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Educational Psychology 11th Ed By WOOLFOLK – Test bank 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 1:  Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) According to the Woolfolk text, which of the following is true of expert teachers?

  1. A) They are more likely than novices to ignore students’ wrong answers.
  2. B) They take more time to solve problems.
  3. C) They judge their success based on their students’ achievements.
  4. D) They have a limited and focused knowledge base.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) It is NOT true that experts deal with new events as new problems. In fact, the opposite is true in the sense that experts employ their prior knowledge to come up with efficient solutions to new problems. They also make good use of students’ wrong answers, are reflective about decisions, and have different ways of understanding the subject matter.

Page Ref: 9

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .73

D:  .21

 

2) According to James Popham, the law No Child Left Behind

  1. A) will not affect teachers in secondary education schools.
  2. B) will shorted the length of the school year.
  3. C) will affect the lives of teachers every day.
  4. D) relates to only teachers who teach in rural areas.
  5. E) will go into effect after January 2009.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) By the end of the 2005-2006 school year, all teachers must have core academic subjects and be “highly qualified.”  The NCLBA will affect the lives of teachers everyday.

Page Ref: 6

Skill:  Understanding

 

3) The concerns of educational psychology are distinctive in that they

  1. A) are limited to the classroom.
  2. B) do not overlap those of other fields of study.
  3. C) have no place in the laboratory.
  4. D) relate to improving learning and instruction.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The concerns of educational psychology relate to improving learning and instruction. To achieve this objective, educational psychologists draw from other disciplines (e.g., psychology and sociology) and conduct research in both the classroom and the laboratory.

Page Ref: 10

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .83

D:  .16

 

 

 

 

 

4) Use of the “common sense” approach to teaching is viewed by educational psychologists as

  1. A) appropriate in most circumstances.
  2. B) inappropriate unless supported by research.
  3. C) more reliable than scientific judgments.
  4. D) the main factor that differentiates experts from novices.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Educational psychologists view the “common sense” approach to teaching as inappropriate or potentially misleading unless supported by research. As illustrated by the examples in the textbook, common sense ideas often do not work in the expected manner when applied in classrooms.

Page Ref: 10-11

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .69

D:  .38

 

5) Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson (1977) on selecting primary-grade students to read aloud suggests that the best method is to

  1. A) ask for volunteers to read.
  2. B) call on students in a prescribed order.
  3. C) call on students at random.
  4. D) have students read as a group (choral response).

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson (1977) indicated that first graders achieved better when they were called upon to read in a prescribed order. Their interpretation was that the children would spend more time rehearsing when they were aware of the sections that they would be asked to read and would get more practice reading because they were not over-looked.

Page Ref: 11 / Skill:  Knowledge

 

6) Wong’s research indicated that when individuals read a research result, they tended to

  1. A) become resistant toward using the strategy involved.
  2. B) find the results more obvious than originally thought.
  3. C) put the results into practice immediately.
  4. D) seek more information on the subject.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Wong (1987) demonstrated that when subjects in her study were shown research results (whether or not correct) in writing, they had a greater tendency to believe that the results were obviously true.

Page Ref: 11-12

Skill:  Knowledge

 

7) Research on acceleration for bright children suggests that acceleration is generally

  1. A) beneficial for these children at all age/grade levels.
  2. B) beneficial for younger children but detrimental for older children.
  3. C) detrimental for younger children but beneficial for older children.
  4. D) harmful for children at all age/grade levels.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Research summarized by Kirk and his colleagues (1993) suggests that acceleration (skipping grades) is generally beneficial (and, at least, not harmful) for bright children at all levels. Page Ref: 11 / Skill:  Knowledge

8) When studies are based only on observations, the results should be expressed as

  1. A) cause-and-effect relationships.
  2. B) descriptions.
  3. C) principles.
  4. D) theories.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) When studies are based only on observations, the results must be expressed as descriptions of events. Descriptive studies rely on observational and subjective data. Correlational studies identify the relationship(s) among two or more variables for a specific group of people. Experimental studies require controlled, objective data in order to establish causal relationships.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .56

D:  .43

 

9) A case study is an investigation of

  1. A) a small group of people with similar backgrounds.
  2. B) different groups of people over a period of time.
  3. C) one person or group over a specific period of time.
  4. D) people from one geographic area.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Case studies involve an intensive examination of real-life contexts (such as schools or classrooms) through direct observations, biographical data, school records, test results, peer ratings, and a wide variety of other observational tools. The researcher would investigate one person or a group of people intensively over a relatively long period of time.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .83

D:  .24

 

10) A correlation is a statistical description indicating the

  1. A) direction but not the strength of a relationship.
  2. B) direction and strength of a relationship.
  3. C) strength and direction of a treatment effect.
  4. D) strength but not the direction of a relationship.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Correlation coefficients indicate both the strength and direction of relationships (e.g., strong positive or weak negative). Treatment effects are not involved in correlational research.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .75

D:  .28

11) A researcher participates in a class over a two-month period and analyzes the strategies the teacher employs to maintain discipline. This research is an example of what specific type of research study?

  1. A) Cross-sectional
  2. B) Ethnography
  3. C) Experimental
  4. D) Longitudinal

 

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Ethnographic studies involve an intensive examination of real-life contexts (such as schools or classrooms) through observations. In this example, the researcher spent two months observing the teacher and recording descriptions of the discipline techniques employed. There is no indication that the researcher is a participant observer in the research.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

 

12) A researcher concludes from his study that, on a typical school day, students spend only 50 percent of their time engaged in learning. What specific type of research must have been conducted in order for this conclusion to be valid?

  1. A) Single-subject design
  2. B) Participant-observer
  3. C) Descriptive
  4. D) Experimental

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Descriptive methods would be used by a researcher to study how much time is spent on learning activities during a typical day. This would require observations for a number of days and might include students’ self-reports and/or teacher ratings in order to identify a pattern for the amount of time actually spent in learning activities.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .72

D:  .52

 

13) A positive correlation between two factors indicates that the factors

  1. A) are NOT necessarily related.
  2. B) are strongly related.
  3. C) decrease proportionately.
  4. D) tend to increase or decrease together.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A positive correlation indicates that two factors increase or decrease together. As one increases so does the other; as one decreases so does the other. Therefore, the two factors for a positive correlation vary in the same direction. If the correlation is negative, one factor increases while the other factor decreases. [Note that, unless it is perfect, the correlation only suggests a tendency or pattern.]

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .59

D:  .42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14) What size or direction of correlation coefficient is likely to be obtained between children’s ages (from five to 13 years) and the distance that they can long jump?

  1. A) Close to zero
  2. B) Either +00 or -1.00
  3. C) Negative
  4. D) Positive

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A positive relationship is likely to exist between children’s ages and the distance they can long jump. Due to their greater physical size, strength, and agility, older children will generally be able to jump farther than younger children. As age increases, jumping distance tends to increase, at least through adolescence.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

15) Which one of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship?

  1. A) -03
  2. B) -78
  3. C) +56
  4. D) +70

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The strongest correlation of the four choices is represented by -0.78. It is NOT the sign (direction) that determines strength; it is the closeness of the correlation to either +1.00 or -1.00. A correlation of -0.78 represents a fairly strong negative relationship between the factors being correlated.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .68

D:  .64

 

16) What type of correlation coefficient is likely to be obtained between reading ability and running ability of high-school students?

