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Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques, 5Th Edition By Joen Iannucci

 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 01: Radiation History

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Radiation is defined as
a. a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles.
b. a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.
c. a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube.
d. a branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays.

 

 

ANS:  A

Radiation is a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles. An x-ray is a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor. X-radiation is a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube. Radiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. A radiograph is defined as
a. a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.
b. a picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body.
c. the art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of an image receptor to x-rays.
d. a form of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles.

 

 

ANS:  B

An x-ray is a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.  A radiograph is a picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body. Radiography is the art and science of making dental images by the exposure of a receptor to x-rays.  Radiation is a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Your patient asked you why dental images are important. Which of the following is the correct response?
a. An oral examination with dental images limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically.
b. All dental diseases and conditions produce clinical signs and symptoms.
c. Dental images are not a necessary component of comprehensive patient care.
d. Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental images.

 

 

ANS:  D

An oral examination without dental images limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically. Many dental diseases and conditions produce no clinical signs and symptoms.  Dental images are a necessary component of comprehensive patient care. Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental images.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. The x-ray was discovered by
a. Heinrich Geissler
b. Wilhelm Roentgen
c. Johann Hittorf
d. William Crookes

 

 

ANS:  B

Heinrich Geissler built the first vacuum tube in 1838.  Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the x-ray on November 8, 1895.  Johann Hittorf observed in 1870 that discharges emitted from the negative electrode of a vacuum tube traveled in straight lines, produced heat, and resulted in a greenish fluorescence. William Crookes discovered in the late 1870s that cathode rays were streams of charged particles.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Who exposed the first dental radiograph in the United States using a live person?
a. Otto Walkoff
b. Wilhelm Roentgen
c. Edmund Kells
d. Weston Price

 

 

ANS:  C

Otto Walkoff was a German dentist who made the first dental radiograph.  Wilhelm Roentgen was a Bavarian physicist who discovered the x-ray.  Edmund Kells exposed the first dental radiograph in the United States using a live person.  Price introduced the bisecting technique in 1904.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 4            OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Current fast radiographic film requires ____ % less exposure time than the initial exposure times used in 1920.
a. 33
b. 98
c. 73
d. 2

 

 

ANS:  D

Current fast radiographic film requires 98% less exposure time than the initial exposure times used in 1920.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 5            OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Who modified the paralleling technique with the introduction of the long-cone technique?
a. C. Edmund Kells
b. Franklin W. McCormack
c. F. Gordon Fitzgerald
d. Howard Riley Raper

 

 

ANS:  C

  1. Edmund Kells introduced the paralleling technique in 1896. Franklin W. McCormack reintroduced the paralleling technique in 1920. F. Gordon Fitzgerald modified the paralleling technique with the introduction of the long-cone technique. This is the technique currently used. Howard Riley Raper modified the bisecting technique and introduced the bite-wing technique in 1925.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 4            OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of digital imaging?
a. Increased patient radiation exposure
b. Increased patient comfort
c. Increased speed for viewing images
d. Increased chemical usage

 

 

ANS:  C

Patient exposure is reduced with digital imaging. Digital sensors are more sensitive to x-rays than film. Digital sensors are rigid and bulky, causing decreased patient comfort. The image from digital sensors is uploaded directly to the computer and monitor without the need for chemical processing. This allows for immediate interpretation and evaluation. The image from digital sensors is uploaded directly to the computer and monitor without the need for chemical processing.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 6            OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.2. Demonstrate basic knowledge of digital radiography

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which discovery was the precursor to the discovery of x-rays?
a. Beta particles
b. Alpha particles
c. Cathode rays
d. Radioactive materials

 

 

ANS:  C

Beta particles are fast moving electrons emitted from the nucleus of radioactive atoms and are not associated with x-rays. Alpha particles are emitted from the nuclei of heavy metals and are not associated with x-rays. Wilhelm Roentgen was experimenting with cathode rays when he discovered x-rays. Radioactive materials are certain unstable atoms or elements that are in the process of spontaneous disintegration or decay.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 3            OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which of the following would you place in the patient’s mouth in order to take dental x-rays?
a. Image
b. Image receptor
c. Radiograph
d. Dental radiograph

