### Sample Chapter

**INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS**

##### Test Bank For Essentials of Marketing Research (Irwin Marketing) 3rd Edition by Jr., Joseph Hair, Mary Celsi, Robert

**SAMPLE QUESTIONS**

**Chapter 03**

**Secondary Data, Literature Reviews, and Hypotheses**

**Multiple Choice Questions**

- _____ data are collected by organizations other than the company conducting the research.
- Internal primary
- Internal secondary
- External secondary
- External primary
- Field research

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 50

- A(n) _____ review is a comprehensive examination of available information that is related to the research topic.
- literature
- extended
- internal
- external
- summary

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 50

- Evaluating the purpose of secondary data involves _____.
- ensuring accuracy of the secondary data
- ensuring consistency of the original data with the current market study
- seeking multiple sources of the same original data to assure consistency
- finding flaws in the methodological procedures used in collecting the data
- determining the underlying motivation or hidden agenda for collecting the original data

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 52

- While evaluating secondary data, the accuracy criterion suggests that researchers must _____.
- seek out multiple sources to check consistency of data

B.evaluate the overall procedure for collecting the data

C. evaluate when the secondary data was collected

D. carefully evaluate the data on how it relates to the current research objective

E. determine the hidden agenda of the company that collected the secondary data

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 52

- Which of the following statements is true about internal secondary data?
- It is expensive to access the sources of internal secondary data.
- Internal secondary data are not usable for future business decisions.
- It can be easily obtained from scholarly and government sources.
- Internal data sources are used after getting useful information from external sources.
- Internal data are the cheapest and most readily available sources of secondary data.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 54

- _____ are sources of internal secondary data.
- U.S. census data
- Scholarly data
- Marketing blogs
- Sales invoices
- Newspaper websites

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 55

- _____ are sources of external secondary data.
- Customer letters
- U.S. census reports
- Accounts receivable reports
- Warranty cards
- Sales invoices

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 58

- Major reasons for using government documents as secondary data sources is that they _____.
- are easily available in all marketing blogs
- include the number of previous citations
- are detailed, complete, and consistent
- provide information about past sales of the company
- can easily be tracked using web-based bookmarking tools

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 58

- The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes are designed to _____.

A.index major market research reports for a variety of private institutions

B.index online publications available up to the current month and year

C. provide the statistical foundation for the information available on the U.S. population

D. provide a detailed profile of economic activity within a given geographic area

E. promote uniformity in data reporting by government sources and private businesses

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 59

- _____ data is market research data that is collected, packaged, and sold to many different firms.
- Syndicated
- Noncommercial
- Open source
- Government
- Standardized

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 60

- Store audits are used to provide _____.
- federal data
- commercial data
- open source data
- government data
- scholarly data

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 60

- Which of the following statements is true about consumer panels?

A.They provide accurate and specific reporting of socially sensitive expenditures. - They cost higher than primary data collection methods.

C.They provide information obtained immediately at the point of purchase.

D. They provide information about only the intentions or propensities to purchase.

E. They help to generate information on effectiveness of shelf space and POP displays.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 60

- A _____ is an observable item that is used as a measure on a questionnaire.
- variable
- construct
- relationship
- hypothesis
- parameter

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 63

- A _____ is an unobservable concept that is measured by a group of related variables.
- relationship
- construct
- variable parameter
- dependent
- hypothesis

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 63

- _____ are associations between two or more variables.
- Hypotheses
- Constructs
- Relationships
- Dependent variables
- Null hypotheses

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 63

- A(n) _____ is the variable or construct that predicts or explains the outcome variable of interest.
- independent variable
- dependent variable
- positive relationship
- negative relationship
- null hypothesis

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 64

- Which of the following situations treats “deal proneness” as a dependent variable in a relationship?

A.Deal proneness is predicted by a person’s household income.

B. Deal proneness results in greater price sensitivity.

C. Deal proneness predicts the time spent by a person shopping.

D. Deal proneness does not depend on a person’s age.

E. Deal proneness leads to greater brand loyalty.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 64

- Conceptualization of a model means developing a:

A.research concept before developing a literature review.

B. conceptual model of the geographic area from which the sample would be drawn.

C. text-based model to do statistical testing of hypothesized relationships.

D. conceptual model of a new product before it is tested in a lab setting.

E. model that shows variables and hypothesized relationships between variables.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 66

- An exploratory research is recommended when _____.