  1. A) Close to zero
  2. B) Either +00 or -1.00
  3. C) Strong positive
  4. D) Weak negative

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A correlation close to zero is likely to exist between reading ability and running ability. The two factors are relatively independent. Better readers are not likely to be faster or slower runners than others and slower readers are not any better at running than their fast-reading peers.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17) When a correlation coefficient of -0.80 is found between factor A and factor B, the most accurate interpretation is that

  1. A) a decrease in factor A is strongly related to a decrease in factor B.
  2. B) a decrease in factor A is strongly related to an increase in factor B.
  3. C) there is NO significant relationship between the two factors.
  4. D) there is a very weak relationship between the two factors.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A correlation of -0.80 indicates a strong negative relationship. Decreases in factor A will be associated with increases in factor B. Decreases in both factors will result in a positive relationship.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .66

D:  .49

18) A correlation study indicates that teachers’ interest in teaching and the amount of the day their students are engaged in learning correlate at +0.46. This coefficient would indicate that

  1. A) as teacher interest decreases, engaged time increases.
  2. B) as teacher interest increases, engaged time tends to increase.
  3. C) interest in teaching leads to a large increase in engaged time.
  4. D) there is virtually NO relationship between the two variables.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The +0.46 correlation coefficient suggests a moderately strong positive relationship between teaching interest and engaged time. Teachers who have more interest in teaching tend to have students who are more engaged in learning, and vice versa.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .84

D:  .25

 

19) A correlation coefficient of 0.90 indicates that

  1. A) one event has been caused by another event.
  2. B) one event is strongly related to another event.
  3. C) the two events are related 10 percent of the time.
  4. D) the two events are related 90 percent of the time.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A correlation of 0.90 indicates a strong positive relationship. Correlations do not imply cause and effect, only that the two variables or factors are related.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .92

D:  .21

 

20) A researcher reports that students who have the highest test scores in school tend to be more involved in extracurricular activities than are other students. What specific type of research study must have been conducted?

  1. A) Correlational
  2. B) Descriptive
  3. C) Ethnographic
  4. D) Experimental

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The researcher conducted a correlational study. The purpose is to determine the relationship between test scores and extracurricular activities. Ethnographic studies are another specific type of descriptive research. NO treatment is being manipulated; thus, the research is NOT experimental.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

21) Random assignments would be most critical in what type of research?

  1. A) Case study
  2. B) Correlational
  3. C) Descriptive
  4. D) Experimental

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) By randomly assigning subjects to treatments and evaluating the treatments, experiments are designed to study cause and effect. Unlike descriptive studies, changes made in an experimental study can be attributed to the treatments introduced, because all other relevant factors are intended to be controlled. In correlational studies, usually only one group of subjects is studied on a variety of factors. A cross-sectional study typically involves several groups of subjects who are then compared on a variety of factors. Such studies are not experimental.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .57

D:  .28

 

22) Which one of the following instances is MOST like a random sample for a class of thirty students?

  1. A) A coin is tossed in order to select students alternately one by one into the experimental and control groups.
  2. B) The first ten students who enter the classroom are placed into the experimental group and the next ten into the control group.
  3. C) The first twenty volunteers are selected from the physics class and alternately placed into experimental and control groups.
  4. D) The twenty students with the highest GPAs are selected and alternately placed into experimental and control groups.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A random sample is one in which each subject has an equal opportunity to be selected for any group. The three situations described in the alternative answers to this question all concern special, rather than randomly composed, groups of students. Thus, identifying the experimental groups by coin tossing is the method that most closely approximates a random selection.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

 

23) When a result from a research project involving an experimental design is reported in the literature as significant, this result

  1. A) contradicts the prevailing theoretical views.
  2. B) is unrelated to theory development.
  3. C) is unlikely to have occurred by chance.
  4. D) will indicate its practical importance.

 

 

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Statistical significance means that the result is unlikely to have occurred by chance. It does NOT necessarily imply that the result has either practical or theoretical importance.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .76

D:  .38

24) What type of research participants should researchers use for studies of cause-and-effect relationships?

  1. A) Controlled samples
  2. B) Random samples
  3. C) Related samples
  4. D) Skilled samples

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Random assignments are critical for establishing cause-effect relationships. If such assignments are NOT employed, the researcher will be unable to determine whether treatment differences are caused by the treatments themselves or by the treatment groups being different in some important way that is related to the outcome being studied.

Page Ref: 12

Skill:  Knowledge

 

25) Dr. Patterson concludes from her research that using a systematic study strategy CAUSED good grades for students assigned to a particular group. For this conclusion to be valid, the type of research that was performed must have been what type of study?

  1. A) Correlational
  2. B) Descriptive
  3. C) Experimental
  4. D) Observational

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Dr. Patterson can infer cause and effect only from experimentation. Correlational research and observational research provide descriptive results that do not support causal relations. However, these latter two types of research can often lead to questions that can be studied by means of experimental research.

Page Ref: 12-13

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .54

D:  .41

 

26) A researcher finds that students who were given computers to use at home demonstrated greater independent learning skills than a comparable group that was not selected to receive home computers. What type of research study was probably designed for this conclusion to be valid?

  1. A) Correlational
  2. B) Descriptive
  3. C) Experimental
  4. D) Observation

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Apparently, an experimental approach was employed. The key factor is the manipulation and then comparison of different treatments: having computers vs. not having them.

Page Ref: 12 / Skill:  Understanding / P:  .53 / D:  .30

 

27) An explanation of how we remember things that we have learned is called a

  1. A) construct.
  2. B) correlation.
  3. C) principle.
  4. D) theory.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A theory is an explanation of behavior or human functioning, such as how we remember what we have learned or why we are motivated to do something.

Page Ref: 14

Skill:  Knowledge

28) According to the law No Child Left Behind

  1. A) research is not important for improving schools.
  2. B) states have some say in defining “proficiency” for students
  3. C) initial hypotheses about education which have not been tested can still improve educational practices.
  4. D) mandates all teachers must conduct a research project on an annual basis.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) According to NCLBA scientifically based research based on rigorous research can produce valid and reliable results for improving education.

Page Ref: 5

Skill:  Knowledge

 

29) According to the Point/Counterpoint discussion in Chapter 1, the following statement is true about what kind of research should guide education

  1. A) Some researchers challenge the idea that educational research should be similar to research in medicine because humans in school settings are much too complex and function in frequently changing social environments.
  2. B) Researchers agree educational research should be based on experimental trials, similar to medical studies.
  3. C) Most researchers agree children in schools are over studied and too much research in taking place in school settings.
  4. D) Most educational researchers agree teaching is an art and cannot be based on scientific research.

 

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 15

 

30) According to Woolfolk, over time theories

  1. A) have returned to the core ideas set forth years ago by Sigmund Freud.
  2. B) have become less important in educational research and practice.
  3. C) have become more systematic and scientific.
  4. D) are less scientific compared to ten years ago.

 

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Completion Questions

 

1) Schools are evaluated based on test schools, which indicate if their students are making ________.