 

 

ANS:  B

An image is a picture or likeness of an object.  An image receptor is the recording medium (film, phosphor plate, or digital sensor) that is placed in the patient’s mouth to record the image produced by the x-rays.  A radiograph is an image of two-dimensional representation of a three- dimensional object. A dental radiograph is the dental image produced on a recording medium.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

 

Chapter 03: Radiation Characteristics

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In dental radiography, the term ________ is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
a. quality
b. quantity
c. intensity
d. wavelength

 

 

ANS:  A

Quality is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Quantity refers to the number of x-rays produced. Intensity is defined as the product of the quantity and quality per unit of area per time of exposure. Wavelength determines the energy and penetrating power of radiation.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.1. Demonstrate knowledge of the factors affecting x-ray production

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of wavelength in reference to radiation?
a. X-rays with shorter wavelength have less penetrating power.
b. X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power.
c. X-rays with longer wavelength are less likely to be absorbed by matter.
d. Milliamperage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

 

 

ANS:  B

X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power and x-rays with shorter wavelengths have more penetrating power. X-rays with longer wavelength are more likely to be absorbed by matter. Kilovoltage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. ______________ is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges.
a. Exposure time
b. Wavelength
c. Voltage
d. Ampere

 

 

ANS:  C

Exposure time refers to the interval of time during which x-rays are produced. Wavelength can be defined as the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave. Voltage is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges. Ampere is the unit of measure used to describe the number of electrons, or current, flowing through the cathode filament.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Pages 3-4       OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When the kilovoltage is increased
a. electrons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
b. photons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
c. electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
d. photons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.

 

 

ANS:  C

Electrons move from the cathode to the anode. When the voltage is increased, electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed, striking the target with greater energy and force.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the use of voltage in dental x-ray equipment?
a. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 3 to 5 volts.
b. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of less than 60 kilovolts.
c. Dental x-ray equipment uses more than 70 kilovolts.
d. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts.

 

 

ANS:  D

The filament circuit requires 3 to 5 volts; however, an exposure requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts (kV). The use of less than 60 kV does not allow adequate penetration. Current dental x-ray equipment uses between 60 and 70 kV; requires the use of 60 to 70 kV.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Pages 24-25   OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When contrasted with the use of 70 kV for dental x-rays, the use of 60 kV produces
a. more penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
b. less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
c. more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.
d. less penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.

 

 

ANS:  B

The use of 60 kV produces less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelengths than 70 kV. The use of 70 kV for dental x-rays produces more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength than the use of 60 kV.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 24-25   OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. The kVp represents
a. the mean x-ray tube voltage.
b. the mean filament voltage.
c. the maximum or peak voltage of an alternating current.
d. the maximum or peak voltage of a direct current.

 

 

ANS:  C

The kVp represents the maximum or peak x-ray tube voltage of an alternating current.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   1 | 2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When kilovolt is increased, a
a. lower energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
b. lower energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
c. higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
d. higher energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.

 

 

ANS:  C

A higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results. When kilovolt peak is increased, a higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. (1) Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. (2) When the kilovoltage is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits a decreased density and appears lighter.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  C

The first statement is true; however, when the kilovolt is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits an increased density and appears darker. Both statements are true. Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. The first statement is true; however, the second statement is false.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   1 | 3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When lower kilovoltage settings are used, an image with ____ will result.
a. high contrast
b. low contrast
c. many shades of gray
d. there is no change in contrast

 

 

ANS:  A

When low kilovoltage settings are used, an image with high contrast will result; an image with few shades of gray will result (high contrast).

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. An image with “low” contrast
a. is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many shades of gray.
b. is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many shades of gray.
c. is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many black and white areas.
d. is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many black and white areas.