A. a full-scale study is likely to cost more than an exploratory study

B.the researcher has greater expertise in conducting exploratory studies

C. the literature review fails to yield a reasonable conceptual model

D. the dependent variables are constructs

E. the independent variables are constructs

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 66

- 20.A _____ is an empirically testable though yet unproven statement developed in order to explain phenomena.
- construct
- negative relationship
- sample statistic
- positive relationship
- hypothesis

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 67

- A(n) _____ hypothesis is a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true.
- maintained

B.research

C. null

D. final

E. alternative

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 67

- Which of the following hypotheses is always tested by statisticians and market researchers?

A.Test hypothesis

B. Alternative hypothesis

C. Null hypothesis

D. Statistical hypothesis

E. Rejection hypothesis

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 67-68

- A(n) _____ hypothesis states that there is a relationship between two variables.
- null
- final
- alternative
- default
- limited

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 68

- A parameter is defined as the _____.

A.true value of the null hypothesis

B. true value of a variable

C. estimate of a variable, as determined through a sample

D. estimate of the population parameter

E. estimated value of a construct

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 68

- _____ is the value of a variable that is estimated from a sample.
- Sample statistic
- Parameter statistic
- Alternative statistic
- Sample parameter
- Alternative parameter

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 68

**True/False Questions**

- Internal secondary data is collected by organizations other than the company itself.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 50

- A literature review can suggest research hypotheses to investigate.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 51

- Literature reviews can be helpful in identifying appropriate sampling approaches that have been successful in the past.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 51

- 29. A primary research must always be conducted along with secondary data to address a research problem.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 53

- The logical starting point in searching for secondary data is to look for data in government documents and websites.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 54

- Scholarly sources are used to obtain external secondary data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 54

- The ideas expressed in popular sources often involve secondhand reporting of information.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 56

- Marketing blogs are a source of secondary data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 56

- Bookmarking tools on scholarly sources show how many times a study is referenced by another document on the web and lists that number in the search results.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 57

- Both popular and scholarly sources can be tracked using web-based bookmarking tools.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 57

- Before using census data, researchers need to consider the timeliness of the data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 58-59

- Syndicated data is the data available for free on various blogs and websites.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 60

- Consumer panels, store audits, and optical-scanner technology are methods to collect syndicated data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 60

- Collecting data using consumer panels costs higher than using primary data collection methods.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 60

- There are two types of panel-based data sources: those reflecting actual purchases of products and services and those reflecting media habits.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 60

- Media panels and consumer panels are similar in procedure, composition, and design.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 61

- Many of the biases of consumer panels are also found in store audits.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 62

- A construct is an unobservable and abstract concept.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 63

- While modeling causal relationships, variables or constructs in relationships can only be dependent variables.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 63-64

- A dependent variable predicts or explains the outcome variable of interest.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 64

- If it is hypothesized that customer satisfaction depends on service quality, then service quality is the dependent variable in this relationship.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 64

- A positive relationship is an association between two variables in which they increase or decrease together.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 65

- The end result of conceptualization is a visual display of hypothesized relationships.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 66

- A sample statistic is an estimate of the population parameter.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 68

- The failure to reject the null hypothesis means that the null hypothesis is definitely true.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 68

**Essay Questions**

- Explain the objectives of doing a literature review.

Answer: A literature review is a comprehensive examination of available secondary information related to your research topic. It provides background and contextual information for the current study; clarifies thinking about the research problem and questions; reveals if information already exists to answer the research questions; defines important constructs of interest to the study; and identifies appropriate statistical and methodological approaches. A literature review can also suggest research hypotheses to investigate. Importantly, literature reviews can identify scales to measure variables and research methodologies that have been used successfully to study similar topics.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 51

- Explain the importance of internal secondary data.

Answer: A company’s own internal information is the logical starting point in searching for secondary data. Many organizations fail to realize the wealth of information their own records contain. Additionally, internal data are the most readily available and can be accessed at little or no cost at all. Internal data sources can be highly effective in helping decision makers plan new-product introductions or new distribution outlets. A lot of internal company information is available for marketing research activities. If maintained and categorized properly, internal data can be used to analyze product performance, customer satisfaction, distribution effectiveness, and segmentation strategies. These forms of internal data are also useful for planning product deletions, promotional strategies, competitive intelligence, and customer service tactics.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 54

- In what ways can the information generated by media panels be useful to marketers?

Answer: Media panels measure media consumption habits of a given population. This information is invaluable to marketing managers. They can use this information to evaluate various media options and determine which ones will allow them to target their audience most precisely. They can also find out approximately how many households watched their commercials. This information can then be used to determine the average cost of reaching audience members.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 61-62

- How is a construct different from a variable? Give two examples of each.

Answer: A variable is an observable item that is used as a measure on a questionnaire.

Variables have concrete properties and are measured directly. Examples of variables include gender, marital status, company name, number of employees, how frequently a particular brand is purchased, and so on. In contrast, a construct is an unobservable, abstract concept that is measured indirectly by a group of related variables. Some examples of commonly measured constructs in marketing include service quality, value, customer satisfaction, and brand attitude. Constructs that represent characteristics of respondents may also be measured, for example, innovativeness, opinion leadership, and deal proneness.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 63

- Briefly explain the process of conceptualization.

Answer: Researchers follow the process of conceptualization to more effectively communicate relationships and variables. Conceptualization involves identifying the variables for the research; specifying hypotheses and relationships; and preparing a diagram (conceptual model) that visually represents the relationships to be studied. The end result of conceptualization is a visual display of the hypothesized relationships using a box and arrows diagram. This diagram is called a conceptual model.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 66

- Explain the differences between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.

Answer: In hypothesis development, the null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the variables. The null hypothesis is the one that is always tested by statisticians and market researchers. Another hypothesis, called the alternative hypothesis, states that there is a relationship between two variables. If the null hypothesis is accepted, we conclude that the variables are not related. If the null hypothesis is rejected, we find support for the alternative hypothesis, that the two variables are related.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 67-68

**Chapter 11**

**Basic Data Analysis for Quantitative Research**

**Multiple Choice Questions**

- The mean is best defined as the:
- value that appears in the distribution most often.
- distance between the smallest and largest values in a set of responses.
- arithmetic average of the sample.
- middle value of a rank-ordered distribution.
- most common value in the set of responses to a question.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 268

- Which of the following is true of the mean?
- It is a qualitative measure.
- It The mean is greatly affected by the addition and deletion of data.
- It is the distance between the smallest and largest values in a set of responses.
- It The mean can be distorted if when extreme values are included in the distribution.
- It is the value that appears in the distribution most often.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 268

- Which of the following is true of the median?
- It cannot be determined for data that are skewed to either the right or left.
- It is the distance between the smallest and largest values in a set of responses.
- It is the value that appears in the distribution most often.
- If the number of data observations is even, the median is generally considered to be the average of the first and last values.
- It is especially useful as a measure of central tendency for ordinal data.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

- Which of the following measures of central tendency is especially useful when measuring ordinal data and data that is skewed to either the right or left?

- Mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. Standard deviation

E. Variance

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

- Which of the following is true of the mode?
- It is especially useful as a measure for data that have been somehow grouped into categories.
- It is the distance between the smallest and largest values in a set of responses.
- It is the arithmetic average of the sample.
- It is the middle value of a rank-ordered distribution.
- It is unaffected by data values being added or deleted.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

- Which of the following measures of central tendency is the best for nominal data?
- Mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. Standard deviation

E. Variance

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 270

- The minimum and maximum values for five data sets are given below. Pick the pair that has the maximum range.

A. 3 and 39

B. 30 and 40

C. 500 and 501

D. 49 and 59

E. 1029 and 1049

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271

- A researcher is told that the average age of respondents in a survey is 49 years. She is interested in finding out if most respondents are close to 49 years. The measure that would most accurately answer this question is:

A. mean.

B. median.

C. mode.

D. range.

E. standard deviation.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

- The difference between a particular response and the distribution mean is called a(n):

A. deviation.

B. mode.

C. variance.

D. range.

E. average.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 272

- Assume that the mean of a distribution is 10 and standard deviation is 2. If we subtracted each value in that distribution from the mean and added them up, the result would be close to:

A. 100.

B. 2.

C. 50.

D. 0.

E. 200.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 272

- Variance is:

A. the average squared deviations about the mean of a distribution of values.

B. an empirically testable statement that is an unproven supposition developed in order to explain phenomena.

C. a statement that asserts the status quo; that is, any change from what has been thought to be true is due to random sampling order.

D. a statement that is the opposite of the null hypothesis.

E. the error made by rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 272

- Which of the following statements is true regarding hypothesis?

A. Hypotheses can be derived from current business situation but not from previous research theory. - A hypothesis is a proven supposition.

C. A hypothesis is typically developed after data collection.

D. The alternative hypothesis states that there is a difference between the group means.

E. The null hypothesis is typically not tested.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 277

- Which of the following statements is true regarding statistical techniques?

A. When researchers need to examine multiple variables, a univariate statistical technique is required.

B. For nominal data, the mean is the most appropriate measure of central tendency.

C. Parametric statistics are appropriate when the data is measured using an interval or ratio scale and the sample size is large.

D. Parametric statistics are used in the case of a normal distribution that cannot be assumed.

E. With ordinal data, the mode is the most appropriate measure of central tendency.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278-279

- Which of the following statements is true about cross-tabulation?

A. Cross-tabulation tables show percentage calculations based on row variable totals. - It cannot determine whether differences exist among subgroups of the total sample.

C. Demographic variables are typically used as rows and other research variables are used as columns in cross-tabulation.

D. It reports absolute frequencies but not percentages.

E. The selection of variables for cross-tabulation should be driven by the objectives of the research study.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

- Which of the following statements about the Chi-square test is true?

A. Chi-square analysis compares the observed frequencies of the responses with the expected frequencies. - When the differences between observed and expected frequencies are large, one must accept the null hypothesis.

C. The larger the Chi-square, the less likely it is that the two variables that are measured are related.

D. The expected frequencies in a Chi-square cannot be calculated theoretically.

E. Categorical data from questions about sex, education, or other nominal variables cannot be tested with this statistic.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 284

- Which of the following is an example of an independent sample?
- The average number of energy drinks consumed per day by a group of male students is compared to the average number of energy drinks consumed per day by the general population.
- Male students are compared to female students on the average number of hours they study each weekday.
- The average amount spent on fashion magazines per month by a group of teenagers is compared to the average amount spent on sports magazines per month by the same group of teenagers.

D. The average amount spent on purchasing cosmetics by women in their early 30s to the average amount they spend on purchasing fashion accessories.

E. The time spent by a group of female students in the library is compared to the time spent by them in the cafeteria.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 287

- Which of the following statements is true about the t-test?
- The t-test provides a mathematical way of determining if the difference between the two sample means occurred by chance.
- The larger the value of the standard error of the difference between the two means, the larger the value of t.
- The t-test cannot be used when the population standard deviation is unknown.
- In order to conduct a t-test, the sample size should be larger than 30.
- The t-test cannot be used for interval or ratio data.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 288

- In a one-way ANOVA, the term “one-way” is used because:

A. the differences are always positive as they are all squared before being added.

B. the F-statistic can move in only one direction.

C. only one independent variable is used in the analysis.

D. only one mean is used as the null hypothesis.

E. the null hypothesis always states that there is no difference between the dependent variable groups.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 290

- In the context of the analysis of variance, which of the following is true?
- It can determine the statistical difference between three or more means.
- It requires that the dependent variable be nonmetric.
- It requires that the independent variable not be categorical.
- The null hypothesis for ANOVA always states that there is a difference between the dependent variable groups.
- It requires that the dependent variable be categorical.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 290

- In the context of ANOVA, which of the following conditions implies that the chances of the differences being statistically significant are greater?

A. When the variance within groups is zero

B. When the variance across groups is very low while the variance within groups is very high

C. When the variance across groups is the same as that within groups - When the variance across groups is significantly higher compared to that within groups
- When the variance across groups is a negative integer and the variance within groups is a positive integer

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 291

- If the variance between groups is 3 and the variance within groups is 2, the F-ratio is:

A. 1.

B. 0.67.

C. 5.

D. 1.5.

E. 0.06.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 291

- If the variance between groups is 4 and the F-ratio is 2, then the variance within groups would be:

A. 2.

B. 3.

C. 1.

D. 1.5.

E. 0.5.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 291

- Which of the following statements about the Scheffé test is correct?

A. If the difference between each pair of means falls inside the range of the confidence interval, then the null hypothesis is rejected. - If the difference between each pair of means falls outside the range of the confidence interval, it can be concluded that the pairs of means are statistically similar.
- It is equivalent to simultaneous two-tailed hypothesis tests.

