Sample Chapter



Test Bank For Drugs, Crime, and Justice 1st Edition by Steven R. Belenko , Cassia C. Spohn




A judge or prosecutor who accepts the disease model to explain drug addiction is more likely to: the most punitive punishment for an offender

* to find a treatment program for an offender mandatory sentencing

d.drop any charges against a drug offender



The underlying assumption that guides most of the criminal justice policies in the United States is:

a.that drug offenders are afflicted with a biological disease that causes drug addiction.

b.that psychological factors contribute to drug abuse and so abusers should have medical treatment in all cases.

*c.that drug offenders intentionally choose their addictive behaviors and therefore the crimes that often follow.

d.that drug offenders need to learn social skills in order to avoid further addictive behaviors.




This prominent addiction researcher from the University of Pennsylvania suggested that there are three factors that must interact in order for addiction to occur :

a.Samuel Hopkins Adams

b.Sally Satel

c.Robert Agnew

*d.Charles O’Brien



The three factors interacting together that result in addiction, according to Charles O’Brien, include all of the following except:






In 1784, the physician Benjamin Rush was the first to explore the idea that this might actually be a disease:

a.drug abuse






This journalist wrote a three-part series for Colliers magazine in 1924 in which it was argued that narcotic addiction could not possibly be a moral or behavioral issue, but that it was a disease.

a.Sally Satel

b.Benjamin rush

*c.Samuel Hopkins Adams

d.Charles O’Brien



All of the following groups believe that addiction is a disease, except:

a.American Medical Association

*b.Drug Enforcement Agency

c.American Psychological Association

d.American Psychiatric Association



According to proponents of the moral/behavioral theories of drug abuse and addiction, an offender should be criminally culpable for his or her bad choices and once clean and sober, relapsing into addiction is:

a.likely for biological reasons

*b.not inevitable





From the 1930s to the 1960s, the first commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and the most influential person in federal drug control was:

a.Sally Satel

b.Charles O’Brien

*c.Harry Anslinger

d.Samuel Hopkins Adams



Psychiatrist Sally Satel, who refutes the brain disease model for drug addiction, suggests that in order to stop illegal drug use, and or relapse, an offender must

*a. receive treatment that addresses behavioral issues

b.receive treatment that considers biology
c.become methadone recipients

d.receive treatment that solely targets the brain



The belief that an inherited condition in which there is an imbalance in some brain chemistries was a key factor in the development of:







Some of the traits that psychodynamic/personality theorists consider when studying addiction include:

a.risk taking


c.low self-esteem

*d.all of the above


According to the principals of Skinnerian conditioning, the drug user who feels a positive effect  within seconds of ingestion is most likely to:

*a.become an addict

b.choose another drug

c.combine drugs for a more potent effect

d.stop using drugs



Another term for the addictive behavior that results from first reinforcing positive effects to negative reinforcement of continuing abuse to avoid withdrawals symptoms is:

a.moral-behavioral theory

b.genetic theory

*c.self-derogation theory theory



The theory that external clues can prompt addicts into drug use or relapse is called the learning theory

*b.Pavlovian conditioning theory

c.differential association theory

d.Skinnerian conditioning theory



These theories consider how the environmental, socioeconomic, peer and family relationships can explain drug abuse:







Sutherland’s work was expanded to include the notion that both individual reinforcement from an influential other a as well as group reinforcement was important in this theory:

a.differential association theory

* learning theory

c.self-derogation theory

d.problem behavior theory



In order to understand sociological theories such as the selective interaction theory and Kandel’s socialization model it is important to consider these primary means of socialization: parents, peers, media and


b.religious affiliation


d.extended family



These two kinds of theories illustrate clearly how the relative influence of peers and parents on drug use will vary depending upon where an adolescent is developmentally.

a.subcultural theory

* development theory perspectives

* course theories

d.selective interaction theory



Proponents of this theory suggest that not all segments of the population have the same accessible pathways to success and so they are forced into deviant behaviors that can include drug addiction.


