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THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND – 

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Chapter_01_Thinking_and_Doing_Anthropology_

 

1. Anthropologists can be considered synthesizers.​

a.
b.

 

  
  

 

2. By utilizing a holistic perspective, anthropologists do not experience ethnocentrism in regard to other cultures.​

a.
b.

 

  
  

 

3. A North American researcher disapproving of Japanese resistance to organ transplantation is an example of culture-bound theory.​

a.
b.

 

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4. Anthropologist Elizabeth Guillette’s study of the effects of pesticide exposure on children’s performance of normal childhood activities in a Yaqui village in northern Mexico is an example of applied medical anthropology.​

a.
b.

 

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5. Participant observation means that the anthropologist should be involved in everything that a cultural group does in order to understand their culture.​

a.
b.

 

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6. Only apes have a language as complex as human language.​

a.
b.

 

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7. Linguistic anthropologists are interested in both spoken and written language.

a.
b.

 

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8. Historical linguistics is a primary branch of anthropological linguistics.

a.
b.

 

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9. Societies termed “prehistoric” are those that placed less emphasis on recording and transmitting information.​

a.
b.

 

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10. When available, historical documents are always preferred to the study of material remains.​

a.
b.

 

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11. The anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships is known as genetic anthropology.​

a.
b.

 

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12. Primatology is the study of living and fossil primates.

a.
b.

 

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13. All primate species are endangered today.

a.
b.

 

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14. Our bones can tell stories about how we lived, including whether we were right-handed or left-handed.​

a.
b.

 

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15. Studies of growth and development can provide data on the evolutionary history of humans.​

a.
b.

 

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16. All living humans are members of the same species.

a.
b.

 

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17. Archaeologists excavate artifacts to study them in isolation.

a.
b.

 

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18. The point of reference within a datum is called a grid.

a.
b.

 

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19. Chronometric dating is another name for absolute dating.

a.
b.

 

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20. Any object made by humans is classified as an artifact.

a.
b.

 

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21. Archaeologists use only absolute dating techniques to date fossils.

a.
b.

 

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22. Archaeologists frequently use eliciting devices to probe underground sites.

a.
b.

 

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23. Ethnographers consider themselves to be key consultants because they work directly with living peoples.​

a.
b.

 

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24. The American Anthropological Association has recently petitioned to guard the confidentiality of ethnographic notes taken in medical settings and not make them subject to subpoena.​

a.
b.

 

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25. Maintaining one’s own culture is an internationally recognized basic human right.

a.
b.

 

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26. Anthropology is well equipped to grapple with globalization.

a.
b.

 

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Multiple Choice

 

27. ​Which of the following characteristics uniquely defines the anthropological approach?

a. ​a concern with the study of humans
b. ​a focus on human relationships and society
c. ​a focus on humans as biological organisms
d. ​a holistic perspective

 

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28. ​The holistic anthropological perspective is expansive and inclusive because it seeks to understand:

a. ​human nature
b. ​global forces
c. ​biological and cultural homologies
d. ​evolutionary change

 

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29. Which of the following is not a primary perspective of anthropology?​

a. ​a holistic perspective
b. ​an ethnocentric perspective
c. ​a cross-cultural perspective
d. ​an evolutionary perspective

 

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30. One aspect that makes anthropology unique among social sciences is its traditional focus on:​

a. ​peoples of Caucasian and African descent
b. ​European peoples
c. ​non-Western peoples and cultures
d. ​peasants and farmers

 

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31. Which perspectives best guard against culture-bound theories?​

a. ​multiple cross-cultural perspectives
b. ​a cross-cultural and evolutionary perspective
c. ​an evolutionary and philosophical perspective
d. ​all perspectives guard against culture-bound theories

 

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32. Anthropological studies help us trace human connectedness; for example, in exploitative eastern Congolese mines they extract coltan, which we use every day in our:​

a. ​mobile phones
b. ​diesel cars
c. ​fluorescent lights
d. ​water treatment plants

 

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33. What difference did Margaret Lock find between Japanese and North American perceptions of death?​

a. ​Japanese are more comfortable harvesting organs from those declared brain dead than North Americans.
b. ​North Americans are more comfortable harvesting organs from those declared brain dead than Japanese.
c. ​Japanese do not use human organ transplants in any medical situation.
d. ​North Americans do not medically classify people as brain dead.