D. The confidence intervals tend to be narrower in this method than in other methods.

E. The test identifies differences between all pairs of means at high confidence interval ranges but not atbetween low confidence interval ranges.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 293

- Which of the following is true about the n-way ANOVA?
- The use of multiple independent factors in n-way ANOVA reduces the possibility of an interaction effect.
- It cannot analyze more than one independent variable at a particular time.
- It is mathematically less complex than one-way ANOVA.
- The bigger the F-ratio, the lesser the difference among the means of the various groups assessed by n-way ANOVA.
- Multiple independent variables in the n-way ANOVA can act together to affect dependent variable group means.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 294

- Perceptual mapping is a process that is typically used to:

A. create a three-dimensional representation of the responses of the participants in a study. - create a three-dimensional representation of the perceptions of the researchers.

C. create a one-dimensional representation of the responses of the participants in a study.

D. develop maps that show the perceptions of respondents in a study. - develop maps that show the null hypothesis related to a study.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 298

**True / False Questions**

- Measures of central tendency locate the center of the distribution.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 268

- If the means of two groups are same, then the underlying distributions of the two groups must also be the same.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

- If the number of data observations is odd, the median is generally considered to be the average of the first and last values.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

- The range is a measure of dispersion that describes the variability in a distribution of numbers.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 271

- In order to use the formula to calculate standard deviation, one must first calculate the mean of the distribution.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 272

- The purpose of inferential statistics is to make a determination about a population on the basis of a sample from that population.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 277

- A frequency distribution displaying the data obtained from the sample is commonly used to summarize the results of the data collection process.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 277

- Univariate statistics use several variables at a time to generalize about a population from a sample.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 278

- The t-test is typically used with interval and nominal data.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

- A cross tabulation checks the frequency distribution of responses on one or more sets of variables.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 281

- Cross-tabulation is useful for examining relationships and reporting the findings for two variables.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 281

- Chi-square analysis compares the observed frequencies of the responses with the expected frequencies.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 284

- In the context of the chi-square test, one solution to small counts in individual cells is to collapse them into fewer cells to get larger counts.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 285

- In independent samples, the questions are independent but the respondents are the same.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 287

- The bivariate t-test does not require interval or ratio data like the univariate t–test.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 288

- When one independent variable is studied across three or more groups, it is referred to as a one-way ANOVA.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 290

- In the context of the F-test, the smaller the difference in the variance between groups, the larger the F ratio.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 291

- The Scheffé follow-up test identifies differences between all pairs of means at high and low confidence interval ranges.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 293

- Perceptual maps are visual representations of respondents’ perceptions of a company, product, service, brand, or any other object in three dimensions.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 298

- A perceptual map typically has a vertical and a horizontal axis that are labeled with descriptive adjectives.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 298

**Essay Questions**

- Discuss how standard deviation is a more comprehensive measure of dispersion than range.

Answer: The calculation of a range is driven by only two numbers—the smallest and the largest numbers in the sample. The range defines the spread of the data. Standard deviation, on the other hand, is influenced by every single data point in the sample. Thus, it provides a more comprehensive picture of the variation in the data set.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271-272

- How are sample statistics different from population parameters?

Answer: The purpose of inferential statistics is to make a determination about a population on the basis of a sample from that population. Population parameters are the values that are based on the entire population. Sample statistics are estimates of those parameters that are derived from examining a sample drawn from that population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 277

- Which test would you use to determine if the frequencies reported in cross-tabulations are statistically different?

Answer: In order to test if the frequencies observed in cross-tabulations are statistically different from expected frequencies, one would use a Chi-square test. The null hypothesis in this test is that the differences are insignificant.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278-280

- When would you use ANOVA instead of a chi-square test?

Answer: Chi-square is appropriate when the dependent variable is categorical in nature, whereas ANOVA is used when the dependent variable is metric in nature. That is, the dependent variable must be either interval or ratio scaled.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 290-291

- What is perceptual mapping?

Answer: Perceptual mapping is a process that is used to develop maps that show the perceptions of respondents. The maps are visual representations of respondents’ perceptions of a company, product, service, brand, or any other object in two dimensions. A perceptual map typically has a vertical and a horizontal axis that are labeled with descriptive adjectives.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 298

## Reviews

There are no reviews yet.