Sample Chapter

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control – A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin, Kristin Bates , Randy R. Gainey

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 3

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. If a researcher is studying juvenile delinquents and would like to interview children participating in a community service group as part of their court sentencing, the researcher would need to obtain:
  2. a) approval from the head researcher.
  3. b) human subject research approval.
  4. c) approval from the court .
  5. d) a copy of a valid form of identification.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The “gold standard” for determining causal relationships is what type of research?
  2. a) Participant observation research
  3. b) Field research
  4. c) Experimental research
  5. d) Content analysis research

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Random assignment is important in experimental research because:
  2. a) it assures internal validity is maintained.
  3. b) it assures external validity is maintained.
  4. c) it is a snowball sampling technique.
  5. d) at root, it is the same as random selection.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Research on deviance is often _____________, focused on factors associated with how deviance is distributed across different groups or factors thought to be causes or consequences of deviance.
  2. a) historical
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) descriptive
  5. d) quasi-experimental

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report?
  2. a) The Uniform Crime Report was developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the 1950s.
  3. b) Data from nearly 1,000 police agencies are compiled by the bureau and presented online and in many published documents.
  4. c) Data are included on violent crimes (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crimes (burglary, larceny theft, and motor vehicle theft) known by the police.
  5. d) Data are generally not provided in terms of numbers and rates as it is impossible to organize these by region, state, and city and for longitudinal comparisons.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Experimental research examines a causal relationship, which involves which two variables?
  2. a) Cause and correlation
  3. b) Correlation and effect
  4. c) Cause and effect
  5. d) None of the above

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. _______________ would require the researcher to conduct participant observation research as a part of field research.
  2. a) Content analysis
  3. b) Quasi-experimental
  4. c) Ethnographic field research
  5. d) Electronic survey research

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. If a researcher is conducting a quasi-experimental research design, he/she will use what sampling technique?
  2. a) Random selection
  3. b) Random assignment
  4. c) Snowballing technique
  5. d) Nonrandom assignment

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. The ___________________________ was established after the Nuremberg Code. It is comprised of very important committees established to review and approve research involving human subjects.
  2. a) Drug Use Research Policy
  3. b) Institutional Review Board
  4. c) Nuremberg Violence Code
  5. d) Title IX of Educational Amendments

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A student conducts a study on texting behaviors among college students using closed-ended questions where participants’ answers are provided on a five-point Likert scale, ranging “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. This type of research is called _________ research.
  2. a) content analysis
  3. b) quasi-experimental
  4. c) survey
  5. d) participant observation

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

True/False

 

  1. Quasi-experimental research focuses less on internal validity and random assignment than experimental research.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Experimental research examines correlational relationships.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Survey researchers only conduct closed-ended questions in order to ensure responses are predetermined.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Participant observation research can be covert or overt.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. If a researcher is interested in examining graffiti artists in their natural environment in attempt to understand the subculture of graffiti artists and the meanings behind their work, a content analysis approach would be best for this research.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. In order to conduct a content analysis, the researcher must consider the systematic coding scheme that will be used to objectively examine emerging themes.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Research on deviance is often descriptive, meaning it is focused on factors associated with how deviance is distributed across different groups or factors thought to be causes or consequences of deviance.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Confidentiality, informed consent, and anonymity are no longer important to research on deviance and crime because of the Institutional Review Board’s political agenda.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Field research includes a range of observations, from pure observer to participant observation.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Primary data sources include data that are already collected and readily available for the researcher to analyze.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. List the characteristics of survey research as discussed in the book.

 

Ans:

Characteristics of Survey Research:

  • a sample of a target population
    • issue of convenience
  • questions about behaviors, attitudes, values, and beliefs
  • representative of population aiming to describe
    • issues of random sampling

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Participant observation research is conducted in covert or overt observation strategies. Define the difference between covert and overt. Indicate the pros and cons to using participant observation research? Explain what sort of Application can be gained in studying a deviant subgroup using this method.

 

Ans:

Participant Observation Research à observation is covert or overt

  • Covert is acting as the deviant group would; being fully engaged
  • Overt is not participating in the acts or events of the group being studied

This sort of research can be dangerous, emotionally and physically draining, time consuming and very hard work

This method helps the researcher decide which questions are relevant in broader examinations of this group, what language and meanings are used, and what the culture is like found within deviant subgroups.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

Essay

 

  1. Compare and contrast experimental and quasi-experimental research designs.

 

Ans:

The student should lay out the following about each included below.

Experimental Research—the “gold standard” for determining causal relationships Characteristics of Experimental Research

  • Random Assignment
    • Why is it important?
    • Assures that differences following the intervention or “experimental” stimulus must have been caused by the intervention
    • Internal Validity through random assignment
  • Examining a causal relationship (cause à effect)
  • Examples—lab experiments observing group interactions and comparing control groups

 

Quasi-experimental designs: adaptation to experimental strategies

  • Focus less on internal validity and random assignment
  • External validity is focused on
  • Control variables still in place, but no random assignment

Example: Surveying naturally occurring events and observations

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Chapter 11

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. A social contract is:
  2. a) a written agreement to act based on the norms.
  3. b) when individuals give up some personal freedoms and abide general rules of conduct.
  4. c) violated when one conforms to society’s expectations.
  5. d) all of the above.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What type(s) of social controls exist in society according to the book?
  2. a) Formal and informal
  3. b) Positive and negative
  4. c) Legal
  5. d) Pleasant and unpleasant

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Hospitalization, rehabilitation, and processing in the criminal justice system are what type of social control?
  2. a) Informal
  3. b) Positive
  4. c) Negative
  5. d) Formal

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. _________________ refers to the process where problems and behaviors have a medical definition that is influential in how we conceptualize and respond to the problem or behavior.
  2. a) Medicalization
  3. b) Construction
  4. c) Objectivism
  5. d) Deconstruction

