an immigrant has migrated to.
  5. The pattern of migrating nuclear family members to a new country.



  1. What do we call immigrants who maintain close relations with their home countries?
    1. Native immigrants.


  1. Consanguineal migrants.




  1. Kinship is a culturally defined relationship.




  1. In most human societies, inheritance and succession take place as part of the kin group. ew


  1. In a unilineal kinship system, one is affiliated with family members on both the father’s and mother’s side.


  1. Clans have more domestic and economic functions than religious functions.



  1. Matrilineage refers to a lineage formed by descent in the male line.



  1. In patrilineal descent groups, inheritance moves from father to son.


  1. In Nuer culture, kinship lineage is important because all who are not in some way kin are enemies.




  1. Women usually have a lower status in societies where there is a matrilineal reckoning of descent than they do in a patrilineal society.




  1. In Minangkabau culture, when a woman gets married she and her husband move into her family’s “big house.”




  1. In Minangkabau culture, once a son gets married he no longer remains a kinsmen of his original matrihouse.




  1. Bilateral descent is also called double descent.



  1. There are more terms for kin in American society than in North Indian society.




  1. In India, social interaction with one’s mother’s parents is very different from that with one’s father’s parents.


  1. If a society classifies kin according to relative age, it would have different terms to designate older and younger brothers.



  1. Relatives by marriage are called consanguineal kin.



  1. In North India, the kinship system uses bifurcation.




  1. The Eskimo system singles out the biologically closest group of relations and treats more distant kin more or less equally.




  1. The great variety of systems of kinship indicates to us that kinship is not based simply on biological relations.



  1. Sudanese is the most descriptive kinship system.




  1. The term transmigrant has been coined to refer to immigrants who cut ties with their home countries.






  1. Distinguish between inheritance and succession.



  1. Name three basic functions of kinship.


  1. What is the primary difference between systems of unilineal and bilateral descent?



  1. A group of kin who trace descent from a known common ancestor is called a __________.



  1. Contrast a lineage with a clan. Name at least 3 differences.



  1. What is a segmentary lineage system?



  1. There are two fundamental ties recognized by every society. What are they?



  1. Describe the relationship between a son and his father in a matrilineal society.


  1. How does the individual trace descent in a system of double descent?




  1. The Yako of Nigeria practice double descent. What are the different functions of the matriclans and patriclans among them?



  1. What are the two forms of nonunilineal descent?



  1. Distinguish between bilateral and ambilineal descent.



  1. Name three principles of North Indian kinship that are not usually found in U.S. kinship.



  1. How are parallel cousins different from cross cousins?



  1. What is collateral kin? Give an example.



  1. Name the six primary forms of kinship that anthropologist recognize today.




  1. Among what types of subsistence societies would we expect to find the Eskimo kinship system practiced?



  1. Which three kinship systems are found most commonly within unilineal societies?



  1. Why do kinship systems use the metaphor of biology?



  1. What is the current kinship preference policy in the United States for immigration?






  1. How is kinship a socio-cultural construct and not a biological one? Discuss the ways that biology and culture interact and overlap in kinship systems.




  1. What is the role of gender in unilineal kinship systems? How are these principles applied to daily life, and what is their role in structuring society?


  1. In tribal societies, kinship is the most important principle of association. Discuss some important functions of kinship in tribal societies using examples.




  1. Although kinship is not considered as central to an industrial society as to a tribal one, it does, in fact, play a significant role and can have very important consequences. In this essay, discuss the various ways that kinship can overlap with economics, politics, and social policies such as immigration in industrial societies.




  1. Discuss the major differences in the kinship terminology systems between North India and the United States, and account for those differences in the value systems of the two cultures.


Chapter 8: Marriage, Family, and Domestic Groups






  1. What do the Na of China do during their “visits?”


  1. Exchange gifts.
  2. Go out for a meal.
  3. Make love.
  4. Arrange marriages.


  1. Which of the following are Na men very unlikely to do?
    1. Invite a lover to visit them in their homes.
    2. Ride in motorized vehicles.
    3. Have sex before they are 30.
    4. Engage in agriculture.


  1. Join the army.



  1. A critical problem faced by the Na is:


  1. Dealing with a culturally powerful Chinese government that disapproves of Na practices.
  2. Continual food shortages.
  3. The fact that children rarely know who their parents really are.
  4. The fact that their marriage system is unnatural and therefore difficult to sustain.


  1. Constant conflict between fathers who want rights to their children and mothers who deny fathers such rights.



  1. Which of the following is the most important function of marriage?
    1. Agreement between parties to maximize sexual competition.
    2. Creation of a stable environment in which to raise children.
    3. Arrangement between families for economic gains.
    4. Accord between individuals so that they can obtain political status.
    5. Ritual ordained by religion so that the church can endure.



  1. Which of the following practices is commonly found among the Navajo?
    1. A woman’s children are considered legitimate members of the matriclan whether or not she is married.
    2. A man’s children are considered legitimate only if he resides with the woman for more than one year.


  1. Sexual activity is never permitted outside of marriage, and it is rare for children to be born outside of wedlock.


  1. Children are believed to belong to the tribe itself and are not members of any nuclear family until they marry.
  2. The patriclan of the tribe controls children and they are raised by the father’s


  1. In arranged marriages:
    1. The wife’s family never initiates the arrangement.


  1. The couple always lives with the husband’s family (patrilocal residence).


  1. The woman is valued for her economic potential.
  2. Both families lose face (social status) if they reject the marriage offer.
  3. Marriage brokers are frequently used.



  1. One of the exceptions to the almost universal prohibition on brother/sister marriage was among:
    1. The Toda of India.
    2. The Tiwi of Australia.
    3. The ancient Hawaiian royalty.
    4. The Kipsigis of East Africa.
    5. Medieval Europan Royalty.



  1. Incest taboos universally apply to:
    1. Members of the same village.
    2. Mothers and sons.
    3. First cousins.
    4. Cross cousins but not parallel cousins.



  1. A widely accepted function of the incest taboo is that it:
    1. Helps families form wider alliances.
    2. Prevents recessive genes from appearing in human populations.
    3. Demonstrates our connections with other primate families.
    4. Raises the intelligence level of the human species.
    5. Is key to maintaining the species differences between humans and other primates.



  1. If you live in a society that practices exogamy, you must:
    1. Have more than one husband or wife.
    2. Get married (no one is allowed to be a single adult).
    3. Marry someone of your own social group.
    4. Marry someone of a different social group.
    5. Marry someone chosen by your mother’s parents.



  1. In the United States, although there are no formal endogamous rules, social groups tend to be endogamous by:


  1. Hair color.
  2. Nuclear family.
  3. Extended family.


  1. Which are the most common types of preferential marriages?
    1. Marriage with foreigners.
    2. Marriage with cross cousins.
    3. Marriage with siblings.
    4. Marriage into an elder generation.
    5. Marriage to mother’s sisters’ children.



  1. In a system of cross-cousin marriage, a man would be required to marry:
    1. His mother’s sister’s daughter.
    2. His mother’s brother’s daughter.
    3. His father’s brother’s daughter.
    4. A woman with whom he has no blood relations.
    5. A member of his own village.



  1. Where the levirate and the sororate exist, they testify to the importance of:
    1. Romantic love as a reason for getting married.
    2. The emotional attachment between brothers and sisters.
    3. The diffusion of this Judaic custom from its Middle Eastern origin.
    4. Marriage as an alliance between families, rather than between individuals.
    5. The unimportance of children as a reason for getting married.



  1. Which of the following is the most common form of marriage (favored) across cultures?
    1. Serial monogamy.
    2. Sororal polyandry.



  1. When a society practices polygyny:
    1. Most men will have more than one wife.
    2. Some men will have more than one wife.
    3. Some women will have more than one husband.
    4. Most women will have more than one husband.


  1. Some men will have more than one wife and some women will have more than one husband.



  1. Polygyny among the Tiwi of Australia is most usefully viewed as:
    1. A result of the extraordinary sexual desire on the part of Tiwi males.
    2. An adaptation to the importance of food gathering as the basic means of survival.
    3. An abnormal marriage pattern among the world’s cultures.
    4. An illustration of the high degree of conflict in families with more than one wife.
    5. An effect of conversion to Christianity.


  1. Among the Tiwi, as a woman grows older, her social position:
    1. Declines, as she loses her looks.
    2. Increases, as she becomes eligible for political office and tribal chief.
    3. Increases, as her status as senior wife gives her social influence.
    4. Declines, as her husband takes on younger co-wives.
    5. Remains at the same low state as when she was young.



  1. A female perspective on the Tiwi marriage system indicates that:
    1. Tiwi women are totally dominated by their husbands.
    2. There are no advantages for women in this marriage system.
    3. Tiwi wives enjoy both sexual and social freedom.
    4. Women benefit psychologically by having husbands much older than themselves.
    5. There is no such thing as sexual egalitarianism in foraging societies.



  1. Polyandry is adapted to a number of different economic and demographic circumstances. Among the Toda of South India, it is an adaptation to the:
    1. Shortage of land.
    2. Need for men to be away as soldiers for long periods of time.
    3. Shortage of females, created by female infanticide.
    4. Low birth rate of females as compared with males.
    5. High degree of occupational specialization.



  1. When a society practices fraternal polyandry:
    1. Brothers share a wife.
    2. It is the younger brother’s responsibility to find a bride for the older brother.


  1. Two sisters are married to two brothers.


  1. They always also practice sororal polygyny.
  2. Women have much more power than men.



  1. Which of the following correctly defines “bride service”?


  1. A ritual done in many cultures in which a man pledges his daughter to the son of a friend.
  2. Payments made by the family of the bride to the family of the groom.
  3. Payments made to cover the cost of rituals associated with marriage.
  4. Labor performed by the groom for the family of the bride.


  1. Gifts given to a newly married couple, particularly gifts associated with preparing and serving food.



  1. In societies where accumulating material goods is difficult, the most likely exchange at marriage is:
    1. Bride service.
    2. Money gifts.


  1. No exchanges of gifts or services.


  1. The main function of bridewealth is to:
    1. Assure that the new family has sufficient wealth to support itself.
    2. Increase the status of the bride’s family.
    3. Legitimate the marriage.
    4. Reimburse the bride’s family for her high school fees.
    5. Provide the bride and groom with furnishings for their new home.



  1. With regard to the stability of a marriage, bridewealth payments:
    1. Have no effect.
    2. Have a destabilizing effect.
    3. Tend to stabilize marriages.
    4. Make it easier for a husband to leave his wife than for her to leave him.
    5. Make it easier for a wife to leave her husband than for him to leave her.



  1. Over the last century, among the Kipsigis of East Africa, bridewealth payments have:
    1. Disappeared under the pressure of colonialism and modernity.
    2. Increased, to cover the rising cost of living.
    3. Remained the same in spite of changed economic conditions.
    4. Decreased, as other economic opportunities compete for a man’s investments.
    5. Been prohibited by law.



  1. Among the Kipsigis, in negotiating the terms of the bridewealth payment, a woman’s parents:
    1. Will frequently forgo the payment if the man is nice.
    2. Will ask more payment if their daughter is in love with the man.
    3. Will be motivated solely by making the best financial arrangement they can.
    4. Will ask less for a highly educated woman who can earn her own living.


  1. Try to find a balance between seeking a high bridewealth payment and concern for their daughter’s hap



  1. Dowry is:
    1. The obligation of a man to work for his wife’s family.


  1. Wealth that moves from the family of the husband to the family of the wife.
  2. The obligation of premarital chastity commonly found in European societies.
  3. A husband’s obligation to provide his wife’s family with vast tracts of land.


  1. A presentation of goods by the bride’s kin to the groom’s family.



  1. Some theories propose that dowry is a source of security for women in society. However, these are not wholly accurate because in many cases:
    1. Dowry is symbolic only.
    2. The amount of dowry is too small to serve such a function.
    3. Women do not retain control over their own dowries.
    4. Dowry is actually used to pay debts owed to non-relatives.
    5. Dowry is likely to cause jealousy and hence ill treatment by the husband’s family.


  1. The fact that neolocal families are common in many industrialized societies is related to:
    1. The high rate of divorce in such societies.
    2. The high levels of mobility common in such societies.


  1. The government assistance to both the poor and the housing industry common in such societies.
  2. The declining role of religion in such societies.
  3. The marginalization of women in such societies.



  1. The nuclear family appears to be well adapted to:
    1. Intensive cultivation.



  1. Which of the following correctly characterizes relations between children and their divorced fathers in the United States?
    1. In most cases, divorced fathers take an active role in raising their children.


  1. Almost half of the children of divorced parents have not seen their biological father for more than a year.


  1. Shared custody is common in the United States and most children see their biological fathers at least once a month.


  1. At least half of all children of divorced parents have legally severed relations with one of their parents, usually the father.
  2. Since divorced, non-custodial fathers tend to be permissive, their children’s relationships with them tend to be warmer than those children’s relations with their



  1. In the United States, the “cultural defense” has sometimes been used to justify:


  1. Organized crime.
  2. Domestic violence.
  3. Consumer fraud.
  4. Illegal immigration.
  5. Armed robbery.



  1. The “cultural defense” argues that in domestic violence cases:


  1. An immigrant’s cultural values take precedence over American law.


  1. Women’s views of their culture are more important than men’s views.
  2. The United States has an obligation to educate immigrants in American law.


  1. Ignorance of the law by immigrants is an acceptable excuse for husbands battering their wives.
  2. Cultural background should be considered a mitigating factor in a defendant’s violent behavior.


  1. Which of the following is most likely to occur in a society where polygyny is frequent?


  1. The nuclear family.
  2. The composite family.
  3. A matrilocal residence rule.
  4. Matrilineal inheritance.
  5. Cross-cousin marriage.



  1. If your society has avunculocal residence, then, after marriage, a new couple will be expected to live with:
    1. The husband’s family.


  1. The wife’s family.
  2. The chief’s family.
  3. Their maternal grandmother’s family.
  4. The husband’s mother’s brother’s family.



  1. In premodern Chinese families, as women with male children grew older:
    1. They were increasingly oppressed and marginalized in their families.


  1. They tended to become more powerful, often becoming the dominant person in the household.
  2. They were often discarded by their husbands in favor of younger, sexier wives.


  1. Relations between them and their husbands tended to grow increasingly contentious.
  2. They often divorced and sought out new, more powerful husbands.



  1. The extended family seems to have clear advantages:
    1. In stable cultivating societies where ownership of land is important.
    2. In hunting and gathering societies living on the margins of existence.
    3. In industrial societies with large urban populations.
    4. In socialist rather than capitalist societies.
    5. Where marriage is a matter of free choice rather than arrangement.



  1. In most cases, in pre-modern societies, the elderly are respected:
    1. When they have wealth, power, and descendents.
    2. To a far greater extent than in most modern societies.
    3. But only after they have grandchildren.
    4. If they are male. If they are female, not so much.
    5. Because they control access to land and water.



  1. The concept that caring for the elderly is a burden:
    1. Is most common among foraging societies.
    2. Rarely occurs in pre-modern societies.
    3. Is linked to conditions where warfare is common.
    4. Is widespread and occurs even in societies where group harmony is valued.


  1. Is a particular aspect of current-day Western society because of its focus on money earning.




  1. Marriage is the way most societies arrange for the products and services of men and women to be exchanged and for the care of children.



  1. The most basic tie in society is between husband and wife.



  1. The Na of China, have no word for marriage.




  1. Among the Na of China, romantic love is considered more important and long lasting than family love.




  1. One anthropological explanation for the incest taboo is that such taboos prevent sex with close relatives from causing disruption within the family.



  1. Endogamy is the social rule that you must marry within your own group.




  1. In societies that practice preferential marriage, when there is no available partner, the individuals remain unmarried.



  1. The levirate is a custom in which the woman marries her deceased husband’s brother.




  1. Among the Tiwi, a man may betroth his infant daughter to a friend or potential ally who he thinks will bring him economic aid and social advantage




  1. Among the Toda, the fact that wives could have multiple husbands might have been caused by high levels of female infanticide.




  1. Societies in which the accumulation of goods is difficult are likely to have a practice of bride service, rather than bridewealth.


