Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD

 

Evidence Based Practice Nurses Appraisal Application Research 2nd Edition By Schmidt Brown – 
Test Bank 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Definition of research (p. 14)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of research?
    1. Critically thinking about problems that occur in health care to determine possible solutions.
    2. Information that is based on personal experience or tradition.
    3. Planned and systematic activity that leads to new knowledge and/or the discovery of solutions to problems or questions.
    4. Trying a variety of approaches to a clinical problem and settling on the approach that is effective more often than not.

 

Definition of research utilization (p. 4)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of research utilization?
    1. Applying research findings from individual studies to practice.
    2. Analyzing multiple research studies to synthesize findings.
    3. Appreciating the importance of clinical decision making.
    4. Using previous personal experience to build confidence.

 

Definition of EBP (pp. 4-5)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of evidence-based practice (EBP)?
    1. Application of research findings based on scientific theories in a clinical setting.
    2. Research studies that correspond to nationally established priorities for healthcare, conducted by experts in their fields.
    3. Use of theory-derived, research-based information in making decisions about health care delivery, with consideration of individual needs and preferences and the clinical expertise of the provider.
    4. Using the individual health care provider’s perception of truth without conscious attention or reasoning.

 

Difference between research utilization and EBP (pp. 4-5)

  1. Which of the following best describes the difference between research utilization and EBP?
    1. Research utilization is a process of evaluating multiple studies for the most generalizable findings; EBP is use of the most recent study on a topic.
    2. Research utilization involves changing practice based on findings of a single research study; EBP is the syntheses of findings from multiple studies to incorporate with practitioner skills and client preference to determine best care.
    3. Research utilization is the application of research findings to health care practice; EBP is considered in selecting medication options.
    4. Research utilization is review of research publications; EBP is using the healthcare provider’s perception of what care would be best in individual situations.

 

Evidence from other disciplines (p. 6)

  1. In what way can evidence from disciplines other than nursing be helpful?
    1. Theory based non-nursing evidence can provide a basis on which to build new evidence.
    2. Non-nursing evidence supports the use of nursing knowledge obtained by trial and error.
    3. Clinical decision making can be based on findings from single non-nursing research studies.
    4. All evidence is equally important to the practice of nursing.

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. You are a new nurse working at XYZ hospital. Your preceptor tells you to dangle Ms. Jones’ legs on the side of the bed before you attempt to assist her to a chair. You ask your preceptor why this is done and she answers, “This is what we have always done, so go do it.” This is an example of which type of evidence?
    1. Trial and error
    2. Intuition
    3. Borrowed evidence
    4. Tradition

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. You are a new nurse working at XYZ hospital. Your preceptor tells you to dangle Ms. Jones’ legs on the side of the bed before you attempt to assist her to a chair. You ask your preceptor why this is done and she answers, “Because I said so.” This is an example of which type of evidence?
    1. Intuition
    2. Tradition
    3. Authority
    4. Borrowed evidence

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. Trial and error is not a preferred approach for delivering nursing care because
    1. it is not based on systematic scientific approaches.
    2. it is not a sanctioned method by the American Nurses Association.
    3. it is based only on intuition and therefore not scientifically based.
    4. patient outcomes are always based only on level 1 evidence.

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 8)

  1. Many nurses in clinical settings base nursing interventions on information obtained from
    1. level 1 evidence.
    2. individual research studies.
    3. colleagues.
    4. the American Nurses Association.

 

Barriers to adopting EBP (p. 8)

  1.  Studies have shown that the reasons that nurses do not draw on research are related to
    1. communication problems.
    2. individual and organizational factors.
    3. personal disinterest.
    4. rapid organizational changes.

 

Environment for EBP to flourish (p. 11)

  1. Which of the following promotes consistent EBP practice changes in an institution?
    1. Clinical experts such as Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) should be the authority for any change in practices.
    2. Change champions are needed on each work shift to facilitate practice changes.
    3. Nurse managers must mandate research within healthcare institutions.
  1. Opinion leaders should enforce adherence to their opinions.

 

Environment for EBP to flourish (p. 10)

  1. One method for overcoming a lack of resources to access evidence is to
    1. devote 15 minutes a day to reading evidence related to a clinical problem.
    2. attend conferences where clinical research is presented..
    3. bookmark important Web sites that are sources of clinical guidelines.
    4. collaborate with a nursing program for access to resources.

 

Barriers to adopting EBP (p. 9)

  1. What steps can be taken to overcome the time barrier to adopting an EBP?
    1. Devote 15 minutes a day to reading evidence related to a clinical problem.
    2. Subscribe to e-mail summaries of research studies in your area of interest.
    3. Take advantage of available technologies to provide quick and convenient access to relevant data and clinical guidelines.
    4. All of the above

 

Parts of a research article (p. 18)

  1. Which section of a research article provides an overview of the study?
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Review of literature
    4. Theoretical framework

 

Parts of a research article (pp. 18)

  1. Which section of a research article identifies the problem being studied and includes a purpose statement and background information on the topic?
    1. Discussion section
    2. Introduction
    3. Methods section
    4. Results section

 

Parts of a research article (p. 19)

  1. A major portion of a research article is the methods section, which includes a discussion of the study design, the sample, and the ____________ collected.
    1. solutions
    2. statistics
    3. data
    4. theories

 

Parts of a research article (p. 19)

  1. The ____________  section of a research article outlines the methods used to analyze the data and notes the findings.
    1. results
    2. summary
    3. introduction
    4. abstract

 

Parts of a research article (p. 20)

  1. Which section of a research article provides an interpretation of the study’s results?
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Methods
    4. Discussion

 

Ethical issues (p. 24)

  1. The first regulations to protect human subjects in medical research studies were proposed by the ____________ in 1973.
    1. American Medical Association
    2. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
    3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    4. Association of American Universities

 

Ethical issues (p. 31)

  1. Which of the following forms the basis for ethical conduct in medical research internationally?
    1. Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital study
    2. Nuremberg Code
    3. Tuskegee studies
    4. Willowbrook studies

Short Answer/Fill-in

 

Identifying types of research

 

  1. The category of research that addresses why or how phenomena are related is ____________.

 

  1. ____________ research aims to forecast when certain phenomena will occur.

 

  1. The type of research that analyzes words to focus on the meanings individuals give to their experiences is ____________.

 

  1. Quantitative research focuses on collecting ____________ evidence, which is evidence gathered through observation using one or more of the five senses.

 

  1. ____________ research is concerned with providing accurate observations of phenomena in natural settings

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

USING EVIDENCE THROUGH COLLABORATION TO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE IN NURSING PRACTICE

 

Multiple choice

 

EBP levels of collaboration (p. 40)

  1. What are the five EBP levels of collaboration?
    1. Organizational, societal, fraternal, national, and international
    2. Individual, organizational, regional, national, and international
    3. Professional, educational, organizational, regional, and national
    4. Individual, organizational, societal, regional, and international

 

EBP levels of collaboration (p. 40)

  1. Of the situations listed, which is the best example of collaboration between the levels described in the model of EBP collaboration?
  1. A health care organization funds a group of nurses to attend a research conference related to practice areas that have had less than desirable outcomes in the past year.
  2. An individual nurse searches databases for the best evidence to support practice with a population of clients on a particular unit.
  3. A participant at a national nursing organization conference listens attentively to presenters related to the most relevant topics for the population served.
  4. A staff nurse uses findings from the Joanna Briggs Institute to support an EBP project, evaluates outcomes, and reports the findings at an international conference.

 

Individual nurse level (pp. 40-41)

  1. What is one step a staff nurse can take to advance EBP at the point of care?
    1. Establish the culture for EBP in institutional settings.
    2. Identify clinical questions related to current nursing practice.
    3. Promote consistent practice changes among different shifts.
    4. Reward nurses involved in EBP and help those who lack involvement.

 

Individual nurse level (p.  41)

  1. As a staff nurse, what steps can you take to advance EBP as part of your team or unit?
  1. Participate in implementing practice changes based on evidence.
  2. Participate as a member of an EBP project team.
  3. Participate in QI initiatives
  4. All of the above.

 

Individual nurse level (p.  41)

  1. As a staff nurse, how can you further educate yourself about EBP?
  1. Read evidence related to your area of practice on a regular basis.
  2. Watch what other nurses do.
  3. Follow the example of your supervisor.
  4. Act as a role model for younger staff.

 

Nurse manager level (p.  41)

  1. How can a nurse manager advance EBP as part of evaluating his or her staff?
  1. Set a good example with own behavior.
  2. Clearly outline goals for the team.
  3. Use performance criteria related to EBP.
  4. Participate in QI initiatives.

 

Advanced practice nurse level (p.  41)

  1. The advanced practice nurse can work to implement EBP by
  1. Serving as a coach and mentor in EBP.
  2. Locates relevant evidence and synthesizes evidence for practice.
  3. Uses evidence to writes and modify practice standards.
  4. All of the above.

 

Organizational level (p.  43)

  1. Creating an EBP culture is an example of contribution at the
  1. organizational level.
  2. individual nurse level.
  3. regional level.
  4. international level.

 

International level (p. 48)

  1. The Cochrane Collaboration and the Joanna Briggs Institute are examples of which EBP collaboration level?
  1. Individual
  2. International
  3. Organizational
  4. Regional

 

National level (p.  46)

  1. What national organizations can nurses use to locate EBP resources and EBP-based clinical guidelines?
  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Nursing Practice Network, and specialty nursing organizations.
  2. National Institutes of Health and regional resource centers.
  3. American Nurses Credentialing Center and the American Nurses Association.
  4. Department of Health and Human Services, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the Joanna Briggs Institute.

 

Ethical guidelines (pp. 50-51)

  1.  Which international code for ethical conduct by physicians conducting biomedical  research followed the Nuremberg Code and provides more specific guidelines?
    1. ANA Code of Ethics
    2. Belmont Report
    3. Code of Federal Regulations
    4. Declaration of Helsinki

 

Ethical guidelines (p. 52)

  1. Federal regulations mandate the establishment of institutional review boards whose purpose is to
    1. develop guidelines for conducting research.
    2. identify basic ethical principles in conducting research.
    3. review and approve research studies.
    4. provide a code of ethics for conducting research.

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. Which type of IRB review is required for research involving vulnerable populations or when there are substantial risks to participants?
    1. Special review
    2. Full review
    3. Expanded review
    4. Expedited review

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. A nurse researcher wants to interview parents and their autistic children regarding the children’s sleep patterns.  This study would require which type of IRB review?
    1. Expedited review
    2. Full review
    3. Special review
    4. Exempt from review

 

Institutional review board (pp. 57-58)

  1. A nurse educator is planning a research study related to experiential learning activities regarding caring for older adults with cognitive changes.  Which type of IRB review is needed?
  1. Exempt from review
  2. Expedited review
  3. Expanded review
  4. Full review

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. Research proposals may be eligible for an expedited review by the IRB if they involve minimal risk to participants. This means that
  1. there is a very low risk of harm or discomfort to study participants, no more than that involved in daily life or routine physical or psychological exams.
  2. the study will be based on the analysis of existing specimens or data only.
  3. there is some chance of harm to study participants due to invasive procedures.
  4. the study will only involve subject 18 years or older who have given consent.

 

Ethical issues (p. 52)

  1. The Belmont Report, issued in 1979, identified the following three ethical principles:
    1. confidentiality, consent, and justice.
    2. autonomy, social justice, and respect for persons.
    3. beneficence, respect for persons, and justice.
    4. altruism, confidentiality, and consent.