 

 

ANS:  A

An image with low contrast has many shades of gray and is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease. An image with high contrast has many black and white areas and is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries. An image with low contrast is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease, but it has many shades of gray.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Exposure time is measured in
a. kV.
b. milliamperage.
c. density.
d. impulses.

 

 

ANS:  D

kV is a measure of voltage. Milliamperage is a measure of the number of electrons flowing through the cathode filament. Density is a measure of the darkness of the film. Exposure time is measured in impulses; one impulse occurs every 1/60 of a second on older machines and every 1/100 of a second on newer machines.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   1 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by
a. voltage.
b. kilovoltage.
c. kilovoltage peak.
d. milliamperage.

 

 

ANS:  D

Voltage controls the maximum penetrating power of the electrons. Kilovoltage is the term for 1000 volts as dental exposures require large amounts of voltage. Kilovoltage peak represents the maximum voltage available and is only found with alternating current machines. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by milliamperage.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   1 | 4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Milliamperage regulates the _________ of electrons produced at the cathode filament.
a. quality
b. quantity
c. speed
d. power

 

 

ANS:  B

Voltage regulates the quality (speed or power) of electrons produced at the cathode filament. Milliamperage regulates the quantity of electrons produced at the cathode filament.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. In regard to increasing density
a. an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.
b. an increase in kV will increase density, but an increase in mA will not increase density.
c. an increase in mA will increase density, but an increase in kV will not increase density.
d. neither an increase in kV nor an increase in mA will increase density.

 

 

ANS:  A

In regard to increasing density, an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 25, 27   OBJ:   3 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following changes will increase x-ray beam intensity?
a. Decreasing the kilovoltage
b. Decreasing the milliamperage
c. Decreasing the exposure time
d. Decreasing the source-to-film distance

 

 

ANS:  D

Decreasing the kilovoltage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the milliamperage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the exposure time will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the source-to-film distance will increase x-ray beam intensity.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 27, 28   OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. According to the inverse square law, the intensity of radiation is __________ proportional to the ______________ from the source of radiation.
a. directly; distance
b. directly; square of the distance
c. inversely; distance
d. inversely; square of the distance

 

 

ANS:  D

The intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 27          OBJ:   1 | 7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is ___________ as intense.
a. four times
b. twice
c. half
d. one quarter

 

 

ANS:  D

According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is four times as intense.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 27, 29   OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Aluminum filters are used to remove _______-energy, ________ wavelength x-rays.
a. low; longer
b. high; longer
c. low; shorter
d. high; shorter

 

 

ANS:  A

Aluminum filters are used to remove low-energy, longer wavelength x-rays.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Aluminum filters
a. remove more penetrating x-rays from the beam.
b. decrease the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
c. remove high-energy x-rays from the beam.
d. reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

 

ANS:  D

Aluminum filters remove less penetrating x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters increase the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Aluminum filters remove low-energy x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You have been using a dental x-ray machine that has a 4-inch PID. Your new machine has an 8-inch PID. Given that all exposure factors remain the same, according to the inverse square law, the resultant beam would be ___________ as intense.
a. four times
b. twice
c. half
d. one quarter

 

 

ANS:  D

According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is doubled, the resultant beam is one quarter as intense.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. (1) As kilovoltage, milliamperage, and time increase, x-ray beam intensity decreases. (2) As distance and filtration increase, the intensity of the x-ray beam increases.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  B

Both statements are false; 1. An increase in kilovoltage, milliamperage, and/or time will increase the intensity of the x-ray beam. 2. An increase in distance and/or filtration will decrease the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 27          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You have taken your first dental image on your patient. The contrast is high and you are looking for periodontal disease. You are using a DC machine and you have control of your settings. You have a 60- to 70-kV range and a 6- to 8-mA range. You had the kV set at 60, the mA set at 7, and the impulses set at 6/100. While leaving all other settings the same, which setting would you adjust to create better contrast for detecting periodontal disease?
a. Increase kV to 70.
b. Increase mA to 8.
c. Decrease mA to 6.
d. Increase time to 7/100.