  1. Although the use of dowry was typical in Indian culture, it is now illegal to demand dowry as a precondition for marriage.



  1. In India, the use of dowry is increasing.


  1. In the United States, single motherhood is increasing today.



  1. Neolocal residence is when a couple can choose to live with either the wife or the husband’s



  1. Matrilineal, matrilocal extended families were common in pre-modern China.



  1. Among the Hopi, a boy’s relationship with his father is generally affectionate and involves little discipline because the Hopi are a patrilineal society.


  1. To replace the population, women must have, on average, between 2.1 and 2.5 children.



  1. The Ju/’hoansi demonstrate that, when a society has few material resources, it is not likely to respect elders or provide much care for them.


  1. The “cultural defense” is not considered a mitigating circumstance in U.S. courts.






  1. Define marriage.



  1. Based on current statistics, what is the “typical” U.S. family? How is it composed?



  1. Describe the type of courting relationships that are practiced among the Na of China.



  1. Why would a family seek a marriage broker?



  1. Compare and contrast exogamy and endogamy.



  1. Are incest taboos universal? Explain your answer.



  1. Name and describe two types of polygamy.



  1. What are the advantages of polygyny? Name three.


  1. Name three kinds of exchanges made in connection with marriage.



  1. What is fraternal polyandry?



  1. How and why have Kipsigis bridewealth amounts changed over the years?



  1. How is dowry different from bridewealth?




  1. Is aging considered a burden to families in all societies? Use examples to illustrate your answer.



  1. Present and discuss the various theories of dowry in India.



  1. What is a blended family?




  1. What are the most significant trends of change that have occurred to the American family most recently?



  1. What is the strongest and most important tie in Hopi society? Why?



  1. How has globalization affected the family? Name at least two effects.



  1. What is a “cultural defense”?



  1. How is the Ju’/hoansi interaction with elders and aging different from that of an urban society?






  1. What is the role of romantic love in marriages cross-culturally? Compare several types of societies and consider how the affection between a couple might be different because of a different marriage.


  1. Different kinds of family systems appear to be adaptive in different kinds of ecological situations. Discuss the conditions under which the nuclear and the extended family appear to be most functional.




  1. In societies that practice high levels of bridewealth and bride service, the marriage tend to be more stable. Discuss how this is an advantage to both the families and the couple.




  1. Discuss changing trends in the family structure in the United States. Have any of these affected you personally? How are these adaptations to our changing world?




  1. Describe the three major rules of residence, the kinds of domestic groups in which they occur, and the kinds of sociocultural situations that they foster. How would a couple’s life be different from one to another type of residence?


Chapter 9: Gender






  1. Margaret Mead’s study of the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli showed that:
    1. Women in all cultures have the same personality traits.
    2. Only in the United States are women primarily concerned with child care.
    3. The relationship between gender and personality varies with cultural expectations.
    4. Where women work, they are more likely to be aggressive.
    5. Where women’s qualities are valued, men’s qualities are likely to be devalued.



  1. Which of the following is the most accurate description of Margaret Mead’s impact on the gender issues in cultural anthropology?


  1. She had little impact; her books weren’t highly regarded.
  2. Her work showed that gender was primarily a biological phenomenon.
  3. Her work questioned the biologically determined nature of gender.


  1. The fact that most of her work was about women showed that they were an important part of culture.
  2. Though ignored in the U.S., Mead’s work was hailed in Europe. Thus, gender studies were far more advanced in Europe than in the U.S.



  1. Contemporary anthropological approaches to gender emphasize:
    1. Questions about why there are so few women in anthropology.
    2. Explanations for universal male dominance.
    3. The central role of gender relations as a basic building block of culture.
    4. The ways in which men in many cultures feel threatened by female empowerment.
    5. Ways to increase women’s power in contemporary society.



  1. The idea that gender is “constructed” means that:


  1. Most cultures have few expectations about behavior as it relates to gender.


  1. In a free society, like the United States, we can take on any gender characteristics we like.


  1. Masculine and feminine are essentially the same in all cultures, and any differences across cultures are relatively superficial.
  2. Gender is established by social norms and values rather than biology.


  1. Gender traits are best analyzed with reference to material items, especially the built environment.



  1. Among some subarctic hunting cultures, a family with no sons might perform a transformation ceremony for a daughter selected to “be like a man.” As part of this ceremony, they tied dried bear ovaries to her belt to prevent menstruation and pregnancy. This description indicates that:


  1. Subarctic Indian peoples need sex education as part of their modern school curriculum.
  2. Hunting societies recognize that women are equal to men in their hunting ability.


  1. These peoples recognize, as most people in the world do, the difference between sex and gender.
  2. Gender categories for these societies are not divided into masculine and feminine.


  1. For these people, cultural features could be as important in determining the gender of a child as biology.



  1. The masculine cultural belief in Spain that women’s lust is a threat to male honor and dignity is:
    1. A contemporary belief with no historical roots.


  1. Realistic given the high rate of temporary male migration which leaves women unprotected at home.


  1. Rooted in traditional Christianity where the lustful woman is symbolized by Eve as Adam’s temptress.
  2. A unique cultural pattern found in few other places in the world.


  1. In contrast to traditional Christianity where women are regarded as dignified, virginal persons.



  1. Men in Andalusia, Spain generally view women as:
    1. More intelligent than men.



  1. In woman/woman marriages:
    1. The wife and her female husband always have sexual relations.
    2. The woman husband always takes on masculine characteristics.


  1. The woman husband is someone who for a variety of reasons no man wanted for a wife.


  1. The female husband may take on aspects of the male gender role such as participating in male initiation rituals.
  2. Wives with female husbands are always regarded as inferior and stigmatized.



  1. The two-spirit are best described as:
    1. Women who have become men through a surgical procedure.
    2. Women and men who live with same-sex partners in a homosexual lifestyle.
    3. Transsexuals who occupy both gender roles at all times.


  1. Individuals who have no identifiable gender and work in society as partners to either gender.


  1. Men who take on women’s work and clothing and are considered to have supernatural powers.


  1. The area of the world most associated with the two-spirit is:
    1. West Africa.
    2. Southern Spain.
    3. Native societies of North America.
    4. New Guinea.



  1. One reason that some societies allow women to take on male roles is:
    1. To assure that there are enough sexual partners for everyone.
    2. To allow every individual to fulfill their potential.
    3. To assure that there are people to fill all important kin positions.
    4. To grant recognition to women in societies that generally oppress women.
    5. To allow elite women to represent their families.



  1. In what types of societies would you most expect to encounter sex/gender alternatives?


  1. In industrial societies where there is little parental supervision.


  1. In societies undergoing rapid change, because there is a need to constantly adjust gender roles.
  2. In societies where there is a great deal of warfare and no way to resolve conflict.
  3. In societies where monogamy is the only option for marriage.
  4. In societies where androgyny is considered sacred and powerful.



  1. The hijra subculture:
    1. Has no connection to the rest of Indian society.
    2. Is ignored by Indian society.
    3. Was introduced by the British into Indian society.
    4. Has disappeared from Indian society.
    5. Has a ritual role in Indian society.



  1. The power of the hijras in Indian culture comes through their:
    1. Practice of prostitution.
    2. High entertainment standards of dancing and singing.
    3. Attempts to completely identify with the goddess Bahuchara Mata.
    4. Ownership of land and property.
    5. Patronage by the British during colonial days.



  1. One area of recent success for hijras in India is:
    1. Film making.


  1. One of the world’s most sexually repressed societies is the:
    1. Irish of Inis Beag.
    2. Peasant villages of Southern Spain.
    3. Arapesh of New Guinea.
    4. United States of America.



  1. Which of the following beliefs is typical of the Sambia?
    1. Homosexuals should be punished by stoning.
    2. Only men can make men.
    3. Women should endure but not enjoy sex.
    4. One of the sexiest things you can do is eat your partner’s hair lice.


  1. Boys who are effeminate should not have sexual relations with girls.



  1. Sexual relations in Mangaia:
    1. Don’t begin until men and women are in their thirties.


  1. Are as common between men as between men and women.


  1. Are a very serious and private matter, generally kept secret until the birth of children.
  2. Take place in private, but with much public joking.
  3. Frequently take place in public.



  1. The important contribution of Margaret Mead’s Coming of Age in Samoa was:


  1. To introduce American readers to Pacific Island lifestyles.


  1. To support the notion that you could have a socially conservative society with sexually permissive lifestyles.


  1. To prove that homosexuality was one variety of normal sexual behavior.
  2. To show that American ideas of adolescence were not universal.
  3. To demonstrate the value of rites of passage in maintaining social solidarity.



  1. One piece of evidence that supports a Freudian interpretation for male rites of passage is that:
    1. They occur in all societies.


  1. They are more common in cultures in which boys have strong identification with their mothers.
  2. The imagery used in them seems to be closely associated with dreams.
  3. They involve elements of repression and reaction formation.
  4. Many of the themes they express seem closely tied to the id.



  1. Judith Brown found that initiation rites for girls are more likely to occur in:
    1. Societies in which women hold roles of political importance.
    2. Societies in which religion involves female priests.
    3. Societies in which women are deeply oppressed by men.
    4. Societies in which women continue to live in their mothers’ houses after marriage.


  1. Societies in which the avunculate is practiced.


  1. Research on female initiation rites in New Guinea suggests that the principal idea expressed in such rites is:
    1. The duty of women to serve their husbands.
    2. The secret ritual dominance of women over men in these societies.


  1. The fact that even though they marry, their primary obligations are to their own families, not their husbands’.
  2. The principle of patrilineality.
  3. The complementarity of male and female.



  1. What does a Manam (a group in New Guinea) girl display at the time of her initiation?
    1. Jewelry that she has made.
    2. Food that she has prepared.
    3. Wealth her parents and clan have contributed for the event.
    4. Pigs that she and her sisters have raised.
    5. New dances that she has developed to display her personality.



  1. According to David Gilmore, similar ideas of manhood are almost a universal aspect of male behavior because:
    1. Those who possess it are likely to be more successful in the search for mates.
    2. Those who possess it are likely to be more economically successful.
    3. It helps to assure that men fill their roles as procreators, protectors, and providers.
    4. The need to establish hierarchy is a fundamental aspect of all human societies.
    5. Women universally harass men who do not demonstrate machismo.



  1. All of the following are arguments commonly used to explain the existence of a gender hierarchy except:
    1. Women’s lowered status is due to the private/public dichotomy.


  1. Women’s status is higher in societies where they do not have any domestic duties and work, instead, outside of the home.


  1. Women and men have differential status based on their distribution and exchange of resources.


  1. The expansion of capitalism and colonialism has had enormous impact on non-Western gender hierarchies.
  2. Male dominance correlates with the existence of ecological stress and warfare.



  1. In gender studies, the idea of the public/private dichotomy refers to the notion that:


  1. Behavior of both men and women is different in the public sphere than in the private sphere.


  1. Men act differently toward women in public than they do in private.


  1. Women are able to maintain more power over men if their actions are public than if they are private.
  2. Private relationships between men and women are threatened by public disclosure.


  1. Societies are divided into a private world dominated by women and a public world dominated by men.


  1. Tlingit women generally consider men to be:
    1. The only ones who can hold political office.
    2. Physically weaker than women.
    3. Irresponsible with money.
    4. Unable to conduct ceremonies accurately.
    5. The only ones who can properly accumulate wealth and handle money.


  1. According to anthropologist Laura Klein, Tlingit men:
    1. Resent women’s power.
    2. Are supportive of women taking leadership roles in the community.
    3. Blame women for the break-up of Tlingit families.
    4. Share equally in domestic chores so women can work.
    5. Initiate a high degree of domestic violence.



  1. Women’s hunting among the Agata illustrates that:


  1. Women are just as strong and fast as men.
  2. Child rearing is really best done by the child’s biological parents.


  1. Women, in some situations, can bring home larger quantities of game than men.
  2. The demands of child rearing can be adapted to economic needs.
  3. Young girls are better hunters than young boys but after puberty, boys are better.



  1. Which of the following is common in horticultural societies?
    1. Men’s cults are closed to women.


  1. Women earn their living by market trading.
  2. Women control the cash crops, but men control subsistence crops.
  3. Men are likely to adopt innovations rapidly, but women are not.
  4. Women are key religious leaders.



  1. An important source of status for women in Nukumanu was:
    1. Drinking kareve.
    2. Controlling swamp taro lands.
    3. Wage labor.


  1. With the introduction of wage labor into Nukumanu, in the 19th century, women’s status has:
    1. Gone up economically, but down socially.
    2. Declined economically and socially.
    3. Increased in cultural and ritual importance.
    4. Remained the same as prior to Western contact.
    5. Increased as a result of their participation in the church.



  1. Chinese factories hire dagongmei because:
    1. They are a cheap source of labor.
    2. They are likely to be better trained than other workers.
    3. Since they are orphans, they are easily exploited.


  1. The government provides extra cash incentives for companies that hire them.
  2. They need to provide entertainment for their male workers.



  1. All of the following are common attributes of gender relations in pastoral societies except:


  1. Frequent warfare.
  2. Male-centered kinship systems.
  3. Joint male-female ownership of herds.
  4. Male dominance overall.
  5. Male-female control over the distribution of herds.



  1. Despite the many difficulties they face, dagongmai continue to work in factories because:


  1. They rarely have any other choices.
  2. Their parents or husbands demand that they do so.


  1. The life of a dagongmai is often better than it would be if the person had remained in their village.


  1. They usually have large debts that they must pay off.
  2. They believe that such work is their best way of finding a mate.



  1. The rise of plow agriculture has generally:
    1. Not affected women’s status.
    2. Lowered women’s status.
    3. Raised women’s status.
    4. Resulted in lower birth rates.
    5. Increased women’s longevity.



  1. Frequently, the effect of development projects has been to:
    1. Improve the lives of women and children relative to men.
    2. Decrease the quality of life for all members of a community.
    3. Increase the disparity between men and women in a community.
    4. Increase the availability of government jobs to women.
    5. Allow women to access positions of prestige and power previously denied to them.



  1. Increased globalization and the movement from rural agriculture to urban industrial employment:
    1. Almost always benefits men at the expense of women.
    2. Offers the promise of a better life for children, particularly girls.
    3. Benefits men and women equally.
    4. May benefit women more than men.
    5. Almost always results in a decrease in the quality of life for women.



  1. For Muslims, wearing the hijab:
    1. Varies substantially from culture to culture.
    2. Is the same in all Muslim cultures since the Qur’an is the same sacred text.


  1. Is generally required only of married women.
  2. Is far more common in rural areas than in cities.


  1. Is a practice that is rapidly disappearing.



  1. In France, the growing number of Muslim immigrants has led to:
    1. Greater tolerance of religion throughout French society.
    2. A requirement that all students be taught Christianity in public schools.


  1. A series of terror attacks aimed at forcing French authorities to officially recognize Islam.
  2. The outlawing of headscarves in public schools.
  3. Legislation that supported equal rights for men and women.





  1. Margaret Mead was an important early cultural anthropologist who emphasized the importance of culture in gender behavior.




  1. The cultural differences between males and females are due entirely to biology, although they are sometimes understood differently from one culture to another.




  1. Gender is the social, cultural, and psychological constructs that are imposed on the biological differences of sex.



  1. Alternative, or multiple sexes and genders have been found only in Native North America.



  1. The Native American “two spirit” is best described as an effeminate homosexual.



  1. Men in “San Blas,” Spain assert that all women are “seductresses and whores.”


  1. Some sexual interactions, such as kissing, are practiced universally, while others are not.



  1. Hijras are born as men but undergo a surgical procedure to remove their genitals.



  1. Politics is a traditional role for hijras.



  1. “Inis Beag,” a community near Galway in Ireland, is known as one of the most sexually naïve of all the world’s societies.



  1. Anthropological research shows that psychic conflict and rebellion are characteristic of adolescence in all societies.


  1. One anthropological perspective understands male initiation as a type of fertility cult.



  1. Female initiation rites in New Guinea stress the powers that women have over men.


  1. There are many different ways of showing maleness cross-culturally, but there is no culture in which prestige is not part of it.