 

Institutional review board (p. 49)

  1. In regard to IRB criteria, which of the following are included in the category of vulnerable populations?
  1. Fetuses, infants, children, pregnant women
  2. Prisoners, students, females, African Americans
  3. Residents of long-term care facilities, students under the age of 18, infants
  4. Hospitalized adults, illegal aliens, premature infants, children

 

Nurses as patient advocates (p. 59)

  1. A nurse has agreed to assist in collecting data from patients in a primary care setting as part of a research study on grieving and coping skills.  What would be the most appropriate action by the nurse when a patient becomes visibly upset after relating that his son was recently killed in an automobile accident and that he does not want to talk further about it?
  1. Sympathize and explain how his answers will help many others.
  2. Weigh the potential greater good for a greater number of people and continue.
  3. Support the patient receiving care by ceasing further questioning.
  4. Consider the primary duty to advance nursing knowledge and continue questioning after a brief break.

 

Ethical issues (pp. 51, 54)

  1. A nurse has agreed to assist in collecting data from clients in a long-term-care setting.  The nurse becomes concerned upon realizing that many of the clients participating in the study have documented cognitive impairments.  Which ethical responsibility is being violated?
  1. Beneficence
  2. Confidentiality
  3. Voluntary participation
  4. Informed consent

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

IDENTIFYING RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

Multiple choice

 

Research question (p. 68)

  1. An area of concern due to a gap in knowledge that requires a solution that can be described, explained, or predicted to improve practice is a
  1. research problem.
  2. purpose statement.
  3. null hypothesis.
  4. research hypothesis.

 

Research question (p. 68)

  1. Which one of the following could form the basis for a potential research study?
  2. The majority of patients are admitted between the hours of midnight and 4:00 a.m.
  3. The majority of nurses do not want to work the night shift.
  4. The majority of patient falls occur on the evening shift.
  5. The nurses who work the evening shift are not attentive to their patients.

 

Research process (pp. 72-73)

  1. An example of a ____________ is: “The use of alcohol by freshman at XYZ State University contributes to alcohol-related injuries and increasing numbers of visits to the local emergency room.”
  2. purpose statement.
  3. problem statement.
  4. research problem.

 

Research process (pp. 72-73)

  1. An example of a ____________ is: “To determine if brief screening for alcohol use and nursing intervention during orientation reduces self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related injuries, and visits to the emergency room by college students during their freshman year.”
    1. problem statement
    2. purpose statement
    3. research question
    4. research hypothesis

 

Research process (p. 74)

  1. The following statement: “There will be a change in nursing practice of nurses after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program,” is an example of a
  1. problem statement.
  2. purpose statement.
  3. research hypothesis.

 

Research process (p. 71)

  1. Once an idea is generated for a research problem, what is the next step?
  2. Identify variables to be studied.
  3. Perform a review of the literature.
  4. Conduct a survey to ascertain if the problem really exists.
  5. Formulate a hypothesis.

 

Hypothesis (p. 76)

  1. A simple hypothesis
  2. describes the associative or causal relationship between three or more variables.
  3. predicts how strong the relationship is between the variables.
  4. predicts an inverse relationship between the variables.
  5. describes the associative or causal relationship between two variables.

 

Hypothesis (p. 77)

  1. The following statement: “There will be no difference in practice of nurses after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program,” is an example of a
  2. problem statement.
  3. purpose statement.
  4. directional hypothesis.
  5. null hypothesis.

 

Hypothesis (pp. 74-75)

  1. What is the purpose of formulating a hypothesis or hypotheses?
  2. To validate the research problem
  3. To provide direction for the research study by identifying possible outcomes
  4. To identify the independent variable
  5. To identify the dependent variable

 

Variables (p. 80)

  1. “There will be a change in nursing practice after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program.” In the preceding statement, “completion of an EBP mentorship program” represents the
  2. confounding variable.
  3. dependent variable.
  4. extraneous variable.
  5. independent variable.

 

 

 

 

 

Variables (p. 80)

  1. Variables that confuse the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, so that the research results do not really reflect a true relationship between the independent and dependent variables are
  2. extraneous variables.
  3. random variables.
  4. within-group variables.
  5. control variables.

 

Hypotheses (p. 75)

  1. A relationship between variables so that when one variable changes, the other variable changes is a(n)
  2. associative relationship.
  3. causal relationship.
  4. indirect relationship.
  5. predictive relationship.

 

Formulating EBP questions (p. 81)

  1. A widely used EBP model consisting of four components for identifying clinical questions for specific patient problems is known as the ____________ model.
  2. AHRQ
  3. PICO
  4. intervention
  5. comparison

 

Formulating EBP questions (p. 82)

  1. There is a study being conducted of adults over the age of 65 to investigate the effect of caregiver education on calming communication techniques in comparison to sedative medications on the agitation level of clients experiencing stage 2 dementia. In this study, the clients’ level of agitation would be the measured
  2. intervention.
  3. association.
  4. variable.
  5. outcome.

 

Short Answer/Fill-in

 

Dependent and independent variables (p. 80)

 

  1. In a study investigating the effect of eating a bowl of oatmeal every day for 30 days and serum cholesterol levels, ____________ is the independent variable.

 

  1. In a study investigating the effect of eating a bowl of oatmeal every day for 30 days and serum cholesterol levels, ____________ is the dependent variable.

 

  1. In a study designed to determine if exposure to x-rays during pregnancy increases the likelihood of birth defects, x-ray exposure is the ____________ variable.

 

  1. In a study designed to determine if exposure to x-rays during pregnancy increases the likelihood of birth defects, birth defects are the ____________ variable.

 

  1. “The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sex, age, height, and weight predict selected physiologic outcomes: namely, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), hemoglobin concentration, food intake, serum glucose concentration, total serum cholesterol concentration, and cancer-related weight change (Brown et al., 1997).” In this study, the ____________ variable is the physiologic outcomes.

 

  1. “The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sex, age, height, and weight predict selected physiologic outcomes: namely, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), hemoglobin concentration, food intake, serum glucose concentration, total serum cholesterol concentration, and cancer-related weight change (Brown et al., 1997).” In this study, the ____________ variables are: sex, age, height, and weight.

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

FINDING SOURCES OF EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Purpose of finding evidence (p. 89)

  1. As an undergraduate student, which of the following should be the focus of your literature review?
    1. gathering information
    2. helping to identify a research question
    3. identifying gaps in current research
    4. identifying a source for publication of new findings

 

Purpose of finding evidence (p. 89)

  1. Researchers perform a literature review for the purpose of
  1. helping to sharpen and focus a research question.
  2. highlighting areas of needed change.
  3. identifying gaps in current research.
  4. all of the above.

 

Purpose of finding evidence (p. 91)

  1. To begin a literature review, what initial sources would you use to locate information on your topic of interest?
  2. Online search engines, journal archives in the local library, and recommendations from your supervisor or professor
  3. Journal articles by nationally recognized researchers, health sciences publication indexes, and online search engines
  4. Health sciences publication indexes, government and university literature databases, academic and hospital library resources
  5. Textbooks, government and university literature databases, and online medical sites

 

Types of evidence (pp. 93-94)

  1. Which of the following is an example of primary sources?
  2. Biographies
  3. Journal articles
  4. Systematic reviews
  5. Textbooks

 

Types of evidence (pp. 93-94)

  1. Which of the following best describes a primary source?
  2. Historical reviews
  3. Interpretations of other sources
  4. Original information
  5. Written summaries

 

Types of evidence (p. 94)

  1. Which of the following is an example of secondary sources?
  2. Summaries of primary sources
  3. Commentaries or interpretations
  4. Reviews
  5. All of the above

 

Peer reviewed and refereed sources (p. 94)

  1. What is the purpose of the peer-review process?
  2. To ensure confidence in the quality of published works
  3. To confirm that the work is from a primary source
  4. To evaluate publications included in the literature review
  5. To make a decision about best practice

 

Types of reviews (p. 96)

  1. Which of the following are scholarly papers that synthesize published studies and articles to answer questions about phenomena of interest?
  2. Integrative reviews
  3. Meta-analyses
  4. Peer reviews
  5. Systematic reviews

 

Types of reviews (p. 96)

  1. Which of the following combine results of studies into a measurable format and statistically         estimate the effects of proposed interventions?
    1. Integrative reviews
    2. Meta-analyses
    3. Peer reviews
    4. Systematic reviews

 

Types of reviews (p. 97)

  1. Which of the following summarize the results and implications of large quantities of research and include articles addressing the same clinical problem?
  1. Integrative reviews
  2. Meta-analyses
  3. Peer reviews
  4. Systematic reviews

 

How sources are organized (pp. 101, 111)

  1. What is the most recognized and widely used database of published nursing practice literature?
  2. National Guideline Clearinghouse
  3. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
  4. MEDLINE (PubMed)
  5. National Institute of Nursing Research

 

How sources are organized (p. 103)

  1. What type of scholarly material can indicate upcoming “hot” topics and includes unpublished reports, conference papers, and grant proposals?
  2. Government agency reports
  3. Systematic reviews
  4. Grey literature
  5. Peer-reviewed summaries

 

How to search for evidence (p. 108)

  1. In conducting a keyword search of a literature database, including the Boolean operator “AND” to connect two words has what effect on the search results?
  1. Expands the search to include all articles containing either word
  2. Narrows the search to include only articles that contain both words
  3. Confuses the search so you may not get all articles related to your topic
  4. Defines the search by one or the other word

 

How to search for evidence (p. 108)

  1. In conducting a keyword search of a literature database, including the Boolean operator “OR” to connect two words has what effect on the search results?
  1. Expands the search to include all articles containing either word
  2. Narrows the search to include only articles that contain both words
  3. Confuses the search so you may not get all articles related to your topic
  4. Defines the search by one or the other word

 

How to search for evidence (p. 108)

  1. A nurse conducting a keyword search of a literature database enters the search terms “anorexia NOT bulimia” to obtain what result?
  1. All articles that discuss either anorexia or bulimia
  2. Articles that discuss both anorexia and bulimia
  3. Articles that discuss anorexia only
  4. Articles that discuss bulimia only

 

How to search for evidence (p. 109)

  1. In searching a database, a controlled vocabulary is
  1.  a list of forbidden words that cannot be used as search terms
  2. a series of keywords that must be entered in a specific order
  3. proprietary terms that can only be used when searching one particular database
  4. a standardized, hierarchical list of terms that represent major subjects and conditions

 

How to search for evidence (p. 107)

  1. In which situation does the use of key words provide better results than a controlled vocabulary search?
  1. finding standardized hierarchical lists that represent major subject concepts
  2. searching full text or citation records
  3. searching for a particular subject
  4. searching for exact matches

 

How to search for evidence (p. 110)

  1. In searching database subject headings, you would use the ____________ technique to broaden the search by locating all records indexed to your search term plus any that include the term in a related, narrower category.
  1. exploding
  2. Boolean
  3. qualification
  4. nesting

 

How to search for evidence (p. 110)

  1. In searching a literature database, you would use the ____________ technique to designate which fields (e.g., author, title, subject, publication date) are to be included in the search.
  1. exploding
  2. Boolean
  3. qualification
  4. nesting

 

How to search for evidence (p. 115)

  1. After a database search has been completed and you have located published literature on your topic, what is the next step?
  1. Verify that all material has been subjected to the peer-review process.
  2. Appraise the materials to ensure their integrity and applicability.
  3. Include additional materials that loosely relate to the topic of interest.
  4. Exclude those materials obtained using data collection tools with low reliability.

 

How to search for evidence (p. 115)

  1. After completing a database search, if you have any doubts or concerns regarding the validity of articles you’ve located, what options do you have to resolve the issue?
  1. Exclude any materials for which you have doubts about their integrity.
  2. Verify questionable material elsewhere using a reputable source.
  3. Ask a nursing faculty member or a librarian for assistance.
  4. All of the above.

 

Ethical citation of sources (pp. 116-117)

  1. Which of the following statements should be cited if used in a research paper?
  1. Fewer UTIs occur with routine perineal hygiene.
  2. George Washington was the first president of the United States.
  3. Zithromax has shown statistically significant results in the treatment of URIs.
  4. Antibiotics are used to treat infection.