Answer:  Adequately Yearly Progress (AYP)

Page Ref: 5

 

2) Many educators believe that the mark of an expert teacher is the ability to be ________.

Answer:  reflective

Page Ref: 8

 

3) When beginning teachers confront everyday classroom life, they often experience ________.

Answer:  reality shock

Page Ref: 8

 

4) The study of the processes of teaching and learning is the focus of the discipline of ________.

Answer:  educational psychology

Page Ref: 10

 

5) The type of research that attempts to record what happens in classrooms without attempting to manipulate any variables is called ________ research.

Answer:  descriptive

Page Ref: 12

6) A researcher who becomes a working member of a class over a period of time in order to record and gain understanding of the class dynamics is a(n) ________.

Answer:  participant observer

Page Ref: 12

 

7) Research that is designed to determine the relations between two variables is a(n) ________ study.

Answer:  correlational

Page Ref: 12

 

8) The type of research that attempts to establish cause and effect relationships is a(n) ________ study.

Answer:  experimental

Page Ref: 12

 

9) Each person is given an equal opportunity to be in a treatment or control group by means of ________ sampling.

Answer:  random

Page Ref: 12

 

10) Findings considered statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance are described as ________.

Answer:  significant

Page Ref: 12

 

11) Broad frameworks that attempt to explain relationships between sets of variables are called ________.

Answer:  theories

Page Ref: 14

 

12) When findings in a given area repeatedly support the same conclusion, a(n) ________ can be derived.

Answer:  principle

Page Ref: 14

 

 

True/False Questions

 

1) Sanders and River’s (1996) research shows that the effects of good teaching produce additional achievement gains for lower-achieving students.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Researchers have found the effects of good teaching are cumulative and residual and have the most benefits for lower-achieving students.

Page Ref: 6

 

2) Unlike playing chess, expertise in teaching is mainly a function of style rather than knowledge.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 9

 

3) As teachers’ experience grows, they tend to become more likely to judge their success by their students’ successes.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 9

 

4) Rigorous scientifically based research has been through a review by a journal or panel of experts

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Reliable and valid results come from studies in which an independent group of experts review and evaluate the research question, methodology, and results.

Page Ref: 14

5) The major concern of new teachers is that their knowledge of their subjects is limited.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 8

 

6) Negative correlations are typically weaker than positive correlations.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

 

7) A correlational study is a specific type of descriptive research.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 12

 

8) Correlations provide a basis for making cause-effect interpretations.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

 

9) A key element in a research experiment is random assignment of participants to groups.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 12

 

10) A statistically significant result in experimental research indicates that the result is a true finding.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

 

11) Principles are the product of consistency in research findings over time.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 14

 

 

 

12) A theory is an explanation of occurrences in a given field.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 14

 

13) According to Woolfolk, there are three theories available today to explain human development, motivation, and learning.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 16

 

14) A correlational study is useful for helping to understand if one event causes another event to occur.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

 

15) If a statistically significant difference is found between the math scores of two groups, we can conclude the difference was due to a chance occurrence.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 13

 

Short Answer Questions

 

1) Discuss the problems or issues that most concern beginning teachers today. Which of those concerns would be the most important to you personally? Explain your choice(s).

 

Answer:  New teachers may worry about their teaching skills, being liked by peers and students, making a good impression, and basically surviving. Specific concerns are maintaining discipline, motivating students, accommodating individual differences, evaluating students, and dealing with parents.

Page Ref: 8-9

2) Explain how principles and theories are derived. Discuss how knowledge of a theory (e.g., classroom management) can be helpful to a classroom teacher.

 

Answer:  Principles come from seeing patterns in situations or research findings.  For example a teacher may derive a principle after noticing the effect of a specific classroom management strategy on student achievement.  A theory is a teacher’s explicit explanation about a phenomenon. For example, a teacher might development a prediction about why the classroom management impacts student achievement.  Principles help in solving specific problems, whereas, theories provide a more broad framework for deriving new solutions to problems.

Page Ref: 14-15

 

3) Discuss the purposes and procedures of the discipline of educational psychology today. What are the interests of educational psychology with regard to theory vs. application and learning vs. teaching?

 

Answer:  Educational psychology is concerned primarily with (a) understanding the processes of teaching and learning and (b) developing ways to improve these processes.  Educational psychologists are interested in both learning and teaching.  They recognize the distinction between learning as it is researched in the laboratory and teaching as it takes place in actual classroom settings.  For this reason, they advocate testing the validity of learning theories outside the laboratory.

Page Ref: 10-11

 

 

 

 

4) Differentiate between descriptive and experimental research orientations with regard to purpose, methods, and the interpretation of results.

 

Answer:  Descriptive research CANNOT show cause-and-effect relationships; it does NOT involve a change or treatment, and it uses observation to characterize things as they exist. Relationships between variables are described by correlations. Experimental research involves randomization and use of a dependent variable (outcome) and independent variable (treatment). Experimental research may indicate cause-and-effect relationships., for example, would provide a teacher with directions or basic guidelines for how to react to different problems that occur. [The theory would not, however, dictate specific solutions, because every situation is unique.]

Page Ref: 12

 

5) If a teacher wanted to collaborate with a researcher to better understand why one student was having difficulty adding two fractions, would you recommend they use a n experimental design or conduct a microgenetic investigation?

 

Answer:  A microgenetic study would allow the research team to analyze what  strategy the student used to try to add two fractions.   The research might observe the student trying to solve the math problem, interview the student about his or her strategies, and examine in careful detail the student’s notes and submitted work.   As noted by Woolfolk, the student’s behavior would be “put under a microscope”.

Page Ref: 13

 

Case Studies

 

Jill received her Bachelor of Arts Degree in education in June and will be meeting her first class of second graders tomorrow at Briarview Elementary School. Her classroom will be adjacent to one assigned to Ms. Ferguson, a veteran first-grade teacher considered to be one of the most knowledgeable and skilled in the district. Ms. Ferguson will be starting her tenth year of teaching.

 

1) What are likely to be Jill’s major concerns about her first months of teaching? Explain your choices.

 

Answer:  As a novice teacher, Jill’s primary concerns will most likely be related to classroom management. She may also be concerned about motivating students and teaching students with individual differences. Knowing how to evaluate student work and dealing with parents may be issues of concern for Jill.

Page Ref: 8

2) Discuss how the two teachers might differ in using achievement results as information about (a) student learning and (b) their own success in teaching.

 

Answer:  Compared to Jill, Ms. Ferguson is more likely to use information about student achievement to evaluate the extent to which her new teaching methods or materials allowed her to meet her instructional objectives. Whereas Jill might view her own success as a well-disciplined classroom environment, Ms. Ferguson is likely to view her own teaching success in relation to the achievements of her students.

Page Ref: 7-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ninth-grade teachers at Farmington Junior High School are interested in knowing whether using cooperative learning will increase student understanding of mathematics. They would like to conduct a research study to investigate whether this is truly the case.

 

3) Design an experimental study (basic elements, not detailed procedures) that could be used to answer the teachers’ research question.