  1. The public/private dichotomy is particularly important in foraging societies.




  1. The solidarity of women in horticultural societies is mainly based on their participation in religious cults and associations.




  1. As the cultivation of taro among the Nukumanu has declined, women have become more dependent on men.




  1. Historically, when agricultural societies have entered the cash economy, the position of women has improved.



  1. In some Muslim countries, such as Tunisia, the wearing of the veil is discouraged.



  1. In recent years, women in Iran have moved away from wearing the burka in public.






  1. Describe theoretical contributions of Margaret Mead in the area of gender studies in anthropology.



  1. Distinguish between sex and gender.



  1. What do anthropologists mean by saying that there is a “cultural construction of gender”?



  1. In what types of societies do we frequently find sex/gender alternatives?



  1. What was the primary role of the two-spirit in most Native American societies?


  1. How is sexual behavior also a cross-cultural value?



  1. What is the primary role of hijras in Indian society?



  1. In most societies, how did European colonialism impact alternative genders?



  1. What do anthropologists explain as the primary importance of male initiation rites?




  1. What widespread characteristics might we expect to find associated with the idea of maleness cross-culturally?



  1. Among foragers such the Ju’/hoansi the idea of maleness is associated with prestige in a different way. Describe how ridicule and shaming are used to diminish prestige in this society.



  1. What is meant by the concept of “gender hierarchy”?



  1. Many anthropologists agreed that women’s lower status in society was caused by the private/public dichotomy. Ernestine Friedl disagreed. What were her arguments against this position?



  1. Describe gender relations in foraging societies.



  1. Compare and contrast gender relations in horticultural and pastoral societies.



  1. What is a dagongmei?




  1. How have gender relations frequently been affected by foreign aid and development programs in agricultural societies?



  1. What is a hijab?



  1. How is the hijab a symbol of the complexity of gender relations cross-culturally?


  1. Under which type of subsistence system would you expect more gender equality and why?






  1. How is gender affected by subsistence? Choose two different subsistence strategies and explain how gender roles shift as a result of these changing means of production.




  1. Margaret Mead was one of the first anthropologists to show that sex and gender roles vary cross-culturally. Discuss why this was an important contribution to anthropology and our understanding of human societies across cultures.




  1. Describe alternative gender roles cross-culturally and explain their significance for anthropological theories of gender.


  1. Using examples, discuss some ways in which the impact of technological development and entry into a cash economy has been different for men and women in different cultures.



  1. Explain the difference between the concepts “sex” and “gender” and discuss some of the ways, with examples, that culture constructs gender roles.


Chapter 10: Political Organization






  1. A society’s political organization is primarily related to:


  1. The ecology of the area that they inhabit.
  2. The degree of access individuals and groups have to basic material resources.
  3. The presence of powerful individuals within the society.
  4. The political organization of neighboring societies.
  5. Whether or not they were ever colonized.



  1. Anthropologists commonly distinguish three patterns of social differentiation:
    1. Cephalus, acephalous, decephalous.
    2. Small, medium, and large.
    3. Democratic, communist, and fascist.
    4. Egalitarian, rank, and stratified.
    5. Primitive, advanced, technological.



  1. The study of political processes focuses on:


  1. The ways in which different groups within a society use power and authority to achieve goals.
  2. The written laws used to regulate behavior in complex societies.
  3. National elections in democratic societies.
  4. The origin of prehistoric state societies.
  5. Informal means of social control in pre-state societies.



  1. The dominance of a political elite based on a close identification between their own goals and those of the larger society is called:



  1. One thing that the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria as well as the Mende of Sierra Leone have in common is that:


  1. They are all hunting-gathering societies.
  2. They are all societies that have important third gender groups.
  3. In all three, the king is also the head priest.
  4. In all three, women held important formal political office.
  5. All three were state level societies.


  1. Fear of witchcraft accusations would best be categorized as:
    1. A formal mechanism of justice.
    2. An informal mechanism of social control.
    3. A use of psychology by authorities to control unwanted society members.
    4. Irrational, since witches do not exist in any society.
    5. The best way to avoid being the victim of a witch or sorcerer.



  1. In regulating human behavior, law:
    1. Is only one among many forms of social control.
    2. Is most effective in small, homogeneous tribal societies.
    3. By itself has no effect on human behavior.
    4. Is much less effective than supernatural controls in complex societies.
    5. Has no place in small, tribal societies.


  1. As the text defines law, it exists:
    1. Only in state societies.
    2. In all human societies.
    3. Only in societies with a system of courts and judges.
    4. In all societies except those at the very simplest sociocultural level.
    5. Only in societies where writing has developed.



  1. An important way of resolving conflict in band-level societies involves all of the following except:
    1. Individuals moving from one band to another.
    2. Contests between individuals.
    3. Public confession.



  1. Which statement is most true of conflict in band-level societies?
    1. Band-level societies never have conflict within the band.
    2. Conflict is mainly between corporate kin groups fighting over land.
    3. Band-level societies frequently engage in warfare.
    4. Band-level societies minimize conflict between individuals but it does occur.


  1. Band-level societies have died out mainly because their excessive interpersonal violence led to population decreases.



  1. A tribal society:
    1. Is a creation of Western colonial administrators and not naturally occurring.
    2. Imagines all of its members to be related by kinship.
    3. Is characterized by peaceful relations among its different segments.
    4. Lacks any social mechanisms to hold its different units together.
    5. Is constantly in a state of warfare.


  1. In a society that is characterized by age grades:
    1. Chiefs control all of the critical material resources.


  1. People follow a well-ordered progression through a series of age-related life stages.
  2. Rituals are rarely necessary.


  1. People who lack the necessary skills to progress to the next grade are cast out of society.
  2. People are very unlikely to make significant investments in warfare.



  1. The Ojibwa coined the term OKIMAKKAN or “fake chief” when:


  1. Since no male was available, a female had to assume the chief’s role.


  1. An individual who was chief did not have the support of the people.
  2. A chief was either under 15 years of age or older than 65.


  1. Chiefs negotiated treaties with settlers that involved giving away traditional lands.


  1. Outside governments insisted that the Ojibwa appoint a supreme leader.



  1. The “bigman” as a form of leadership is associated with:


  1. Increasing food production and redistribution.
  2. Decreasing food production and reciprocity.
  3. Occupational specialization and market exchange.
  4. Population decline and cultural disintegration.
  5. Communal living and socialism.



  1. During buffalo hunts, the Cheyenne maintained order by:
    1. Shaming anyone who violated a rule.
    2. Gossiping about people who misbehaved.
    3. Accusing misbehaving people of witchcraft
    4. Beheading anyone who got out of line.
    5. Policing by members of military societies.



  1. Moots differ from courts among the Kpelle mainly in that:


  1. Courts are a traditional part of Kpelle culture, whereas moots are a Western innovation.
  2. Courts are held in English, whereas moots are held in the local languages.


  1. Courts give a lot of time to examining the complexities of a case, whereas moots are quick, superficial affairs.


  1. Courts aim at determining legal liability, whereas moots aim at reconciling disputing parties.


  1. Courts have dramatic, ritual, and psychological functions, whereas moots lack these expressive aspects.


  1. Which of the following do anthropologists argue as an explanation for warfare in tribal societies?


  1. It is totally irrational and maladaptive.
  2. It is less frequent than in band societies.
  3. It may regulate the balance between population and resources.
  4. It is always associated with female infanticide.
  5. It stems from an aggressive human instinct.



  1. All of the following have been suggested as a cause of Yanamamo warfare except:
    1. Attempts of individuals from one village to capture women from other villages.
    2. An indirect way of controlling population.
    3. High levels of female infanticide and scarcity of females.
    4. Competition over scarce resources as a result of Western encounters.


  1. An expression of inability of primitive peoples to control their aggressive impulses.



  1. An important effect of European contact on the Yanamamo was:
    1. An increased ability to learn English.
    2. A decrease in the amount of violence.
    3. Better health and education.
    4. Acquisition of firearms and increased fatalities in war.
    5. A more technologically effective exploitation of their forest environment.



  1. Most anthropologists would agree with the following statement about Yanomamo warfare:
    1. Their fighting is grounded in a biologically based human instinct for aggression.


  1. Warfare among the Yanomamo is too complex a situation to ever be explained by anthropologists.


  1. Warfare is only of interest to anthropologists when it occurs in non-Western, tribal societies.
  2. Warfare only occurs in patrilineal, patrilocal societies such as the Yanomamo.
  3. Yanomamo warfare intensified after contact with the West.



  1. Which of the following statements about chiefs is most correct?
    1. Chiefs only exist in band-level societies.
    2. Chiefs’ roles are mainly symbolic and have little economic or political importance.
    3. Much of a chief’s power is based on his ability to redistribute goods and services.


  1. Chiefs are most important during times of war and have little to do in times of peace.


  1. Chiefs did not exist anywhere before contact with the West; they were created by Europeans to make political dominance easier.


  1. A major distinction between chiefdoms and states is that:


  1. Chiefs control their people through fear, whereas states control their people through political consensus.


  1. Chiefdoms are egalitarian, whereas states have social ranking.


  1. In chiefdoms, social ranking is based on kinship, whereas in states, kinship ties no longer extend throughout the society.


  1. In chiefdoms, there is no centralized authority, whereas in states, there is a centralized authority.


  1. Chiefdoms are integrated economically through redistribution, whereas states are economically integrated through reciprocity.



  1. Compared with tribal societies, chiefdoms are likely to have:
    1. Higher levels of internal violence.
    2. Higher birth rates.
    3. Greater rights for women.
    4. Lesser rights for women.
    5. Lower levels of internal violence.



  1. Which of the following correctly describes current anthropological thinking about the emergence of state level societies?
    1. States emerged for different reasons in different places and at different times.
    2. Control of irrigation was critical to the original emergence of the state.


  1. The state emerged only once, in Egypt, and all states are in some way descendent from the original Egyptian state.
  2. Diverging ethnicity and competing ethnic groups led to the origin of the state.
  3. Warfare is the most critical factor in the emergence of state-level societies.



  1. A conflict theory of the origin of the state emphasizes:


  1. The emergence of centralization of power as a response to the emergence of an elite class that protects its power and privileges.


  1. The rise of the state because of the need to organize manpower for irrigation projects.


  1. The invention of the idea of the state in ancient Egypt and its diffusion to other parts of the world.


  1. The increase of sophisticated military weaponry that developed after the Industrial Revolution.
  2. The ways in which modern states are torn apart by conflict.



  1. The stability of the Asante state was built on an economy whose key items included:
    1. Intensive agriculture and industrialization.
    2. Shallow gold deposits and intensive agriculture.
    3. Pastoralism and the slave trade.
    4. Wide trade networks for luxury goods, especially in animal products.
    5. A skilled and educated class of artisans and priests.


  1. An important way in which the Asante state controlled social mobility was in its:
    1. Democratic election of the Asantehene.
    2. Equitable tax structure which took from the rich and gave to the poor.
    3. Policy of land reform.


  1. Institution of public education in which children of all classes attended the same schools.
  2. Control over the awarding of ceremonial titles and insignia.



  1. In terms of political stability, state societies are:
    1. The most unstable type of political system.
    2. Necessarily vigilant at all times for signs of threat to elite authority.


  1. Built on consensus with no need to solidify themselves through violent or coercive action.


  1. Most effective when different ethnic groups are given opportunities to fully express their ethnic cultures.


  1. Unlikely to survive when they have large populations of indigenous peoples.



  1. Which of the following best characterizes “ethnic groups”?


  1. A group of families living in a well-defined geographical location.


  1. A group of individuals who area, at some level, all biologically related to each other.
  2. A group of people who all speak the same language.
  3. A group of people who all seem to others to look like each other.


  1. A group of people who view themselves as sharing an identity that separates them from others in society.



  1. Which of the following best describes ethnic conflicts?
    1. They are based on age-old hatreds and grievances.
    2. They almost always come down to personality clashes between individuals.
    3. They are shaped by politics, economics, and history.
    4. Because of their nature, they can rarely be successfully mediated.
    5. They are almost always based on shared misunderstanding.



  1. All of the following are social levels commonly created in state societies except:
    1. Peasant farmers.



  1. A sovereign, geographically based state that identifies itself as having a distinctive national culture and historical experience is called a:
    1. Ethnic enclave.
    2. Ethnic state.
    3. Nation-state.


  1. Tribal state.




  1. Which of the following best describes the struggle between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims?


  1. It has continued uninterrupted since the time of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the early 1700s.


  1. It has continued uninterrupted since the time of Mohammed Abdel Wahab in the early 20th


  1. It is of ancient origin but can only be understood in terms of recent and current political events.
  2. It does not affect the Islamic world outside of Iraq.


  1. It is entirely a response to the Western invasion of and colonization of Islamic lands.



  1. According to the text, which of the following statements most accurately describes ethnic conflict in the former Yugoslavia?


  1. It is based on deep ethnic cultural differences which go back for centuries.


  1. It is based on contemporary political manipulation of relatively small cultural differences.


  1. There are no cultural differences between groups and the conflict is strictly economic.
  2. The important ethnic differences have been minimized by the media.


  1. The ethnic conflicts have been caused by U.S. foreign policy which favors Serbs over Bosnians.



  1. An important cultural difference between Serbs and Croats from the former Yugoslavia is:
    1. They speak different languages.
    2. Serbs are Eastern Orthodox and Croats are Catholic.
    3. Serbs are generally professionals while Croats tend to hold menial unskilled jobs.
    4. Serbs are attached to socialism while Croats are generally capitalists.
    5. Serbs and Croats generally dress differently.



  1. What is meant by the term “wellfounded fear”?


  1. It is the name of a book about ethnic conflict cross-culturally.
  2. It is a type of ethnic conflict in which genocide is conducted nation-wide.


  1. It is the U.S. policy of granting political asylum to those who can prove they are threatened in their home countries.


  1. It is an immigration policy in the U.S. in which refugees are placed in areas where their neighbors do not come from similar ethnic backgrounds.


  1. It is a legal term that is used in U.S. courts to determine whether the plaintiff is guilty of coercion and threat based on ethnic background.


  1. The “Green Line” is:


  1. The police force that protects American cities.


  1. The geographical line that separates desert areas from tropical areas.


  1. The fence that was built across Australia, from Starvation Harbor on the South Coast to a point near Cape Keravdren on the North West coast.
  2. The border between Israel and the West Bank.
  3. The fence separating the United States from Mexico.



  1. Anthropologist Leo Chavez has referred to the U.S.-Mexico border as a place of “political ” By this he means that:
    1. Attempts to control immigration are farcical.


  1. Although the border makes news, the issues of real importance are played out in Washington D.C.


  1. Different groups use border issues to promote their own agendas, ignoring the real needs of immigrants.


  1. “Agitprop” tactics should be used by groups seeking to reform U.S. immigration


  1. It is a place in which the American debate over immigration is dramatically played out.



  1. All of the following are strong challenges that nation-states face from increasing globalization except:
    1. Rise of multinational corporations that cut across nation-state lines.


  1. Rise of global governing organizations, such as United Nations, which takes away their autonomy.


  1. Increasingly international workforce both in and outside of the nation-state.


  1. Rise of global forces integrating the world at a level beyond that of the nation-state.
  2. Employees that are transnationals.



  1. The Tohono O’odham oppose the construction of a border fence between Mexico and the S. because:
    1. They are Mexicans and want to have open access to both countries.


  1. Their families live along the border, and their homes will be destroyed by its construction because it is proposed along their settlement path.


  1. They own the land where the border will be constructed and do not want to sell to the U.S. government because it will leave them without territory.


  1. They are concerned that their traditional way of life, including their rituals, will be affected by the land closure.


  1. They are revolutionaries who oppose the creation of a nation-state through territorial boundaries.




  1. Political organization refers to the patterned ways in which power and authority are used in a society to regulate behavior.




  1. In a stratified society, no one is denied access to the basic material resources needed to survive.


  1. Hegemony refers to the dominance of a political elite based on a close identification between their goals and those of the larger society.