 

 

ANS:  A

The only factor that affects contrast is kV. kV affects the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. A higher kV creates a lower contrast image (more shades of gray) while a lower kV creates a higher contrast image (more black and white). A low-contrast image is preferred for detecting periodontal and periapical diseases. A high-contrast image is preferred for detecting caries. Increasing mA affects density, not contrast. Decreasing mA affects density, not contrast. Increasing and decreasing time affect density, not contrast.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   2 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You are going to take dental images on your patient. He is larger than average. What machine setting adjustment should you make prior to taking dental images?
a. Increase kV.
b. Increase mA.
c. Increase impulses.
d. You don’t need to make any adjustments.

 

 

ANS:  C

Although an increase in kV will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. Although an increase in mA will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. It is recommended that impulses be increased when taking dental images on a patient who is larger than average. Failure to do so will result in an image that is too light and may require retakes or an adjustment of the enhancement software.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

Chapter 17: Paralleling Technique

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Parallel is defined as
a. cutting across or through.
b. intersecting at or forming a right angle.
c. moving or lying in the same plane, always separated by the same distance and not intersecting.
d. an angle of 90 degrees formed by two lines perpendicular to each other.

 

 

ANS:  C

Intersecting is defined as cutting across or through. Perpendicular is defined as intersecting at or forming a right angle. Parallel is defined as moving or lying in the same plane, always separated by the same distance and not intersecting. Right angle is defined as an angle of 90 degrees formed by two lines perpendicular to each other.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 152        OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. According to the basic principles of the paralleling technique, the receptor is placed in the mouth _________ to the long axis of the tooth being x-rayed, and the central ray of the x-ray beam is directed ____________ to the receptor and long axis of the tooth.
a. parallel; perpendicular
b. parallel; parallel
c. perpendicular; parallel
d. perpendicular; perpendicular

 

 

ANS:  A

According to the basic principles of the paralleling technique, the receptor is placed in the mouth parallel to the long axis of the tooth being x-rayed, and the central ray of the x-ray beam is directed perpendicular to the receptor and long axis of the tooth.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 152        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. To achieve parallelism between the receptor and the tooth, the ____________ distance must be increased to keep the receptor parallel with the long axis of the tooth.
a. target-object
b. object-receptor
c. target-receptor
d. operator-patient

 

 

ANS:  B

To achieve parallelism between the receptor and the tooth, the object-receptor distance must be increased to keep the receptor parallel with the long axis of the tooth.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 153        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Image magnification occurs when the ______________ distance is increased.
a. target-object
b. object-receptor
c. target-receptor
d. operator-patient

 

 

ANS:  B

An increased object-receptor distance results in increased image magnification.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 153, 154

OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Image magnification can be decreased when the _______________ is increased.
a. target-object
b. object-receptor
c. target-receptor
d. operator-patient

 

 

ANS:  C

An increased target-receptor distance can compensate for image magnification.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 153        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following is a disposable receptor holder designed for one-time use only?
a. Rinn XCP instruments
b. Precision receptor holders
c. Stabe bite-block
d. Snap-a-ray receptor holder

 

 

ANS:  C

Rinn XCP instruments are autoclaved between patients. Precision receptor holders are autoclaved between patients. The Stabe bite-block is a disposable receptor holder designed for one-time use only. The Snap-a-ray receptor holder is autoclaved between patients.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Reusable receptor holders must be _________________ after each use.
a. rinsed with tap water
b. wiped with disinfectant
c. placed in an immersion disinfectant
d. sterilized

 

 

ANS:  D

Reusable receptor holders must be sterilized after each use; rinsing with tap water is insufficient; wiping with disinfectant is inadequate; placing in an immersion disinfectant is insufficient.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following receptor holders include aiming rings that aid in the alignment of the position-indicating device (PID) with the receptor?
a. Hemostat with bite-block
b. Stabe bite-block
c. Snap-a-ray receptor holder
d. Rinn XCP instruments

