Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank Of Effective Training 5th Edition By Blanchard

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

TEST BANK FOR

EFFECTIVE TRAINING:

SYSTEMS, STRATEGIES, AND PRACTICES

 

CHAPTER ONE: Training in organizations

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE questions

 

 

  1. Which of the following is evidence supporting the assertion that companies are investing in more training?
    1. Higher net sales per employee
    2. Higher gross profits per employee
    3. Higher ratios of market to book value
    4. Both A & B
    5. All of the above

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        3

 

  1. In an open system model, which of the following statements is NOT true?
    1. Open systems have a dynamic relationship with their environment.
    2. Open systems may exist as part of another open system.
    3. The system is open to influences from its environment.
    4. Outputs never have an influence on future inputs.
    5. All of the above are true.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        4

 

  1. Viewing training as a subsystem of an organizational system, the inputs into the training subsystem include an organization’s
    1. Mission.
    2. All of the above.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        5

 

  1. In the training model, a triggering event is
    1. An organizational performance gap.
    2. A signal that training has been successful.
    3. A type of behavioral-based evaluation.
    4. Input into the development phase of training.
    5. None of the above.

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        6

 

  1. Which of the following sources is an input to the analysis process?
    1. The organization structure
    2. Problematic operational areas
    3. The people within the operational areas
    4. Both B & C
    5. All of the above

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        6-7

 

  1. Input into the developmental phase of the training model comes from
    1. Needs analysis.
    2. Both B & C.
    3. None of the above.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        7

 

  1. In the evaluation of training, a determination of whether the trainer actually covered all aspects of the training as designed is called
    1. Outcome evaluation.
    2. Phase evaluation.
    3. Process evaluation.
    4. Procedural evaluation.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        8

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of outcome evaluation?
    1. It uses training objectives as its criteria for success.
    2. This is all the information you need to improve a training program.
    3. It is conducted at the end of training.
    4. All of the above are true.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        8

 

  1. All aspects of the training program come together in the
    1. Design phase.
    2. Implementation phase.
    3. Development phase.
    4. Analysis phase.
    5. Evaluation phase.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        8

 

  1. When evaluating training, the major type of evaluation to consider is
    1. Process evaluation.
    2. Analysis evaluation.
    3. Outcome evaluation.
    4. Both A & C.
    5. Both B & C.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        8

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. A) Training has yet to show a positive effect on the bottom line.
  3. B) Training managers are alone in realizing that alignment of training with the business strategy is important.
  4. C) Worker knowledge provides a competitive advantage.
  5. D) Alignment of training with the business strategy is quite simple to do.

Answer            C

Difficulty        Moderate

Page Ref         9

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. Twitter and Facebook have shown to be ineffective as enhancements to training.
    2. Social networking can be used to support on-the-job training.
    3. The number of females in the workforce has reached 38 percent.
    4. Hispanics are by far the largest minority group in both Canada and the USA.
    5. Both C & D are true.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        9 – 10

 

  1. Which of the following are predicted to contribute to a labor shortage in the next 10 years?
    1. Baby boomers will retire
    2. Changes in technology
    3. Continuing recession
    4. Both A & B
    5. All of the above

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        10 – 11

 

  1. Which of these steps is part of the continuous improvement model?
    1. Gap analysis
    2. Preaudit
    3. Process mapping
    4. Higher productivity
    5. None of the above

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        12

 

  1. What is the focus of the ISO standards?
    1. A series of standards to assure consistency in product quality
    2. An HR software package to assure legal compliance
    3. A quality standard set by the Japanese
    4. A strategic quality forecasting model
    5. A method designed to improve productivity

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Difficult

Page Ref:        12

 

  1. ISO certified companies
    1. Have lower than normal training costs.
    2. Are much less likely to experience bankruptcy.
    3. Have less bureaucracy within their company structure.
    4. Both B & C.
    5. All of the above.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        13

 

  1. When comparing ISO certified companies with companies that were not certified, the text noted that ISO certified companies
    1. Have employees who are more satisfied with their jobs.
    2. Have more bureaucracy set up to meet all the ISO standards.
    3. Are less likely to file for bankruptcy.
    4. Have lower training costs.
    5. Have slightly lower productivity.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        13