 

Answer:  The researcher would randomly assign students to either the cooperative learning condition or the traditional lecture condition. Thus, the teacher is changing his or her approach and will note the results from the change. In this case, the change or “treatment” is the inclusion of cooperative learning. The traditional lecture group serves as the “control” condition. The researchers’ goal is to compare the mathematical achievement scores from students in the cooperative learning condition with scores from students in the traditional lecture condition. If a difference between the two groups exists, then the researcher explores whether or not the difference is more than one might expect by chance (i.e., significance testing).

Page Ref: 12

 

4) How might descriptive research also be used in the above study? Describe an example.

 

Answer:  The researcher would collect many types of information regarding the characteristics and background of the students in the cooperative learning situation.  The researcher might report students’ mathematics scores by gender, ethnicity, number of previous math courses, and students’ level of math anxiety. The researcher could describe in detail the distribution of scores (how many earned very high or low math scores).

Page Ref: 12

 

5) One teacher speculates that students who are more social than others are likely to have greater appreciation of the cooperative learning method. What research approach should be used to answer this question? Use an example to illustrate an application of this type of research.

 

Answer:  To answer this question the researcher would want to utilize a correlational design for the research project. The researcher could report how often and how much students socialize with other students during recess. Having a measure of social interaction, the research would explore whether mathematics scores for students in a cooperative learning setting relates to students’ level of social ability. The hypothesis may be that students who are highly social will also have math test scores when they are taught in a cooperative learning setting. If this were to be true, we would expect a high and positive correlation coefficient (perhaps +.70 or higher).

Page Ref: 12

6) Briefly describe a study that would support a causal interpretation of the results. Explain why your study could be a cause-effect study.

 

Answer:  A teacher may hypothesize that students’ increase in math scores is not due to the cooperative learning situation, but that it is more closely related to students’ reading ability. In this example, students would be randomly assigned to a cooperative learning group or a traditional lecture setting. In addition, students would be randomly assigned to a reading condition. In one reading condition the students had no additional reading assignments, while in the other condition students were required to read at least two books per week at home. Thus, the researcher can explore whether the cause of the difference in math scores is due to the teaching condition (cooperative learning or traditional lecture) or to the difference in reading.

Page Ref: 12

 

Chapter 2:  Cognitive Development and Language

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Which one of the following is an example of maturation?

  1. A) Gaining weight from age two to age three
  2. B) Losing weight due to exercise
  3. C) Losing weight during a brief illness
  4. D) Learning which foods produce the most weight

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Maturation refers to changes that occur naturally and spontaneously rather than as a result of environmental circumstances. An example would be gaining weight from age two to age three. [Note: losing weight due to illness or exercise is not a natural occurrence, but one that is caused by particular environmental events.]

Page Ref: 26

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .77

D:  .28

 

2) As time goes on, Tina becomes a happier individual, more in touch with life, and content with her situation. This description emphasizes what kind of development for Tina?

  1. A) Cognitive
  2. B) Personal
  3. C) Physical
  4. D) Social

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) In contrast with social development that involves relations with others, personal development is illustrated in the scenario on changes in Tina’s personality (such as being happier, changes in self-concept, etc.).

Page Ref: 26

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .83

D:  .24

 

3) All developmental theories have the following general principle in common

  1. A) Development is balanced.
  2. B) Development is gradual.
  3. C) Development occurs in a random way.
  4. D) Individuals develop at the same rate.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  A) Development is gradual, occurs in an orderly way, and occurs at variable rates. Development is NOT considered to be balanced, i.e., development is not balanced across physical, personal, social, and cognitive development.

Page Ref: 28

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .83

D:  .25

 

4) What part of the brain coordinates and orchestrates skilled movements?

  1. A) Cerebellum
  2. B) Cortex
  3. C) Cerebrum
  4. D) Frontal lobe

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The cerebellum is the part of the brain that coordinates and orchestrates skilled movements. The thalamus is associated with the ability to learn new information, while the cerebral cortex controls sensory input, the formation of associations, and voluntary movement.

Page Ref: 28

Skill:  Knowledge

 

5) If John is introduced to the concept of fractions today, he will not be able to start adding and subtracting them tomorrow. What general principle of development is illustrated?

  1. A) Development proceeds through identifiable stages.
  2. B) Development takes place gradually.
  3. C) Maturation is the basis for development.
  4. D) John lacks personal development.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Development takes place gradually. John will need to acquire more experience and skills with fractions before he can perform specific operations such as adding and subtracting. [He may, however, acquire those skills at different rates than others.]

Page Ref: 28

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .79

D:  .24

 

6) The last part of the brain to develop fully is the

  1. A) cerebellum.
  2. B) cerebral cortex.
  3. C) frontal lobe.
  4. D) thalamus.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The last section of the brain to develop fully is the frontal lobe in the cerebral cortex.

Page Ref: 30

Skill:  Knowledge

 

7) The part of the cerebral cortex that matures first controls

  1. A) higher-order thinking processes.
  2. B) physical movements.
  3. C) the processing of language.
  4. D) the formation of associations.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Control of physical movements matures in the cerebral cortex before other functions, such as activities that involve verbalization.

Page Ref: 30

Skill:  Knowledge

 

8) Specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain involves

  1. A) Broca’s area.
  2. B) lateralization.
  3. C) the primary auditory cortex.
  4. D) Wernicke’s area.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Specialization in the two hemispheres of the brain relates to lateralization.

Page Ref: 30

Skill:  Knowledge

 

9) Messages sent by releasing chemicals that jump across synapses involve

  1. A) lateralization.
  2. B) myelination.
  3. C) neurons.
  4. D) transformations.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Neurons send messages by releasing chemicals that jump across synapses in the brain.

Page Ref: 28

Skill:  Knowledge

 

10) According to Piaget, the foundation for development in all humans is supplied by

  1. A) activity.
  2. B) exploration.
  3. C) maturation.
  4. D) social transmission.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The fundamental basis for development in people is biological maturation, the characteristics that are genetically determined.

Page Ref: 32

Skill:  Knowledge

 

11) Piaget’s basic blocks of thinking and memory are

  1. A) actions.
  2. B) accommodations.
  3. C) adaptations.
  4. D) schemas.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Schemas are Piaget’s basic blocks of thinking. These schemas are an organized system of thought or action that permit us to represent objects and thoughts in our own words.

Page Ref: 32

Skill:  Knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) The two processes involved in adaptation are

  1. A) assimilation and accommodation.
  2. B) assimilation and equilibration.
  3. C) equilibration and organization.
  4. D) social transmission and schema.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The two processes of adaptation are assimilation and accommodation. Accommodation is defined by Piaget as the process of changing existing schemas to respond to a new situation. Assimilation is the process of changing what is learned to fit existing schemas.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .91

D:  .13

13) Which of the following pairs of factors that influence thinking is thought by Piaget to be genetic or inherited tendencies?

  1. A) Accommodation and assimilation
  2. B) Adaptation and organization
  3. C) Assimilation and schemas
  4. D) Schemas and equilibration

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Based on his work in biology, Piaget concluded that all species inherit two basic tendencies: organization (the combining of behaviors into coherent systems) and adaptation (adjusting to the environment).