 

 

ANS:  D

Rinn XCP instruments include aiming rings that aid in the alignment of the PID with the receptor.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 154        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The authors recommend using a size ____ receptor for anterior teeth and a size ____ receptor for posterior teeth.
a. 1; 1
b. 2; 2
c. 1; 2
d. 2; 1

 

 

ANS:  C

The authors recommend using a size 1 receptor for anterior teeth and a size 2 receptor for posterior teeth.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated  MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. According to the text, a size 1 receptor is always positioned with the long portion of the receptor in a ____________ direction, and a size 2 receptor is always positioned with the long portion of the receptor in a ______________ direction.
a. vertical; vertical
b. horizontal; horizontal
c. vertical; horizontal
d. horizontal; vertical

 

 

ANS:  C

According to the text, a size 1 receptor is always positioned with the long portion of the receptor in a vertical direction, and a size 2 receptor is always positioned with the long portion of the receptor in a horizontal direction.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages | CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated                    MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) The dental radiographer should be careful not to stimulate the patient’s gag reflex. (2) Once the gag reflex is stimulated, the patient may gag on receptors that could normally be tolerated.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

Anterior receptor placements are less likely to cause the patient to gag. Once the gag reflex is stimulated, the patient may gag on receptors that could normally be tolerated.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. If you are using size 1 receptors, how many exposures will you need to take of the anterior teeth?
a. Four
b. Six
c. Seven
d. Eight

 

 

ANS:  C

With a size 1 receptor, a total of seven anterior receptor placements are used in the paralleling technique.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages | CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated                    MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. If you are using size 2 receptors, how many exposures will you need to take of the anterior teeth?
a. Four
b. Six
c. Seven
d. Eight

 

 

ANS:  B

With a size 2 receptor, a total of six anterior receptor placements are used with the paralleling technique.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. If you are taking an anterior image sequence, which tooth do the authors recommend you begin with?
a. 6
b. 8
c. 9
d. 11

 

 

ANS:  A

The authors recommend an exposure sequence starting with tooth #6.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. How many exposures of the posterior teeth will you need to take when using the paralleling technique?
a. Four
b. Six
c. Seven
d. Eight

 

 

ANS:  D

Eight posterior receptor placements are used in the paralleling technique.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which posterior quadrant would be the best for you to begin with when using the paralleling technique?
a. Maxillary left quadrant
b. Maxillary right quadrant
c. Mandibular left quadrant
d. Mandibular right quadrant

 

 

ANS:  B

The recommended posterior periapical sequence for the Rinn XCP instruments starts with the maxillary right quadrant.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which posterior quadrant should you move to next (second) when using the paralleling technique?
a. Maxillary left quadrant
b. Maxillary right quadrant
c. Mandibular left quadrant
d. Mandibular right quadrant

 

 

ANS:  C

The second quadrant in the recommended posterior periapical sequence for the Rinn XCP instruments is the mandibular left quadrant.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 156        OBJ:   10

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Your patient has a shallow palate; you should modify your technique when there is a lack of parallelism ________________.
a. greater than 10 degrees
b. greater than 20 degrees
c. greater than 30 degrees
d. less than 30 degrees

 

 

ANS:  B

If the patient has a shallow palate, a lack of parallelism of greater than 20 degrees requires a modification in technique.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 169        OBJ:   12

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) When taking maxillary periapical images on a patient with a shallow palate, there is only one technique that can be used to compensate for lack of parallelism. (2) To compensate for lack of parallelism, the vertical angulation can be increased by 5 to 15 degrees more than the XCP instrument indicates.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  D

When the patient has a shallow palate requiring a modification in technique, there are two compensation techniques that can be used. Two cotton rolls can be placed, one on each side of the biteblock, or the vertical angulation can be increased by 5 to 15 degrees more than the XCP instrument indicates.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 169        OBJ:   12

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Your patient has a palatal torus, where should you place the receptor?
a. You cannot take a periapical, the patient will require a panoramic receptor.
b. Place the receptor on the torus.
c. Place the receptor in front of the torus next to the teeth you are exposing.
d. Place the receptor on the far side of the torus.