 

  1. Which of the following career paths best prepares a trainer for a supervisory or coordinator position?
    1. Several years’ experience in a specific function
    2. Working in a line position
    3. Rotation through various specialist positions
    4. None of the above
    5. All of the above

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        16

 

  1. Learning is defined as
    1. A temporary change in cognition that results from experience and may influence behavior.
    2. A relatively permanent change in understanding and thinking that results from experience and directly influences behavior.
    3. A relatively permanent change in understanding and thinking that models behavior.
    4. A temporary change in understanding and thinking.
    5. A relatively permanent change in cognition that results from self‑efficacy and indirectly influences behavior.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        17

 

  1. The authors’ use of attitudes rather than abilities as one of the three types of learning outcomes is based on
  2. A) their bias toward attitudes.
  3. B) the fact that abilities and attitudes are fairly similar.
  4. C) the fact that abilities are redundant with knowledge and skills.
  5. D) The fact that abilities are not learned.

 

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        17

 

  1. A person’s store of factual information about a subject matter is
    1. Procedural knowledge.
    2. Strategic knowledge.
    3. Declarative knowledge.
    4. Practical knowledge.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        17

 

  1. Knowledge is composed of which three interrelated types?
    1. Declarative, practical, and strategic
    2. Declarative, practical, and skill
    3. Compilation, automatic, and strategic
    4. Declarative, procedural, and strategic
    5. None of the above

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        17-18

 

  1. The authors use the acronym KSA to refer to what?
    1. Keep it Simple, and have the right Attitude
    2. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    3. Knowledge, strategy, and aptitude
    4. Knowledge skills and abilities

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        18

 

  1. A person’s understanding about how and when to apply the facts that have been learned is called
    1. Process knowledge.
    2. Declarative knowledge.
    3. Practical knowledge.
    4. Perpetual knowledge.
    5. Procedural knowledge.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        18

 

  1. When a person is able to perform a skill without thinking about what they are doing, they are at which level of skill acquisition?
    1. Automaticity
    2. Automatic
    3. Compilation
    4. Responsive

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        18

 

  1. A broad grouping of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks is known as a
    1. Job analysis.
    2. Skill set.

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        19

 

  1. Linking competencies to a set of behaviors that allow you to “know it when you see it” is useful for
    1. Determining rates of pay.
    2. Both A & B.
    3. All of the above.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        20

 

  1. _________ is (are) the foundations for competencies.
    1. Tests
    2. KSAs
    3. Strengths
    4. Motivation
    5. Skill sets

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        20

 

  1. According to the text, _____ provides the opportunity for learning and _____ is a result of the learning.
    1. Education; training
    2. Development; training
    3. Training; development
    4. Education; development
    5. None of the above

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        20

TRUE/FALSE questions

 

  1. ___A key part of the Domtar strategy was training. (T; p. 2)
  2. ___An open system has three parts input, process, and output. (T; p. 4)
  3. ___The triggering event signals a need for a TNA. (T; p. 6)
  4. ___Higher birth rates are one of the reasons for the changing demographics in North America. (F; p. 10)
  5. ___In general, the smaller the organization, the fewer responsibilities each HRD employee will have. (F; p. 16).
  6. ___Compilation is the highest level of skill acquisition. (F; p. 18)
  7. ___The highest level of knowledge is termed strategic knowledge. (T; p. 18)

 

 

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Define KSAs and explain the different levels of each. Use a diagram if you like.

 

The K is for knowledge, and there are three levels – declarative, procedural, and strategic. Each in the order mentioned is more complex than the previous. Declarative knowledge refers to knowing facts. Procedural knowledge involves knowing how and when to apply those facts and strategic knowledge is the ability to plan, monitor, and revise goal-directed behavior.

 

S is for skills, which has two levels – compilation and automaticity. Compilation is the basic level of learning of a skill, where you still need to think about what you are doing. Automaticity refers to a skill level where you no longer need to think about what you are doing, as it is automatic.