Page Ref: 32

Skill:  Knowledge

 

14) Which one of the following is the clearest example of Piaget’s concept of assimilation?

  1. A) Learning that a green light means “go” and a red light means “stop.”
  2. B) Learning to paint with a new type of brush.
  3. C) Looking at teachers as they lecture.
  4. D) Looking at a worm and thinking that it is a snake.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The clearest example of assimilation of the choices given is looking at a worm and thinking that it is a snake. The observer is “fitting” the stimulus (worm) into her mental schema at the moment, which is apparently oriented to expect to see a snake or which assigns (based on experiences) greater saliency to a snake than to a worm. The environmental stimulus is being mentally “changed” in accord with the learner’s existing schemas.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .61

D:  .23

 

15) Jeannie observed rocks sinking in water and said, “I already knew that. All rocks sink.” Then she saw a piece of pumice floating on water and was told that pumice is rock. Several days later, she was asked again if rocks sink in water. She replied, “Well, most do.” In Piaget’s terms, what process did Jeannie use to draw this conclusion?

  1. A) Accommodation
  2. B) Assimilation
  3. C) Classification
  4. D) Conservation

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Jeannie is using accommodation by changing her ideas about whether rocks sink or float based on her experience in observing a floating piece of pumice. Assimilation would have involved resisting the idea that rocks float, perhaps by failing to accept pumice as a type of rock.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .77

D:  .37

16) According to Piaget, the process of searching for a balance between cognitive schemas and environmental information is called

  1. A) accommodation.
  2. B) adaptation.
  3. C) assimilation.
  4. D) equilibration.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Equilibration is defined by Piaget as the process of searching for a balance between cognitive schemas and environmental information. When a balance occurs, equilibrium is felt; imbalance causes disequilibrium.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .81

D:  .29

 

17) When we try a particular strategy and it does not work, the discomfort we experience is called

  1. A) assimilation.
  2. B) centration.
  3. C) disequilibrium.
  4. D) non-

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Disequilibrium is the discomfort we feel when a schema does not work as expected. It promotes new learning by motivating us to continue searching for a solution.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .95

D:  .12

 

18) According to Piaget, people pass through the four stages of cognitive development

  1. A) at the same levels of competence.
  2. B) at the same rates, adjusted for intelligence.
  3. C) in specifically determined ages.
  4. D) in the same sequence.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Piaget theorized that people pass through the four stages of cognitive development in the same sequence. However, they do this at different rates, depending on individual development.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .81

D:  .18

 

 

19) The best way to determine what cognitive stage a person has reached is by

  1. A) interpreting the person’s scores on a mental ability test.
  2. B) knowing the person’s age.
  3. C) knowing the person’s rate of development.
  4. D) observing how the person solves problems.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The best way of determining the cognitive stage that a person has reached is to observe how that individual solves problems. The Piagetian stages concern ways of thinking, not particular age levels or levels of intelligence.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Understanding

20) What of the following sayings best conveys a child’s thinking before the notion of object permanence is acquired?

  1. A) “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.”
  2. B) “A penny saved is a penny earned.”
  3. C) “A stitch in time saves nine.”
  4. D) “Out of sight, out of mind.”

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Before object permanence is acquired, a child thinks that an object that is no longer visible has disappearedout of sight, out of mindas the saying goes.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .98

D:  .05

 

21) In Piaget’s theory, an understanding of object permanence is acquired during what period of development?

  1. A) Early preoperations
  2. B) Operations
  3. C) Late preoperations
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Object permanence, the understanding that objects exist even if not visible, is acquired during the sensorimotor period.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Knowledge

22) Michelle covers her own eyes, because she thinks her friends will not see her when playing a game of hide-and-seek. What stage of Piaget’s cognitive theory does this account best illustrate?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Formal operations
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Michelle is demonstrating an early form of egocentrism as well as a lack of object permanence. As is common during early stages of the sensorimotor period, she believes that if she can’t see others, others can’t see her.

Page Ref: 33

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .57 / D:  .27

23) In the sensorimotor stage of development, a child begins to develop

  1. A) goal-directed actions.
  2. B) mental operations.
  3. C) preoperational thought.
  4. D) semiotic functions.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Toward the end of the sensorimotor period, children begin to use logical, goal-directed actions in which they play with objects in an orderly fashion (for a purpose, with a goal in mind). By the preoperations period, these types of actions are well established.

Page Ref: 34

Skill:  Knowledge

24) Nathan is shown two balls of clay that he identifies as equal in quantity. When one of the balls is then rolled into a sausage, Nathan says that piece (i.e., sausage) now has more clay. In what stage of development is he likely to be?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Goal-directed operations
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Nathan is probably in the preoperational stage because he is failing to demonstrate conservation. If he were in the concrete operations or formal operations stages, he would indicate that both pieces contain the same amount of clay because the quantity of the sausage-like piece has not changed.

Page Ref: 34

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .81

D:  .30

 

25) Billy refuses to drink his orange juice from the 1/2 full glass that his mother gives to him. He wants her to pour the juice into his favorite cup and watches his mother fill it to the brim. Billy likes his cup better because he gets more juice in it. With what cognitive concept in Piaget’s theory is Billy having trouble?

  1. A) Accommodation
  2. B) Assimilation
  3. C) Conservation
  4. D) Semiotic function

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The cognitive concept illustrated by Billy’s thinking that he gets more juice in his small cup than in the half-full larger cup is an example of a child who has not yet developed Piaget’s concept of conservation.

Page Ref: 35

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .89

D:  .31

 

 

 

 

 

 

26) After stringing beads from a large necklace onto a smaller empty string, a child states that there are now more beads on the small string than there were on the larger string. What cognitive concept (Piaget’s theory) does this behavior best illustrate?

  1. A) Accommodation
  2. B) Assimilation
  3. C) Conservation
  4. D) Equilibration

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The child is apparently preoperational. He or she is failing to conserve quantity by thinking that the small string contains more beads (because it “appears” more loaded with beads).

Page Ref: 35

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .68

D:  .36

27) A teacher pours juice from a larger glass into two tiny glasses, and the child beams, happy now that he has “more juice.” What cognitive stage (Piaget’s theory) does the account best illustrate?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Formal operational thought
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The child is in the preoperational stage. We can conclude this because he has failed to demonstrate conservation by thinking that the tiny glasses contain more juice.

Page Ref: 34

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .96

D:  .05

 

28) In his first game of hide-and-seek, Andy covers his eyes so that his friends cannot see him. His thinking can be described as

  1. A) decentered.
  2. B) egocentric.
  3. C) schematic.
  4. D) seriation.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Andy is acting in an egocentric manner. He assumes that just because he cannot see his friends, they cannot see him. [Ostriches are said to act the same way!]

Page Ref: 35

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .86

D:  .28

 

29) A preoperational child’s belief that a tall, narrow glass contains more liquid than a short, wide glass is probably due to difficulties in

  1. A) decentering.
  2. B) egocentrism.
  3. C) serration.
  4. D) object permanence.

 

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Decentering is the ability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation at a time. This occurs, for example, when the preoperational child perceives that, because a glass is taller, it must also have more liquid. In this case, the child is unable to see that the amount of liquid has not changed.