  1. Rebellion aims at overthrowing the present political structure and replacing it with a new one.




  1. All human societies have some normative system for dealing with people who break the rules.



  1. Band societies have neither warfare nor violence because they are egalitarian.



  1. The tribal “big man” is an inherited position of leadership.




  1. The interdependence of social stratification and the rise of the state are well illustrated by the operation of the Kpelle moot.



  1. Warfare may be a means of regulating population in tribal societies.



  1. Chiefdoms are stratified societies.




  1. Tribes and chiefdoms both have centralized leadership. w


  1. More than any other form of political organization, the state can carry out military action for both defensive and offensive purposes.


  1. Functionalist theories of state development emphasize the emergence of a powerful elite class that protects its power and privileges.



  1. Political authority in the Asante state was symbolized by the golden stool.




  1. Because they maintain great coercive and hegemonic power, states are generally peaceful and stable.




  1. Unlike the concept of race with always involves perceived physical differences, ethnicity refers to perceived cultural differences.




  1. Most ethnic conflicts today reflect an uninterrupted history of ethnic hatred.




  1. One source of conflict between Croats and Serbs is that Croats are Christians and Serbs are Muslims.




  1. Thousands of Palestinians cross from the West Bank to Israel every day. This has resulted in increased militarization of the border and heightened tensions.



  1. The Green Line is the term used for the border between Mexico and the U.S.






  1. Distinguish power from authority.



  1. Name the three patterns of social differentiation that anthropologists recognize.



  1. What are the four ideal types of political organization?



  1. Compare and contrast rebellion and revolution.



  1. What types of conflict resolution are used in band societies?


  1. What types of organization serve to cut across and integrate individuals politically within the tribe?


  1. What is a “bigman” and in which type of political organization are we most likely to find this?



  1. What is a moot?



  1. How does political leadership vary between tribes and chiefdoms?




  1. Which of the four ideal types of political organization are considered to utilize centralized leadership?



  1. Define sumptuary law.



  1. What is the major defining characteristic of a state society?



  1. What is the Asantehene?



  1. Name the three social levels of a state society.



  1. What is the nation-state?



  1. How do states create a national culture and identity?



  1. What is meant by the term “wellfounded fear”?




  1. Discuss the primary causes of the ethnic war that erupted among groups in the former Yugoslavia once the nation-state was dismantled.



  1. What is the “Green Line”?



  1. Why are the Tohono O’odham opposed to the construction of a border fence between the S. and Mexico?




  1. How does conflict resolution vary between bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states? Discuss both formal and informal mechanisms and use examples from the text.


  1. Outline the main features of the Kpelle moot. In what way does it seem different from the way disputes are handled in American courtrooms? Can you see any situations in which moot-like proceedings would be useful in American society? Discuss why or why not.




  1. What is the role of the nation-state in our increasingly globalized world today? Can you imagine any other types of political organization above the level of the state? What do you imagine would be the challenges for such a structure?




  1. Leadership in different societies is different according to both levels of sociocultural integration and cultural values. Discuss the differences in leadership in band, chiefdom, and tribal societies, using specific examples from the text.




  1. The state is one of the most important human inventions. Discuss the significance of the state as a form of socio-political integration, including the major ways in which it differs from other political forms.


Chapter 11: Stratification






  1. Social stratification is the result of:
    1. The fact that people are born with different natural talents.
    2. The fact that there are several different races.
    3. Theft of property by the strongest in society.
    4. Human nature.
    5. Unequal distribution of resources.



  1. Social stratification is most characteristic of:
    1. Rank societies.
    2. Pastoral societies.
    3. Fishing societies.
    4. Horticultural societies.


  1. Societies with high levels of social complexity.



  1. The functionalist perspective on social stratification holds that:


  1. The whole society benefits because the system provides motivation for people to take risks or to fill difficult jobs.


  1. Only the upper class benefits from the system.
  2. Class and caste systems are both based on economic exploitation.
  3. Affirmative action programs have no justifiable role in a democratic society.
  4. Class conflict is the major way in which a society changes.



  1. The view that it is necessary to pay a surgeon a large amount of money so that people will undertake the difficult training necessary to fill this job is this characteristic of:


  1. Conflict theory.
  2. Functional theory.
  3. Symbolic theory.
  4. Configurational theory.
  5. Diffusion theory.



  1. Conflict theory holds that the natural condition of society is:
    1. Order and stability.
    2. Sex and violence.
    3. Conflict and change.


  1. A conflict perspective on social stratification argues that:


  1. Social stratification results from the constant struggle for scarce goods and services.


  1. Stratification is good because it ensures that all of society’s tasks get done.


  1. The jobs that people take are in no way related to the income that they can earn.
  2. Social stratification is in conflict with the American ideal of equal opportunity.


  1. Social stratification is functional in agricultural societies but not in industrial ones.



  1. According to Karl Marx, the basis of social stratification is:
    1. The development of Protestantism in the 16th
    2. The relationship of people to the means of production.
    3. Prestige attached to occupations.
    4. Wealth inherited from ancestors.
    5. Sub-cultural differences.



  1. From an anthropological perspective, wealth is:
    1. The distribution of material resources.
    2. The accumulation of material resources.
    3. The consumption of material resources.
    4. The production of material resources.
    5. Income disparity between classes.



  1. In pre-Communist China, one group that had very high prestige was:
    1. Money lenders.



  1. Which of the following is not a primary dimension of stratification?
    1. Symbolic power.
    2. Political power.



  1. An example of an achieved status is:
    1. Ethnic group.


  1. The overwhelming majority of Americans define themselves as:
    1. The working class.
    2. Middle class.



  1. According to the text, how many Americans were living in poverty (defined as an annual income of $22,314 or less per family of four) in 2010?


  1. 4 million.
  2. 7 million.
  3. 6 million.
  4. 2 million.
  5. 8 million.



  1. Real wealth in the U.S. is measured as income plus:
    1. Retirement accounts.
    2. Private property.



  1. According to Katherine Newman, job loss in the U.S. entails not only economic decline but also a decline in:


  1. Social mobility.



  1. All of the following are true of a caste system except:
    1. Caste-like systems occur only in India.
    2. In a caste system it is almost impossible to change one’s caste.


  1. People tend to marry others in the same caste.
  2. People in the same caste tend to have a similar range of occupations.


  1. People in the higher ranks of a caste system are more satisfied than those in the lower ranks.



  1. One basic rule of behavior among Indian castes is that:
    1. Members of different castes do not eat together.
    2. Members of lower castes must always prepare food for members of higher castes.


  1. While castes are rigidly separated during religious ritual, at other times members of different castes mingle freely with each other.


  1. Members of one caste must always marry members of another.


  1. Children are always members of their father’s caste, not their mother’s caste.


  1. In India, lower castes:
    1. Receive more benefits than do higher castes from the caste system.
    2. Have been disadvantaged by the Indian constitution.
    3. Are beginning to make collective efforts to improve their position as a group.


  1. Mainly change their ranking as individuals move out of the caste and into higher caste.


  1. May have lower prestige than higher castes but tend to have more wealth.



  1. An important change in the Indian caste system provoked by globalization is:
    1. The social acceptance of Dalits.
    2. The emergence of non-caste related occupations.
    3. A widening cultural gap between the upper and lower castes.
    4. The conversion of higher castes to Christianity.
    5. The westernization of lower caste lifestyles.



  1. The Burakumin in Japan are regarded by Japanese society as a(n):
    1. Ethnic group.



  1. Why is skin color not biologically adequate to distinguish a group of people?
    1. Skin color is a continuum of difference.
    2. Skin color is not visible to all people.
    3. Color is a cultural category and not all people define color the same way.
    4. Skin color is never the sole characteristics of race.
    5. Skin does not technically hold or transmit color.



  1. Which of the following correctly identifies the effects of Hurricane Katrina and the government’s response to it?
    1. It allowed people to come together across racial and class lines.
    2. It allowed people to come together across racial lines but not across class lines.
    3. It deepened the divisions of race and class already present in New Orleans society.


  1. It allowed the poor an access to wealth not previously available and allowed some to move into the middle class.


  1. It created a “new racism” in a city that was among the least racist in America.



  1. John Ogbu, a Nigerian anthropologist, studied minority children in schools in the United States. His conclusion is that:


  1. They do as well as non-minority children.
  2. Their performance is better in the arts than in the sciences.
  3. These children are held back primarily by their culture.
  4. Minority schools are equal physically to non-minority schools.


  1. Children from voluntary immigrant groups do better than children from


involuntary immigrant groups.



  1. The opportunities that people have to fulfill their potential in society is known as:
    1. Social stratification.
    2. Social mobility.
    3. Life chances.
    4. Life exchanges.



  1. About what percentage of the Brazilian population is composed of individuals of African descent?


  1. 10 percent.
  2. 25 percent.
  3. 45 percent.
  4. 70 percent.
  5. 90 percent.



  1. Among Brazilian individuals of African descent, about how many identify themselves as preta (black)?
    1. 5 percent.
    2. 15 percent.
    3. 45 percent.
    4. 65 percent.
    5. 85 percent.



  1. In an analysis of environmental pollution in the United States, Melissa Checker found that:


  1. The most important factor was class: lower class people lived in more polluted environments.


  1. The most important factor was race: middle class Hispanics and African Americans suffered more exposure to environmental pollution than lower class whites.


  1. All Americans, regardless of class or race suffered about the same exposure to pollution.


  1. African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to live near polluted ground but whites suffered higher levels of air pollution.


  1. More federal money was spent cleaning up pollution located near African American communities than was spent cleaning up pollution located near white or Hispanic communities.



  1. Which of the following ideas was promoted by Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freyre?
    1. Brazil should really be considered an African country.
    2. Brazil should really be considered a European country.


  1. Brazilian national identity was the result of mixing people of European, African, and indigenous ancestry.


  1. Races in Brazil should be allowed to develop their own cultures separately.


  1. The relationship of races in Brazil could only be understood as a result of U.S.





  1. Melissa Checker’s work on Hyde Park examined the environmental concerns of:


  1. An African-American community in the suburbs of Augusta, Georgia.


  1. A student and young professional community in Austin, Texas.
  2. An African-American community on the south side of Chicago.
  3. A wealthy white community in Dutchess County, NY.
  4. Residents living in the streets surrounding a large urban park in London, UK.



  1. In general, the attitude of the Brazilian government toward race has been:
    1. To pursue a “separate but equal” policy.


  1. To provide development budgets for each race proportionate to each race’s percentage of the total population.


  1. To make sure each race receives proportional representation in the legislature.
  2. To defuse racial tensions by providing large, publically financed celebrations.
  3. To deny that race is a social problem in Brazil.


  1. Ethnicity as a national issue in the United States has mainly been discussed in relation to:
    1. Indigenous peoples.
    2. National origin of immigrants.
    3. Social class.
    4. Religious adherence.



  1. In the era 1880-1920, many immigrants came to the United States. It was also in this era that:


  1. Racial prejudice almost disappeared from the United States.
  2. Immigrants came to be defined in racial terms.
  3. Economic opportunities were available to immigrants regardless of race.
  4. All peoples of European origin began to be lumped together as white people.
  5. Racial prejudice grew to levels never before seen in the U.S.



  1. Which of the following is associated with the assimilationist model of immigrant adaptation in the United States?


  1. The salad bowl.
  2. The fondue pot.
  3. The frying pan and skillet.
  4. The melting pot.
  5. The barbeque.



  1. Which of the following correctly defines assimilation in the United States?
    1. It is change in identity that a country makes when it opens its doors to immigrants.


  1. It is a process in which immigrants were expected to leave behind their cultural distinctions in favor of an American identity.


  1. It is a process in which two new cultures come together to form a very different types of third culture, including elements of both the immigrant’s home culture and


also the cultures of American citizens.


  1. It occurs when one culture takes precedence over another and suppresses it. We saw this in the early part of U.S. immigration history.


  1. It is a process in which immigrants are selected based on allowable quotas in the United States.



  1. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965:
    1. Increased restrictions on the number of immigrants permitted in the U.S.
    2. Set immigration quotas on non-whites but allowed open-ended white immigration.


  1. Greatly decreased the number of people allowed to legally emigrate from Mexico but increased the number of Asians permitted.


  1. Greatly expanded the number of people permitted to immigrate to the U.S. and abolished quotas.


  1. Almost completely eliminated immigration to the United States until 1980.



  1. Which of the following statements is correct?


  1. Immigration in the United States today has very strict quotas by which it allows people entrance.


  1. Assimilation is a positive experience, when it is carried out correctly, for both immigrants and the United States.


  1. Assimilation is also a process of loss, as immigrants leave behind their language and cultures.


  1. Although the melting pot analogy was useful in the early part of U.S. history, it is no longer used in describing immigration.


  1. Assimilation is also a form of cultural divergence and diffusion.



  1. It was estimated in 2010 that approximately how many foreign-born residents were living in countries around the world?


  1. 78 million.
  2. 134 million.
  3. 214 million.
  4. 527 million.
  5. 716 million.



  1. Important effects of China’s movement toward capitalism has resulted in:


  1. Increasing equality among Chinese families.
  2. Diminishing importance of education.
  3. Increased emphasis on agriculture.
  4. Increasing attacks on bourgeois elements.
  5. Increasing inequality.



  1. During the Maoist era, China was ideologically committed to:
    1. Eradicating social class.
    2. Implementing a caste system.
    3. Implementing global capitalism.


  1. Eradicating ethnicity.


  1. Establishing new racial categories.



  1. All of the following are changes that China has faced recently due to global and domestic economic changes:


  1. Increasing middle class.
  2. Increasing gap between opportunities and services in rural and urban areas.
  3. Increasing income disparity.
  4. Decreasing amounts of competition.
  5. Increasing vulnerability of factory workers.





  1. Inequality is inevitable in large-scale social systems.




  1. Conflict theory argues that specific cultural institutions function to support and serve the needs of its people even when there is no consensus.



  1. In a capitalist society, wealth is always a source of prestige.


  1. A good example of an achieved status in the United States is marriage.



  1. There is no such thing as a pure class or caste society.



  1. The distribution of assets in the United States greatly favors the middle class.



  1. Education plays a role in social mobility in the United States.



  1. In a caste system, children are the same caste as both of their parents.




  1. The Camars of Agra were successful in changing their position in the caste system as soon as they made some money.



  1. Race is a term that is always linked to classifying people according to physical differences.




  1. The RACE project is an effort by the American Anthropological Association to challenge commonly held ideas about race.


  1. Race and racism are highly correlated with industrial pollution.




  1. Generally speaking, Brazilians who identify themselves as having African ancestry are far worse off than those who identify themselves as white.



  1. Racial boundaries are very clear-cut in Brazil.




  1. In the United States, legislation in the 1920s limited immigration to people from the “Nordic” races of Northern and Western Europe.



  1. According to Melissa Checker’s research in Hyde Park, Georgia, communities of color and poor in the United States have made very important advances in environmental protection laws and environmental oversight.



  1. In the 19th century, many Americans were concerned that an influx of immigrants would lower wages and challenge American values.




  1. Changes in China since the death of Mao have resulted in increasing prosperity and increasing equality.



  1. In contemporary China, peasants are considered better off than urban dwellers.



  1. China’s recent economic experiences show the difficulty of producing prosperity without high levels of social stratification.






  1. What is social stratification?




  1. Compare and contrast a functionalist and conflict approaches to the understanding of stratification.



  1. Name the three main dimensions of stratification.




  1. Theoretically, class systems are marked by having what type of statuses (or social positions)?


  1. What did Paul Bloomberg mean by the term “America’s forbidden thought”?



  1. How would you characterize income inequality in the United States? Use examples.



  1. What is meant by “downward mobility”?



  1. How is a caste system different from a class system?



  1. How has globalization affected the India caste system?



  1. How are Burakumin racially distinguished in Japan?



  1. What realities does the black-white racial dichotomy found in the United States ignore?



  1. Define what is meant by the “onedrop rule” in racial stratification.



  1. What is a “voluntary minority”?



  1. What is the RACE Project?



  1. How is the cultural construction of race in Brazil different from that of the United States?



  1. What are “life chances”?



  1. Define assimilation.



  1. Describe the three models of assimilation in the United States.



  1. How have global technology changes affected the process of immigration today?




  1. How have social stratification, economics, and politics interacted in China over the past century?




  1. Compare social mobility in the caste system in India with that of the class system in the United States. How have recent changes due to globalization affected these systems?