 

A is for attitude. These are beliefs and opinions a person has that either support or inhibit behaviors.  Figure 1-5 can be used to describe these.

 

  1. Explain, with the use of a diagram, the key concepts of the “open systems model.”

 

A complete answer should include the following points (Figure 1.1):

  • Open systems have a dynamic relationship with their environment
  • The system is open to influences from its environment
  • The system depends on the input from the environment
  • The system takes input from the environment and transforms the inputs through processes into outputs
  • The system’s outputs enter the systems environment and may or may not influence future inputs

 

 

ESSAY QUESTION

 

  1. Describe how the model of training processes serves as a problem‑solving tool. Include a brief explanation of each of the five phases.

 

A complete answer should include the following points (Figure 1.3):

  • Training is viewed as one of several possible solutions to organizational and individual performance problems.
  • Whether training is the right solution depends on what causes the problem and the cost-benefit ratios of the other alternatives.
  • The needs analysis phase identifies the problem(s) and identifies the cause(s).
  • Training becomes the solution when the problem is caused by inadequate KSAs.
  • Once training is identified as a solution, the design, development, and implementation phases result in a training program that is attended by the appropriate employees.
  • The evaluation phase assesses both the training processes and the training outcomes.

 

The Five Phases
  • Analysis Phase: The training process begins with a determination of needs. Once a performance gap is identified, the cause must be determined.  If the gap is caused by inadequate KSAs, then training can be utilized to satisfy the need.  If the gap is caused by something other than inadequate KSAs, then appropriate non-training interventions need to take place. Training needs analysis (TNA) uses information from three sources: the organization, the operational areas, and the individuals.  The output of the Analysis Phase consists of identification of the training and non‑training needs and their priorities.

 

  • Design Phase: Training needs become the inputs to the design phase and additional inputs are derived from the organizational and operational analyses. Another set of inputs is derived from theory and research on learning.  At this point training objectives are developed by examining training needs in relation to identified organizational support and constraints.  The factors that are needed in the training program to facilitate the learning and its transfer back to the job are also identified in the design phase.  The factors needed to facilitate learning and transfer, and the alternative methods of instruction become inputs to the development phase of the training system.

 

  • Development Phase: In the development phase, instructional strategy is formulated to meet a set of training objectives. The instructional strategy consists of the order, timing, and combination of elements that will be used in the training program.  Inputs into this phase are provided by analysis of the various instructional methods and the design factors necessary to facilitate trainee learning and its transfer back to the job.  The specific content, instructional methods, materials, equipment and media, manuals, and facilities, are integrated into a training plan.  The training plan is designed to achieve the training objectives.

 

  • Implementation Phase: The outputs of the development phase serve as inputs to the implementation phase. The implementation phase’s output is the trainees’ response to training, the trainees’ learning, their behavior back on the job, and its effect on key organizational outcomes.  These outcomes, combined with the process evaluations, flow back to the proper constituencies within the training area and the rest of the organization.

 

  • Evaluation Phase: The model indicates that both process evaluation and outcome evaluation are useful in training. Outcome evaluation is a determination of the effects that training had on the trainee, the job, and the organization. Process evaluation is a determination of how well a particular process achieved its objectives.  Training process evaluation data can be used to identify where problems exist and corrective action can be taken.

 

CHAPTER THREE: LEARNING, MOTIVATION, AND PERFORMANCE

MULTIPLE-CHOICE questions

 

  1. Theories are
    1. Useful for model building but impractical for practitioners.
    2. Generally developed by all of us to help us understand how things work in our world.
    3. Concrete steps in the “how-to” world.
    4. Useful when they describe a set of facts and develop a logical rationale for what is likely to be true, given those facts.
    5. Both B & D.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        58

 

  1. Which of the following is true about good theories?
    1. They are seldom useful to practitioners.
    2. They develop logical rationale for what is likely to be true.
    3. They do not have to be empirically tested because they are true.
    4. They have the ability to explain known facts, but are usually complex and require in-depth study.
    5. A & D

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        58 -59

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding theories?
    1. They provide guidelines and principles.
    2. They are abstractions that are best left for researchers and not applicable to practitioners.
    3. They provide principles and predictions.
    4. Successful people in business pay attention to them.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        58-59