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which researchers used a Seattle case study to examine how often individuals, mostly poor or homeless, are arrested and prohibited from entering areas associated with drug dealing and prostitution?
  2. a) Hirschi and Gottfredson
  3. b) Beckett and Herbert
  4. c) Sutherland and Cressey
  5. d) Sampson and Laub

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ____________ conducted a study of African-American men in Philadelphia, finding these men faced a constant threat of being arrested and surveillance by police is deeply consequential in their lives.
  2. a) Goffman
  3. b) Beckett
  4. c) Herbert
  5. d) Merton

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which theorist studied life inside a maximum security prison as a form of social control, arguing five central pains of imprisonment?
  2. a) Goffman
  3. b) Beckett
  4. c) Herbert
  5. d) Sykes

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. _________ consequences refers to how incarceration effects communities and families beyond the institution.
  2. a) Primary
  3. b) Secondary
  4. c) Collateral
  5. d) Support

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Beckett and Herbert view ________________ as “an emerging and consequential social control practice . . . [that] is consequential, even more so than the civility codes that they increasingly supplant. Not only do these new tools enable this concept, they provide the police greater license to question and to arrest those who occupy public space.”
  2. a) broken windows policing
  3. b) banishment
  4. c) reintegrative shaming
  5. d) collective efficacy

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Todd Clear (2007. argues that _________ places suffer distinct disadvantages and that the effect of incarceration is felt far beyond the lives of the individual inmates.
  2. a) community
  3. b) banishment
  4. c) prison
  5. d) disadvantaged

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

True/False

 

  1. Medicalized deviant behaviors change over time and space.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Daphne Scholisnki’s memoir, The Last Time I Wore a Dress is significant because she spent years in a juvenile detention center without treatment of her gender identity disorder.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Total institution refers to the social arrangement in society in which all daily activities are conducted in masses, tightly scheduled and prearranged as a form of social control and institutionalization.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Juvenile justice programs tend to focus on rehabilitation more than their adult counterparts.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Typically, the first strike by a juvenile delinquent leads to immediate expulsion to adult facilities, as part of harsh punishments and zero tolerance prison practices.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Informal social controls would include hospitalization in a mental ward.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Recent studies have made clear that the U.S. criminal justice system and particularly our reliance on mass incarceration disproportionately affect minorities and the poor, and have long-lasting impact on the life chances and opportunities available to individuals, families, and whole communities.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Social controls can be consequential no matter which institution they are connected because one an individual is confined the transition to the community can be difficult.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Alice Goffman conducted a study where she found African-American men in Philadelphia, faced a constant threat of being arrested and surveillance by police is deeply consequential in their lives.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Punishing those individuals who act outside of the accepted range of behavior serves the function moral affirmation.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

Short Answer

 

  1. List deviant behaviors that have been medicalized. If these are definitions that have changed over time and space, be sure to mention briefly their change.

 

Ans:

Medicalized deviant behaviors: mental illness, hyperactivity in children, alcoholism, homosexuality, eating disorders, compulsive gambling, and addiction. Homosexuality across cultures is viewed differently and accepted in other countries while it faces great debate in the United States.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What are Hagan’s seven purposes of criminal sanctions? What would Hagan say the purpose of correctional facilities is?

 

Ans:

Hagan’s (1985) seven purposes of criminal sanctions:

    • restraint or incapacitation;
    • individual or specific deterrence;
    • general deterrence;
    • reform or rehabilitation;
    • moral affirmation or symbolism;
    • retribution; and
    • restitution or compensation.

*Correctional facilities—social control tool, utilized primarily for incapacitation

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. List Sykes’ three of five central pains of imprisonment from his study Society of Captives.

 

Ans:

Sykes’ five central pains of imprisonment:

  1. Deprivation of Liberty—confined to the claustrophobic world of the prison, the

isolation cuts deep: “The mere fact that the individual’s movements are restricted, however, is far less serious than the fact that imprisonment means that the inmate is cut off from family, relatives, and friends, not in the self-isolation of the hermit or the misanthrope, but in the involuntary seclusion of the outlaw…what makes this pain of imprisonment bite most deeply is the fact that the confinement of the criminal represents a deliberate, moral rejection of the criminal by the free community (p. 65)”.

  1. Deprivation of Goods and Services—inmates are without most of their personal possessions; “the inmate population defines its present material impoverishment as a painful loss” (p. 68).
  2. Deprivation of Heterosexual Relationships—in male prisons, the inmate is “figuratively castrated by his involuntary celibacy” (p. 70). Sykes makes clear that living with only members of your own sex can be damaging to inmates’ self-image and identity.
  3. Deprivation of Autonomy—every significant movement an inmate makes is controlled by others; inmates must abide by others’ decisions and submit with enforced respect and deference; treating adult offenders in this way may make the inmates feel like helpless children.
  4. Deprivation of Security—Sykes quotes an inmate: “The worst thing about prison is you have to live with other prisoners (p.77)”. Individual inmates are likely to be tested by other inmates and may have to engage in physical fights for their own safety, sanity, and possessions.

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Provide two examples explained by Alice Goffman (2009) as the different ways young African-American men in Philadelphia face a constant threat and intense surveillance that deeply affects their lives.

 

Ans:

Goffman (2009) discussed how police surveillance, outstanding arrest warrants, and the status of being on probation affect every part of “wanted” young men’s lives. Among the vivid descriptions of the impact of such surveillance is the story of a young man who went to the hospital for the birth of his baby and was arrested there on an outstanding warrant. The risk of being captured makes young men such as this afraid to go to hospitals or other social service agencies; it compels them to keep moving and to stay “on the run” rather than find stable housing.