 

 

ANS:  D

When tori are present, the receptor must be placed on the far side of the torus.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 170        OBJ:   12

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. When placing the receptor in the mandibular premolar region, the receptor must be placed ________ the tongue. When inserting the receptor holder into the mouth, the receptor is tipped __________ the tongue.
a. over; toward
b. over; away from
c. under; toward
d. under; away from

 

 

ANS:  D

When placing the receptor in the mandibular premolar region, the receptor must be placed under the tongue. When inserting the receptor holder into the mouth, the receptor is tipped away from the tongue.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 170        OBJ:   11

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) When using the paralleling technique, you must be conscious of fixed vertical angulations. (2) The paralleling technique creates dental images free from dimensional distortion.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  D

The paralleling technique does not rely on fixed vertical angulations and produces a radiographic image without dimensional distortion.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 170        OBJ:   13

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. When using film, the dot should always be placed ________ in relation to the bite-block.
a. down
b. up
c. distal
d. in the slot

 

 

ANS:  D

The authors recommend that each film be placed in the bite-block with the dot in the slot.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 172        OBJ:   11

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The lingual cusp of the first premolar usually obscures the distal contact of the canine on the ________________ exposure.
a. maxillary canine
b. maxillary incisor
c. mandibular canine
d. mandibular incisor

 

 

ANS:  A

The lingual cusp of the first premolar usually obscures the distal contact of the canine on the maxillary canine exposure.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 159        OBJ:   11

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following images must include the crowns, roots, and surrounding bone of the right or left central and lateral incisors?
a. Maxillary canine
b. Maxillary incisor
c. Mandibular canine
d. Mandibular incisor

 

 

ANS:  B

The entire crowns and roots of one lateral and one central incisor, including the apices of the teeth and surrounding structures, must be seen on the maxillary incisor image.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 159        OBJ:   11

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following images must include the crowns, roots, and surrounding bone, sinus and tuberosity region of the first, second, and third molars?
a. Maxillary premolar
b. Maxillary molar
c. Mandibular premolar
d. Mandibular molar

 

 

ANS:  B

All crowns and roots of the first, second, and third molars, including the apices, alveolar crests, contact areas, surrounding bone, and tuberosity region, must be seen on the maxillary molar image.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 160        OBJ:   11

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which target-receptor distance should be used in the paralleling technique to compensate for image magnification and loss of definition?
a. 4 inches
b. 8 inches
c. 12 inches
d. 16 inches

 

 

ANS:  B

4 inches will not compensate for image magnification in the paralleling technique. A long (16-inch) target–receptor distance must be used. 8 inches will not compensate for image magnification in the paralleling technique. A long (16-inch) target–receptor distance must be used. 12 inches will not compensate for image magnification in the paralleling technique. A long (16-inch) target–receptor distance must be used. A long (16-inch) target–receptor distance must be used with the paralleling technique to compensate for image magnification.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 160        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) The American Dental Association (ADA) and the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology both recommend the use of a beam alignment device to reduce the amount of radiation the patient receives. (2) Limiting the size of the x-ray beam not only reduces the amount of skin that is exposed but also results in a significant reduction of radiation to the patient, by as much as 20%.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  B

The American Dental Association (ADA) and the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology both recommend the use of a rectangular collimator to reduce the amount of radiation the patient receives. Limiting the size of the x-ray beam not only reduces the amount of skin that is exposed but also results in a significant reduction of radiation to the patient by as much as 70%.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 153        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the Rinn beam alignment device includes one ring and one arm that can be used for anterior, posterior, and bite-wing receptor positioning?
a. Rinn XCP Extension Cone Paralleling System
b. Rinn XCP-ORA System
c. Rinn SCP-DS FIT Universal Sensor Holder
d. Rinn Flip-Ray System