Page Ref: 35

Skill:  Knowledge

30) Corinne has mastered this type of problem: “If the white house is bigger than the blue house, and the blue house is bigger than the red house, is the white house bigger or smaller than the red house?” What stage of Piaget’s cognitive theory does this situation best illustrate?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Formal operations
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) By demonstrating an ability to understand ordering and seriation, Corinne is evidently in the concrete operations stage. She would be less capable at this task, however, if she were dealing with abstractions rather than with concrete objects (houses of different colors).

Page Ref: 35

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .73

D:  .40

 

31) David has just purchased a car and is intensely interested in it. When the car has engine trouble, he is able systematically to locate the problem. What cognitive stage of Piaget’s theory does this situation best illustrate?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Formal operations
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) David appears to be in the formal operations stage. He is able to use logical thinking to locate the engine trouble systematically. He is evidently using formal thought to solve unique problems.

Page Ref: 37

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .73

D:  .30

 

32) What is the hallmark of Piaget’s stage of formal operations?

  1. A) Semiotic function
  2. B) Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  3. C) Organized thinking of dependent elements
  4. D) Reversible thinking

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The hallmark of Piaget’s stage of formal operations is hypothetical-deductive reasoning. This ability involves both deductive and inductive reasoning to solve real as well as hypothetical problems.

Page Ref: 38 / Skill:  Knowledge

33) Janie was having some difficulty deciding how to organize her defense for the debate competition. She prepared several hypothetical arguments that her opponents might raise, and how she might reply. What cognitive stage of Piaget’s theory does this account best illustrate?

  1. A) Concrete operations
  2. B) Formal operations
  3. C) Preoperational thought
  4. D) Sensorimotor

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Janie’s problem with organizing her defense for the debate reflects the characteristics of formal operations, including hypothetical-deductive reasoning, problem solving, and scientific thought.

Page Ref: 37-38

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .71

D:  .26

 

34) Perry is able to solve hypothetical problems by mentally working through a set of possibilities. What characteristic of cognitive development does Perry illustrate?

  1. A) Compensatory reasoning
  2. B) Inductive thinking
  3. C) Organized thinking
  4. D) Reversible reasoning

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Perry is probably in the formal operations stage because he is able to solve hypothetical problems by working through a set of possible actions. Such skills would be difficult for a concrete-minded child.

Page Ref: 38

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .81

D:  .22

 

35) When Mary returned from the high-school prom, she complained, “Everyone hated my dress!” What specific concept does this account best illustrate?

  1. A) Adolescent egocentrism
  2. B) Interpsychological action
  3. C) Reversible thinking
  4. D) Semiotic function

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Mary is probably in the formal operations stage. She is demonstrating adolescent egocentrism by believing that everyone is focusing on her appearance.

Page Ref: 39

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .75

D:  .22

36) Which one of the following statements best reflects Piaget’s position on the question of speeding up cognitive development?

  1. A) Acceleration is both inefficient and useless.
  2. B) Acceleration is effective for only the brightest students.
  3. C) Keeping cognitive development “on track” is a teacher’s role.
  4. D) Speeding up cognitive development is a teacher’s role.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Because biological maturation is genetically programmed, parents and teachers have little impact on this facet of cognitive development. Consequently, Piaget would contend that forced acceleration is both inefficient and useless. [See Point-Counterpoint.]

Page Ref: 41

Skill:  Understanding

 

37) Current views about Piaget’s theory generally support the idea that

  1. A) Piaget’s tasks appear to have been invalid for judging cognitive ability.
  2. B) Piaget’s tasks appear to have generally been too easy for subjects.
  3. C) Piaget tended to overestimate children’s abilities and underestimate their social differences.
  4. D) Piaget tended to underestimate children’s abilities and overlook the social and cultural issues.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) It appears that Piaget underestimated children’s abilities by using tasks that were too difficult and directions that were too confusing. He also overlooked social and cultural issues. Recent studies have shown that children can reason at higher levels than Piaget had thought.

Page Ref: 41

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .82

D:  .33

 

38) According to Robbie Case, cognitive development in one domain of thought

  1. A) cannot be explained by assimilation and accommodation.
  2. B) differs from one domain to another.
  3. C) is similar from one domain to another.
  4. D) transfers from one domain to another.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Cognitive development in one domain of thought does not seem to transfer to other domains of thought, according to Case. In other words, development in one domain differs from development in other domains. Development of mathematical thinking, for example, does not progress at the same pace as development of verbal thought.

Page Ref: 40

Skill:  Knowledge

 

39) An increasingly influential view of cognitive development proposed by Vygotsky is based on

  1. A) concrete experiences.
  2. B) creation of complex schemas of thought.
  3. C) culture and socioculture theory.
  4. D) mastery of scientific thinking.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Culture and sociocultural theory are becoming an increasingly more influential view of cognitive development than is Piaget’s stage theory.

Page Ref: 42

Skill:  Knowledge

40) According to Vygotsky, a child’s cultural development is

  1. A) co-constructed learning and shared experiences.
  2. B) created by emphasis on private speech.
  3. C) internalized by self-
  4. D) intrapsychologically determined.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A child’s cultural development is the result of co-constructed learning (i.e., learning with others) and shared experiences.

Page Ref: 43

Skill:  Knowledge

 

41) Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development differs from Piaget’s in the importance and emphasis placed on a person’s

  1. A) experience.
  2. B) genetic factors.
  3. C) interpersonal interactions.
  4. D) private speech.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Vygotsky places more emphasis on interpersonal interactions than Piaget. Vygotsky viewed language as playing important roles in cognitive development, both in the form of private speech (self-communication) and in the verbal transmission of guidance from other, more capable individuals.

Page Ref: 43

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .70

D:  .29

 

42) The role of cultural tools in cognitive development involves, according to Vygotsky,

  1. A) both real and symbolic tools.
  2. B) essentially real tools.
  3. C) predominantly symbolic tools.
  4. D) primarily psychological tools.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) According to Vygotsky, the role of cultural tools in cognitive development involves both real and symbolic tools.

Page Ref: 44

Skill:  Knowledge

 

43) The role of “private speech” in Vygotsky’s view is to

  1. A) call attention to oneself during play.
  2. B) guide one’s activities in solving a problem.
  3. C) encourage children to learn new words.
  4. D) stimulate the development of language from simple words to full sentences.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) According to Vygotsky, private speech serves the beneficial function of guiding activities in solving a problem. Use of private speech is most common in the five- to seven-year range.

Page Ref: 45

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .77

D:  .40

 

 

44) Piaget called children’s self-directed talk ________ while Vygotsky called the same behavior ________.

  1. A) egocentric speech; private speech
  2. B) private speech; egocentric speech
  3. C) private speech; social speech
  4. D) social speech; private speech

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Children’s self-directed talk is Piaget’s egocentric speech and Vygotsky’s private speech.

Page Ref: 45-46

Skill:  Knowledge

 

45) According to Vygotsky, scaffolding represents

  1. A) a barrier or a block to solving a problem.
  2. B) a plateau that children reach before progressing to a new stage.
  3. C) artificial support, such as notes, on which children can rely while learning.
  4. D) external support for helping children solve problems on their own.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The zone of proximal development is the point at which a child cannot solve a problem alone but can do so with support or scaffolding. Teachers can help children move to higher reasoning levels by providing appropriate guidance during problem solving.