  1. How does a description of the caste system in India differ when it is given by a high-caste versus a low-caste person? Are there any parallels if the class system in the United States were described by a high-class versus a lower-class person?




  1. Compare and contrast racial stratification in Brazil with that found in the United States. Based on their different histories, how might future changes in social stratification be experienced differently in these areas?




  1. How can issues of social stratification intersect with politics? Uses the example of environmental pollution cited in your text (Hyde Park, Georgia) as a way of starting this answer, but expand and discuss where you see other potential intersections as well.




  1. Discuss the role of globalization in the changing nature of immigration today. What advantages does it provide, and how might it hinder cultural adaptation?


Chapter 12: Religion






  1. A religious cosmology, or world view, functions primarily to:
    1. Give meaning and order to the lives of believers.
    2. Differentiate primitive from civilized societies.
    3. Increase technical control over the physical environment.
    4. Increase the upper class’ control of the lower class.


  1. Keep a society in a constant state of conflict.



  1. All of the following are characteristics of religion except:




  1. Prayer and magic are most likely to be used when:
    1. People are superstitious.
    2. The outcome of an event is uncertain.
    3. People are not Christians.
    4. The outcome of an event is certain and the success of the technique is assured.
    5. People have sufficient time to carefully consider an event.



  1. To the extent that religion reinforces the social order:
    1. It can be a catalyst for change.
    2. It provides solace to the poor.
    3. It is irrelevant in society.
    4. It usually serves the interests of the wealthy and powerful.
    5. The majority of people are unlikely to believe in it.



  1. Use of the word “myth” is problematic in anthropology because:


  1. Many things we call myths are true.
  2. Since “myth” is generally used to talk about ancient culture, it is more appropriate to history or archaeology.
  3. We tend to use it to describe others’ beliefs that we consider false but rarely apply it to our own beliefs.
  4. “Myths” generally refer to origin stories but religious stories cover many subjects.


  1. The central characters of “myths” are generally hero figures, but understanding these isn’t very important in anthropology.


  1. Anthropologist Sara Castle has argued that Fulani parents seem indifferent to their children because:
    1. They cannot conceptualize their family size.
    2. Fulani society looks down on children and sees pregnancy as embarrassing.


  1. In such a patriarchal society, anything having to do with women is devalued and all children are seen as associated with women rather than men.
  2. They believe that showing concern for children will attract evil sorcerers or spirits.
  3. They do not believe that individuals have souls until they reach puberty.


  1. Many Hopi origin beliefs concern:
    1. A ship that came from the East.
    2. An epic battle between the forces of day and night.
    3. A creator god who fashioned people in his own likeness.


  1. A god who took yellow and white corn meal, and fashioned four men and four women from it.
  2. The digging stick and the techniques for farming blue corn.



  1. Which of the following correctly characterizes the Hopi growing of blue corn?
    1. When they farm blue corn, they live their religious understanding of the world.


  1. They have mixed feelings when they grow blue corn because, though it is necessary to make traditional foods, it is associated with impurity and evil.


  1. Only women can grow blue corn, because only women possess generative earth powers.


  1. Hopi look down upon those who grow blue corn, because it represents both poverty and old-fashioned values.


  1. Hopi spend little time growing corn but much time growing beans, because corn has little religious significance.



  1. The Christian notion that reenacting the Last Supper stands for communion with God is an example of:



  1. A god is a spiritual being who:
    1. Is understood to be intimately involved in the lives of those who believe in it.
    2. Is a single, most powerful creator and ruler.
    3. Is responsive to prayer and magic performed by human beings.
    4. Created or controls some aspect of the world.
    5. Rarely experiences psychological states similar to those experienced by people.



  1. Monkey, hyena, spider, and coyote (and sometimes bunny) are:
    1. Agricultural pests.
    2. Animals frequently identified with passage to an afterlife.


  1. Animals frequently present as “sidekicks” of powerful gods.


  1. Animals that are often identified symbolically with fertility.
  2. Animals that are frequently identified with trickster gods.



  1. What is mana?
    1. It is a religious council that makes decisions regarding community morality.
    2. It is a Hindu term for priest.
    3. It is religious energy that is believed to be in certain people or objects.


  1. It is the sacred text of Buddhism that explains the various laws of the religious group.


  1. It is a type of food that is consumed only during Jewish ceremonies in the temple.



  1. The anthropologist Victor Turner described communitas as:
    1. A state of equality and oneness.
    2. The sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the heartless world.
    3. The result of overly rigid social controls.
    4. The result of the desire for increased structure in society.
    5. The search for life after death.


  1. A primary function of rites of intensification is to:
    1. Help an individual through a personal crisis.
    2. Help a young man in his search for a guardian spirit.
    3. Regulate male-female conflict within a society.
    4. Reinforce the values and norms of the community and strengthen group identity.
    5. Restrain the ghosts of dead people from taking revenge on the living.



  1. Which of the following is an example of a rite of passage?
    1. Going to a college football game
    2. Taking a mid-term exam.
    3. Going to see a professor during office hours.
    4. Getting married.
    5. Traveling across the country to visit a relative.



  1. Which of the following is an example of a rite of intensification?
    1. Going to a college football game.
    2. Getting a driving license.


  1. Getting married.
  2. Taking a mid-term exam.
  3. Going to see a professor during office hours.



  1. A critical hallmark of prayer is:
    1. That it be done with reverence.
    2. That it be addressed to an all-powerful god.
    3. That its results depend on the will of the spirit world.
    4. That it be spoken aloud.


  1. That it be accompanied by some physical gesture (such as kneeling, bowing the head, clasping the hands and so on).


  1. A material function of sacrificing cattle as part of a religious festival suggests that:
    1. Cattle stand for the deviant members of society and killing them purifies society.


  1. Communal feasts are an effective way of distributing meat in societies without refrigeration.
  2. Meat is not an important resource in societies that practice such sacrifice.


  1. People who sacrifice animals have little understanding of ecology or proper animal husbandry.


  1. Only weak, sick, and elderly beasts are actually killed, thus proper management techniques are enshrined in religious ritual.



  1. The purpose of divination is to:
    1. Get in contact with the divine.
    2. Find water.
    3. Prove that God exists.
    4. Find something hidden.
    5. Cast a spell on an enemy.



  1. A sorcerer who manipulates the fingernails of an intended victim to cause harm to that person is using:
    1. Mythological magic.
    2. Contagious magic.
    3. Ecological magic.
    4. Psychological reductionism.
    5. Superstitious magic.



  1. Anthropological analyses of cargo cults have pointed out that:
    1. The cults have often been effective in allowing natives to gain access to cargo.
    2. The cults are largely based in the experience of people in World War II.


  1. The cults are an example of the lack of direct connection between religious belief and ordinary reality.


  1. The cults have been used to create a hierarchy that has subordinated natives to colonial authorities.


  1. Although the cults were promoted by colonial officials, they were rarely in the best interest of believers.



  1. The central tenant of prosperity theology is:
    1. By giving everything to the poor, Christians will achieve great rewards in heaven.
    2. Money is the root of all evil.
    3. God wants Christians to be wealthy.


  1. Christians should earn money through hard work but should give at least 10 percent of their wealth to the poor.


  1. The personal wealth of Christians does not matter since true wealth and prosperity lies in the church.


  1. Which of the following is necessary for an individual to become a shaman?
    1. The ability to experience direct contact with the supernatural.
    2. A period of training and a certification by an official institution.
    3. A parent or family member who is already a shaman.
    4. An ability to cure people both in- and outside of the cultural group.
    5. An ability to play-act and lie convincingly.



  1. The vision quest generally includes:
    1. The use of hallucinogenic drugs.
    2. Physical suffering.
    3. A long voyage in the company of an elder.
    4. A belief that only the faithful will be saved.
    5. Electric shock.



  1. Among the Netsilik Inuit, a tupiliq is:
    1. A shaman.
    2. A chief.
    3. A stone used for meditation.
    4. An evil spirit.
    5. A symbol that represents the group.


  1. In anthropology, the term “priest” refers to:


  1. Anyone who considers themselves a true believer in any religion.
  2. A member of the Catholic clergy.
  3. A religious leader who claims to be able to personally converse with God.
  4. Someone who has made a life-long study of religion.
  5. A person formally elected, appointed, or hired to a full-time religious office.


  1. Which of the following correctly describes the Classical Mayan priesthood?
    1. They spent their time in prayer and meditation.
    2. Their key role was as healers of the sick.
    3. They took vows of poverty and chastity.
    4. They were not considered to be particularly important by the aristocracy.
    5. They used drugs and pain rituals to reach ecstatic states.



  1. People in many societies, including the Azande of East Africa, believe in a magical witchcraft substance that is:
    1. Controlled by the most powerful people in society.
    2. Hidden under the central shrine of the community.
    3. Part of the bodies of those who are witches.
    4. Available to those who seek with a pure heart.
    5. Can never be found by those who actively seek it.



  1. The anthropologist Walter Cannon argued that sorcery:
    1. Could kill people through an “extreme stress reaction.”


  1. Backed the power of the wealthy in society.
  2. Was an entirely anti-social force that societies must strive to eliminate.


  1. Could not be effectively differentiated from witchcraft.
  2. Was present in Africa but not in Europe or Asia.



  1. The belief systems of modern Wiccans and neopagans are derived largely from:
    1. Records made during the inquisition.
    2. Traditions passed in secret since before Christianity appeared in Europe.
    3. The writings of 19th and 20th century European authors.
    4. Traditional practices shown to be successful in curing disease.
    5. Traditional African and Asian religions.



  1. The people most likely to be attracted to a prophecy are those who:
    1. Have power in society and can make the most of it.
    2. Have the leisure time to pursue the learning that goes with prophecy.
    3. Are looking to avoid taking responsibility for their actions.
    4. Are women between the ages of 17 and 27.
    5. Are most dissatisfied with the way they believe the world is.



  1. A nativistic religious movement is:
    1. An attempt by an economically powerful group to maintain its control of society.
    2. A religious movement that looks to the re-establishment of a past golden age.


  1. A series of rituals designed to determine who is and who is not a true member of a group.
  2. An ecclesiastical movement to convert nonbelievers.
  3. An attempt by the state to impose state religion on its citizens.



  1. One of the key beliefs of the Ghost Dance movement was:
    1. The ancestors would return on an immense train.
    2. A dance had the power to turn those who did it into spirits of immense power.
    3. Native Americans could live in peace and harmony with all people.


  1. If Native Americans would use only traditional weapons, they could drive the Whites from their land.


  1. At the end of time, white people would turn black and black people would turn white.



  1. Why was the Ghost Dance prophesy particularly appealing to the Sioux?
    1. The prophet was a Sioux.
    2. It promised them great rewards but did not require them to do very much.
    3. It clearly promised them equality with whites.
    4. It combined elements of both traditional and modern religion.
    5. Conditions on the Sioux reservation were particularly bad.



  1. The Peyote Road refers to:


  1. Interstate Highway 35, because it leads to the Texas counties where peyote grows.
  2. The rejection of “white values” by Native Americans.


  1. The code of living by which a Native American Church member guides his life.
  2. Living outside the law.


  1. The spiritual path that Ghost Dancers believed would lead to the disappearance of the Whites and the return of the Buffalo.



  1. Which of the following is a Rastafari belief?
    1. The spirit of the Lord is contained in all mind-altering drugs.
    2. Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.
    3. Handling snakes can prove that you are one of God’s chosen people.


  1. Earth is a prison planet but will be liberated when most people’s consciousness is raised sufficiently.


  1. Haile Selassie, the former emperor of Ethiopia is the messiah.



  1. For Rastas, the use of I-centered words emphasizes:
    1. The importance of the individual in the world.
    2. The importance of vision as the most important of the senses.
    3. The personal nature of meaning in Reggae.
    4. The radical equality of all people.
    5. Their history of protest against the Jamaican government.



  1. One thing that all fundamentalist groups seem to have in common is:
    1. Women play major roles in their organization.
    2. Their members view the world as a cosmic struggle of good against evil.


  1. A disproportionate number of their members believe that the ends justify the means.
  2. They have restrictions on what kinds of foods they can eat.
  3. They seek political power but do not form political parties.



  1. The number of Americans who say they attend church regularly has:
    1. Remained about the same since 1940.
    2. Fallen steadily since 1940.
    3. Increased substantially since 1940.


  1. Declined, compared to the number of Europeans who say they attend church regularly.


  1. Has increased since 1940 among the old but declined during the same period among the young.



  1. In general, the American reaction to the increasing religious diversity of the United States has been:


  1. An increase in acts of violence against non-Christians.
  2. An increase in missionary activity, both in the United States and abroad.
  3. A movement to impose religious quotas on new immigrants.
  4. Calls for increased separation of church and state.





  1. A cosmology includes a set of principles of belief about the nature of life and death.




  1. People are likely to use magic where the outcome of events is known in advance and they are sure of the success of their efforts.




  1. Some population experts believe that people have large families because they cannot conceptualize the number of children they have.


  1. Religious symbols generally have a single meaning for all members of a religion.


  1. Trickster spirits are interested in their own benefit rather than that of the people who believe in them.



  1. Most adults in any society can be considered liminal.



  1. Military basic training is a good example of a rite of intensification.



  1. Totemism is a type of religion that is practiced by Native Americans.



  1. Liminal is a state that occurs to the individual at the conclusion of a ritual sequence.




  1. Members of Melanesian cargo cults believe that the material wealth of whites was the result of their secret magical knowledge.




  1. In vision quest, many Native American groups used strong emotional impulse, fasting, isolation, self-mutilation, as well as other techniques.



  1. Priests are generally associated with gods believed to have great power.




  1. There is no scientific evidence that one individual can kill another through the use of sorcery.


  1. Modern-day Wiccans often believe that everything they do, good or bad, returns to them three-fold.




  1. Religious change is likely to occur when societies are stable and people have the time to think of new forms of religious worship.



  1. Return to Africa is a central theme of Rastafarian theology.




  1. Some followers of the Ghost Dance religion believed that specially painted shirts would protect them from bullets.




  1. The rituals of the Native American Church are based on the revival of a peyote religion that was common throughout North America in the 17th and 18th



  1. In all religions, most fundamentalist belief calls for society to return to an earlier time that believers understand as more holy than the current era.



  1. About 10 percent of the U.S. population belongs to non-Judeo-Christian religions.




  1. Define religion.



  1. What are the six characteristics of religion?



  1. Why do Fulani of Mali insult their children?



  1. How are monotheism and polytheism alike and different?



  1. Why is liminality considered part of anti-structure?



  1. Define a rite of passage and give two examples.



  1. Describe the three stages of a rite of passage.



  1. In anthropology, what are the characteristics of prayer?


  1. When someone uses the fingernails of a victim to work a spell, what kind of magic is he using?




  1. Europeans saw the Melanesian cargo cults as irrational. But anthropologists studying them in the 1950s argued that they were rational responses. What evidence did they cite for this?



  1. Define divination.



  1. What was the role of the spirit in the vision quest?




  1. What do we call a cleric whose authority is based on his or her ability to achieve direct contact with the supernatural?



  1. What is pharmacopoeia?



  1. Compare and contrast witchcraft and sorcery.



  1. What is a millenarian movement?



  1. Under what conditions do we expect to find the emergence of syncretic religions?



  1. Describe three characteristics of fundamentalism.



  1. Name three symbols significant to the Rastafarian movement.


  1. How has religious belief and practice changed in the United States since 1940?




  1. Religion is generally a conservative force in society. That is, most times it supports the status quo. How does it do this? Write an essay in which you give several examples of the stabilizing influence of religion.




  1. Write an essay in which you describe the differences between the process of becoming a priest and becoming a shaman. Give examples both from your own culture and from the book.


  1. Describe witchcraft accusations that stigmatize witches and those that turn them into scapegoats. Under what conditions is each of these forms of accusation likely to occur?