 

Ethical citation of sources (p. 117)

  1. The ____________ test can help determine if it is necessary to cite a source in a written work.
  1. common knowledge
  2. plagiarism
  3. reference source
  4. qualification

 

Short answer/Fill-in

 

Purpose of finding evidence (p. 90)

 

  1. An article by J. Lander published in Clinical Nursing Research in 2005 outlined the competencies that nursing students need to develop to perform a quality literature review. One key competency is to know what sources of information are reliable and ____________ and how to ____________ them using available resources and technology.

 

  1. An article by J. Lander published in Clinical Nursing Research in 2005 outlined the competencies that nursing students need to develop to perform a quality literature review. One key competency is to understand the various types of designs and _______design issues.

 

  1. An article by J. Lander published in Clinical Nursing Research in 2005 outlined the competencies that nursing students need to develop to perform a quality literature review. One key competency is to know how to differentiate poor quality from good quality reports, systematic ____________, and clinical ____________.

 

  1. An article by J. Lander published in Clinical Nursing Research in 2005 outlined the competencies that nursing students need to develop to perform a quality literature review. One key competency is to be able to assess the ____________ of an intervention for clinical ____________.

 

 

Peer review process (p. 94)

 

  1. The peer review process involves rigorous ____________ by experts and editors.

 

  1. The peer review process ensures that research articles and papers to be published as ____________ sources meet established ___________ for publication.

 

  1. The peer review is conducted to ensure the ____________ and integrity of published works.

 

 

Ethical citation of sources (p. 117)

  1. The definition of ____________ is using another’s work without giving proper credit.

 

  1. A simple rule to follow in written materials is if statements or graphics are not your original work, it is best to ____________ the source.

 

  1. It may be necessary to credit sources even when the original statements are ___________ (rewritten in your own words) if the concept being presented must be attributed to another.

 

  1. Certain concepts have become ____________ knowledge and as such, do not need to be attributed to a source.

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

LINKING THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE

 

Relationship between theory, research, and practice (p. 123)

  1. Which of the following is both the source of questions addressed by research and the testing ground for theory?
    1. literature review
    2. practice
    3. peer review
    4. study design

 

Relationship between theory, research, and practice (p. 123)

  1. What provides an essential foundation for nursing practice?
    1. Formal and informal nursing education
    2. Theories and research
    3. Hypotheses and discussion
    4. Repeated clinical studies

 

Relationship between theory, research, and practice (p. 124)

  1. The concepts that are core to nursing are person, environment, health, and nurse; these are known as the nursing
    1. metaparadigm
    2. model
    3. proposition
    4. theory

 

Relationship between theory, research, and practice (p. 124)

  1. A ____________ is a set of concepts linked through propositions to explain a phenomenon.
    1. metaparadigm
    2. model
    3. construct
    4. theory

 

Importance of testing theory (p. 127)

  1. What compels nurses to continue learning throughout their careers to avoid becoming laggards?
  2. Changes over time regarding knowledge of effective practices
  3. Desire for publication of new findings
  4. Increased funding for in-service education attendance
  5. License renewal requirements

 

Importance of testing theory (pp. 125-127)

  1. In the United States during the 1970s, nursing practice included the use of granulated sugar to pack stage III and IV wounds based on the rationale that bacteria would be less invasive of new tissue formation. Over time, this method did not result in statistically significant increase in wound healing time as compared to use of normal saline wet packing. Research was begun to determine what packing method led to best wound healing. The 1970s practices provides an example of
  2. nursing practice based on personal experience.
  3. nursing practice based on research.
  4. nursing practice based on untested theory.
  5. nursing practice based on tested theory.

 

Importance of testing theory (pp. 125)

  1. A ____________ is a statement about the relationship between two or more concepts.
  2. model
  3. construct
  4. theory
  5. proposition

 

Language of research (pp. 127)

  1. A ____________ is a special type of proposition that has a theoretical basis and can be tested empirically.
  2. model
  3. paradigm
  4. hypothesis
  5. proposition

 

Language of research (pp. 127)

  1. In research, a(n) ____________ is an observation that can be measured by assigning a number to each dimension.
  1. relationship
  2. assumption
  3. concept
  4. variable

 

Language of research (pp. 128)

  1. A theory has credence until
  2. a less costly intervention is determined.
  3. evidence comes forward to refute it.
  4. new hypotheses are determined from practice.
  5. proof is provided that supports it.

 

Language of research (p. 127)

  1. Researchers formulated hypotheses based on clear definitions of
    1. concepts and variables.
    2. empirical indicators.
    3. likely risk factors.
    4. populations to be included.

 

Language of research (p. 128)

  1. Explicit statements of how a variable will be measured, such as using a rating scale to collect quantitative data regarding pain, are called
  2. conceptual definitions
  3. empirical indicators
  4. operational definitions
  5. theoretical framework

 

Language of research (p. 128)

  1. According to Florence Nightingale, health is defined as the absence of disease. This is an example of a(n)
  2. conceptual definition
  3. empirical indicator
  4. operational definition
  5. theoretical framework

 

Language of research (p. 129)

  1. Empirical indicators are the instruments and methods used to
  1. define concepts.
  2. measure and report on variables.
  3. analyze statistics.
  4. formulate theories.

 

Language of research (p. 129)

  1. What type of research, usually based on qualitative methods, is used to develop theory?
  2. Experimental
  3. Deductive
  4. Analytical
  5. Inductive

 

Ethical research (p. 135)

  1. Ethical research involves citation of previous researchers and their findings to assist in the
  2. creation of a universal theory of nursing.
  3. advancement of deductive research.
  4. publication of inductive research.
  5. evolution of nursing knowledge and practice.

 

 

CHAPTER SIX

KEY PRINCIPLES OF QUANTITATIVE DESIGN

 

Research study designs (p. 144)

  1. In research studies using experimental designs, the purpose is to
    1. examine causality.
    2. explain relationships and differences among variables..
    3. observe a phenomenon after it has been manipulated..
    4. predict relationships among variables..

 

Research study designs (p. 144)

  1. In research studies using nonexperimental designs, the purpose is to
    1. explain relationships and differences among variables.
    2. predict relationships and differences among variables.
    3. describe a phenomenon in detail.
    4. all of the above.

 

Research study designs (p. 144)

  1. The major difference between experimental and nonexperimental designs is the role of the

 

Research study designs (p. 144)

  1. A type of quantitative study is the ____________, which examines outcomes across a number of studies. (p. 124)
  2. case study
  3. controlled trial
  4. descriptive study
  5. meta-analysis

 

Research study designs (p. 144)

  1. The researcher actively manipulates the independent (causal) variable to determine its effect on the dependent (outcome) variable when using a(n)
    1. experimental design
    2. meta-analysis
    3. nonexperimental design
    4. control group

 

Quantitative designs (p. 145)

  1. Causality is the ____________ that exists between a cause and its effect.
  2. balance
  3. relationship
  4. purpose
  5. outcome

 

Quantitative designs (p. 145)

  1. When outcomes have many causes, the situation is known as

 

Quantitative designs (p. 146)

  1. Probability is how likely it is that the effect of the dependent variable was caused by the ____________ variable.
  2. independent
  3. evaluated
  4. manipulated
  5. original

 

Quantitative designs (p. 146)

  1. Manipulation is the ____________, or treatment, that is being tested in an experimental study.
  2. medication
  3. proposition
  4. intervention
  5. maturation

 

Quantitative designs (p. 146)

  1. In health-related experimental designs, the group of subjects receiving the standard of care but not the intervention is the
    1. control group.
    2. intervention group.
    3. total population.
    4. total sample.

 

Quantitative designs (p. 146)

  1. Variables that confuse the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable are
    1. control variables.
    2. extraneous variables.
    3. random variables.
    4. within-group variables.

 

Quantitative designs (p. 147)

  1. When extraneous variables influence and distort the relationship between the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) so that the findings do not reflect a true relationship between the IV and the DV, the result is

 

Quantitative designs (p. 147)

  1. What is an effective way to control extraneous variables?
  2. Research purpose
  3. Experimental treatment
  4. Informed consent
  5. Randomization

 

Quantitative designs (p. 147)

  1. A method of sampling in which all subjects in the sample have an equal chance of being assigned to either the treatment group or the control group is
    1. between-group design.
    2. within-group design.
    3. random assignment.
    4. random sampling.

 

Quantitative designs (p. 147)

  1. A method of sampling in which all people in the population of interest have an equal chance of being selected to be included in the study is
    1. selected sampling.
    2. within-group sampling.
    3. random assignment.
    4. random sampling.

 

Validity (p. 149)

  1. Study validity refers to
  2. the accuracy and peer-reviewed approval of the research design.
  3. the absence of forces that can alter the results of the study.
  4. the degree to which the researcher can prove that the results are accurate.
  5. the ability to accept that the research results are logical, reasonable, and justifiable based on the evidence presented.

 

Validity (p. 150)

  1. The degree to which one can conclude that the independent variable, rather than extraneous variables, produced the change in the dependent variable is known as
    1. effectiveness.
    2. internal validity.
    3. statistical validity.
    4. Reliability.

 

Validity (pp. 150, 153)

  1. External validity refers to
  1. the degree to which confounding variables interfere with the study outcomes.
  2. the degree to which the findings can be generalized to other subjects, settings, and times.
  3. the influence of a specific event on the dependent variable.
  4. the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.

Validity (p. 151)

  1. A researcher interested in studying the effect of hearing loss on self-esteem in adolescents in grades 6 through 12 would need to be aware of what type of threat to internal validity?
    1. Testing
    2. History
    3. Mortality
    4. Maturation

 

Validity (p. 151)

  1. Which type of bias occurs when the dependent variable is influenced by changes made in the way variables are measured?
    1. Threat of history
    2. Threat of instrumentation
    3. Threat of maturation
    4. Threat of selection bias

 

Validity (p. 154)

  1. In which type of designs do neither subjects nor individuals administering the treatments know if subjects are receiving experimental interventions or the standard of care?
  2. Double-blind experimental
  3. Longitudinal (prospective)
  4. Quasi-experimental
  5. Nonexperimental

 

Validity (p. 153)

  1. The ____________ occurs when changes noted in the dependent variable can be a result of subject reactivity and not a result of the independent variable.
  2. selection effect
  3. Type II effect
  4. Hawthorne effect
  5. placebo effect

 

 

Short answer/fill-in

 

Categorizing designs according to time

  1. Also referred to as “ex post facto,” ____________ designs start with the dependent variable and look back in time to determine possible causative factors.

 

  1. Nonexperimental designs in which data is gathered from a group of subjects at only one point in time are known as ____________ studies.

 

  1. When more than one group of subjects is studied at the same point in time, this nonexperimental study type is a ____________.

 

  1. Also known as prospective designs, ____________ designs gather data about subjects at more than one point in time. They can be either ____________ or nonexperimental.

 

  1. In a follow-up study, subjects are followed into the ____________.

 

  1. A study in which subjects receive more than one experimental treatment and then are followed over time is based on the ____________ design.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 7

QUANTITATIVE DESIGNS: USING NUMBERS TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

Nonexperimenal designs (p. 175)

  1. Researchers use nonexperimental, descriptive designs for a variety of purposes, including
    1. for early stages of theory development.
    2. when it is not practical to conduct an experiment on the subject.
    3. neither A nor B.
    4. both A and B.

 

Experimental designs (p. 168)

  1. Why would a researcher need to be concerned about the administration of a pretest and posttest in a research study?
    1. It is a threat to external validity.
    2. It is a threat to internal validity.
    3. It is a form of selection bias.
    4. It is a form of maturation.

 

Experimental designs (p. 167)

  1. Which design type is considered to be the “classic” experimental design in which subjects are randomized into either the intervention group or the control group and measured before and after the intervention is implemented?
    1. Solomon four group
    2. Two group pretest-posttest
    3. Multiple group
    4. Two group posttest only

 

Experimental designs (p. 169)

  1. Which design type allows researchers to manipulate more than one intervention during the same experiment?
  1. Multiple group
  2. Crossover
  3. Factorial
  4. Quasi-experimental

 

Experimental designs (pp. 165-175)

  1. The three major categories of quantitative research designs are
  2. experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive
  3. experimental, quasi-experimental, nonexperimental
  4. experimental, nonexperimental, exploratory
  5. experimental, descriptive, exploratory

 

Quasi-experimental designs (p. 171)

  1. Which design type is similar to experimental design but does not meet one of the other essential components of experimental design, lacking either randomization or a control group?
  2. Descriptive
  3. Crossover
  4. Factorial
  5. Quasi-experimental

 

Quasi-experimental designs (p. 171)

  1. The advantage of using a quasi-experimental design in nursing is
    1. smaller sample size.
    2. to provide beginning evidence of causality.
    3. descriptive statistics can be used to analyze data.
    4. the design is stronger in determining causality.

 

Nonexperimental designs (pp. 176-177)

  1. Which type of design would be used by researchers interested in establishing relationships between two or more variables, for example, the type of coping used by caregivers of older adults having cognitive changes and the occurrence of elder abuse?
  2. correlational
  3. quasi-experimental
  4. multi-experimental
  5. factorial

 

 

 

CHAPTER EIGHT

QUALITATIVE DESIGNS: USING WORDS TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Qualitative research (p. 188)

  1. The difference between quantitative and qualitative research designs is that
  1. quantitative designs use words to describe or give meaning to a phenomenon, and qualitative designs use numbers.
  2. quantitative designs use numbers to give meaning to a phenomenon or an event, and qualitative designs rely on words.
  3. qualitative designs predict causality, while quantitative designs describe, predict, or explain phenomena.
  4. quantitative research is exploratory and inductive, while qualitative research aims to reach conclusions by deduction and hypothesis testing.

 

Qualitative research (p. 188)

  1. Qualitative research is ____________, in contrast to quantitative studies.
  2. exploratory and deductive
  3. quasi-experimental
  4. exploratory and inductive
  5. purposive

 

Qualitative research (p. 189)

  1. Volunteers in qualitative research studies are called
  2. participants.
  3. candidates.
  4. subjects.
  5. all of the above.

 

Qualitative research (p. 190)

  1. Sources of data in qualitative research include
  2. artifacts such as documents, photographs, and physical objects.
  3. in-depth interviews.
  4. direct observations.
  5. all of the above.

 

Qualitative research (p. 190)

  1. Researchers using qualitative methods conduct ___________, which is the time they spend interacting with participants through interviews, observations, and maintaining detailed records.
  1. focus groups
  2. trials
  3. fieldwork
  4. experiments

 

Qualitative research (pp. 189-190)

  1. Sample size in qualitative studies is generally smaller than in quantitative research and depends on
    1. information collection methods.
    2. data saturation determinations.
    3. information being provided by participants
    4. randomization strategy and location of participants.

 

Qualitative research (p. 189)

  1. Snowball sampling in qualitative research refers to
    1. obtaining information (data) from specific persons.
    2. randomization.
    3. accumulation of participants based on word-of-mouth.
    4. using a single group of participants in any given setting or time period.

 

Qualitative research (p. 190)

  1. Data saturation is a situation that occurs in qualitative research when
    1. the number of participants selected for the study becomes higher than needed.
    2. data collection stops when no new information is obtained and data collected  has become repetitive.
    3. a specialized data analysis method is implemented..
    4. it becomes necessary to implement a method for eliminating data once it has been repeated more than three times.

 

Qualitative research (p. 189)

  1. A qualitative study investigating the lived experience of women under the age of 25 who survived a liver transplant is an example of which sampling method?
    1. Informant
    2. Purposive
    3. Snowball
    4. Random

 

Qualitative research (p. 190)

  1. The ____________ is often the key source of data in qualitative research.
  2. interview
  3. observation
  4. intervention
  5. experiment

 

Qualitative research (p. 192)

  1. In contrast to quantitative methods, qualitative data analysis is completed ____________
  2. immediately after data collection.
  3. by a different team of researchers.
  4. simultaneously with data collection.
  5. as a multi-step process involving two teams.

 

Qualitative research (p. 194)

  1. The four essential elements for evaluation of qualitative research are
    1. validity, reliability, transferability, and timeliness.
    2. credibility, trustworthiness, validity, and confirmability.
    3. transferability, dependability, timeliness, and confirmability
    4. credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability.

 

Qualitative research (p. 194)

  1. What strategies are used to establish the credibility of qualitative research findings?
  2. sample validation, persistent observation, memoing, and peer debriefing.
  3. persistent observation, peer debriefing, referential adequacy, and member checks.
  4. snowball sampling, referential adequacy, persistent observation, and repeat interviewing.
  5. persistent observation, bracketing, member checks, and peer debriefing.

 

Qualitative research (p. 195)

  1. In qualitative research, confirmability refers to rigorous efforts by the researcher to
    1. be objective and maintain an audit trail to document the research process.
    2. transfer findings from one study to another study with similar context.
    3. interview the required number of participants and to keep accurate records.
    4. gather a sufficient amount of data and to accurately interpret that data.

 

Types of qualitative research (p. 196)

  1. The four major categories of qualitative research designs are
    1. experimental, descriptive, exploratory, and ethnography.
    2. ethnography, phenomenology, experimental, and quasi-experimental.
    3. phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, and historical.
    4. historical, ethnography, grounded theory, and exploratory.

 

Types of qualitative research (p. 197)

  1. The research method used to study participants’ lived experience is
  2. grounded theory.

 

Types of qualitative research (pp. 197, 199)

  1. The research method used when the goal is to discover a process is
  2. grounded theory.

 

Types of qualitative research (p. 197, 201)

  1. The research method based on making collective observations and that is used to study a particular culture is
  2. grounded theory.

 

Types of qualitative research (pp. 197, 206)

  1. The research method based on documentation of sources used to retroactively study events or people is
  2. grounded theory.

 

Ethical considerations (p. 209)

  1. While qualitative researchers must adhere to the same ethical standards as quantitative researchers, unique ethical considerations apply to
  2. data-management procedures.
  3. the relationship between the researcher and participant.
  4. both A and B.
  5. neither A nor B.

 

 

Short answer/Fill-in

 

How findings from qualitative studies contribute to EBP

 

  1. Qualitative research answers the ___________ and ____________ of behavior that are not easily explained through quantitative methods.

 

  1. Qualitative research generates _____________ to explain phenomena and processes about which little is known.

 

  1. Qualitative research gathers _____________ information about phenomena and events, and in doing so, can sensitize nurses to ____________ experiences.

 

 

 

CHAPTER NINE

COLLECTING EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Data collection (p. 218)

  1. Researchers often conduct a ____________ study using a scaled-back data collection method to evaluate the instruments and process to head off any potential problems.
    1. pilot
    2. scaled
    3. measured
    4. observational

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 220)

  1. The primary methods for data collection in quantitative studies are
    1. questionnaires, subjective surveys, rating scales, and structured observation.
    2. observations, scales, questionnaires, and physiological measures.
    3. physiological measures, scales, interviews, and direct observations.
    4. physiological measures, scales, observations, and subjective methods.

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 220)

  1. A researcher who wants to implement a less costly method of data collection and one that offers the greatest possibility of anonymity would likely use
    1. physiological measures.

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 221)

  1. In collecting data with questionnaires, response rate is defined as the
    1. percentage of questionnaires returned.
    2. total number of questionnaires returned.
    3. percentage of participants involved in the study.
    4. total amount of data being collected from participants.

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 221)

  1. As part of a study on sodium intake, a nurse researcher at a fast food restaurant counts the number of people who salt their food. Which data collection method is being used?
    1. Scale
    2. Physiological measurement
    3. Questionnaire
    4. Observation

 

Collecting quantitative data (pp. 222-223)

  1. In nursing, ____________ scales are often used to collect data about patient pain, fatigue, quality of life, and health status.
    1. incremental
    2. visual analog
    3. multidimensional
    4. Likert

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 223)

  1. A nurse researcher measures participants’ blood pressure readings early in the morning and late evening and compares the two readings. Which data collection method is being used?
  2. Observation
  3. Scale
  4. Physiological measurement
  5. Questionnaire

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 224)

  1. What are the four categories (levels) used to describe measurements?
  1. Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
  2. Ordinal, systematic, ratio, and continuous
  3. Interval, nominal, categorical, and simple
  4. Ratio, percentile, systematic, and continuous

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 224)

  1. Which level of measurement is the weakest?
  2. Nominal
  3. Ordinal
  4. Interval
  5. Ratio

 

Collecting quantitative data (pp. 224-225)

  1. Which of the following would be categorized as nominal data?
  2. Weight
  3. Marital status
  4. Exam scores
  5. Educational level

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 225)

  1. Which level of measurement uses a continuum of numeric values running from low to high at inequal intervals?
  2. Nominal
  3. Ordinal
  4. Interval
  5. Ratio

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 225)

  1. Which level of measurement uses a continuum of numeric values that have meaning and are spaced equally apart?
  2. Nominal
  3. Ordinal
  4. Interval
  5. Ratio

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 225)

  1. A nurse educator has conducted a study regarding test scores. This data represents which type of measurement?
  2. Nominal
  3. Ordinal
  4. Ratio
  5. Interval

 

Collecting quantitative data (p. 225)

  1. In a study that examines the amount of empathy communicated by participants, which level of measurement would be used?
  2. Interval
  3. Ratio
  4. Ordinal
  5. Nominal

 

Validity (p. 227)

  1. The two types of measurement error are
    1. random and systematic.
    2. random and continuous.
    3. methodological and random
    4. methodological and systematic.

 

Validity (p. 228)

  1. Validity of measurement refers to the ___________ an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure.
  2. aspect
  3. degree
  4. method
  5. increment

 

Validity (p. 228)

  1. Content validity is established when researchers know that the instrument measures the ____________ it was intended to measure.
  2. statistics
  3. rankings
  4. concept
  5. ratio

 

Validity (p. 228)

  1. The process used to establish content validity is to give an instrument to a panel of ____________, who rate its effectiveness; researchers then make adjustments to the instrument based on that feedback.
  2. subjects
  3. statisticians
  4. participants
  5. experts

 

Validity (p. 228)

  1. A nurse researcher asks several colleagues to evaluate a data collection tool to determine if the tool appears to measure the concept under study. This is an example of
    1. content validity.
    2. construct validity.
    3. face validity.
    4. criterion validity.

 

Validity (p. 230)

  1. Construct validity is the degree to which an instrument measures the ____________ it was intended to measure.
  2. statistical basis
  3. theoretical concept
  4. hypothesis
  5. observation

 

Reliability (p. 232)

  1. Reliability of measurement refers to the ___________ of an instrument.
  2. accuracy and consistency
  3. validity and accuracy
  4. dependability and clarity
  5. validity and consistency

 

Reliability (p. 231)

  1. Reliability estimates are shown in the form of a
  2. ratio
  3. parallel correlation
  4. fraction
  5. correlation coefficient

 

 

 

Reliability (p. 232)

  1. Interrater reliability tests for equivalence when instruments record observations. This is determined by the
    1. extent to which two or more individual raters agree.
    2. extent to which two or more individual raters disagree.
    3. extent to which multiple raters disagree.
    4. extent to which two or more individual raters agree on the data collection method.

 

Collecting qualitative data (p. 235)

  1. Qualitative data collection is based on collecting
  2. measurements.
  3. observations.
  4. words.
  5. concepts.

 

Collecting qualitative data (p. 235)

  1. The most important data collection instrument in qualitative studies is the
  2. participant.
  3. researcher.
  4. survey form.
  5. interval scale.

 

Short answer/Fill-in

 

Assessing the quality of quantitative data collection methods (p. 234)

 

When reviewing the methods section of a research article, you must consider a number of factors to determine if the data collection methods were valid and reliable.  You would ask:

 

  1. What are the ___________ being measured?

 

  1. Does the data collection ____________ fit with the study variables?

 

  1. What is the ____________ (treatment)?

 

  1. Was sufficient information provided about the intervention and the ____________ group?

 

  1. What steps were taken to minimize ____________ error?

 

  1. What instruments were used and were ____________ and ____________ discussed for each instrument?

 

  1. Was the setting described and the ____________ of measurement considered?

 

  1. Were there any difficulties with enrollment, attrition, or missing ____________?

 

 

Qualitative data collection: preparing for fieldwork (pp. 238-239)

 

You have been selected to be part of a team going into the field to collect data from patients with disabilities who are receiving in-home nursing care.  Your preparations for this fieldwork would include the following steps:

 

  1. Bring all the necessary background materials you will need and extra ____________ forms, in case additional participants are identified.

 

  1. Bring extra participant ____________ sheets that explain the purpose of the study.

 

  1. If interviews are being conducted, bring additional tape ____________, batteries, and ____________.

 

  1. For video interviews, bring additional cameras and ____________ and, if using a non-digital recording system, extra ____________.

 

  1. If compensation will be provided to participants, make sure you have the monetary or nonmonetary ____________ with you.

 

 

CHAPTER TEN

USING SAMPLES TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 248)

  1. The entire group of elements (can be people, events, experiences, or behaviors) that meet study criteria is the
    1. control group.
    2. accessible population.
    3. target population.
    4. representative sample.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 248)

  1. A select group of subjects that is representative of all eligible subjects constitutes the
  2. target population.
  3. sample.
  4. assigned informants.
  5. control group.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 248)

  1. The difference between a population and a sample is
  1. a population is a representative sample of a group.
  2. a sample includes people, objects, and events.
  3. a population is a specialized segment of a group.
  4. a sample is a representative group of a defined population.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 248)

  1. The ____________ is the group of elements to which the researcher has reasonable access.
  2. target population
  3. participant population
  4. accessible population
  5. control group

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 248)

  1. An example of an accessible population is
  1. all RNs in the United States.
  2. all pediatric RNs.
  3. RN-to-BSN students.
  4. RN-to-BSN students at one university.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 249)

  1. Representativeness refers to
    1. elements of the sample possess similar characteristics to elements of the target population.
    2. selection of subjects for the sample who have agreed to express specific opinions or beliefs that are representative of their ethnic or cultural group.
    3. selection of a sample that includes the same percentage of men and women.
    4. random sampling from the general population without the use of specific criteria.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 249)

  1. The more representative the sample, the more confidence there is ______________ the results of studies to the target population.
  1. identifying
  2. generalizing
  3. randomizing
  4. selecting

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 251)

  1. Establishing clear criteria for sample eligibility is done to
  2. improve studies by enhancing precision in sample selection.
  3. make sure no relevant populations are excluded.
  4. increase the sample size.
  5. decrease the sample size.

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 251)

  1. When sample criteria are ____________, nurses can determine if the study results are applicable to the clinical practice topic under consideration.
  1. inclusive
  2. exclusive
  3. explicit
  4. stratified

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 251)

  1. Sampling ____________ is present when subjects in a study do not adequately represent the target population.
  2. manipulation
  3. exclusion
  4. bias
  5. error

 

Sampling fundamentals (p. 251)

  1. Sampling ____________ is present when the sample includes elements that over- or underrepresent characteristics of the target population.
  2. manipulation
  3. exclusion
  4. bias
  5. error

 

Sampling methods (p. 252)

  1. Random selection of the sample is a primary characteristic of which sampling method?
    1. Nonprobability
    2. Probability
    3. Quota
    4. Convenience

 

Sampling methods (p. 252)

  1. The type of sampling typically used in quantitative studies is

 

Sampling methods (p. 257)

  1. The sampling method that does not require random selection of elements is

 

Sampling methods (p. 257)

  1. Nonprobability sampling carries more risk of selection bias than probability sampling because ____________ is not used.
  2. exclusion
  3. stratification
  4. representation
  5. randomization

 

Sampling methods (p. 257)

  1. The major disadvantage of nonprobability sampling compared with probability sampling is
    1. limited randomization.
    2. the sample size is too large.
    3. limited generalizibility.
    4. the sample size is too small.

 

Sampling methods (pp. 257-258)

  1. Sample bias is greatest in which sampling strategy?
  2. Quota
  3. Snowballing
  4. Convenience
  5. Stratified

 

Sampling methods (p. 258)

  1. Fifty RN-to-BSN students attending the same nursing school is an example of which sampling method?
  2. Convenience
  3. Target
  4. Stratified
  5. Purposive

 

Sampling methods (p. 259)

19  The preferred sampling method to obtain participants in qualitative research studies is

  1. purposive
  2. random
  3. snowballing
  4. recruitment

 

Sampling methods (pp. 257-258)

  1. Sixteen health policy interest groups in the state of Alabama is an example of which sampling method?
  2. Target
  3. Stratified
  4. Purposive
  5. Convenience

 

Sample size (p. 261)

  1. Adequate sample size is important because
  1. the sample has to be large enough for the study to be considered worthy of publication.
  2. the total number of participants must sign consent forms.
  3. researchers must be careful to avoid any accusations of bias.
  4. the sample has to be representative of the target population for results to be valid.

 

Sample size (p. 262)

  1. Attrition rate is defined as the
  2. percentage of participants involved in the study.
  3. percentage of participants not completing the study.
  4. percentage of questionnaires returned.
  5. total number of questionnaires returned.

 

Sample size (p. 262)

  1. A ____________ is a statistical method used to determine the minimal acceptable sample size to detect the true effect in a quantitative study.
  2. saturation analysis
  3. significance analysis
  4. meta-analysis
  5. power analysis

 

Sample size (p. 264)

  1. When nurses consider research studies for EBP, they must review them critically to determine if the sample is truly ____________ the target population.
  2. inclusive of
  3. representative of
  4. equal to
  5. nonbiased for

 

Sample size (p. 264)

  1. In reviewing research, nurses can carefully examine the sample size, attributes, and sampling methods in making decisions about the applicability of findings to
  2. clinical practice.
  3. prior research.
  4. graduate studies.
  5. new discoveries.

 

 

CHAPTER ELEVEN

OTHER SOURCES OF EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 273)

  1. The science of nursing based on research and scholarship is ____________ knowledge.
    1. intuitive
    2. nonpropositional
    3. propositional
    4. trial-and-error

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 273)

  1. The art of nursing based on informal sources and practical experience is ____________ knowledge.
  1. intuitive
  2. nonpropositional
  3. propositional
  4. trial-and-error

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 273)

  1. A nurse newly assigned to work in a coronary step-down unit seeks evidence for best practice in assisting clients and families with coping strategies post-MI. Which type of knowledge would be obtained from findings reported in published research studies?
  2. Nonpropositional
  3. Practical
  4. Trial-and-error
  5. Propositional

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 273)

  1. Placing the tubing of an indwelling urinary catheter in a coil on the bed is knowledge derived mainly from which type of knowledge?
  2. Intuitive
  3. Nonpropostitional
  4. Propositional
  5. Trial-and-error

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 273)

  1. An organizing framework that explains the importance of five levels of information to EBP healthcare delivery is a ____________ known as the 5Ss.
  2. pyramid
  3. presentation
  4. synthesis
  5. synopsis

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (pp. 273-274)

  1. Using the pyramid framework to organize various levels of healthcare information, which are on the bottom layer or base of the pyramid?
  2. Case studies
  3. Meta-analyses,
  4. Systemic reviews
  5. Summaries

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 277)

  1. When evaluating a concept analysis, one of the most important criteria for a nurse to consider is
  2. identification of the author’s assumptions.
  3. possible uses of the concept in practice.
  4. the rigor of the author’s approach.
  5. the specific characteristics of the concept.

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 277)

  1. The ____________ review is a type of synthesis that involves a rigorously conducted process of obtaining and reviewing relevant literature to answer theoretical or practice questions.
  1. systematic
  2. clinical
  3. integrative
  4. traditional

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (pp. 277-278)

  1. In the systematic review, what must the author do at the beginning of the process?
  2. Clarify the problem and the questions to be answered.
  3. Define the variables or concepts that are important to answering the questions.
  4. Decide on inclusion and exclusion criteria for studies.
  5. All of the above.

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 279)

  1. In which type of review could an author include only literature that supports a particular point and exclude reports with conflicting findings?
  1. Integrative review
  2. Meta-analysis
  3. Systematic review
  4. Traditional literature review

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 279)

  1. When you write a paper for one of your nursing courses, which type of literature review forms the basis of your research?
  1. Integrative review
  2. Traditional literature review
  3. Systematic review
  4. Summary review

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 280)

  1. The ____________ review is more rigorous than a traditional literature review but less rigorous than the systematic review since it includes only published reports.
  1. integrative review
  2. traditional literature review
  3. systematic review
  4. summary review

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 280)

  1. Which type of literature review combines the results of studies into a measurable format and statistically estimates the effects of proposed interventions?
  2. Integrative review
  3. Meta-analysis
  4. Peer review
  5. Systematic review

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss (p. 280)

  1. Which type of synthesis is systematically created by a group of experienced experts and key affected groups who read, critique, and prioritize the relevant evidence?
  1. Integrative evidence
  2. Peer reviews
  3. Practice guidelines
  4. Systematic analysis

 

Using the pyramid for EBP (p. 283)

  1. Nurses seeking answers to clinical questions should begin at the top of the pyramid, the ____________ level, and work down the various levels.
  1. integrative
  2. case
  3. systems
  4. summary

 

Using the pyramid for EBP (p. 283)

  1. If the facility does not have an electronic decision support system in place, the next step nurses seeking answers to clinical questions should take is to locate integrative ____________ of evidence.
  1. summaries
  2. syntheses
  3. meta-analyses
  4. studies

 

Using the pyramid for EBP (p. 283)

  1. Nurses seeking answers to clinical questions who do not have access to research summaries can locate ____________ of evidence in print and online evidence-based journals and online databases.
  1. meta-analyses
  2. syntheses
  3. synopses
  4. studies

 

Ethical issues (p. 288)

  1. To avoid ethical dilemmas, nurses must be familiar with the various types of literature review and _______________ read those sources to determine the usefulness of the findings for their own practice.
  1. slowly
  2. critically
  3. quickly
  4. always

 

Short answer/Fill-in

 

Pyramid of evidence: the 5Ss

 

  1. Included in the types of healthcare information that make up the first (base) level of the pyramid are ____________ and ____________ research studies, case studies, and concept analyses.

 

 

  1. Included in the types of healthcare information that make up the second level of the pyramid are meta-analyses, and ___________, ____________, and traditional literature reviews.

 

  1. The third level of the healthcare information pyramid includes brief descriptions of evidence known as ___________. Research article abstracts fall into this category.

 

 

  1. The fourth level of the healthcare information pyramid includes integrative research ___________.

 

  1. The fifth (top) level of the healthcare information pyramid is ___________. This highest level is based on a model that uses electronic medical records and a computerized decision support system.

 

 

CHAPTER TWELVE

WHAT DO THE QUANTITATIVE DATA MEAN?

 

Multiple choice

 

Using statistics to describe the sample (p. 293)

  1. Which type of statistics explains characteristics of variables found in a sample and describes, summarizes, and synthesizes collected data?
  2. Descriptive
  3. Inferential
  4. Explanatory
  5. Intuitive

 

Using statistics to describe the sample (p. 294)

  1. Inferential statistics involve the analysis of data as the basis for ____________ related to the phenomenon of interest.
  2. descriptions
  3. propositions
  4. explanations
  5. predictions

 

Using statistics to describe the sample (p. 294)

  1. Which type of statistics allows the researcher to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample?
  2. Descriptive
  3. Inferential
  4. Nonparametric
  5. Mathematical

 

Using statistics to describe the sample (p. 294)

  1. Descriptive data is valuable to the nurse researcher in
  2. summarizing data to identify salient features about a group of data.
  3. calculating data.
  4. determining reliability of data.
  5. determining generalizable data only.

 

Using frequencies to describe samples (p. 295)

  1. Frequency is
  2. the total number of variables under consideration.
  3. the total number of studies completed.
  4. how often a variable is found to occur.
  5. how many steps it takes to analyze the data.

 

Using frequencies to describe samples (p. 295)

  1. Frequencies can be represented as
  2. .grouped data ranked from low to high.
  3. grouped data that must have at least three categories.
  4. ungrouped data.
  5. grouped or ungrouped data.

 

Using frequencies to describe samples (p. 297)

  1. Descriptive statistics can be shown as a ____________, which is calculated by dividing the frequency of an event the by total number of events.
  2. .frequency analysis
  3. percentage distribution
  4. meta-analysis
  5. percentage statement

 

Using frequencies to describe samples (p. 297)

  1. Frequencies can be illustrated using various types of ____________.
  2. graphs.
  3. tables.
  4. indexes.
  5. images.

 

Measure of central tendency (p. 299)

  1. Measures of central tendency describe the
  2. accuracy of predictions made by researchers.
  3. average or typical case found in the data.
  4. reliability and generalizability of the data.
  5. amount of dispersion in the sample.

 

Measures of central tendency (p. 299)

  1. Nursing educators are reviewing scores from an examination to determine what score occurred most frequently. Which measure of central tendency are they seeking?
  2. Mean
  3. Median
  4. Mode
  5. Standard deviation

 

Measures of central tendency (p. 300)

  1. The middle value, or center of the data set is the
  2. mean.
  3. median.
  4. mode.
  5. standard deviation.

 

Measures of central tendency (p. 302)

  1. The average of a group of values is the
  2. mean.
  3. median.
  4. mode.
  5. standard deviation.

 

Measures of central tendency (p. 302)

  1. To calculate the mean in a group of values you must
  2. add all the values and double the total.
  3. add all the values and subtract the highest and lowest numbers.
  4. add all the values and divide the total in half.
  5. add all the values and divide by the total number of values.

 

Measures of central tendency (p. 302)

  1. In evaluating evidence, you should remember that the mean is the best measure of central tendency if there are no extreme values in the data set, and the ____________ is the best measure if there are extreme values.
  2. mean
  3. median
  4. mode
  5. standard deviation

 

Distribution patterns (p. 303)

  1. In a __________ distribution, the mean, median, and mode are equal and the distribution is shown as bell-shaped curve.
  2. normal
  3. negatively skewed
  4. positively skewed
  5. split-half

 

Distribution patterns (p. 304)

  1. Data that do not fit a normal distribution are considered to be asymmetrical or
  2. abnormal
  3. scattered
  4. skewed
  5. split

 

Distribution patterns (p. 304)

  1. A distribution in which the peak of the data is not at the center but has a longer tail to the left indicates that the mean is less than the median and mode and the data are
  2. normal
  3. negatively skewed
  4. positively skewed
  5. abnormal

 

Distribution patterns (p. 304)

  1. A distribution in which the mean is greater than the median and mode indicates that the data are
  2. normal
  3. negatively skewed
  4. positively skewed
  5. abnormal

 

Measures of variability (p. 306)

  1. Measures of variability show how ____________ the data are within a set.
  2. even
  3. skewed
  4. similar
  5. different

 

Measures of variability (p. 306)

  1. Measures of variability are also known as measures of
  2. dispersion.
  3. range.
  4. percentile.
  5. deviation.

 

Measures of variability (p. 307)

  1. Employees of XYZ Company were surveyed to determine how much they paid in out-of-pocket healthcare costs in a given year. The highest reported amount was $13,500, and the lowest reported amount was $425. For this data set, what is the range?
  2. $6,963
  3. $13,075
  4. $13,925
  5. $6,750

 

Measures of variability (p. 307)

  1. The ____________ range is the range of the middle 50% of the data.
  2. minimum
  3. maximum
  4. deviation
  5. semiquartile

 

Measures of variability (p. 308)

  1. A ____________ is a rank in a set of data that represents the percentage of cases that a given value exceeds.
  2. deviation
  3. range
  4. percentile
  5. quartile

 

Measures of variability (p. 308)

  1. In a normal distribution, what percentile represents the median of the sample?
  2. 25th
  3. 50th
  4. 75th
  5. 100th

 

Measures of variability (p. 308)

  1. A pediatric nurse measures and weighs a 9-year-old patient and determines that his height is in the 94th percentile, and his weight is in the 65th percentile. This patient weighs more than 65% of children in his age group but less than ____________ of children in the same group.
  2. 35%
  3. 94%
  4. 29%
  5. 15%

 

Measures of variability (p. 308)

  1. In a data set, the ____________ deviation is the measure of the average deviations of a value from the mean.
  2. standard
  3. variable
  4. maximum
  5. average

 

Measures of variability (p. 309)

  1. Which of the following is used when data collection involves unlike data, such as a measurement of bone density compared to obesity measured as a percentage of body fat?
    1. alpha
    2. standard deviation
    3. t test
    4. z scores

 

Measures of variability (p. 310)

  1. The rule of 68-95-99.7 states that in a normal distribution, 99.7% of the data will fall within ____________ standard deviation(s) of the mean.
  1. one
  2. two
  3. three
  4. four

 

Measures of variability (pp. 310-311)

  1. In a normal distribution with standard deviations, how is the area designated in which 47.5% of scores are higher than the mean and 47.5% are lower than the mean?
  2. one standard deviation above and below
  3. two standard deviations above and below
  4. three standard deviations above and below
  5. the score reflecting the mean, median, and mode

 

Inferential statistics (p. 315)

  1. Percentages that estimate the probability of inferences in a study being correct are reported as
  2. confidence intervals.
  3. standard deviations.
  4. percentiles.
  5. correlations.

 

Inferential statistics (p. 316)

  1. The likelihood of the frequency of an event in repeated trials under similar conditions is
  2. statistical analysis.
  3. chance.
  4. probability.
  5. sampling error.

 

Reducing error (p. 318)

  1. A null hypothesis states that there is ____________ relationship between two variables.
  2. no
  3. doubtful
  4. significant
  5. statistically proven

 

Reducing error (p. 319)

  1. A researcher is attempting to reduce error so nurses can have confidence in inferring findings to another practice setting by avoiding a type I error. What occurs in a type I error?
  2. The null hypothesis is accepted when it should have been rejected.
  3. The null hypothesis is rejected when it should have been accepted.
  4. The research hypothesis is accepted when it should have been rejected.
  5. The research hypothesis is rejected when it should have been accepted.

 

Reducing error (p. 319)

  1. When researchers accept the null hypothesis when it should have been rejected, this is an occurrence of
  2. hypothesis error.
  3. sampling error.
  4. type I error.
  5. type II error.

 

Reducing error (p. 321)

  1. In nursing practice, there is more serious risk associated with ____________ because of the potential for harm to patients.
  2. hypothesis errors
  3. sampling errors
  4. type I errors
  5. type II errors

 

Reducing error (p. 321)

  1. The ____________ is the probability of making a type I error; it is designated at the end of the tail in a distribution.
  2. variance
  3. alpha level
  4. risk factor
  5. beta level

 

Reducing error (p. 322)

  1. In attempting to minimize type I error, which of the following alpha levels can be interpreted as the most highly statistically significant result?
  2. p = 0.10
  3. p = 0.0001
  4. p = 0.001
  5. p = 0.01

 

Using statistical tests to infer to populations (p. 331)

  1. Older adults were grouped by their dentate status: edentulous (having had an upper or lower denture made) or dentate (having at least one tooth) and then compared based on the variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and education to determine a difference among the groups.

Which inferential test would be appropriate?

  1. Chi square
  2. Correlated t
  3. ANOVA
  4. Multiple regression

 

Meaning for EBP (p. 333)

  1. To apply research findings to EBP, nurses must learn to understand the difference between statistical and clinical significance and be able to
  2. analyze the findings for type I and type II errors.
  3. name each type of variable that was considered in the study.
  4. read and interpret statistical tables and appraise data analysis.
  5. duplicate the researcher’s calculations and data collection methods.

 

 

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

WHAT DO THE QUALITATIVE DATA MEAN?

 

Multiple choice

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 341)

  1. Qualitative data analysis involves what process?
  2. Managing data
  3. Organizing data
  4. Prioritizing data
  5. All of the above

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 342)

  1. In order to manage the data collected in qualitative research, it is important for the researcher to
  2. be aware that qualitative data is not as important as quantitative data.
  3. reduce the data into manageable units.
  4. organize the data by using a transcriptionist.
  5. use measures of central tendency.

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 342)

  1. Coding is a data analysis method used by qualitative researchers that involves
  2. analyzing descriptive data.
  3. analyzing inferential statistics.
  4. attaching labels to each line of a transcript.
  5. categorizing individual data.

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 342)

  1. The purpose of ____________ qualitative data is to categorize it into groups.
  2. coding
  3. analyzing
  4. transcribing
  5. interpreting

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 342)

  1. When a qualitative researcher selects, focuses, simplifies, and transforms data from field notes and/or transcripts, this is known as
  2. data saturation.
  3. data reduction.
  4. data manipulation.
  5. coding.

Qualitative data analysis (p. 343)

  1. The most basic coding is ____________, which is the first step taken to group data into logical categories.
  2. axial coding
  3. analytical coding
  4. open coding
  5. general coding

 

Qualitative data analysis (p. 343)

  1. An advanced form of coding is ____________, which takes the analysis process further by generating categories, themes, and patterns.
  2. axial coding
  3. analytical coding
  4. open coding
  5. general coding

 

Qualitative data analysis (pp. 345-346)

  1. Qualitative data analysis software is used by researchers to
  2. code the data into an infinite number of categories.
  3. group and link concepts within the data.
  4. create a master list and family tree from the data.
  5. put the data through an interpretation process.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 347)

  1. A nurse researcher participated in a qualitative study regarding perception of arthritic pain in relation to functional abilities required for the role of parent. Findings revealed the theme of planning activities at pain-limited times of the day as a coping strategy.  Use of this information in practice is an example of the
  2. analysis of research findings.
  3. evaluation of research findings.
  4. interpretation of research findings.
  5. synthesis of research findings.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 348)

  1. Which level of data is considered to be the “gold standard” in qualitative data?
  2. A priori framework
  3. Descriptive
  4. Developing a synthesis
  5. Explanation of a complex human phenomenon

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 349)

  1. Accepted strategies for generating meaning from qualitative data include
  2. noting patterns or themes and building a logical chain of evidence.
  3. clustering, counting, and making metaphors.
  4. making contrasts or comparisons and noting relationships between variables.
  5. all of the above.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 349)

  1. The strategy for generating meaning from qualitative data that involves identifying general themes to determine which go together is
  2. factoring.
  3. clustering.
  4. partitioning.
  5. counting.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 348)

  1. In reading conclusions drawn from qualitative research, nurses should check for potential researcher effects or bias.  They should also confirm that study participants had the same characteristics as the target population, which is known as
  2. clustering.
  3. plausibility.
  4. representativeness.
  5. reliability.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 350)

  1. A way for qualitative findings to be confirmed or enhanced is through
  2. chain of evidence.
  3. factoring.
  4. representativeness.
  5. replication.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 351)

  1. A qualitative research report written as a realist tale
  2. incorporates many details about the group studied.
  3. is written in a third-person voice.
  4. A and B.
  5. Neither A nor B.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 351)

  1. A qualitative research report written as a confessional tale is
  2. a real-life account that incorporates many details about the individuals studied.
  3. a personalized account written from the researcher’s viewpoint.
  4. a type of auto-ethnography.
  5. a personal narrative in the voice of the participants studied.

 

Qualitative data interpretation (p. 351)

  1. A qualitative research report written as an impressionist tale
  2. is a real-life account that incorporates many details about the individuals studied.
  3. takes a confessional approach by including a great deal of information about how the study was conducted.
  4. has a flowing, less formal writing style and is less structured than other types of reports.
  5. may have a storytelling aspect and allows the researcher to present his/her experiences as a participant observer.

 

Qualitative data evaluation (p. 354)

  1. Qualitative studies must be conducted with extreme rigor because of the potential for ____________ inherent in this form of research.
  2. objectivity
  3. complexity
  4. subjectivity
  5. untrustworthiness

 

Qualitative data evaluation (p. 354)

  1. The quality, authenticity, and truthfulness of findings determine the degree of confidence that readers have in qualitative research results. This is known as
  2. reliability.
  3. validity.
  4. objectivity.
  5. trustworthiness.

 

Qualitative data evaluation (p. 354)

  1. Qualitative studies are deemed ____________ when strategies have been implemented to meet credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability criteria.
  2. reliable
  3. trustworthy
  4. objective
  5. valid

 

Ethical issues (p. 360)

  1. Due to the potential for inappropriate disclosure of personal information in qualitative studies, protecting the ____________ of participants is especially important.
  2. confidentiality and anonymity
  3. privacy and location
  4. confidentiality and status
  5. contact information

 

 

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

WEIGHING IN ON THE EVIDENCE

 

Multiple choice

 

Making decisions (p. 365)

  1. The process in which nurses make clinical decisions based on the best available research integrated with patient preferences, values, and circumstances is
  2. research evaluation
  3. research analysis
  4. clinical collaboration
  5. evidence-based practice

 

Making decisions (p. 365)

  1. In weighing the evidence related to an innovative treatment, medical professionals can choose to ____________ the innovation.
  2. adopt or reject
  3. analyze and adopt
  4. analyze and reject
  5. closely examine

 

Making decisions (p. 365)

  1. Which of the following influences the decision to adopt a specific innovation in practice?
  2. Conflict among healthcare providers
  3. High numbers of alternative innovations
  4. Reduction of uncertainty
  5. Reliance on trial and error

 

Making decisions (p. 366)

  1. What occurs when no decision is made regarding adopting an innovation and old practices are continued?
  2. Active rejection
  3. Acquiring evidence
  4. Passive rejection
  5. Ranking of evidence

 

Making decisions (p. 366)

  1. When an innovative treatment or process is implemented on a trial basis, this is known as a(n)
  2. initial trial.
  3. pilot.
  4. test case.
  5. case study.

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 367)

  1. What is the appropriate order for the five-step approach to analyzing research studies?
  1. Acquire, apply, appraise, ask, assess
  2. Ask, acquire, appraise, apply, assess
  3. Apply, appraise, acquire, ask, assess
  4. Ask, appraise, acquire, assess, apply

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 368)

  1. When nurses appraise evidence, what do they review and evaluate to ensure that a study was sound?
  1. Number of participants, the location of research, and the findings
  2. Sponsor of the research, the number of participants, and the analysis methods
  3. Study design, how the research was conducted, and the data analysis
  4. Study design, where the research was conducted, and the findings

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 369)

  1. A type of study nurses are likely to appraise is the ____________, which is often found in the nursing literature and is important to the advancement of EBP.
  1. Randomized experiment
  2. Descriptive study
  3. Case control study
  4. Randomized controlled trial

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 370)

  1. Sample sizes in randomized controlled trials are typically ____________, and participants may be recruited at multiple sites.
  1. large
  2. varied
  3. small
  4. limited

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 371)

  1. Evidence ranking systems, known as evidence ____________ rank studies based on scientific rigor and levels of evidence; they are used by nurses in examining evidence on a given practice question.
  1. evaluation systems
  2. predetermined scales
  3. hierarchies
  4. trees

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 371)

  1. Read the following description of a research study to determine its ranking on the evidence hierarchy: The purpose of this research was to examine whether there are resultant behavioral changes in professionalism for returning adult RN to BSN students, and to identify teaching-learning activities that stimulate transformative learning. (Morris & Faulk, 2007, Perspective transformation: Enhancing the development of professionalism in RN-to-BSN students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 447).  This is an example of a
  1. case report.
  2. controlled trial without randomization.
  3. qualitative report.
  4. systematic review.

 

Appraising the evidence (pp. 372-373)

  1. Nurses can utilize resources designed to rank and evaluate evidence provided by
  1. the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
  2. the Cochrane Collaboration.
  3. the Joanna Briggs Institute.
  4. all of the above.

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 373)

  1. An international effort to develop a universal evidence evaluation system is known as ____________; it ranks the strength and quality of evidence into four levels.
  1. AHRQ
  2. GRADE
  3. USPSTF
  4. WHO

 

Appraising the evidence (p. 375)

  1. A nurse involved in discussions to determine the clinical significance of a study’s findings examines the odds ratio, which is the
  2. risk of the outcome in the treated group compared to the risk in the control group.
  3. percentage reduction in risk in the treated group compared to the control group.
  4. odds of a patient requiring treatment over an extended period of time to prevent one adverse outcome.
  5. odds of an experimental patient suffering an event compared to a patient in the control group.

 

Clinical practice guidelines (p. 376)

  1. Clinical practice guidelines provide
  1. all the variables that healthcare providers encounter when managing patient conditions .
  2. identification of unique patient characteristics and preferences for treatment.
  3. recommendations from a panel of experts for best practice.
  4. specific approaches to clinical management based on scientific evidence.

 

Clinical practice guidelines (p. 377)

  1. The ____________ instrument is a generic tool that provides a framework for evaluating, developing, and implementing clinical practice guidelines based on six quality domains.
  1. AGREE II
  2. Appraisal
  3. EPC
  4. NGC

 

Clinical practice guidelines (p. 377)

  1. A nurse is using a practice guideline in caring for older adults and is concerned about possible bias. What can this nurse do?
  2. Ask the hospital administration what to do
  3. Ask the physician what to do
  4. Use an appraisal instrument to evaluate the guideline
  5. Use the Johanna Briggs Institute to evaluate the guideline

 

Ethical issues (p. 379)

  1. In deciding how to apply evidence to practice, nurses must incorporate additional sources of information in making patient care decisions. These are
  1. the individual patient experience.
  2. any policy or cost considerations.
  3. the clinical experience.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ethical issues (p. 379)

  1. In deciding how to apply evidence to practice, _____________ is a concern for nurses because individual patients may not have the same characteristics as the study subjects.
  1. reliability
  2. generalizability
  3. validity
  4. duplicity

 

 

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

TRANSITIONING EVIDENCE TO PRACTICE

 

Multiple choice

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 388)

  1. Which EBP model offered insight into how and why nurses embrace research in clinical practice?
  1. CURN model
  2. Iowa model
  3. Nightingale model
  4. Stetler model

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 389)

  1. Which EBP model provides individual practitioners with step-by-step instructions for integrating research into practice?
  1. CURN model
  2. Iowa model
  3. Nightingale model
  4. Stetler model

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 390)

  1. Which EBP model explains how organizations change practice?
  1. CURN model
  2. Iowa model
  3. Nightingale model
  4. Stetler model

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 395)

  1. Nursing Quality Indicators developed by the American Nurses Association address
  1. best practice guidelines for providing care.
  2. issues related to obtaining reimbursement for nursing care.
  3. outcomes of nursing care focused on patient safety and quality.
  4. policies and procedures for implementation of nursing care.

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 395)

  1. Many healthcare facilities are increasing their support for EBP because of ____________ that link payment to positive patient outcomes.
  1. changing reimbursement policies
  2. shrinking sources for third-party reimbursement
  3. changing performance evaluation systems
  4. expensive clinical research studies

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 396)

  1. No or limited exposure to research in basic nursing programs is a barrier to connecting research to practice. What actions can help in overcoming this barrier?
  1. Actively participating in nursing grand rounds
  2. Enlisting nurses as research assistants
  3. Increasing nurses’ authority in client care
  4. Providing educational opportunities for nurses to learn about EBP

 

Creating change (p. 398)

  1. One of the first steps nurses can take to begin engaging others in transitioning to EBP is to ____________ the practice environment.
  1. start informal conversations with staff in
  2. keep detailed notes of any changes in
  3. conduct an assessment of
  4. host a conference with key stakeholders in

 

Creating change (p. 399)

  1. One of the most effective techniques for engaging nurses in the transition to an EBP model of providing health care is
  1. the journal club.
  2. attending national conferences.
  3. observing presentations.
  4. viewing posters.

 

Evidence-based practice models (p. 396)

  1. Nurses practicing on a unit have identified that they are uncomfortable with interpreting results of published research findings. What would be an approach to this problem?
  1. Avoidance of applying research findings on the unit
  2. Dissemination of findings in a more understandable manner
  3. Participation in research studies
  4. Reliance on researchers to interpret the findings

 

Creating change (p. 407)

  1. In planning a change related to a potential safety concern for a patient, which phase of Kotter’s change model would occur first?
  1. Communicating a sense of urgency
  2. Developing a vision
  3. Empowering action
  4. Generating short-term wins

 

Creating change (p. 407)

  1. Kotter’s change model outlines a(n) ____________ process for implementing change.
  1. ten-step
  2. visionary
  3. eight-step
  4. highly structured

 

Creating change (p. 409)

  1. According to Kotter’s change model, which of the following provides the best example of a short-term win?
  1. Anchoring the change
  2. Creating a coalition
  3. Developing a vision and strategy for change
  4. Exhibiting behaviors of the desired practice change

 

Creating change (pp. 409-410)

  1. When considering a practice change, why is identification of stakeholders important?
  1. Allows for clarification of the purpose of the proposed change
  2. Decreases misunderstandings related to the change
  3. Facilitates implementation of the proposed change
  4. All of the above

 

Ethical issues (p. 412)

  1. The cost-benefit ratio must be considered in implementing proposed changes in patient care. This is done by
  2. comparing the benefits of the proposed change to the length of time it takes to implement the change across an organization.
  3. comparing the number of patients who may benefit from the change to the annual cost of the their care.
  4. comparing the benefits of the proposed change to any potential cost that may result from the change.
  5. comparing the potential cost of a change to the standard reimbursement policies of the primary third-party payers.

 

Ethical issues (p. 412)

  1. What helps minimize ethical dilemmas that arise when considering changes to healthcare practices, process, or policies?
  2. Analyzing the generalizibility of research findings
  3. Examining the cost-benefit ratio
  4. Forming an ethical review committee
  5. Using an ethical theory to guide decision-making

 

 

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

DEVELOPING ONESELF AS AN INNOVATOR

 

Multiple choice

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 417)

  1. A nurse would be considered an innovator if he or she
  2. reads a lot of professional journals and asks the opinions of physicians and more senior nursing staff.
  3. is always the first to volunteer to chair a committee or lead a project.
  4. is willing to try new ideas in practice, based on evidence, to improve patient care.
  5. makes decisions slowly and desires a long testing period for new ideas or processes.

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 418)

  1. A new graduate is working on a medical surgical unit considering implementation of electronic medical records. How are the behaviors of a nurse innovator demonstrated?
  2. Asks opinions of physicians who care for the most complex clients on the unit
  3. Requests to lead the records project due to the personal desire to become a leader
  4. Seeks information regarding pros and cons of the record system in light of the unit’s characteristics and needs
  5. Takes a wait-and-see approach until another unit has implemented the new record system.

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 418)

  1. A nurse working in critical care questioned the rationale for limitations on family visitation times. After discussions with supervisors, administration, and other staff, the nurse gathers information for a possible policy change that could benefit patients, families, and staff.  This nurse is demonstrating which characteristic of an innovator?
  2. Awareness of self and the unit
  3. Flexibility to change
  4. Good communication skills
  5. Sense of inquiry

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 418)

  1. A nurse is concerned regarding an area of practice that has been linked to poor client outcomes. Several nurses have expressed concern regarding the problem.  Critically thinking about the problem would involve
  2. waiting for the unit continuing education offering regarding a change in practices.
  3. continuing the status quo.
  4. deferring to the hospital staff responsible for the policy and procedure manual.
  5. reflecting on past knowledge and formulating potential solutions.

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 419)

  1. Flexibility is an innovator characteristic exhibited by
  2. patience in communicating with patients and staff.
  3. an openness to change and willingness to learn from failure.
  4. immediately offering ideas and solutions when questions are raised.
  5. taking a great deal of time to research and evaluate potential solutions to problems.

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 419)

  1. Knowing yourself, in terms of your personality, how you think and behave, why you were drawn to nursing and/or to a particular specialty, and how you make decisions are elements of
  2. self awareness.
  3. flexibility.
  4. inquiry.
  5. unit awareness.

 

Innovator characteristics (p. 420)

  1. When nurses develop an awareness of the culture of their work environment, it enables them to recognize discrepancies, compare competence, experience dissonance, and attempt to balance differences. This is known as
  2. self awareness.
  3. flexibility.
  4. inquiry.
  5. unit awareness.

 

Developing oneself (p. 424)

  1. A baccalaureate prepared nurse seeks current practice information from journals as well as through networking at professional meetings. These behaviors demonstrate
  2. awareness of self.
  3. informal life-long learning.
  4. formal life-long learning.
  5. structured learning.

 

Developing oneself (p. 423)

  1. A baccalaureate prepared nurse participates in inservice training at her facility and enrolls in a master’s in nursing program. This demonstrates
  2. awareness of self.
  3. informal life-long learning.
  4. formal life-long learning.
  5. structured learning.

 

Developing oneself (p. 428)

  1. A new nurse participates in her first performance review with her supervisor. This review process will likely include setting ____________ and feedback from her supervisor and peers.
  2. a timeline for promotion
  3. performance-related goals
  4. a schedule for further training
  5. structured rules for the next review period

 

Developing oneself (p. 428)

  1. A nurse determines that each month he will explore for a new EBP guideline or technique for practice. This is an example of which of the following?
  2. Acting as preceptor during orientation
  3. Seeking a mentor to assist professional growth
  4. Connecting with others in similar practices areas
  5. Using a goal-centered framework for practice

 

Professionalism (p. 430)

  1. Miller’s wheel of professionalism in nursing is a model that
  2. describes the behaviors of a nursing professional.
  3. determines ladder programs in healthcare institutions.
  4. dictates nursing actions related to professionalism.
  5. fosters self-awareness regarding life-long learning needs.

 

Professionalism (p. 430)

  1. A crucial aspect of professional nursing in regard to implementing innovations is
  2. joining one or more professional nursing organizations.
  3. disseminating research findings through publications.
  4. learning how to develop clear and effective practice guidelines.
  5. using a credible theory base to provide safe patient care.

 

Professionalism (p. 430)

  1. A challenging component of professionalism for the new nurse is
  2. communication skills
  3. information overload
  4. flexibility
  5. community service

 

Ethical issues (p. 432)

  1. It is appropriate for nurses to acknowledge their own accomplishments and promote their profession. Writing an editorial for a newsletter on a health topic in your area of certification helps promote the profession by
  2. creating new knowledge.
  3. developing self-knowledge
  4. giving back to the profession
  5. making nursing more visible.

 

Ethical issues (pp. 424, 433)

  1. Nurses have a duty to give back to their profession. Once you gain experience, you could do this by acting as a ___________, or role model, for novice nurses.
  2. mentor
  3. supervisor
  4. partner
  5. preceptor

 

 

 

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

EVALUATING OUTCOMES OF INNOVATIONS

 

Outcome (p. 439)

  1. Nursing ____________ measure states, behaviors, or perceptions of individuals, families, or communities.
  2. evaluations
  3. practices
  4. interventions
  5. outcomes

 

Outcome (p. 439)

  1. Outcomes research examines the ____________ individuals and populations.
  2. value of innovative procedures for
  3. effects of care and treatment on
  4. likelihood of contracting disease among
  5. usefulness of drugs in development for

 

Outcome (p. 439)

  1. A nurse working with a post-surgery cardiac patient collaborates with him regarding the distance he will walk by the end of the week. The distance the patient completes is an example of a (n)
  2. outcome.
  3. evidence based practice.
  4. nursing intervention.
  5. evaluation.

 

Outcome (p. 439)

  1. The rate of urinary tract infections in indwelling catheterized clients on a unit is an example of a(n)
  1. care-related outcome.
  2. organization-related outcome.
  3. patient-related-outcome.
  4. performance-related outcome.

 

Outcome (p. 440)

  1. The effects of daily perineal care on the rate of urinary tract infections in clients with indwelling urinary catheters is an example of a(n)
  1. care-related outcome.
  2. organization-related outcome.
  3. patient related-outcome.
  4. performance-related outcome.

 

Outcome (p. 440)

  1. What are the categories of outcomes that deal with changes or results over a particular period of time?
  1. Abbreviated, normal, and involved
  2. Short-term, intermediate, and long-term
  3. Time restricted, time regulated, and time unlimited
  4. Short-term, average, and long-term

 

Outcome (p. 440)

  1. A client and care provider have identified that a 30-pound weight loss is needed to attain the desired Body Mass Index (BMI). The client’s measured weight and BMI two years following weight reduction is an example of
  1. a performance-related outcome.
  2. an intermediate outcome.
  3. a long-term outcome.
  4. a short-term outcome.

 

Outcome (p. 440)

  1. Reducing the development of pressure ulcer formation in hospitalized clients is an example of a(n)
  2. evidence-based practice.
  3. indicator.
  4. nursing-sensitive outcome.
  5. research outcome.

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 441)

  1. Specific quantitative criteria that specify how an outcome should be measured, such as daily weights, are an example of
  1. indicators.
  2. scales.
  3. outcomes.
  4. rankings.

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 443)

  1. Nurses seeking online information on health outcomes from reputable sources can access online materials from the
  1. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
  2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  3. National Committee for Quality Assurance.
  4. All of the above.

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 444)

  1. Continuous quality improvement efforts often involve nurses in what type of role?
  1. Data collection
  2. Organizational prioritization
  3. Reimbursement
  4. Research design

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 444)

  1. As part of continuous quality improvement initiatives, staff nurses often work as part of interdisciplinary teams dealing with
  1. obtaining funding.
  2. setting organizational priorities.
  3. protocol development.
  4. collaboration with other healthcare facilities.

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 445)

  1. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities are required to gather outcome data in regard to the treatment of specific diseases and report it to public agencies. When the data is used to compare outcomes across similar facilities, this is
  1. benchmarking.
  2. quality improvement.
  3. qualitative data.
  4. sensitive indicators.

 

Choosing outcomes (pp. 444-445)

  1. Continuous quality improvement and benchmarking are processes whose purpose is to
  1. seek increased funding.
  2. establish organizational priorities.
  3. conduct research.
  4. evaluate outcomes.

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 445)

  1. Outcomes such as nosocomial infection rates reported to state boards of health provide ____________ for organizations to use as part of benchmarking.
  1. research data
  2. performance comparisons
  3. credentialing data
  4. background information

 

Choosing outcomes (p. 446)

  1. In 2005 the American Nurses Credentialing Center developed the Magnet Recognition Program. As part of this program, healthcare organizations provide examples of nurse-sensitive quality indicators to apply for or maintain Magnet Recognition. The 14 components that exhibit nursing excellence are known as the
  1. universal benchmarks.
  2. nursing standards.
  3. Forces of Magnetism.
  4. magnet factors.

 

Ethical issues (p. 450)

  1. To maintain integrity of reporting data for Magnet Recognition or other benchmarking, what would be the appropriate action if a nurse was unable to collect all needed data?
  1. Ask an expert to estimate data
  2. Guess the data results
  3. Report the data as missing
  4. Use data collected at a later time

 

 

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

SHARING THE INSIGHTS WITH OTHERS

 

Dissemination of research (p. 455)

  1. The communication of clinical, research, and theoretical findings for the purpose of bringing new knowledge to the point of care is

 

Dissemination of research (p. 455)

  1. Examples of how evidence may best be disseminated are
  2. scholarly articles, oral presentations, and poster presentations.
  3. reading of articles, publication of evidence in a nonrefereed journal, and journal clubs.
  4. publication in a refereed nursing journal, continuing education workshops, and development of EBP guidelines.
  5. conference presentations at international conferences and development of EBP guidelines.

 

Dissemination of research (p. 456)

  1. Why is the dissemination of evidence important?
  2. Most health care institutions require it.
  3. Nurse educators need to disseminate evidence in order to obtain tenure.
  4. It allows for the transmission of new knowledge that can be used at the point of care.
  5. It is required to obtain grant funding for research.

 

Dissemination of research (p. 455)

  1. The four phases of scientific development are
  1. theory development, research, benchmarking, and publication.
  2. research, evaluation, dissemination, and presentation.
  3. protocol development, research, presentation, and application.
  4. theory development, research, dissemination, and application.

 

3 Ps of Dissemination (p. 457)

  1. What is a major advantage of using a poster presentation to disseminate evidence?
  2. Versatility of format
  3. Minimal cost and time are involved in preparation
  4. Networking opportunities that allow for the exchange of ideas
  5. Allows for an extensive summary of evidence

 

3Ps of dissemination (p. 457)

  1. Because dissemination from individuals in clinical practice is essential to building nursing knowledge, unit-based ____________ offer nurses the opportunity to share their unique knowledge in a visually interesting and concise format.
  2. posters
  3. debates
  4. classes
  5. publications

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 457)

  1. An obstetrics nurse seeking the opportunity to do a poster presentation at a regional child health conference would submit a(n) ____________ to the committee responsible for selecting presenters.
  2. poster
  3. outline
  4. abstract
  5. article

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 463)

  1. Nurses in clinical areas can choose to write and submit scholarly papers about case studies, EBP, and _____________ projects.
  2. personal interest
  3. quality management
  4. laboratory-based
  5. national research

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 464)

  1. Nurses interested in writing a scholarly paper who have little experience can begin by _____________ colleagues with more writing experience.
  2. imitating
  3. collaborating with
  4. observing
  5. reading about

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 463)

  1. In writing a scholarly paper, a good habit for nurses to develop is to
  2. write daily for a minimum of 15-30 minutes.
  3. ask colleagues many relevant questions.
  4. read a lot of professional journals.
  5. partner with a university researcher with expertise on the chosen topic.

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 464)

  1. A(n) ____________ is the term used for a scholarly paper prior to its publication.
  2. thesis
  3. abstract
  4. data analysis
  5. manuscript

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 464)

  1. In the process of writing a scholarly paper, to help with issues of content, organization, and clarity, it can be valuable to seek _____________ from colleagues.
  2. data
  3. feedback
  4. publications
  5. notes

 

3Ps of Dissemination (p. 469)

  1. The two most common mistakes made during oral presentations are
  2. reading from slides or paper and failing to adhere to time limits.
  3. using too many slides and speaking too softly.
  4. failing to adhere to time limits and not providing handouts.
  5. reading from slides or paper and speaking too loudly.

 

Conferences (p. 470)

  1. Professional behavior when attending a conference involves
  2. sharing business cards with other attendees.
  3. turning off cell phones.
  4. dressing professionally.
  5. all of the above.

 

Conferences (pp. 470-471)

  1. How can nurses get the most benefit from attending professional conferences?
  2. Make a schedule to ensure that sessions of interest aren’t missed
  3. Take advantage of informal networking opportunities
  4. Talk with experts when they are available
  5. All of the above.