Page Ref: 47

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .84

D:  .30

 

46) The zone of proximal development is the area where students may solve a problem

  1. A) by themselves.
  2. B) with no disequilibrium.
  3. C) with support.
  4. D) without frustration.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The zone of proximal development is the area between the learner’s current development level and the level the learner could achieve with some support from a more capable peer or through adult guidance.

Page Ref: 47

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .82

D:  .31

 

47) Application of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development concept would include

  1. A) making new tasks slightly beyond the student’s current level of ability.
  2. B) not introducing new tasks until prerequisite tasks are satisfactorily mastered.
  3. C) requiring the student to work completely independently, regardless of success or failure.
  4. D) using highly structured materials to introduce new content rather than semi-structured tasks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) One implication of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development is to make new tasks slightly beyond the child’s current level of ability. With support or “scaffolding” from others, where needed, this orientation will help the child progress to new levels of thinking.

Page Ref: 47

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .73

D:  .38

48) The research of Luis Moll in Arizona has focused on the cultural “funds of knowledge,” which include

  1. A) learning environments that require students to work on their own.
  2. B) the knowledge the families and communities have that can become the basis for teaching.
  3. C) learning activities funded under the law No Child Left Behind.
  4. D) learning activities that require the use of a computer.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Moll’s work involves families and communities by including their knowledge about agriculture, economics, manufacturing, medicine, cooking, and more in the teaching process.  This model may also involve community experts to evaluate students’ assignments.

Page Ref: 51

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .26

D:  .02

 

49) Researchers have found the best time for a child to learn a second language on his/her own is

  1. A) during early or middle childhood
  2. B) no one time is better than another
  3. C) early childhood
  4. D) adulthood when cognitive skills are developed

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Early childhood is the best time to learn a second language on one’s own, however, early or middle childhood can be the best time to teach a second language.  Also, there is no cognitive “penalty” for students who learn and speak a second language, in fact there may be long-term cognitive benefits.

Page Ref: 56

Skill:  Knowledge

 

50) The period considered to be the most sensitive for language development occurs

  1. A) after puberty.
  2. B) about the time of puberty.
  3. C) during the first year of life.
  4. D) during the preschool years.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The most sensitive period for language growth appears to be the period before puberty, especially the preschool years. For example, the average child between the ages of two and six learns from six to 10 words a day.

Page Ref: 53-55

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .39

D:  .36

 

 

51) The area of language that specifically deals with the ordering of words is called

  1. A) awareness.
  2. B) scaffolding.
  3. C) semantics.
  4. D) syntax.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Syntax is the area of language that deals specifically with the ordering of words.

Page Ref: 55

Skill:  Knowledge

52) Generally, students are not ready to study the rules of a language formally until about age five. This is when most students have started to gain

  1. A) literacy.
  2. B) metalinguistic awareness.
  3. C) semantic speech.
  4. D) syntax.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Metalinguistic awareness, which develops at about age five, is knowledge about the rules and conventions of a language. At this stage, children are ready to begin to study the rules of a language. They can understand, for example, rules for past tense, capitalization, using plurals, and so on.

Page Ref: 55

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .79

D:  .42

 

Completion Questions

 

1) Developmental changes that are genetically programmed are a function of ________.

Answer:  maturation

Page Ref: 26

 

2) The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is called ________.

Answer:  lateralization

Page Ref: 30

 

3) According to Piaget, when environmental events cause changes in existing schemas, ________ occurs.

Answer:  accommodation

Page Ref: 33

 

4) “Out of sight, out of mind” describes the behavior of children who have not acquired ________.

Answer:  object permanence

Page Ref: 33

 

5) When a schema produces an unsatisfactory result, a student experiences ________.

Answer:  disequilibrium

Page Ref: 33

 

6) The principle that changing the shape of an object does not change the amount of the object is called ________.

Answer:  conservation

Page Ref: 35

7) Having the ability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation at a time is called ________.

Answer:  decentering

Page Ref: 35

 

8) The process of making an orderly arrangement of objects from large to small or vice versa is called ________.

Answer:  seriation

Page Ref: 36

 

9) The ability to reason abstractly and deductively occurs during the Piagetian stage of ________.

Answer:  formal operations

Page Ref: 37

10) The basis of formal operations is ________.

Answer:  hypothetical-deductive reasoning

Page Ref: 38

 

11) Kathleen Berger (2006) refers to the space between what the learner already knows and what he or she is not yet ready to learn as the ________.

Answer:  Magic middle

Explanation:  Berger refers to the magic middle as the space between what the learner already knows and what the learner is not yet ready to learn as the magic middle, which is similar to Vygotsky’s notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

Page Ref: 50

 

12) Guided participation in the classroom is an example of ________ learning.

Answer:  assisted

Page Ref: 50

 

13) The area of language that deals specifically with word order is called ________.

Answer:  syntax

Page Ref: 55

 

14) When a student understands language and how it works, the student is said to have ________.

Answer:  metalinguistic awareness

Page Ref: 55

 

15) The support that children use to help them solve problems just beyond their capabilities is called ________.

Answer:  scaffolding

Page Ref: 47

 

16) Both Piaget and Vygotsky would most likely agree students need to be taught in the “magic ________” or the place where they are neither bored nor frustrated.

Answer:  middle

Page Ref: 50

 

 

True/False Questions

 

1) Developmental changes are genetically determined rather than environmentally determined.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 27

 

2) The part of the brain directly associated with the coordination of physical movements is the cerebellum.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 28

 

3) Assimilation takes place when a person uses existing schemas to respond to a new situation.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 33

 

4) Understanding of object permanence occurs during the sensorimotor stage.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 33

 

5) Seriation refers to the ability to work with symbols.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 36

6) The cognitive stage associated with ability to understand hypothetical situations is formal operations.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 38

 

7) Hypothetical-deductive reasoning is characteristic of adolescent egocentrism.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 38

 

8) According to Piaget, most adults may be able to use formal operational thought in only a few areas in which they have the greatest interest or experience.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 38-39

 

9) Neo-Piagetian theorists are concerned with how attention, memory, and strategy use relate to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 40

 

10) One strategy for scaffolding complex learning is to use a reciprocal teaching approach, which requires students to play to role of the teacher by leading discussions and asking questions.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In reciprocal teaching, students rotate in playing the role of the teacher.  The teacher becomes more of a facilitator of the learning process.

Page Ref: 51

 

11) The basic difference between Piaget and Vygotsky’s views of cognitive development is in attention paid to genetic factors.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 48-49

 

 

12) Vygotsky viewed children’s private speech to be helpful for cognitive development.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 46

 

13) When children are in a zone of proximal development, use of scaffolding is appropriate.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 47

 

14) The development of language is associated with the concrete operational stage.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 35

 

15) According to Luis Moll, medicine, agriculture, economics, and religion are funds of knowledge which should not be used in classroom instruction or serve as the basis of teaching.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Moll contends medicine, agriculture, economics, religion, and more can serve as knowledge that family and community members may have that can become the basis for teaching.