  1. Describe the conditions under which new religious movements are likely to occur. What groups, if any, in your community are likely to develop new religious practices? What factors make them good candidates for new religious messages?




  1. Religion uses many kinds of symbols. Why is symbolism so important in religious ritual? Give several examples of the use of religious symbolism, and discuss what the symbols appear to mean, in a particular society.


Chapter 13: Creative Expression: Anthropology and the Arts






  1. Evidence of artistic expression:
    1. Was first found in the early 18th
    2. Was first discovered only in the form of cave paintings.
    3. Was found at the dawn of the modern human species.
    4. Was first found 400,000 years ago.
    5. Was found for the first time with the emergence of state societies.



  1. In the text, art refers to:
    1. The visual arts only.
    2. Anything that human beings do outside the realm of technology.
    3. Works of universally recognized beauty.
    4. Anything that excites people emotionally.
    5. The application of skill that reflects cultural values and patterns.



  1. The Inuit do not have a word for art. This reveals that:
    1. The Inuit have little artistic ability.
    2. In a harsh environment, the practice of art is a luxury not easily indulged in.


  1. The contemporary arts of the Inuit were introduced by Canadians as a way for Inuit to earn a living.
  2. The Inuit language is impoverished because it lacks a word for art.
  3. Inuit art is traditionally embedded in making objects for other purposes.



  1. A creative process in which improvisation is more highly valued than originality is characteristic of:
    1. African music.
    2. Western painting.
    3. Navajo singing.
    4. Balinese dance.
    5. Inuit carving.



  1. Archaeologists offer all of the following as explanations for cave art except:
    1. They were drawn to magically increase the chance of a successful hunt.
    2. They contain coded information about the hunt.
    3. They were made for ritual use.
    4. They depict things seen by shamans during trance.
    5. They are for decorating the cave.


  1. Which of the following is not an example of the fact that one needs to know the cultural meaning assigned to an artistic elements in order to understand it?
    1. The use of minor keys in Western music.
    2. The use of red dyes in Dogon sculpture.
    3. The wearing of rings in Western society.
    4. The use of the corn motif in Mayan sculpture.
    5. Knives are used in processing food.



  1. Calligraphy is an important art form in Islam because:
    1. Muslims have exceptionally good handwriting.
    2. It visually represents the Koran.


  1. Letter writing was the most important traditional form of communication between individuals.
  2. The Koran is a written document.
  3. Art has not traditionally been important in the Arab culture.



  1. An important function of art in all societies is that it:
    1. Promotes social solidarity by symbolically conveying values and emotions.
    2. Gives professional opportunities to the most talented members of society.
    3. Serves as a marker between the higher and the lower classes.
    4. Provides an escape into fantasy for the poor and the oppressed.
    5. Provides people with a source of cash income.



  1. Ice Age cave art demonstrates that:
    1. Art is found only in hunting societies.


  1. Visual art has become progressively more representational with increasing societal complexity.


  1. So-called “primitive” art is the basis for much European modern art.
  2. Art is a very early aspect of human culture.
  3. Art is universally associated with religion.



  1. Two principal themes found in anime and manga are:
    1. Power and wealth.
    2. Cuteness and violence.
    3. Material prosperity and spiritual poverty.
    4. Sex and fear.
    5. History and fate.



  1. Japanese cultural analysts such as Murakami emphasize that:
    1. Japanese will always feel inferior to Americans.
    2. Japanese will always feel superior to Americans.
    3. Japanese art has little or nothing to do with non-Japanese people.
    4. Japan has not really come to grips with its role in World War II.


  1. Japanese art will only truly be successful when it is collected in American and Europe.


  1. What is manga?
    1. Animated cartoons in Japan.
    2. Comic book art in Japan.
    3. Political satire in Japan.
    4. Movie art in the U.S.
    5. A type of music from Brazil.



  1. An example of “deep play” in the United States is:
    1. Swimming in deep water.



  1. The Balinese cockfight is called “deep play” because:
    1. It is merely play.
    2. It is done in a playful manner.
    3. It has deep symbolic meaning.
    4. People who engage in it are over their heads financially.
    5. It deepens the gap between the different social strata in Balinese society.



  1. The most important part of the Balinese cockfight is:
    1. The gambling associated with it.
    2. The costumes worn by the cock owners.
    3. The magical ritual surrounding it.
    4. Its historical origins in antiquity.
    5. The special names given to the cocks by their owners.



  1. In the Spanish understanding of bullfighting, the matador is:
    1. An angry combatant who uses force to vanquish his enemy.
    2. A male seeking revenge for an insult or infidelity.
    3. An honorable male: skilled, self-controlled, and calm.
    4. The passive victim of the forces of nature.
    5. Demonstrating the principle that violence should always be met with violence.



  1. The trickster tales, such as the Br’er Rabbit stories of the American South, may be seen as:


  1. A thinly veiled protest against oppression and domination.


  1. No more than foolish stories that have no real significance.
  2. A product of a society with limited interest in verbal folklore.
  3. The protest of the little worker against the modern bureaucracy.
  4. Particularly characteristic of an egalitarian society.


  1. The ledger drawings are:


  1. An example of how some Native Americans used art to record history and preserve their identity.


  1. Economic records of the Cheyenne Indians during the period of European conquest.
  2. An example of the earliest form of cave paintings.
  3. A group of African folktales translated into a series of paintings.


  1. A way for Native American people to record events that only occurred outside of their particular group.



  1. During what historical period did ledger drawings flourish?
    1. Early to late 1600s.
    2. Mid 1700s-1804.
    3. 1840s-1860s.
    4. 1870s-1920s.
    5. 1940s-1970s.



  1. Marking the body as an expression of cultural and personal identity is known as:
    1. Self-mutilation.
    2. Body art.
    3. Cultural tattooing.
    4. Ritual cleansing.



  1. Anthropologist Maria Messina found that all of the following are times in which Moroccan women use henna except:
    1. First night of marriage.
    2. When the woman finishes college.
    3. At ages 3-4 in preparation of Ramadan.
    4. Toward the end of her pregnancy.
    5. During transition from girlhood to womanhood.



  1. A critical event that influenced artist Frida Kahlo was:
    1. A profound religious experience.
    2. A visit to the Soviet Union in 1932.
    3. A visit to the United States in 1938.
    4. The Mexican Revolution of 1910.
    5. Her long love affair with artist Pablo Picasso.



  1. Fritz Scholder’s paintings combine historical images with abstract expressionism and pop A fundamental theme of his work is:
    1. The oppression of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
    2. His ambivalence about his Indian identity.


  1. The need for Native Americans to get over the injustices of the past and get on with their lives.
  2. The importance of the repatriation of Native American remains and artifacts.


  1. The underlying humanity of all people, regardless of superficial racial and ethnic





  1. “Orientalism” refers to:
    1. Belief in the superiority of the cultures of China, Japan, and Korea.
    2. Beliefs promoting colonial conquest of Asia.
    3. A fantasy view of the Middle East as the European “other.”


  1. A school of European painting depicting Arab cultures in an objective, realistic way.


  1. A theory of anthropology regarding Islamic cultures as not very different from Western cultures.


  1. During the 19th century, European travelers thought the Orient was threatening because:
    1. They did not believe they could acquire land in this region.
    2. They believed it was the opposite of European civilization and thus irrational.
    3. They did not know how to speak the language of the people in this region.
    4. They were unable to safely traverse its terrain.
    5. The Orient had more economic stability than the majority of European countries.



  1. A prop often seen in paintings of Middle Eastern domestic scenes is:
    1. Bread being baked.
    2. Washing being done.
    3. Women getting undressed.
    4. People smoking the hookah.
    5. Women playing with their children.



  1. How has the role of the artist in society changed in the genre of world art?
    1. Today, people are not interested in knowing the creator’s identity in order to purchase the work.
    2. Today, people seek to know the creator’s identity in order to value the piece of art.


  1. Native artists are disappearing and this is an endangered field.


  1. Native art no longer has commercial value, because it is seen primarily as a ritual object.


  1. Westerners and native artists cannot agree on how to define the role of the artists today.



  1. In the art world, middlemen typically:


  1. Manipulate art objects and the information regarding their production to meet the demands of buyers.


  1. Neither have a high nor low ranking in the hierarchal structure of their society.


  1. Are involved in the pillage of archaeological sites and illegal export of art treasures.
  2. Accurately represent the original context of native art to Western buyers.
  3. Interfere in the affairs of others.


  1. Maria Martinez, of San Ildefonso Pueblo in the United States, is an example of:
    1. Tribal concept of art imposed on a Western culture.
    2. A person recognized as an “artist” in her own society prior to Western contact.


  1. The strong continuities between prehistoric and contemporary tribal artistic creations.
  2. The functional uses of all “primitive” art.
  3. An “artist” created in a traditional culture by the impact of Western art collectors.



  1. Which of the following was identified as one of the early art colonies in the U.S.?
    1. Phoenix, AZ.
    2. Taos, NM.
    3. Tucson, AZ.
    4. Billings, MT.
    5. Harrodsburg, KY.



  1. As the example of the Toraja of Indonesia demonstrates, in many indigenous cultures, art has now become:
    1. A luxury.
    2. A leveler of class differences.
    3. A commodity.
    4. Separated from cultural identity.
    5. Widespread among the people within the society.



  1. Torajan tau-tau, or wooden effigies of nobles, carved in connection with mortuary ritual:
    1. Have disappeared since contact with Western tourists.
    2. Have often been stolen or bought for the Western art collector’s market.


  1. Created the indigenous status of artist where it never previously existed.


  1. Never been used traditionally, but are a “fake” cultural product developed for the Western tourist market.
  2. Have fallen into disuse since the conversion of the Torajan to Christianity.



  1. The primary artistic efforts of Maria Martinez were:
    1. Silver jewelry.



  1. An important criticism of tourism is that:
    1. Natives are rarely able to make any money from tourists.
    2. It tends to turn culture into a marketable commodity.
    3. It prevents natives from modernizing their cultures.


  1. Since it allows natives to access outside funding, it results in a decrease in government spending in tourist areas.
  2. The small number of tourists does not represent the larger global population and


this leads to cross-cultural misunderstanding.



  1. The effect of tourism on indigenous arts:
    1. Is mixed; some traditional arts have prospered while many have deteriorated.
    2. Always results in the deterioration and simplification of traditional art forms.


  1. Has been minimal; Western tourists are not interested in the arts of indigenous peoples.


  1. Has resulted in the training of many indigenous artists in European art schools.


  1. Has changed the ways in which artists are viewed in the industrialized nations.



  1. Musical styles from cultures throughout the world is represented in:
    1. World music.
    2. African music and folklore.
    3. The majority of Western music.
    4. A small body of musical genres.



  1. Which of the following correctly characterizes bhangra?
    1. A political party in India.
    2. A form of art involving the braiding of hair.
    3. A mixture of Punjabi folk music and British pop.
    4. A form of sculpture combining Western with African characteristics.
    5. A potter whose works have become known internationally.



  1. A increasingly popular part of world music and dance is:
    1. The use of double meanings in lyrics.
    2. Hip-hop.
    3. The authentic representations of personal identity.
    4. Break-dancing.
    5. African music.



  1. Which of the following is a recent anthropological interest in art?
    1. How native arts have become global commodities.
    2. How native art is produced and used within its own society.


  1. The place of the native artist in society.
  2. How Western art is becoming increasingly commercialized.
  3. How Western artists are including more pop art to meet generational demands.



  1. Bhangra is linked most tightly to identity in which cultural area?
    1. British and French.
    2. South Asia.
    3. Middle Eastern.
    4. Southern African.
    5. Eastern Brazil.




  1. Evidence of artistic expression only dates to about 10,000 years ago.



  1. Art for art’s sake is a value that exists in all societies.



  1. A very important function of art is symbolic communication.



  1. Museum exhibits are a point of contact between the West and the art of indigenous cultures.




  1. Today, museum exhibits are critically examined for the representations they provide of other cultures through the art on display.



  1. Art can provide many functions in society, especially for ritual meanings.



  1. Anime is Japanese comic book art.



  1. Manga has a widespread and influential role in the popular culture of the global community.


  1. Sports can be considered an art form, because they involve the application of human skill to behavior beyond the merely practical.




  1. Art is an important element in the politics of a culture.




  1. Trickster tales can be an indirect way of expressing dissatisfaction with an unequal system of social relations.



  1. Body art and adornment can be used as an expression of identification.


  1. Frida Kahlo is an artist best known for the political content of her work.



  1. European artists were rarely concerned with representing non-Europeans in their art.



  1. Pictures depicting Orientalism were restricted to fine art.


  1. Tau-taus are a form of currency in the Toraja culture.


  1. Tourism in traditional societies has led to the emergence of artist as a special and distinct occupational specialization.



  1. External interest in Native American art negatively impacted the prestige of Maria Martinez.



  1. World music incorporates musical styles from cultures all over the world.



  1. Bhangra is a musical form that originated from Eastern European folk music.






  1. How do anthropologists define art?



  1. Explain why art is not universally considered a product of artistic innovation.



  1. Provide three possible explanations for cave art provided by archaeologists.



  1. How is calligraphy viewed differently in China and the Islamic Middle East?



  1. What is a nkisi?



  1. Distinguish between manga and



  1. What is the relationship between art and symbolism?



  1. What is “deep play”?



  1. What is the primary function of the Spanish bullfight?



  1. Why did indigenous peoples oppose the use of the term “primitive” for their art in museums?


  1. What are ledger drawings?



  1. What is henna, and how is it used as an art form in Morocco?



  1. Discuss the art of Fritz Scholder as a marker of personal identity.


  1. Orientalism is often described as a European intellectual movement. What is it?



  1. Define world art and give examples.



  1. How were gender roles depicted in Orientalist art?



  1. Who is Maria Martinez?



  1. Among the Toraja, what is the tongkonan?



  1. What is bhangra, and how does it express world music?


  1. Define world music and give examples.






  1. Art expresses cultural identity by elaborating cultural themes. It also expresses a culture’s view of the “other” as a way of elaborating boundary markers between one’s own cultures and others. Discuss this and use examples.




  1. The global economy has greatly affected the art(s) of traditional and tribal societies. What challenges do indigenous artists face today as a result of the changing world economy?




  1. Art forms have connections with supernatural power, as well as the power structure in a society. Discuss some connections between art and power structures, and some of the ways in which art has been used to reflect, maintain, or rebel against power structures.


  1. The role of the art and the status of “artist” vary from society to society. Using examples, discuss how the social role of the artist varies and how this may or may not connect to the role of art as a commercial product in society.


  1. Museums are very specific areas of graphic representation. Consider various types of museums that you have visited and how this relationship to art is different from that in smaller indigenous societies.


Chapter 14: Power, Conquest, and a World System






  1. The pace of change over the past several centuries has been:
    1. Enormous, with innovation occurring at quicker and quicker rates.
    2. Constant, with innovation occurring at a steady rate.
    3. Static, with little innovation occurring
    4. Sporadic, with intermittent occurrences of innovation.
    5. There are no reliable statistics to gauge such an abstract idea.



  1. In the early 1400s, a visitor from China to Europe:
    1. Would have been concerned by the growing strength of the Catholic Church.


  1. Would have been impressed by the speed with which technological innovation was taking place.
  2. Would have been impressed with advances in medicine.
  3. Would have thought Europe poverty stricken and backward.


  1. Would have been impressed by the size and training of European armies.



  1. Which of the following probably had the greatest effect on cultures worldwide?
    1. The collapse of the Roman Empire.
    2. The Declaration of Independence.
    3. The French Revolution.
    4. The expansion of European influence.
    5. The formation of the United Nations.



  1. National narratives are important to anthropology because:
    1. Without them nothing could be known about a culture.


  1. Listening to them gives us a deeper and broader understanding of the forces that make a nation.
  2. People would rather hear stories than listen to facts.
  3. They often focus on violence rather than celebrating development.


  1. While they do not lead to a greater understanding of culture, they are often highly entertaining.



  1. One thing that separates the Western expansion from empire building by previous peoples is:


  1. The use of slavery.
  2. The brutal exploitation of native populations.
  3. The formation of colonies controlled by distant powers.
  4. The widespread use of pillage.
  5. The scale of the enterprise.