 

  1. The formula for performance (M X KSA X E) suggests
    1. Only two of the three factors need to be favorable to obtain high performance.
    2. If motivation is high and KSAs are adequate, at least moderate performance will be achieved.
    3. If the environment is highly conducive to high performance, then motivation is not very important.
    4. None of the above is correct.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        Figure 3-1, p. 60

 

  1. What are the factors that interact to determine performance?
    1. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    2. Environment, skills, and strategy
    3. Attitudes, strategy, and motivation
    4. Motivation, environment, and skills
    5. Motivation, KSAs, and environment

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        60

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of motivation theories?
    1. Needs are very similar for non-management employees.
    2. Understanding needs helps you understand behavior.
    3. Reinforcement theory is a commonly applied needs theory.
    4. ERG is an acronym with the E representing the environment.
    5. Maslow and Alderfer are two researchers commonly linked to process theories.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        61-63

 

  1. Which of the following is a needs theory?
    1. Classical Conditioning
    2. ERG
    3. Reinforcement theory
    4. Expectancy theory
    5. A & C

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        61

 

  1. Which of these statements is true?
    1. Maslow is known for his early work on Classical Conditioning
    2. Alderfer developed a needs theory based on Pavlov’s early work.
    3. Existence needs are the highest order needs.
    4. Relatedness reflects people’s need to be valued by others.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        61

 

  1. In motivating trainees to learn, which of the following needs – existence, relatedness, or growth – should be the focus?
    1. Existence
    2. Relatedness
    3. Growth
    4. Both B & C
    5. All of the above

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        62

 

  1. Understanding needs theory is important in the training process because
    1. Needs theory can help determine what kind of training design will be more effective.
    2. Needs theory can provide insight into the attitudes of trainees.
    3. Needs theory can help identify trainees’ self efficacy.
    4. All of the above.

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        62

 

  1. Classical conditioning
  2. A) Is an automatic response requiring no learning.
  3. B) Was discovered by Skinner.
  4. C) Is a learned response to a stimulus.
  5. D) Once learned cannot be unlearned.
  6. E) C & D.

Answer            C

Difficulty        Moderate

Page Ref         63-64

 

  1. Who laid the foundation for reinforcement theory?
    1. Maslow
    2. Skinner
    3. Bandura
    4. Freud
    5. Thorndike

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        64

 

  1. Stimulus leads to response which leads to consequence, best illustrates which theory?
    1. Punishment
    2. Consequence
    3. Reinforcement
    4. Needs
    5. Classical Conditioning

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        Figure 3-2, p. 64

 

  1. Which of the following depicts negative reinforcement?
    1. After you do something, you are yelled at.
    2. After you do something, you receive a reward.
    3. After you do something, you receive no reward.
    4. None of the above depicts negative reinforcement.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        65

 

  1. Negative reinforcement
    1. Reduces the likelihood of a behavior.
    2. Increases the likelihood of a behavior.
    3. Requires removal of something unpleasant.
    4. Both A & C.
    5. Both B & C.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        65

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
    1. It does not usually reduce the future likelihood of a behavior.
    2. It is a very effective form of motivation.
    3. It has the same results as negative reinforcement.
    4. It is an undesirable training tool.
    5. Randomly administering punishment keeps trainees on their toes.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        65

 

  1. Which of the following is a “process” theory of motivation?
    1. ERG theory
    2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    3. Reinforcement theory
    4. Both A & B

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        65-66

 

  1. Who is responsible for development of expectancy theory?
    1. Maslow
    2. Skinner
    3. Vroom
    4. Freud
    5. Bandura

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        67

 

  1. Which of the following statements about expectancy theory is true?
    1. Expectancy 2 is related to self-efficacy.
    2. Valence is the measure used for expectancy 1.
    3. Expectancy 1 is 1.0 when related to a decision making (go vs. no go) process.
    4. The valence of outcomes is the same for everyone.
    5. Expectancy 1 is directly related to valence of outcomes.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        67-68

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding expectancy theory?
    1. Expectancy 2 is the likelihood you will receive certain outcomes if you reach acceptable performance.
    2. The values given for outcomes are represented by a value called expectancy 2.
    3. Expectancy 1 is represented on a scale from 1 to 10 with 1 being the minimum.
    4. Expectancy 2 is fixed in a person’s mind and is extremely difficult to change.