b.Social Control





The idea that personal failures and negative experiences such as losing family members or lack of success in school can lead a person to drug addiction is called

a.conflict theory

*b.strain theory

c.subcultural theory

d.psychological theory



These theories explain the notion that drug abuse is a consequence of societal ills, such as an imbalance of economic and political power. As a result, such disparities lead to the marginalization of some communities leaving them susceptible to drug dealing and abuse.

a.Anomie theories

b.Genetic theories

c.Behavioral-Moral theories

*d.Conflict theories


Dr. Thomas McLellan as well, as some other researchers, believe that drug addiction should be regarded as a type of chronic disease similar to hypertension, cancer, and diabetes.





Studies show that although there may be a genetic component to the notion of inherited predispositions to addiction, this theory falls short in its simplistic approach to answer a complex issue.





Edwin Sutherland proposed  that deviant behaviors are learned when groups of people normalize and reinforce bad behaviors and make them appear good in his work on differential association theory.





Recently, the anomie theory has gained more credibility to explain drug abuse mainly because of the emphasis it places on materialism and social achievement.





Journalist Jacob Sullum uses the drug _______ to illustrate the idea that addiction is not the result of physical dependence, and that withdrawal symptoms are exaggerated.







In cases in which a parent or both parents are  drug abusers, the children are biologically predisposed to addiction although most children in these situations never become addicts because genetic factors are most likely probabilistic rather than ___________.







The General Risk Factor Theory or _______________ suggests that when character traits like delinquency, “unconventional” personality, or pleasure seeking occur simultaneously in a person, he or she is more likely to become an addict.

a.Differential Association Theory

b.Social Learning Theory

c.Self-derogation Theory

*d.Problem Behavior Theory



______________ theory contends that drug use and abuse can stem from the subcultures with which a person associates, finding motivation in the group’s support of their behaviors.

a.Social control






____________ and ___________ are two examples of theories from criminology that are used to explain drug use and addiction because they consider the influence and power of bonds between families, the community, work and school.

a.Selective interaction and Socialization theories

b.Anomie and Conflict theories

c.Subcultural and Socialization theories

*d.Social Control and Self Control



Do you believe that drug addiction is a disease or a behavioral-moral issue? Choose a theory that you consider the most convincing; explain it and discuss  the theory’s implications for  the criminal justice system. (46-56)

Answers will vary but should choose from one of the several theories from pages 46-56.  Implications for CJ system should indicate that moral theories tend to produce harsher criminal penalties while disease model theories suggest a non-criminal treatment route.


Define and explain the relationship between the three key factors to Charles O’Brien’s theory of drug addiction. (47)

A complete answer will include the terms agent, host and environment and explain how these are related.


How does the term “deterministic” relate to the genetic and psychological theories of drug addiction? What is the primary criticism of these types of theories? (51-53).

Answers to this question concern mainly the shortfall of these theories in that genetic and

psychological factors may help to explain why some people who become addicts, though

a genetic or psychological predisposition does not necessarily mean that a person will become an addict.

According to Tonry’s research on drug use,  the war on drugs in the 1980s was unnecessary because American attitudes toward the use of illegal drugs were already changing and there was a resulting natural decline in drug use that  was not attributable to new anti-drug laws and policies.





From 1975-2006, America’s imprisonment rate increased first and then decreased steadily from 2000-2006.





Under the Rockefeller drug laws, it wasn’t unusual for drug offenders possessing small amounts of drugs to receive sentences equal to the sentences imposed on those  convicted of rape, assault, or robbery, and to even receive longer sentences than those convicted of some forms of manslaughter and homicide.





The report, Punishment and Prejudice found that the prison admission rates for black men in 10 states were 26-57 times greater than the rates for white men.





Zimring concluded that it was difficult to explain the significant differences in common crime and violence because the New York City of 2010 is in most ways the same as it was in  1990.





Both men of color and women of color carry the burden of imprisonment for drug offenses.





Diffusion occurs when the crime-reduction effects of an intervention occur beyond the intervention site.