 

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34. Individuals within all four subfields of anthropology practice:​

a. ​ethnological anthropology
b. ​applied anthropology
c. ​development anthropology
d. ​molecular anthropology

 

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35. Which of the following is not a common practice within applied anthropology?​

a. ​collaboration between anthropologists and community members
b. ​conducting research together as a team with community members
c. ​solving specific problems
d. ​focus on issues primarily of theoretical value

 

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36. What is the most significant scientific contribution of Elizabeth Guillette’s research on pesticide use among the Yaqui?​

a. ​It presents scientific evidence that common pesticides cause more problems to adults than to children.
b. ​It highlights the importance of using pesticides to increase production levels for agriculturalists everywhere.
c. ​It suggests that highland indigenous communities may suffer increased effects from pesticides because of high altitude.
d. ​It suggests that pesticide use among agricultural communities may cause health problems worldwide.

 

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37. Another name for cultural anthropology is:​

a. ​sociology
b. ​ethnology
c. ​sociocultural anthropology
d. ​ethnography

 

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38. Culture is considered anthropology’s most distinguishing feature for all of the following reasons except:​

a. ​The focus on culture intersects with biology, material remains, social behavior, and language.
b. ​Anthropologists use the concept of culture to establish an understanding of those groups in a society that practice culture and those that do not.
c. ​Anthropologists focus on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
d. ​Understanding culture is integral to each of anthropology’s subfields.

 

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39. The detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork is called:​

a. ​ethnology
b. ​ethnography
c. ​forensic anthropology
d. ​molecular anthropology

 

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40. On-location research is also known as:​

a. ​cultural resource management
b. ​ethnology
c. ​fieldwork
d. ​site research

 

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41. Participant observation:​

a. ​is a research method that involves the anthropologist both observing and participating in another culture
b. ​is an analytical method that uses both cross-cultural data and also informant participation in staged cultural activities
c. ​is used in all subfields and is a primary component of applied anthropology
d. ​is found only in cultural anthropology and is only used when studying in non-Western societies

 

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42. Which of the following best describes ethnology?​

a. ​cross-cultural comparative research
b. ​detailed description of a particular culture
c. ​study of customary patterns in human behavior
d. ​participant observation research

 

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43. All of the following are approaches that linguistic anthropologists may take except:​

a. ​studying the way languages change over time
b. ​describing the way that a language is formed
c. ​analyzing which languages are superior
d. ​studying the relation between language and culture

 

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44. Which of the following cases best illustrates the practice of ethnology?​

a. ​analyzing the patterns of behavior in an indigenous religious ritual
b. ​comparing weddings in France with those in the United States
c. ​studying ways that young children learn to play piano in a Chinese family
d. ​doing participant observation in a rural setting in Taiwan

 

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45. Anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes founded the group Organs Watch as a way to solve the global problem of human organ trafficking. This is an example of:​

a. ​applied cultural anthropology
b. ​applied biological anthropology
c. ​forensics
d. ​ethnology

 

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46. Linguists estimate today that there are approximately how many human languages?​

a. ​56
b. ​800
c. ​12,000
d. ​6,000

 

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47. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding language today?​

a. ​Nearly half of the world’s remaining languages will become extinct over the next hundred years.
b. ​Nearly all of the world’s remaining languages will become extinct over the next 50 years.
c. ​Language is currently in a stage of revitalization and growth, and linguists project that more than 200  languages will emerge in the next 100 years.
d. ​Languages constantly grow, develop, and die and there has never been a net loss of human language.

 

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48. Archaeology is the study of:​

a. ​human material remains and environmental data
b. ​human fossils
c. ​human skeletal remains
d. ​ancient written documents

 

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49. Shallow, restricted concentrations of charcoal commonly indicate:​

a. ​hunting sites
b. ​food processing sites
c. ​farming sites
d. ​religious sites

 

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50. The term prehistory refers to a period in which:​

a. ​people had no means of recording their thoughts
b. ​there was no written record
c. ​people had no history
d. ​humans had not yet diverged from the primate line