  1. The principal resource that Spanish Conquistadors sent back from the Inca Empire was:



  1. Physical violence used in order to force natives people to give up resources is called:
    1. Corvee labor.



  1. At current prices, what the Spanish looted of gold and silver from the Americas is valued at:


  1. 1 billion.
  2. 3 billion.
  3. 14 billion.
  4. 40 billion.
  5. 412 billion.



  1. The role of Europe in the history of African slavery can be best summarized as:
    1. African slavery was invented by Europeans.


  1. African slavery was not invented by Europeans but was practiced by them on a very large scale.


  1. Europeans made extensive use of slave labor in Europe.


  1. The presence of Europeans in the African slave trade generally improved the treatment of slaves.
  2. European powers enslaved far fewer Africans than did non-Europeans.



  1. Which of the following contributed most to the development of slavery as an economic institution?
    1. Monoculture plantations.
    2. Silver and gold mines.


  1. Development of Western frontiers.
  2. Advanced shipping techniques.
  3. Development of factory production.



  1. Which of the following was considered a primary and key advantage to Europeans in their expansion?
    1. New maps.



  1. What role did disease play in European colonization?
    1. It decimated native populations leaving little resistance to European incursion.
    2. It decimated European explorers and left them unable to face native armies.


  1. It caused the spread of disease and mutation of new forms that were more dangerous.
  2. It made colonization more difficult, as Europeans had to bring doctors with them.


  1. It had a minor role in colonization, although there were losses among both Europeans and natives.



  1. Which of the following correctly characterizes a joint stock company?
    1. It is led by a monarch.
    2. It is usually controlled by a single wealthy individual.
    3. Its goal is to return large profits to its shareholders.
    4. It has a large interest in scientific exploration.
    5. It supports the formation of colonies controlled by its mother country.



  1. The critical thing that created the demand for African slaves in the Americas was:
    1. Growing sugar.
    2. Construction of roads.
    3. Missionary work.
    4. Fishing and whaling.



  1. Who were the Heeren XVII (The Lords Seventeen)?
    1. The admirals of the Dutch Navy.
    2. The colonial governors of Indonesia.
    3. The tax paid to the government to trade slaves.
    4. The Dukes who partitioned Africa.
    5. The directors of the Dutch East India Company.



  1. Which of the following correctly describes the position of the Dutch East India Company?
    1. The Company quickly took total control of most of Indonesia.


  1. After a difficult beginning, the company was incredibly profitable until the end of the colonial era.


  1. While it made enormous profits for its shareholders, the company was embroiled in wars and eventually went bankrupt.


  1. The company sold shares to wealthy Indonesians and remains a powerful influence in that nation today.


  1. Because it failed to make any profit, the company was disbanded within 50 years of its formation.



  1. Colonialism differed from expansion by private companies in that:
    1. European governments had military technology and private companies did not.


  1. It often took the form of raid and pillage.
  2. It involved the active possession of foreign territory by European governments.


  1. European governments were involved in private companies but not in colonial




  1. Companies often wanted to spread European values but governments created colonies for purely economic reasons.



  1. Which of the following experienced the most radical change following European colonization?
    1. The Belgian Congo.
    2. The Dutch East Indies.
    3. The Americas.


  1. Which of the following best explains the lack of resistance of Native Americans to European diseases?


  1. Most Native Americans had never done hard labor before Europeans arrived and were not used to the stress.


  1. Most Native Americans were unaware of the relationship between disease and sanitation.


  1. Most Native Americans did not understand the germ theory of disease and so could not take preventive measures.


  1. Native America lacked the agriculture and industrialization that fosters disease formation.


  1. Native America lacked the domestic animals that were the original sources of many diseases.


  1. The authors of the book argue that the critical factor that led to the victory of the Spanish over the Aztecs in 1521 was that:
    1. The Aztecs thought that the Spanish were gods.
    2. Aztec legend had foretold the coming of disaster “From the East.”


  1. The Aztecs were afraid of the Spanish horses, having never seen anything like them before.


  1. The Aztecs had been decimated by a smallpox epidemic and lost half of their number.
  2. The Aztecs did not understand that the Spanish intended to conquer them.



  1. The key element that differentiates the European conquest of the Americas from European actions in Africa and Asia is that:


  1. European technology was clearly far superior to that of Native Americans, but they had less of an advantage over Asians and Africans.


  1. European diseases decimated American populations, but had very little effect on African and Asian populations.


  1. European populations were much higher than those of the New World but much lower than the populations of Africa and Asia.


  1. Native Americans understood the Europeans as gods. Africans and Asians were under no such illusions.


  1. Essentially there is no difference between the two. European powers were able to conquer and dominate wherever they went.


  1. The authors of this book argue that the critical factor that enabled Europeans to colonize successfully in the 19th century was:
    1. Mass production of weapons.
    2. The solid support of their citizenry.
    3. Democratic government.
    4. An ideology that stressed bringing civilization to the savages.



  1. European governments were often reluctant to colonize because:
    1. They feared rebellion by the natives.
    2. They believed in the “Rights of Man” and were morally opposed to controlling other peoples.
    3. It meant building infrastructure and that was expensive.
    4. They could rarely find people who wished to serve as officials in the colonies.


  1. They feared that it would lead to interracial marriage and they were opposed to this.


  1. Picking up the “White Man’s Burden” meant:


  1. Bringing civilization to the colonized.
  2. Shipping slaves from Africa to the Americas.
  3. Building factories and railroads.
  4. Finding ways to invest the profits derived from colonialism.
  5. Using force to control native populations under colonial rule.



  1. Where the European powers could not find ethnic groups with chiefs, they:
    1. Permitted their colonists to settle.


  1. Permitted democratic elections for chiefs.
  2. Tended to place more of their officials “on the ground.”


  1. Tended not to colonize.
  2. Created new ethnic groups and appointed chiefs.



  1. The profits of colonization primarily went to:
    1. Shareholders of colonial companies.
    2. The subject people (colonized).
    3. The colonizing government.
    4. Colonial taxpayers in both home country and colony.
    5. Other colonies.



  1. The Tirailleurs Senegalais were:
    1. A police force used to patrol Dakar, the capital of Senegal.
    2. The name for the French troops that were stationed in Africa.


  1. Workers in gold mines in West Africa caught in a battle between the French and British.
  2. A regiment of African troops drafted or enlisted into service in the French army.
  3. African children who were forced into domestic service in French households.


  1. Most of the members of the original Tirailleurs Senegalais were:
    1. Children of the poor.
    2. Sons of chiefs.
    3. Sons of merchants.
    4. Among the most educated people in their culture.



  1. Corvee labor was:
    1. Unpaid labor demanded by colonizers of native populations.


  1. Work done by the French and other colonizers to improve conditions in their colonies.
  2. Transporting the materials necessary for colonialism.
  3. The portion of followers’ labor redistributed by a chief or bigman.


  1. A method used by colonizers to appease native populations.



  1. Corvee labor was a widespread practice in colonies until:
    1. The American Revolution.


  1. The Great War.
  2. World War I.
  3. World War II.
  4. The Cold War.



  1. Which of the following was the key to making colonies profitable to colonial masters?
    1. Corvee labor.
    2. Increasing education.
    3. Mass exploration.



  1. One effect of the economic and social policies of colonial regimes was:
    1. Colonized cultures underwent radical alteration.
    2. Europeans were able to learn and appreciate the cultures that were colonized.
    3. Colonies rapidly became almost as advanced as colonizing nations.
    4. To create a homogenized world culture.
    5. To bring culture to primitive societies.



  1. In newly established colonies, the most important role of taxes was:
    1. To support the cost of the colonial government.
    2. To provide an immediate profit for the colonizing country.
    3. To extend central government control into small villages.
    4. To pay the cost of building roads and bridges in the colony.


  1. To force colonial subjects to work for Europeans or produce products they desired.


  1. In the early 20th century, a key function of education in the colonies was to do all of the following except:
    1. Create leadership qualities in the local population.
    2. Convince local children that they were inferior to those who had colonized them.
    3. Convince subject people to buy products offered by the colonizing power.


  1. Show colonial subjects that they (the colonizers) were offering something of value to the country they had taken over.
  2. Create independence in the colony.



  1. In colonies, education was most frequently aimed at:
    1. Achieving universal literacy.
    2. Educating the poor, who would then become backers of the colonial regime.
    3. Training the people that Europeans thought were the most primitive.
    4. Training the children of the elites.
    5. Fostering creativity and independence that could lead to prosperity.



  1. Which of the following was the most important impact of colonialism on anthropology?


  1. Developing new theories.
  2. Providing grant money for research.
  3. Encouraging native peoples to become anthropologists.
  4. Determining fieldwork locations.
  5. Opening new universities.



  1. Which of the following had gained independence from European powers prior to World War II?
    1. Countries in Asia.
    2. Countries in Africa.
    3. Nations under control of the USSR.
    4. Nations in the Americas.



  1. The Chinese Bronze incident highlights a persistent controversy over:
    1. British rights in China.
    2. Foreign affairs.
    3. What constitutes art.
    4. Ownership of historical objects.



  1. Neocolonialism refers to:


  1. The idea that although nations were no longer colonized, many institutions of colonialism remained.
  2. A new form of colonialism in the 21st


  1. The process of finding ways for America to maintain direct power in European nations post World War II.
  2. The process of regaining lost culture in a formerly colonized nation.
  3. The idea that strong cultural exchanges should be maintained between a formerly


colonized nation and its colonizer.



  1. The role of anthropologists in the debate over reparation is:
    1. Always on the side of the culture seeking to get back an artifact.


  1. Always on the side of the nation seeking to maintain current ownership of an artifact.


  1. Equivocal, they not only understand the point of view of the artifacts original culture but also see advantages in not repatriating artifacts.
  2. Anthropologists rarely have an opinion on this debate.


  1. Anthropologists generally believe artifacts should be held by institutions that employ anthropologists.





  1. The earliest writing probably appeared 5,500 years ago.



  1. It was the expanding influence and power of eastern Asian states that probably had the greatest impact worldwide in the last several hundred years.



  1. Emperor Ch’ien Lung’s response to a British delegation’s attempt to open trade was positive and welcoming.



  1. Pillage was one of the main ways that Europeans transferred wealth from newly discovered areas to their home countries.


  1. Religion was one of the main forces that drove Europeans to explore and colonize.



  1. While Europeans practiced slavery in Africa, they rarely forced other Europeans into any form of servitude.


  1. Joint stock company refers to a firm that is managed by a centralized board of directors but is owned by its shareholders.


  1. Once the Dutch started to trade in the Indian Ocean, they were rapidly able to establish thorough political control over Java.



  1. At one time or another, much of the world came under direct European colonization.



  1. The main reason for rapid European success in the Americas was disease.



  1. European nations were often reluctant to create colonies because colonization was expensive.




  1. Civilizing mission refers to the notion that colonialism was a duty for Europeans but did not benefit the colonized.



  1. The French only used African conscripts in wars fought within Africa.


  1. In 1926, the French abolished a law that permitted an annual draft of labor for their West African colonies.



  1. Taxation in the colonies allowed native people to become independent.



  1. Europeans could not have created colonies without the help of anthropologists.



  1. Most nations in the Americas did not gain their independence until after World War II.



  1. The Elgin marbles have yet to be returned by the English government to the Greek government.



  1. Decolonization in areas like the Congo was very peaceful and successful.




  1. Anthropologists always side with the culture seeking repatriation of historical objects.






  1. Name three factors that motivated European expansion worldwide.



  1. Name four social and/or technological developments that aided Europe in expansion.



  1. Define pillage and give one example.



  1. How did paternalism benefit factory and mill owners in places such as Virginius Island in Harpers Ferry national Historical Park, West Virginia?



  1. What is a “national narrative”?


  1. What are the primary advantages of a joint stock company?



  1. Where did the Dutch East India Company primarily operate?



  1. What is a colony?



  1. Name two major differences between the American colonization experience and that of Africa and Asia.



  1. Name two reasons that New World populations lacked immunity to diseases.



  1. John Winthrop, one of the early governors of Massachusetts, declared that settlers had fair title to land because of vacuum domicilium. What does this mean?



  1. Who were the Tirailleurs Senegalais?



  1. What was meant by the concept of “White man’s burden”?



  1. What were two functions of taxation in European colonies?



  1. What is corvee labor?



  1. What three social institutions did Europeans use to make colonial pay for itself and render profit?



  1. What were the primary European goals of native education in the colonies?



  1. Name two reasons for the rapid decolonization of the world after World War II.



  1. What is neocolonialism?



  1. Why is repatriation of historical artifacts controversial?




  1. Europe was able to expand into the Americas with relative ease but had much greater difficulty expanding into Asia and Africa. What critical factors account for the differential success of Europeans in these various areas?



  1. Describe the ways that education and taxation were used in colonization in the 19th century. How did these institutions work for the benefit of colonial governments?



  1. Colonization permanently changed the world as we know it today. Discuss the legacy of colonialism.



  1. Disease was a major factor in the colonization of the Americas. Consider what might have happened had this one impact not occurred. Discuss two possible scenarios of how colonialism would have been different in the Americas without the aid of European diseases.


  1. What was the role of anthropology in colonialism?


Chapter 15: Culture, Change, and the Modern World






  1. A key difference between a colonial government and an independent government is:


  1. Colonies need to be made productive for their owners. Independent nations need to be prosperous in their own right.


  1. Colonial governments are much more likely to regulate freedom of speech than are independent governments.


  1. Colonial governments generally attempt to control as much of the economy of the colonized nation as possible. Independent governments generally exercise less control over the economy.


  1. Colonial governments never return any value to their subjects; even oppressive independent governments return some work of value to their citizens.


  1. Independent governments in the third world invariably had higher levels of corruption than their colonial predecessors.



  1. According to the World Bank, about how many people in the world in 2006 were living on less than $1 per day?


  1. 65 million
  2. 187 million
  3. 650 million
  4. 994 million
  5. 1 billion



  1. The total value of all goods and services produced in a country is known as:
    1. Gross export value.
    2. Gross national product.
    3. Gross national production.
    4. Gross national income.
    5. Gross productive income.



  1. One of the problems with efforts at development based on recreating the historical experience of the wealthy nations is that:


  1. They generally fail to consider the biologically based differences among human beings.


  1. They often fail to consider that much of the wealth of the industrialized nations was based on exploiting the poor nations.


  1. They assume that people are motivated solely by the pursuit of wealth and that education is not necessary to development.


  1. They fail to understand the true extent of poverty in the world’s poorest nations.


  1. They assume that there is no connection between development programs and the political objectives of the wealthy nations.


  1. Which of the following best characterizes the history of development projects in the years since independence?


  1. They have generally not been successful.
  2. After a poor start, their success improved dramatically in the mid 1960s.


  1. They were highly successful until the end of the Cold War but have generally failed since that time.


  1. They have been highly successful in Latin America and Africa but failed elsewhere in the world.


  1. Though there have been a few failures, development efforts have generally been highly successful.



  1. Which of the following correctly describes neoliberalism?


  1. The belief that American style representative democracy is the best form of government for all people.


  1. The belief that government should provide a social net for all citizens.


  1. The belief that major industries serve a country best if their ownership is socialized.


  1. The belief that the laws of a nation should apply equally to all its citizens.


  1. The belief that governments should be small and should promote free trade, and individual initiative.



  1. Which development approach focuses on projects aimed at giving the poorest people in the world access to clean water, education, and health care?


  1. Structural adjustment.
  2. Basic human needs approaches.
  3. Post-modernization.



  1. According to Jim Igoe, who worked with the Maasai, a critical problem with development is that:


  1. Many projects are based in Western understandings that seem logical to the people who design the projects but less plausible to their recipients.


  1. Many projects assume a level of education that is just not present among the project recipients.


  1. Projects that are designed by local communities are often unacceptable to the people who have to fund them.


  1. Western project managers are rarely accepted by project recipients in poor nations.


  1. Although major donors want to fund large projects, the kinds more likely to work are small projects.



  1. The success of Gerald Murray’s forestry projects in Haiti was based on:


  1. Effective lobbying that caused American corporations to buy Haitian lumber.
  2. Treating trees as a cash crop.
  3. The support of key Haitian politicians.
  4. The use of a key informant.