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        67-68

 

  1. The _____ the self-efficacy, the _____ the performance.
    1. Higher; worse
    2. Higher; better
    3. Lower; worse
    4. Lower; better
    5. All of the above are possible

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        69

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding self-efficacy is true?
    1. Physical and emotional state is never a factor when estimating an employee’s self‑efficacy.
    2. Those with high self‑efficacy are also likely to be self‑actualized.
    3. Higher self‑efficacy has little impact on actual performance.
    4. Feelings about one’s competency are reflected in the concept of self‑efficacy.
    5. Behavioral models are not able to influence an employee’s self-efficacy.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        69-70

 

  1. Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between training and self‑efficacy?
    1. The two concepts are not related.
    2. Training can act to improve low self‑efficacy only when employees have the required KSAs.
    3. It is useful to assess trainee self‑efficacy prior to training only.
    4. Self‑efficacy beliefs are a good predictor of learning in the training environment.

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        70

 

  1. Which of the following statements about learning is true?
    1. It is not closely tied to memory.
    2. It is always observable.
    3. It must be retained to be useful.
    4. It is always measurable by testing.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        70

 

  1. Which of the following is true about studying motivation from a behaviorist approach?
    1. It is most reflected in how the behaviorist approach describes the brain’s function in learning.
    2. It suggests that learning is not controlled by the environment.
    3. It suggests that trainers control learning by controlling the stimuli and consequences that the learner experiences.
    4. Bandura is the best-known contemporary behaviorist.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        70-72

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the cognitive approach to training?
    1. Subject‑oriented
    2. Formal, authority‑oriented, judgmental, and competitive
    3. Interactive, group, project‑oriented, and experiential
    4. Relaxed, mutually trustful, respectful, and collaborative
    5. Both C & D

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Challenging

Page Ref:        Table 3-2, p. 71

 

  1. A basic premise in Social Learning Theory is
    1. A person can only learn by behaving in some way.
    2. A person can learn merely through observation.
    3. Events can be learned without being processed.
    4. Consequences of behavior do not influence learning.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        73

 

  1. In social learning, theory retention has three phases which are
    1. Attention, symbolic coding, behavioral reproduction.
    2. Recognize, recall, retain.
    3. Attention, motivation, symbolic coding.
    4. Symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal.
    5. None of the above

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        Figure 3-5, p. 73

 

  1. Symbolic coding is
    1. The second stage of attracting attention.
    2. Where you rehearse in your mind how to “do it.”
    3. Part of the retention process.
    4. A design method for assuring learning.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        74

 

  1. Asking trainees to provide examples of how the knowledge being trained relates to what they already know facilitates
    1. Verbal association learning.
    2. Cognitive organization.
    3. Operant conditioning.

Answer:           C

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        74

 

  1. The Gagné-Briggs theory of instructional design
    1. Has three events: attention, retention, and behavioral reproduction.
    2. Has “gaining attention” as its first event.
    3. Is only useful for designing effective lectures.
    4. Both A & B.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        Table 3-3, p. 76

 

  1. Gagné-Briggs’ micro theory of instructional design
    1. Is useful for understanding learning but not for development of training.
    2. Is a guide for designing training events in each module of the training program.
    3. Is similar to the ERG theory of motivation.
    4. Focuses on the content of the training, not the training process.

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        76

 

  1. The power that a group has over its members was first noted in which studies of the 1920’s and the 1930’s?
    1. Watson studies
    2. Hawthorne studies
    3. Pajama factory studies
    4. Group norm studies

Answer:           B

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        78

 

  1. The power of the group comes from the group _______ members that follow group norms, or _______ those that do not.
    1. Punishing; rewarding
    2. Rewarding; training
    3. Requesting; training
    4. Rewarding; punishing

Answer:           D

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        78

 

  1. Resistance to learning occurs when
    1. The trainee is not motivated.
    2. The trainee does not have the necessary prerequisite KSAs.
    3. The environment is not conducive to learning.
    4. There is little or no supervisor support.
    5. All of the above.