Page Ref: 51

 

16) Early childhood is the best time for a child to learn a second language on his/her own.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 56

17) The basics of word orders, or syntax, are mastered by children well before they enter the first grade.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 55

 

18) Metalinguistic awareness begins to develop at about the age of puberty.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 55

 

Short Answer Questions

 

1) Define development and identify specific types of forms it can take. Then explain how maturation relates to development.

 

Answer:  Development refers to orderly and relatively long-term changes that take place over one’s life span. Physical development involves bodily changes, personal development changes in personality, social development changes in the way one relates to others, and cognitive development changes in one’s thinking. Maturation is the part of development that involves genetically-based changes that are not influenced by environmental factors.

Page Ref: 26-27

 

2) Describe Piaget’s theoretical views on cognitive development using and defining the following terms in your answer: organization, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration.

 

Answer:  Humans inherit tendencies toward organization, arranging information into a coherent system, and adaptation, adjusting to the environment. The mental systems that are developed are called schemas. When existing schemas are used to interpret new information, assimilation takes place. When existing schemas are changed in response to new situations, accommodation takes place. We search for balance through the process of equilibration, making adjustments whenever dissonance or imbalance between our thinking and reality occurs.

Page Ref: 32-34

3) Name and define the basic aspects of reasoning that must be mastered before a child is able to solve problems of conservation.

 

Answer:  Conservation is mastered through the processes of reversible thinking (performing an operation and then “undoing” it), decentering (being able to focus on more than one property of a stimulus at a time), identity (knowing that changes in an object’s shape do not change its quantity), and compensation (a change in one aspect, e.g., height, produces a compensating change in another aspect, e.g., width).

Page Ref: 35

 

4) Define Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development and explain how it relates to the problem of matching cognitive stages with instructional strategies.

 

Answer:  The zone of proximal development is the point when a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support. It suggests that students should have to reach a bit to understand, with the necessary support of parents, teachers, and peers. Such support is called scaffolding. Vygotsky’s ideas suggest that students should be guided by explanations, demonstrations, and cooperative learning within their zone of proximal development. Use of private speech should also be encouraged in order to help organize thinking.

Page Ref: 47

5) Describe the steps or stages that children go through in the process of developing language. Include reference to the different ways that children use words and sentences in these stages.

 

Answer:  Children begin to communicate through gestures and inarticulate sounds, followed by imitating sounds that they hear. During the early stages of language development, adults rarely correct pronunciation and grammar. In order to encourage children’s new understanding, adults will simplify their language to stay a bit more advanced than the children’s current level of development. Moreover, adults will provide the kind of support, or scaffolding, that Vygotsky has recommended. This support may also create disequilibrium that also encourages development. According to some psychologists, children are born with special capacity for processing, understanding, and creating language. Reward and correction undoubtedly play important roles in correct language use, but children’s own thinking is very important in putting together the parts of this very complicated system. By age 5 or 6, most children have mastered the basics of language, or syntax, and begin to develop metalinguistic awarenessknowledge about rules and conventions of language, a process that continues throughout their lives.

Page Ref: 52-54

 

 

Case Studies

 

Trip, a seventh-grader, is having difficulty learning principles of fractions, such as two out of five is 2/5, 3/5 is less than 2/3, and so on. While his classmates seem to follow most of the examples given in class and in the textbook, Trip feels overwhelmed and confused by them. He is good at other subjects (such as reading and social studies) but is falling behind rapidly in mathematics. Being familiar with Piaget’s stages of development, you suspect that Trip is very concrete in his thinking about mathematical principles compared to many of his classmates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1) Based on the above assessment of Trip’s situation, what teaching approaches would Piaget’s ideas suggest for making the principles of fractions more understandable to Trip?

 

Answer:  The teacher will want to provide Trip with hands-on learning experiences.  For example, the teacher could give Trip two apples to cut into pieces. Trip could cut one apple into five pieces and the other apple into three pieces. He could then compare the combined physical amount of two of the pieces from the five-piece cut apple to two of the pieces from the three-piece cut apple.

Page Ref: 32

 

2) If Trip is a concrete thinker in mathematics, is he likely to think in similar ways in other subjects? Explain using appropriate ideas from Piaget and Vygotsky.

 

Answer:  According to Piagetian theory, Trip is also likely to think in concrete ways in other subject areas. For example, he may struggle with comparing the human brain to a computer. Neo-Piagetians, however, believe Trip may show general patterns of concrete thinking and yet be able to use some more advanced schemas within a particular domain. Trip may reason differently about social situations and numerical concepts. From Vygotsky’s perspective, the teacher would want to consider Trip’s sociocultural factors, such as how language is used, rather than focusing on whether or not Trip had surpassed a specific stage.

Page Ref: 35, 44-45

 

Mason is another seventh grader who is having difficulty in math class. He stares blankly at the test paper asking him to compute fractions such as 5/7 and 9/12 as percentages. He can’t remember at all how to determine whether 4/5 is larger or smaller than 5/8, so he makes a guess. He hopes that, with some luck, he might manage in the class. On the weekend, Mason is watching his favorite sport, basketball. He remarks to his sister, “Oh, this guy made eight out of 11 shots last week; he’s close to an 80 percent shooter so he should be for these free throws.” After the player makes both shots, Mason looks down at the statistics sheet he’s been keeping on the local teams’ shooting percentages, and updates the statistics.

 

3) Is the inconsistency between Mason’s performances on school test problems and in working with basketball statistics a problem for Piaget’s stage theory? That is, if Mason is at a particular stage of reasoning, shouldn’t he be able to deal with the school problems as successfully as the basketball ones? Explain.

 

Answer:  The inconsistency noted in this case study is not a problem for Piaget’s theory. According to Piaget, experience and interest can affect the stage one can reach.  Mason should be able to solve the school-based math problems equally as well as the basketball ones. The teacher may need to help Mason see the connection between the two situations. Also, Mason’s interest is likely to be influenced by the extent to which the student can move beyond rote memorization of mathematical principles. The teacher may want to introduce a math game to facilitate interest.  Also, it is important for the teacher to explain why it is important for students to have an understanding of fractions and percentages in our society.

Page Ref: 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) How might Vygotsky explain the role of other people in shaping Mason’s math skills in the two contexts? Explain.

 

Answer:  First, the teacher may want to look at the statistics sheet Mason created.  This sheet is viewed as a cultural tool and it would be important to find out if Mason shares the sheet with any other persons. For instance, what do the headings on the columns for the data communicate to others? In addition, from Vygotsky’s perspective it would be important to know if Mason typically watches basketball alone or with his brother who is four years older. It may be that his brother is providing scaffolding (cues, encouragement) to Mason as they watch the game together.

Page Ref: 43-44, 47

 

5) Knowing Mason’s behaviors, how might a teacher work with him to improve his performances on the fractions and percentages unit?

 

Answer:  The teacher may want to integrate a physical education unit on basketball with a mathematics lesson. Mason would get the concrete experience recommended by Piaget. He would also be involved in a highly social activity, which would be supported by both Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories. The basketball team could be instructed to plan and monitor their basketball activities in order to solve the math problem.

Page Ref: 32,35, 43