 

 

ANS:  A

The Rinn XCP Extension Cone Paralleling System includes three plastic bite-blocks, three plastic aiming rings, and three metal indicator arms. It may be used with film, PSP sensors, and digital sensors. The Rinn XCP-ORA One Ring & Arm Positioning System includes one ring and one arm. It was designed to be universal and accommodates anterior, posterior, and bite-wing receptor placement. It may be used with film, PSP sensors, and digital sensors. The Rinn XCP-DS FIT Universal Sensor Holder is a bite-block that includes a self-adjusting clip that stretches to accommodate the size of the digital sensor, regardless of brand or size. The Rinn Flip-Ray System uses a rotating bite-block and ring to eliminate multiple positioning parts. It may be used with film or PSP sensors.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 154        OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which basic rule of paralleling states that the receptor must be parallel to the long axis of the tooth?
a. Receptor placement
b. Receptor position
c. Vertical angulation
d. Receptor exposure

 

 

ANS:  B

Receptor placement, the first basic rule of paralleling, indicates the receptor must be positioned to cover the area of teeth to be examined. Receptor position, the second basic rule of paralleling, indicates the receptor must be positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Vertical angulation, the third basic rule of paralleling, indicates the central ray of the x-ray beam must be directed perpendicular (at a right angle) to the receptor and the long axis of the tooth. Receptor exposure, the fifth basic rule of paralleling, indicates the x-ray beam must be centered on the receptor to ensure that all areas are exposed.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. According to the basic rules of paralleling, the central ray should be directed ______________ to the receptor and the long axis of the tooth.
a. parallel
b. perpendicular
c. horizontal
d. adjacent

 

 

ANS:  B

Vertical angulation, the third basic rule of paralleling states that the central ray of the x-ray beam must be directed perpendicular (at a right angle) to the receptor and the long axis of the tooth. Receptor position, the second basic rule of paralleling states that the receptor must be positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Horizontal angulation, the fourth basic rule of paralleling indicates the central ray of the x-ray beam must be directed through the contact areas between teeth.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which basic rule of paralleling indicates that the central ray should be directed through the contact area of the teeth?
a. Receptor placement
b. Vertical angulation
c. Horizontal angulation
d. Receptor position

 

 

ANS:  C

Receptor placement, the first basic rule of paralleling, indicates the receptor must be positioned to cover the prescribed area of teeth to be examined. Horizontal angulation, the fourth basic rule of paralleling states that the central ray of the x-ray beam must be directed through the contact areas between teeth. Vertical angulation, the third basic rule of paralleling states that the central ray of the x-ray beam must be directed perpendicular (at a right angle) to the receptor and the long axis of the tooth. Receptor position, the second basic rule of paralleling, indicates the receptor must be positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 155        OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.ii. Compare paralleling and bisecting angle techniques, including advantages and disadvantages           MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Identify this image; it is mounted using the labial view.

 

a. Maxillary right molars
b. Maxillary left premolars
c. Maxillary left molars
d. Mandibular left molars

 

 

ANS:  C

This image is of the maxillary left molars.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 166        OBJ:   9

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.C.2.b. Identify anatomical structures, dental materials, and patient information observed on radiographic images

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs

 

  1. Identify this image; it is mounted using the labial view.

 

a. Maxillary right canine
b. Maxillary left canine
c. Maxillary right incisors
d. Maxillary left incisors

 

 

ANS:  C

The above image is of the maxillary right incisors.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 161        OBJ:   9

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.C.2.b. Identify anatomical structures, dental materials, and patient information observed on radiographic images

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs

 

  1. Identify the major placement error in this molar radiograph.

 

a. Too far mesial
b. Too far distal
c. Vertical angulation
d. Horizontal angulation

 

 

ANS:  B

The receptor was placed too far forward; the entire third molar region is missing.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 160        OBJ:   9

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.C.1.b. Identify and describe how to correct errors related to acquiring intraoral radiographic images

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs