Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD

 

 Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White – Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 1: THE STUDY OF SOCIETY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Sociologists are most inclined to explain behavior in terms of:
a. individual personality characteristics.
b. roles and social structures.
c. the biological differences between people.
d. individual attitudes.

 

 

 

 

  1. Sociology is defined in your text as the systematic study of:
a. mental cognition.
b. the biological difference between individuals.
c. human social interaction.
d. individual human behavior.

 

 

 

 

  1. A _____ is the expected performance of someone who occupies a specific position in a society.
a. role c. social structure
b. status d. sociological imagination

 

 

 

 

  1. The ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what C. Wright Mills refers to as:
a. common human drama. c. the sociological imagination.
b. the family. d. a social script.

 

 

 

 

  1. Public issues are different from personal troubles in that issues affect a:
a. few people and require personal adjustments.
b. few people and require structural adjustments.
c. large number of people and require personal adjustments.
d. large number of people and require structural adjustments.

 

 

 

 

  1. According to C. Wright Mills, the difficulties that John and Mary experience in their marriage represent a personal trouble.  The fact that 250 out of every 1000 marriages ends in divorce, within the first 4 years, however, is:
a. a public issue. c. a latent dysfunction of marriage.
b. a sign of moral collapse. d. meaningless.

 

 

 

 

  1. According to your text, what distinguishes social sciences from fields such as journalism, medicine or the law?
a. Social sciences are interested in human behavior.
b. Social sciences use a critical and systematic examination of evidence before reaching any conclusion.
c. Social sciences try to approach each research question from a position of moral neutrality.
d. Social science is interested in society, not individuals.

 

 

 

 

  1. The social sciences rely on empirical research. This means that they:
a. are very philosophical.
b. are less scientific that other fields such as journalism and medicine.
c. are based on systematic examination of evidence.
d. use research methods that are very different from those used in the sciences.

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the emergence of sociology as a field of study?
a. political changes c. economic change
b. changing gender roles d. intellectual upheavals

 

 

OBJ:   1.3

 

  1. Which of these conditions contributed to the early development of sociology?
a. a period of stability that gave people time to reflect about society.
b. changes brought by the industrial revolution.
c. the need for reconstruction in the South following the Civil War.
d. social and economic prosperity in Europe and America.

 

 

OBJ:   1.3

 

  1. The credit for founding the discipline of sociology is given to:
a. Thomas Hobbes. c. Auguste Comte.
b. Emile Durkheim. d. Herbert Spencer.

 

 

REF:               6         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. According to Comte, understanding society requires recognizing forces for stability and order, as well as change. Today sociologists refer to these using the term:
a. social structure and social process.
b. continuity and change.
c. social conflict and social order.
d. symbolic interaction and social interaction.

 

 

REF:               6         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. The belief that the social world can be studied with the same scientific accuracy and assurance as the natural world is known as:
a. relativism. c. methodology.
b. cause and effect. d. positivism.

 

 

REF:               6         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Spencer believed:
a. the environment will adapt to society.
b. there is one best way to organize society.
c. society is an adaptation to its environment.
d. all parts of society work separately.

 

 

REF:               6         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. One of Spencer’s contributions to sociology was:
a. his model for understanding changing exploitative labor laws.
b. his study of the unfair treatment of women.
c. that he cautioned sociologists to put aside their biases, opinions, and wishes when conducting research.
d. his development of the concept of economic determinism.

 

 

REF:               6         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. All of the following theoretical ideas are associated with Karl Marx EXCEPT:
a. positivism.
b. economic determinism.
c. dialectic.
d. capitalism as a source of conflict and inequality.

 

 

REF:               7         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Karl Marx’s two lasting contributions to sociology are:
a. value free and symbolic sociology.
b. positivism and theories of statics and dynamics.
c. theories of cultural adaptation and cultural evolution.
d. the theory of economic determinism and the theory of the dialectic.

 

 

REF:               7         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. The idea that the economy provides the foundation on which all other social and political arrangements are built is referred to as:
a. second order economics. c. capitalism and free enterprise.
b. economic determinism. d. the dialectic.

 

 

REF:               7         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Rajiv is 30 years old and farms a small piece of land.  Farming is the only trade he knows.  He would like to marry Seshi, but does not because his parents own the land he tills and they do not like her.  This is an example of:
a. the dialectic. c. economic determinism.
b. positivism. d. interfering parents.

 

 

REF:               7         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. The dialectic refers to:
a. the gradual and inevitable evolution of society.
b. the exploitation of the working class.
c. social change as a product of contradictions and conflicts between parts of society.
d. analyzing the functions of social order.

 

 

REF:               7         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Many, if not most, sociologists agree with Marx’s idea that:
a. social scientists should also be social activists.
b. conflicts between workers and capitalists will lead to socialism.
c. revolution by the masses is the way to bring about desired change.
d. economic relationships and conflicts are important to understanding social relationships.

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Durkheim referred to community standards of morality as:
a. patterned regularities. c. social participation.
b. collective conscience. d. the Protestant Ethic.

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Much of Durkheim’s scholarly work was devoted to understanding:
a. social conflict. c. personal troubles of individuals.
b. the stability of society. d. the economic causes of behavior.

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. According to Durkheim, _____ suicide occurs when the institutions of society provide too much regulation and allow too little individual freedom.
a. fatalistic c. egoistic
b. anomic d. altruistic

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. A teenager’s parents divorce and as a result neither parent has as much time to spend with her.  She has the freedom to do whatever she wants, whenever she wants, with little regulation.  Unable to cope with the many changes, she takes her own life.  This is _____ suicide.
a. fatalistic c. egoistic
b. anomic d. altruistic

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Based upon Durkheim’s early research on suicide, one can expect that suicides may increase when society allows:
a. too little or too much freedom. c. too much freedom, only.
b. too little freedom, only. d. too much regulation, only.

 

 

REF:               8         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Applying Comte’s divisions of statics and dynamics to the theories of Marx and Durkheim, Marx’s theory could best be seen as _____, while Durkheim’s theory could be classified as _____.
a. static; dynamic c. dynamic; neither static nor dynamic
b. social structure; social process d. dynamic; static

 

 

REF:               6-8     OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Weber emphasized all of the following EXCEPT:
a. the subjective meanings of social action.
b. a stress on social rather than economic causes of  behavior.
c. being objective in research.
d. conflict as a mechanism of social change.

 

 

REF:               9         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Weber argued that part of the ideological foundation for capitalism came from:
a. the dialectic. c. Protestant religious values.
b. changing  modes of production. d. the American frontier.

 

 

REF:               9         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. The statement “Sociology should be value-free.” means that sociologists should be concerned with:
a. what is, rather than with what ought to be.
b. identifying the major values of a free society.
c. analyzing how values affect individual behavior.
d. making recommendations about how to make a better society.

 

 

REF:               9         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Value free sociology is LEAST likely to be practiced by sociologists who:
a. are basic research scientists employed in universities.
b. are social activists who adhere to Marxist principles.
c. adhere to Weber’s principles.
d. study social facts as advocated by Durkheim.

 

 

REF:               10       OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Max Weber developed which approaches for sociology?
a. value-free stance and an emphasis on subjective meanings.
b. positivism and theories of statics and dynamics.
c. adaptation and evolution.
d. economic determinism and the dialectic.

 

 

REF:               9         OBJ:              1.4

 

  1. Which feature has NOT been a characteristic of the development of sociology in the United States?
a. concern for social problems. c. a radical approach.
b. a reforming approach. d. emphasis on the scientific method.

 

 

REF:               10       OBJ:              1.5

 

  1. Nobel Prize Winner, Jane Addams, was concerned with using social science data to do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. provide services to the poor. c. end slavery.
b. design a better juvenile justice system. d. achieve better public sanitation.

 

 

REF:               10       OBJ:              1.5

 

  1. Harvard graduate, _____ , devoted his career to collecting data about African-Americans to combat racism.
a. Ralph Dahrendorf c. Emile Durkheim
b. Martin Luther King, Jr. d. W.E.B. DuBois

 

 

REF:               10       OBJ:              1.5

 

  1. How does U.S. sociology differ from European sociology?
a. Our social problems are different.
b. Higher degree sociology programs are more popular in the U.S.
c. U.S. sociology is has always been more theoretical than European sociology.
d. Higher degree programs are more popular in the U.S. than in Europe.

 

 

REF:               10       OBJ:              1.5

 

  1. Which major theoretical perspective addresses the question of social organization and how it is maintained?
a. dramaturgy theory. c. conflict theory.
b. structural-functional theory. d. symbolic interaction theory.

 

 

REF:               11       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. _____ theory relies on the assumptions of stability, harmony and evolution.
a. Conflict c. Structural-functional
b. Symbolic interaction d. Microsociology

 

 

REF:               11       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. “Society is like an organism, the parts work in harmony to contribute to the maintenance of the whole.  A healthy society is one that is stable.”  These statements are consistent with which theoretical perspective?
a. Symbolic Interaction. c. Structural-Functional Theory.
b. Conflict Theory. d. the dialectic.

 

 

REF:               11       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Stabilizing or positive consequences of social structures that are intended and recognized are referred to by sociologists as:
a. latent functions. c. patterned regularities.
b. manifest functions. d. dysfunctions.

 

 

REF:               11       OBJ:              1.7

 

  1. Consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor recognized are referred to by sociologists as:
a. latent functions. c. patterned regularities.
b. manifest functions. d. patterned irregularities.

 

 

REF:               12       OBJ:              1.7

 

  1. According to your text, a latent dysfunction of the “battered women’s syndrome” defense may be that:
a. it gives legal recognition to the devastating effects of domestic violence.
b. women who successfully use the defense may find it difficult to retain custody of their children.
c. more women will leave their abusive husbands.
d. some offenders could use the defense as an excuse for  malicious, premeditated attacks on a significant other.

 

 

REF:               12       OBJ:              1.7

 

  1. According to the arguments presented in the text, the possibility that the new “battered women’s syndrome” laws may perpetuate the view that women are irrational is a:
a. manifest function. c. latent dysfunction.
b. latent function. d. manifest dysfunction.

 

 

REF:               12       OBJ:              1.7

 

  1. Structural-functional analysis tends to call structures that preserve the status quo _____ and those that challenge the status quo as _____.
a. functions; dysfunctions
b. dysfunctions; functions
c. undesirable; desirable
d. operational structures; disruptive structures

 

 

REF:               12       OBJ:              1.7

 

  1. Which theoretical perspective is most likely to focus on how inequality, competition, tension and antagonisms in the social structure are likely to create pressures for social change?
a. structural-functional theory. c. conflict theory.
b. symbolic interaction theory. d. value free sociology.

 

 

REF:               13       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a basic assumption of the conflict perspective?
a. Change is a gradual process of social evolution.
b. Social relationships are based on economic competition.
c. Inequalities are built into social structures.
d. Social change is the result of conflict and competition.

 

 

REF:               13       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Conflict theorists primarily want to know how social structures:
a. give some people unequal access to scarce resources.
b. contribute to the maintenance of society.
c. evolve and become patterned regularities of society.
d. contribute to meeting individual needs through competition.

 

 

REF:               13       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. According to conflict theory, conflict between competing interests results in:
a. social change. c. adaptation of the more powerful.
b. adaptation of the less powerful. d. evolution.

 

 

REF:               13       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. According to your book, conflict theorists would argue that the problem of domestic violence developed and is maintained because:
a. many religions have taught women to submit to their husbands’ wishes and accept violence with the marriage.
b. until recently the law did not regard woman battering a crime.
c. many police officers still consider battering an unimportant family matter.
d. all of these are true

 

 

REF:               13       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Symbolic interaction theory addresses:
a. social change produced through competition and conflict.
b. how social organization results from interaction.
c. the importance of social activism to produce social change.
d. the creation and communication of the shared meanings associated with human acts.

 

 

REF:               14       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Marie grew up in Spanish Harlem with a household income slightly above poverty level.  John’s family makes $150,000 a year.  Who would be most likely to study Marie and John’s individual attitudes and behavior?
a. symbolic interactionist. c. functionalist.
b. conflict theorist. d. social theorist.

 

 

REF:               14       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. One of the major premises underlying symbolic interactionism is that:
a. the social structure determines human behavior.
b. rules and regulations guide society.
c. shared symbolic meanings grow out of human interaction.
d. some actions have fixed and non-negotiable meanings.

 

 

REF:               14       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. If a symbolic interactionist analyzed the Super Bowl, s/he would probably focus on:
a. what meanings the individual players assign to winning or losing.
b. differences in the organization of the two teams.
c. conflict between owners, managers, and players over salary.
d. evolution and change within each team’s structure.

 

 

REF:               14       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. A sociologist approaching the study of domestic violence from a _____ perspective might be interested in how boys are socialized to consider aggression a natural part of being male and that translates into aggression in their intimate relationships.
a. Social Conflict Theory c. Symbolic Interactionism
b. Structural Functionalism d. Sociobiology

 

 

REF:               14       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Macrosociology is NOT associated with which of the following?
a. conflict theory. c. symbolic interaction theory.
b. structural-functional theory. d. the study of social structures.

 

 

REF:               15       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. According to Kingsley Davis, a manifest function of prostitution is that it:
a. provides a sexual outlet for men who cannot compete in the marriage market.
b. protects the bargaining position of married women.
c. increases sexual crimes of violence.
d. keeps many women off the streets.

 

 

REF:               15       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Mary became a prostitute because it was one of the few occupations that would allow her to escape poverty.  Mary’s use of sex as a scarce resource is explained by which sociological perspective?
a. conflict theory. c. trade theory.
b. dramaturgy. d. situational theory.

 

 

REF:               16       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Chapkis’s study of prostitution suggests that prostitutes manage to maintain their self-esteem in spite of societal disapproval by:
a. learning how to have sex without emotion.
b. becoming adept (the best) at what they do sexually.
c. keeping a distance between their emotions and their work.
d. maintaining a low profile and avoiding arrest.

 

 

REF:               16       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Your text concludes that the best theoretical perspective to use in studying human social interaction:
a. is structural functional theory.
b. is symbolic interaction theory.
c. is conflict theory.
d. depends on which the sociologist feels is more appropriate for the topic being studied.

 

 

REF:               16       OBJ:              1.6

 

  1. Sociology differs from other methods of acquiring knowledge in that it:
a. requires empirical evidence. c. is divorced from common sense.
b. is systematic. d. is modern.

 

 

REF:               16       |1.2