Answer:           E

Difficulty:       Moderate

Page Ref:        78-79

 

  1. Which studies compared the effects of participation vs. no participation in organizational change endeavors in the 1940’s?
    1. The Pajama factory experiments
    2. The Hawthorne experiments
    3. The Bandura experiments
    4. The OD experiments

Answer:           A

Difficulty:       Easy

Page Ref:        78

TRUE/FALSE questions

 

  1. ___The best way to improve employee performance is to “copy” a successful organization’s motivational tactics. (F; p. 59)
  2. ___Performance is a function of motivation times KSAs. (F; p. 60; Fig 3-1)
  3. ____Needs theories attempt to describe and explain how a person’s needs are translated into actions to satisfy their needs. (F; p. 61)
  4. ___Relatedness is the middle need in Alderfer’s needs theory. (T; p. 61)
  5. ___Negative reinforcement reduces the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated. (F; p. 65)
  6. ____Punishment is an undesirable management and training tool. (T; pp. 65-66)
  7. ____Expectancy theory is the most popular need theory today. (F; p. 67)
  8. ___Self-efficacy is an important concept in understanding motivation. (T; p. 69)
  9. ____One of the differences between the behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning is that the cognitive approach is more subject oriented and developed by the instructor. (F; p. 71; Table 3-2)

 

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain ERG theory.

 

ERG is an expanded version of the Maslow hierarchy of needs.             ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Existence           corresponds to Maslow’s lower order needs of physiological and             security needs, relatedness corresponds to the social needs,          and growth corresponds to the esteem and self-actualization            needs. Existence is the need for immediate needs related to          staying alive, food, shelter, etc. Relatedness is the need for         interaction and to be valued and accepted by others. Finally,             growth needs are related to the need to feel self worth and          believing you are competent and achieving all you are capable of.

            There is some disagreement as to the exact relationship between             these needs but all agree individuals do have these needs.

 

  1. Explain Social Learning Theory.

 

Social Learning Theory is based on the work of Bandura and his associates, and its basic premise is that events and consequences in the learning situation are cognitively processed before they are learned or influence behavior. Thus, a person can learn by observing the behavior of others and the consequences that result, without necessarily having to experience that behavior themselves. This is in contrast to the behaviorist theory that argues that learning can only occur as a result of the person’s own behavior and experiences.

 

 

ESSAY QUESTION

 

  1. Two definitions of learning were presented in the text; one was behavioral and one was cognitive. Explain each and indicate the major difference between these definitions and what the training implications of each are.

 

The behavioral definition of learning is that learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior. Learning is, therefore, inferred from behavior. The cognitive approach agrees that learning can be inferred from behavior but the learning is separate from it. In other words, learning can, and does, take place prior to the behavior. In fact, they argue that someone can have learned something and be aware of the new concept for months before exhibiting it behaviorally. Learning for the cognitive theorists is the addition to and reorganization of new knowledge and skills into mental models.  So for the cognitive theorists, learning can occur without others knowing it has occurred.

 

Implications for each of the approaches on training are significant in the way training is conducted on a number of levels. First the learner’s role is active and self directed for the cognitive theorists and passive for the behaviorist approach. The instructor’s role is as a facilitator in the cognitive approach and more directive in the behaviorist approach. Training content is problem oriented for the cognitive approach and subject oriented for the behaviorist. Cognitive approach suggests trainee motivation comes from within the trainee, where the behaviorist approach suggests it is external. Training climate is relaxed in the cognitive approach, whereas it is much more formal in the behaviorist approach. The training goals for cognitive theorists are collaborative vs. instructor generated in the behaviorist approach.  Finally, the activities are more interactive in the cognitive approach, rather than directive. As can be seen, the two approaches lead to very different ways of designing training.

 

Note to instructor: The use of Table 3.2 is applicable in this answer.