  1. The fact that Murray was of Haitian ancestry.


  1. In her study of AIDS education in Nepal, Stacy Pigg found that:


  1. Although people knew what AIDS was, they did not associate it with sexual behavior.


  1. AIDS prevention programs had been ineffective in the past because they assumed that a large percentage of the population could speak English.


  1. Strict taboos in Nepalese society made it impossible to talk directly about homosexual behavior.


  1. Traditional methods of sexual regulation could be used to control the spread of AIDS.


  1. Even though most Nepalese do not speak English, information about AIDS was more effectively conveyed in English than in Nepalese.



  1. An MNC is:
    1. A type of role playing game.
    2. A bilateral aid and development organization.
    3. A corporation that owns businesses in more than one nation.


  1. A type of treaty designed to preserve the rights of indigenous people.
  2. A joint defense treaty between mutually antagonistic nations.



  1. Studies of Chinese workers who have migrated to cities in search of factory jobs have demonstrated that:


  1. They prefer factory labor, even under harsh conditions, and rarely return to the countryside if they lose their jobs.


  1. They are “target workers.” They work to earn a certain amount of money, and once they achieve that target, they return to the countryside.


  1. They are only held in urban areas by specific jobs. When these jobs end, they return rapidly to the countryside.


  1. They advance rapidly, earning higher salaries and greater status within 18-24 months.


  1. They are generally dissatisfied with working conditions and often engage in strikes.



  1. Which of the following statements about sweatshop labor is correct?
    1. Sweatshop labor has been eliminated in Europe and America.
    2. Sweatshop laborers are rarely subject to psychological or verbal abuse.


  1. Western economists agree that sweatshops are generally good for developing countries, even though the conditions are challenging.


  1. America and European nations made extensive use of sweatshop labor in the past.


  1. Western economists agree that most attempts to end sweatshop labor harm the very people they are aimed at helping.


  1. In many cases, multinational corporations have effects on gender roles in society. These effects:


  1. Generally favor men at the expense of women.
  2. Generally favor women at the expense of men.
  3. Are generally the same on both men and women.
  4. Might favor either men or women depending on the circumstances.


  1. Generally improve the positions of both men and women but largely at the expense of children.



  1. In her study of the FAVELA of Olinda in Brazil, Mary Kenny found that social relations among residents were characterized by:


  1. Solidarity and mutual support.
  2. General hostility and suspicion.
  3. Strong bonds of friendship among women only.
  4. Unusually strong ties between members of the same family.
  5. A critical reliance on membership in one of three street gangs.



  1. Which of the following correctly characterizes Dalva, one of the informants in Mary

Kenny’s study of the FAVELA  of Olinda?


  1. Like many other children, she will use her formal schooling to escape conditions of poverty.


  1. A victim of child abuse, she will most likely have to spend the rest of her life in an institution.


  1. Although her family is poor, she receives strong support from her parents, particularly her mother.


  1. She works 12 hours a day sewing shirts for American corporations but barely makes enough money to feed herself, let alone her brothers and sisters.


  1. Although only 12, by organizing younger children and generating income, she has become the head of her household.



  1. Why is Apple Corporation not cited more frequently for labor abuses in the production of its goods?


  1. Apple is very strict about following good labor standards and has never been cited for labor abuse.


  1. Apple does not outsource any of its production. It is an American company.


  1. Apple outsources all of its production to another corporation that does engage in labor exploitation, but Apple is not directly involved.


  1. Apple has employed labor supervisors who regulate the industry and they have decided not to cite Apple for violations.


  1. Apple has been cited numerous times for violations and runs sweatshops all over the United States.


  1. All of the following are common violations cited to Foxconn in its sweatshops in China, Brazil, Mexico, and other countries except:


  1. Improper disposal of hazardous waste.
  2. Closing the factory without notifying the workers.
  3. Under-aged workers.
  4. Crowded dorms and living conditions.
  5. Falsification of records.



  1. About what percentage of the world’s population currently lives in cities?


  1. Under 15 percent.
  2. About 30 percent.
  3. Somewhat more than 50 percent.
  4. About 60 percent.
  5. About 75 percent.


  1. In the next four decades, almost all the growth in urban populations is expected to occur:


  1. In South America.
  2. In Europe.
  3. In the Southern Hemisphere.
  4. In the wealthiest nations.
  5. In the world’s poor nations.



  1. Voluntary associations are most likely to emerge:
    1. In hunting and gathering societies.
    2. Among newly urbanized populations in agricultural societies.
    3. As men’s cults in patrilineal societies.


  1. In pastoral societies where farmers and pastoralists fight over land.


  1. As groups fighting for women’s rights in male-dominated societies.



  1. The total population of the world as of 2012 is approximately:
    1. 7 billion.
    2. 53 billion.
    3. 84 billion.
    4. 74 billion.
    5. 5 billion.



  1. A critical problem for indigenous people has been that as world population increases:
    1. The percentage of the world composed of indigenous people decreases.


  1. Indigenous people are less able to make their voices heard in local and regional governments.


  1. There is increased pressure on them to increase their family size and this often destabilizes their production system.


  1. Land shortages have resulted in changes to traditional practices or, sometimes, the virtual disappearance of traditional livelihoods.


  1. The problems of indigenous people matter less and less to others.


  1. One important result of China’s one child policy has been:


  1. The skewing of the sex ratio in favor of boys.


  1. The skewing of the sex ratio in favor of girls.


  1. An increase in the speed with which people have migrated from rural to urban areas.


  1. A new emphasis on increasing the population in rural areas relative to urban areas.
  2. The total population of China has decreased slightly over the past 10 years.



  1. In her study of China’s one-child policy, Anthropologist Susan Greenhalgh worries that:


  1. The policy might not be sufficient to prevent China’s population from increasing


  1. Chinese children will be very smart but very self-centered and, as adults, will not make very sophisticated leaders.


  1. The policy is not very effective because it is rarely enforced.
  2. China’s rural families might not have sufficient workers to generate adequate levels of agricultural production.


  1. The high number of abortions required by the policy will have a devastating emotional effect on Chinese women.



  1. Elites in poor nations are often opposed to population control programs because:
    1. Such programs often run contrary to religion.


  1. Elites believe that their own chances of economic success are best with a very large family.


  1. Elites fear the social unrest that could result from attempts to force the poor to control their population.


  1. They suspect that wealthy nations promote population control in poor nations for their own self-interest.


  1. They believe their continued prosperity rests upon the fact that the poor of their nation remain poor because they have large families.



  1. According to the text, which of the following is most important in controlling population?
    1. Distribution of birth control.
    2. Educating the people.
    3. Getting religious authorities to support birth control.
    4. Getting government authorities to support population control programs.
    5. Improving the life-chances of people in poor countries.



  1. Which of the following correctly compares energy consumption and environment in wealthy and poor countries?


  1. Wealthy countries consume more energy but have less polluted environments than poor countries.


  1. Poor countries consume less energy and have less polluted environments than wealthy nations.


  1. Wealthy nations consume more energy and have more polluted environments than poor nations.


  1. Poor nations consume more energy than wealthy nations but have more polluted




  1. Poor and wealthy nations consume vastly different amounts of energy but have environments that are approximately equally polluted.


  1. Multinationals play an important role in pollution because:
    1. They are frequently at the forefront of efforts to clean up the environment.
    2. They are more susceptible to public pressure than other corporations.


  1. They are wealthy and powerful enough to circumvent national laws designed to control pollution.


  1. They are particularly able to create and market products that can control pollution.


  1. Factories of multinationals tend to pollute more per unit of goods they produce than factories of locally owned companies.



  1. Which of the following statements about the past 100 years is correct?
    1. It has seen less bloodshed and suffering than most previous eras.
    2. It is probably the bloodiest century in human history.


  1. There has been little bloodshed in the wealthy countries but a great deal in the poor nations.


  1. There has been little bloodshed in the poor nations but a great deal in the wealthy nations.


  1. There was a great deal of bloodshed during the cold war but international levels of violence have greatly declined since then.



  1. During the Cold War of 1945-1989:
    1. The economic problems of people in poor nations were largely ignored.


  1. Peace was maintained almost everywhere in the world by the balance of power between the United States and the Soviets.


  1. People in the world’s poor nations fought proxy wars with money and weapons supplied by the United States and the Soviet Union.


  1. People in the poor nations were largely free to construct their own economic and political systems in response to local tradition and condition.


  1. The Soviet Union and the United States focused almost all their attention on Asia and only rarely intervened in African nations.



  1. During the 1994 genocide in Rwanda:


  1. United Nation troops moved forcefully to stop the violence and re-establish representative government.


  1. French government officials tried to protect the victims of the genocide.


  1. Priests and other religious officials sheltered victims from the genocidal wrath of their neighbors.


  1. More than 800,000 people were killed and every level of society was involved.


  1. Men promoted the massacre of their neighbors but were held back from even greater killings by the actions of women and children.


  1. Saami herders base their pastoral livelihood on what animal?



  1. Probably the most important way that migrants contribute to the places they leave are:
    1. Remittances sent to family back home.
    2. Reducing population pressure in these places.
    3. Opening new possibilities for education in the places they leave.
    4. Increasing the political stability of the places they leave.
    5. Allowing traditional culture to continue in the places they leave.



  1. What is the source of the problem between the indigenous Saami herders and the Norwegian government?


  1. The government of Norway wants to intervene in Saami herding and animal ownership to make changes that they believe will be more efficient for both the Saami and Norway.


  1. The Norwegian government wants to conscript the Saami into their national army and force them to become citizens of Norway. The Saami do not consider themselves to be citizens.


  1. The Saami do not want to continue their indigenous lifestyle and the Norwegian government wants them to remain as herders for tourist purposes.


  1. The Saami are trying to relocate to Sweden, which has better pastureland and better land use laws, but the Norwegian government will not let them leave.


  1. The Saami are reproducing at very high rates and the Norwegian government wants to control for population pressure.



  1. According to Caroline Brettell, migrants often come to their new nations with an “ideology of return.” This means that:
    1. They desire to send money back to the countries they have left.


  1. They believe that their migration is temporary and that they will one day return to their country of origin.


  1. They wish to bring other members of their families to live in their new countries.
  2. They generally have an “eye for eye” philosophy that is likely to result in success in their new countries.


  1. They have a commitment to the political beliefs of their old country that they rarely shed.


  1. A critical thing that anthropology teaches us is:


  1. To the greatest degree possible, indigenous cultures should be preserved intact for future generations.


  1. Efforts at global development will ultimately fail because of human nature.


  1. In general, traditional people had better ways of doing things than modern people do.


  1. Problems we face are ultimately not the result of human nature, and thus, solutions are possible.


  1. Ultimately, and inevitably, people will solve the problems and dilemmas that face modern cultures.



  1. B. Tylor argued that anthropology was a “reformer’s science.” By this he meant that:


  1. Anthropologists had a duty to reform their own practices.
  2. The purpose of anthropology was ultimately to create a better world.
  3. Anthropologists should fight against bureaucratic corruption.


  1. Anthropologists should focus their attention on enforcing codes of inductive reasoning in science.


  1. Anthropologists should always support the notion that all cultures are equally worthy of respect.



  1. In a well known book, Thomas Friedman argued that the world is flat. By this he meant that:
    1. Absolute wealth is currently spread approximately equally around the world.
    2. Columbus got it wrong.


  1. Even though racism and ethnocentrism continue to exist, we should behave as if they do not.


  1. Economic and social opportunities are increasingly available to all people no matter where they live.


  1. The collective talents of any one group of people is approximately the same as the collective talents of any other group of people.



  1. John Grey, a critic of Thomas Friedman’s notion that the world is flat, argues that:


  1. Friedman downplays the role of race in understanding wealth and poverty.


  1. Friedman does not fully realize the potential of the internet to transform relationships among people.


  1. Friedman overstates the degree to which trade and communication promote peace and stability.


  1. Friedman does not understand the degree to which current conflicts express ancient ethnic hatreds.


  1. Friedman does not understand the degree to which the current world is the result of imperialism and colonialism.




  1. A typical “extended” family in rural Asia is unlikely to include more than five people.



  1. More than 1 billion of the world’s population live on less than $1 a day but a meal for two at a good restaurant in a major wealthy city can easily top $100.



  1. The World Bank does not work frequently with poorer nations.




  1. Modernization theory resulted in foreign advice and financial aid designed to alter the structural, cultural, and psychological features of poor nations.




  1. Although, in the 1960s, many anthropologists were employed by development organizations such as the United States Agency for International Development, by the 1980s, this number dropped precipitously.


  1. One thing that anthropologists working in development do is try to counter the tendency of economists to believe that everyone thinks alike and responds to the same incentives.




  1. Some anthropologists are critical of development because they do not believe that people should buy into the practices of governments and other agencies behind development programs.




  1. Because conditions in factories are difficult, Chinese workers take almost any opportunity to leave them and return to the countryside.



  1. Apple Corporation is the only one in the U.S. that has never been cited for labor abuses.


  1. In many places, multinational corporations employ large numbers of female workers because they are seen as more easily controllable than males.




  1. Based on her study of the FAVELA of Olinda, Mary Kenny argues that ending child labor will help to end poverty.




  1. Even though many urban dwellers live in slums, they often have more amenities than they had in the rural areas they left.


  1. Even though populations have increased dramatically, in most places traditional subsistence strategies are still able to provide enough food for people.




  1. According to Susan Greenhalgh, among newly prosperous urban Chinese, girls are now considered as good as or even preferable to boys.




  1. Population scientists have accurately estimated the human carrying capacity of the world. : Pickup


  1. There may be some benefits to global warming, particularly in nations of the northern hemisphere.


  1. In the 1980s, most Ju/’hoansi foragers ended up fighting for the freedom of Namibia with the Southwest African People’s Organization (SWAPO).



  1. The economic downturn of 2008-2009 led some governments to offer cash rewards for immigrants who wished to leave and return to their countries of origin.




  1. An accurate anthropological understanding of the current condition of the world suggests that human beings are unlikely to survive the next two centuries.




  1. Thomas Friedman has argued that the result of globalization will be a more unequal and more violent world.






  1. What is the World Bank?




  1. Name three different types of development approaches that were used in the post-colonial era.



  1. Define neoliberalism.



  1. Why were poor nations forced to accept structural adjustment?



  1. What role does the Grameen Bank play in development projects?


  1. Why do some anthropologists reject development projects?



  1. What are sweatshops?



  1. What jobs are available to people in the Brazilian FAVELA of Olinda?



  1. Do sweatshops operate currently in the U.S.? Explain your answer.




  1. Among the poor in many urban areas there has been a development of voluntary associations. What are these and what purpose do they serve?



  1. What is a “high fertility country”? What national conditions would we expect in that country?



  1. Name three social changes that have occurred in China because of the shortage of women.



  1. What is China’s “onechild policy”?



  1. Why is it difficult to measure the “carrying capacity” of the earth?



  1. Why is global warming expected to be more harmful to poorer nations than wealthier ones?



  1. How has political instability affected the Ju’hoansi?



  1. What are three critical problems facing poor nations today?



  1. Describe the ambiguous position of the Norwegian government toward the Saami herders.



  1. What is meant by “brain drain” in immigration research?



  1. More than a century ago, E.B. Tylor called anthropology a “reformer’s science.” What did he mean by this?




  1. Describe the Basic Human Needs approach to development and explain its successes and failures. Present examples from the text.


  1. Explain why, despite the extremely difficult conditions in many cities in poor nations, people keep moving from rural areas to these cities.



  1. Has China’s “One Child Policy” been a success? What advantages and disadvantages has it created?



  1. Explain why even though people in wealthy nations consume much more than people in poor nations, people in poor nations often face bigger problems of pollution than people in wealthy nations.




  1. What are the critical issues surrounding migration from the perspective of a) the migrant, b) the community the migrant leaves, and c) the community the migrant move to?




  1. What are the key problems faced by the world today? What roles can anthropologists play in their solutions?