The DEA seized 25 metric tons of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and 500 cases of pseudoephedrine in ________, causing one of the largest disruptions in drug supplies that altered drug pricing, purity and use.







In Fisher’s 2006 study assessing the effectiveness of the war on drugs and the $145 billion price tag for fighting the war from 1996-2005, he concluded that ____ of the 11 targets and goals set by the 1999 National Drug Control Strategy were completely achieved.







Sevigny and Caulkins’ study on imprisoned low-level drug offenders concluded that ________ are important  when attempting to determine how many low-level drug offenders there are in prison.



c.cooperation with law enforcement




The Human Rights Watch report of 1996, Punishment and Prejudice, found that _____

of all persons admitted to state prisons in Maryland and Illinois were black.







Tom Graziano, senior fellow with the Heritage Foundation ,contends that what appears to be racial targeting in the war on drugs might be explained by the fact that the illegal drug trade flourishes in inner-cities and, consequently, Blacks commit more ________ than Whites.


*b.drug crimes

c.violent crimes crimes



Tonry and Melewski propose that policymakers _______

that they know will treat black offenders more harshly than white offenders.

*a. enact laws

b.develop programs

c.create institutions

d.introduce obstacles



Drug law enforcement can increase crime rates through market disruption that in turn may lead to ______.

a.drug purity issues

b.fewer drug users

*c.turf wars

d.increase in street drug pricing



In 1995, Weisburd and Green studied _________ in the Jersey City Drug Market Analysis project.







There was a dramatic increase of _____ in the  number of people incarcerated in the U.S. from 1977-2012.







The notion that a crime policy that is based on deterrence is “superficially persuasive” was proposed by:




  1. Dobkin & Nicosia



RAND economists concluded that it is significantly more cost effective to employ drug treatment in the attempt to control this drug:







This President’s National Drug Control Strategy includes “a balanced public health and public safety approach” to address the nation’s drug problem.







The annual National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which provides information on drug use over the past month, year, and lifetime from various population segments, is administered by:



c.Deparment of Health and Human Services




Michael Tonry, a law professor at the University of Minnesota, has concluded that the war on drugs during the 1980s was:







According to a study by Dobkin and Nicosia, the 1995 DEA supply-side intervention of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine had a substantial, although temporary, effect on all of the following except:

a.the price of drugs

b.use of drugs

c.the purity of drugs

*d.the distribution of drugs



From 1996-2005, the war on drugs cost the federal government:

*a.$145 billion

b.$20 billion

c.$100 billion

d.$75 billion



A different perspective on why the 1999 National Drug Control Strategy failed to completely accomplish any of its11 goals and targets is that:

a.There weren’t enough goals.

b.There were too many goals.

*c.The goals were too unrealistic.

d.The initiatives weren’t funded properly.



As a result of r his analysis of the effectiveness of the war on drugs, Fisher concluded that the National Drug Control Strategy should emphasize all of the following except:


b.harm management


*d.stiffer sentences for drug suppliers



David Rothman, considered to be an authority on the history and development of the prison system, predicted in 1971 that incarceration would:

a.become more widespread than ever before

* day be used rarely

c.regularly replace any sentences for drug treatment

d.a means of delivering drug treatment



A majority of criminologists believe that the steady increase in the prison population over the past several decades is due to:

*a.stricter sentencing for borderline felons and policy changes

b.economic hardships resulting in crime

c.a steady increase in the  crime rate

d.increased sociological pressures



Zimring uses all of the following except ___________to explain the growth in the U.S.  prison populations.

a.marginal felons sent to prison

b.greater odds of incarceration and longer sentences for drug offenders

*c.high rates of recidivism

d.a shift from brief prison sentences to extremely lengthy sentences



According to Bruce Western’s 2006 study of the punishments imposed on drug offenders over time,from 1980-2001 the percentage of those arrested for drug offenses increased by:







Caulkins and Chandler found in their 2006 study that the proportions of  state and federal prison and jail inmates who were convicted of drug possession and traffickingincreased most noticeably duringthe:

*a.late 1980s

b.early 1980s

c.late 1990s

d.late 1970s



The 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities provided Sevigny and Caulkins with methodologically sound information on these types of offenders:

a.drug kingpins

b.drug traffickers

*c.low-level drug offenders

d.violent drug offenders



Provine’s 2007 study on race and the war on drugs concludes that this factor fueled the development of harsh “criminal controls” and “punitive attitudes”:

a.repeat offenders

b.socio-economic hardship

c.lack of education

*d.societal racism



While Kemba Niambi Smith was 7 months pregnant, she pled guilty to all of the following charges except: laundering

b.conspiracy to engage in crack and powder cocaine trafficking

*c.obstruction of justice

d.making false statements to a federal agent



What Karmen labeled the “New York Murder Mystery” refers to:

a.the unsolved homicide of a New York City drug kingpin

b.the unsolved homicide of a New York undercover agent

c.the unsolved homicide of a New York City prosecutor

*d.the unexplained 72% drop in homicide rates in New York City



Police Chief William Bratton implemented all of these policing changes within the NYPD except for:

a.”quality of life policing”

*b.”drug misuse policing”

c.”order maintenance policing”

d.”zero tolerance policing”



Those who disagree  that changes in policing explain in large part the “New York Murder Mystery” attribute it instead to changes in the market for this drug:

*a.crack cociane






Zimring’s 2011 evaluation of the New York City crime drop considered the all of the following except:

a.changes in organization and accountability within a department

*b.number of cases prosecuted

c.use and helpfulness of Compstat

d.number of police on the streets



According to Shepard and Blackley’s study, an increase in  arrests for the manufacture and sales of marijuana only affected the crime rate for:







McCabe’s findings from his 2008 study of the connection between Queens County arrest rates and crime  found all of the following except:

a.increases in nuisance abatement closures and decreases in crime

*b.increases in nuisance abatement closures and increases in crime

c.there was a positive relationship between arrest rates for controlled substances and property crime rates

d.there was a negative relationship between marijuana arrest rates and violent crime rates



A study that implemented a “pulled levers” strategy to shutdown drug markets and reduce violent crimes was first implemented in this city:

a.Chicago, IL

b.New York, NY

*c.High Point, NC

d.Philadelphia, PA



Launched in May of 2002,Operation Safe Streets involved stationing two police officers at 214 of the highest drug activity locations in this city:

a.Chicago, IL

b.New York, NY

c.High Point, NC

*d.Philadelphia, PA



During the early 1990’s this city set up the Nuisance Bar Task Force which subjected bars that were considered a nuisance to drug raids by the narcotics squad:

*a.Pittsburgh, PA

b.New York, NY

c.Chicago, IL

d.Houston ,TX



When crime reduction efforts result in crime moving to areas surrounding the intervention site, this is known as:







Collateral consequences of the war on drugs refers to  those consequences that are:







The estimated percentage of all black males who can no longer vote as a result of acriminal conviction is:







All of the following are examples of collateral consequences of the war on drugs except:

a.absent fathers

b.single mothers

*c.lengthier prison sentences

d.weakened social bonds



Noted law professor Michael Tonry severely criticizes the war on drugs and argues that it began unnecessarily in the 1980s and has since been a failure.  Discuss the reasons for his position. Do You agree or disagree? Explain why you agree or disagree.(219-222)

Answers will vary, but students should include general statistical evidence to support their positions.


Describe Sevigny and Caulkin’s 2004 study on obtaining accurate data on low-level drug offenders in prison.  How did they measure dangerousness and what were some of their findings?(226-227)

Answers should mention their use of the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities.  Students should also include a summary 2-3 of the six main findings.


What was the “New York Murder Mystery” and how have various scholars explained it?


Answers should describe the struggle to explain a 72% drop in homicides in New York City.  One side maintains that it can be explained by increased policing and the changes that accompanied it, while the other side argues that it is explained by a change in the crack cocaine markets; each is not mutually exclusive.