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Experience Psychology 2nd Edition By King – 
Test Bank

 

 

Chapter 03

Sensation and Perception

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 85)The process through which the senses detect environmental stimuli and transmit them to the brain is called _____.
    A. consciousness
    B. perception
    C. sensation
    D. reception

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 85)_____ is the process by which the brain actively organizes and interprets sensory information.
    A. Consciousness
    B. Perception
    C. Sensation
    D. Reception

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 85)As you walk barefoot in the park, your nose conveys to your brain the smell of the freshly cut grass, your skin sends information about the feel of the gentle breeze, and your ears transmit the sound of children laughing on the playground to your auditory cortex. This process of acquiring “raw data” about the stimuli in the environment is called _____.
    A. sensation
    B. selective attention
    C. sensory adaptation
    D. cognition

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 85)The process of _____ involves organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information.
    A. perception
    B. sensation
    C. transduction
    D. inhibition

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 86)Melanie is learning how to read Spanish by sounding out each word one letter at a time. Melanie is engaging in _____.
    A. top-down processing
    B. bottom-up processing
    C. sensory adaptation
    D. subliminal perception

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 87)_____ are specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to afferent nerves and the brain.
    A. Perceptual sets
    B. Sensory receptors
    C. Binocular cues
    D. Monocular cues

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 87)Which of the following is true of sensation?
    A. Sensory receptors are specialized cells that are not selective.
    B. Chemoreception helps in the detection of light, perceived as sight.
    C. Synaesthesia describes an experience in which one sense induces an experience in the same sense.
    D. Sensory receptors are the openings through which the brain and nervous system experience the world.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 87)Which of the following explains the ability of an animal to distinguish among sight, sound, odor, taste, and touch?
    A. Sensory neurons (unlike all neurons) do not follow the all-or-nothing principle.
    B. The senses create a process known as synaesthesia that describes an experience in which one sense induces an experience in the same sense.
    C. Sensory receptors are selective and have different neural pathways.
    D. The receptor holds the frequency of action potentials sent to the brain.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 88)Which of the following classes of sensory receptors play an important role in detecting pressure, vibration, movement, touch, and hearing?
    A. Chemoreception
    B. Photoreception
    C. Mechanoreception
    D. Endorphins

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 88)Which of the following classes of sensory receptors provide information about sight and the detection of light?
    A. Chemoreception
    B. Photoreception
    C. Chemoreception
    D. Synaesthesia

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 89)_____ means that a person can detect information from the world without receiving concrete sensory input.
    A. Retrocognition
    B. Selective attention
    C. Absolute threshold
    D. Extrasensory perception

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 89)You are studying in your dorm room, but your neighbor is blasting the television in the adjacent room. When you gently request that your neighbor turn the volume down until you cannot hear it, you are asking your neighbor to make the volume less than your _____.
    A. absolute threshold
    B. difference threshold
    C. minimum transduction level
    D. basilar level

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 89)Michael, a famous musician, is designing a new apartment that will serve as both his residence and his recording studio. Since the music studio shares a wall with his bedroom, Michael wants to be sure that the recording studio is soundproof. This means that Michael wants to be sure that sound from the studio is well under his _____ while he is in his bedroom.
    A. absolute threshold
    B. difference threshold
    C. papillae
    D. minimum threshold

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 89)The _____ marks the point where we can just barely perceive a stimulus.
    A. just noticeable difference
    B. difference threshold
    C. absolute threshold
    D. just noticeable threshold

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 90)The smallest intensity of a stimulus that you can detect 50 percent of the time is the _____.
    A. absolute threshold
    B. sensory threshold
    C. the extrasensory perception
    D. Weber’s law

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 91-92)The minimal change in stimulation that is required to detect whether one stimulus differs from another is the _____.
    A. difference threshold
    B. absolute threshold
    C. perceptual constant
    D. vestibular sense

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 92)Which of the following principles states that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to be perceived as different?
    A. Ricco’s law
    B. The volley principle
    C. Weber’s law
    D. Perceptual attention

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 92)Linda is studying while listening to her iPod. She notices that when she raises the volume 5 decibels when the volume is initially low, the change is very noticeable. However, when the volume is initially high, increasing the volume by 5 decibels doesn’t result in as noticeable of a change in sound. This phenomenon is best explained by _____.
    A. the volley principle
    B. Weber’s law
    C. perceptual constancy
    D. selective attention

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 92)Emily is selecting a new paint color for her bedroom. She detects a difference between sky blue and midnight blue. Emily’s ability to distinguish these two colors from one another can best be explained by the concept of _____.
    A. sensory adaptation
    B. difference threshold
    C. selective attention
    D. top-down processing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 92)_____ refers to the detection of sensory information that occurs below the level of conscious awareness.
    A. Subliminal perception
    B. Perceptual set
    C. Top-down processing
    D. Bottom-up processing

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 92)_____ focuses on decision making about stimuli under conditions of uncertainty.
    A. Parallel processing perspective
    B. Trichromatic theory
    C. Opponent-process theory
    D. Signal detection theory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 92-93)What theory of perception proposes that detection of stimuli depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, physical intensity of the stimulus, fatigue of the observer, and expectancy?
    A. Opponent-process theory
    B. Multiple perceptual context theory
    C. Signal detection theory
    D. Weber’s theory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 93)Which of the following is true of attention?
    A. Attention is neither selective, nor shiftable.
    B. Novel stimuli often fail to attract our attention.
    C. Inattentional blindness refers to the failure to detect unexpected events when attention is engaged by a task.
    D. Objects that are small, dull-colored, or stationary are more likely to grab our attention than objects that are large, vividly colored, or moving.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 95)You arrive at your friend’s apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it no longer bothers you or seems that loud. This change in your sensations describes the process of _____.
    A. auditory adjustment
    B. transduction
    C. sensory adaptation
    D. sensory deprivation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 95)Jennifer is a chain smoker. When her friend Irene, a non-smoker, gets in the car with Jennifer she is overwhelmed by the smell of smoke. One day she mentioned this fact to Jennifer who was surprised by the comment. Jennifer claims that when she sniffs her hair and clothing she can’t sense the smoky scent. Jennifer’s inability to detect the smoky scent is an example of _____.
    A. perceptual redundancy
    B. sensory adaptation
    C. the cocktail party phenomenon
    D. closure

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 95)When Carlos first jumped into the pool, he thought the water was very cold. Although the actual temperature of the pool remained constant, after a few minutes Carlos no longer complained about feeling cold. This change is his reaction to the temperature of the water is an example of _____.
    A. sensory deprivation
    B. a perceptual set
    C. sensory adaptation
    D. top-down processing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 95)A predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way is known as _____.
    A. selective attention
    B. a perceptual set
    C. the cocktail party effect
    D. top-down processing

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 96)The _____ is the colored part of the eye.
    A. lens
    B. pupil
    C. cornea
    D. iris

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 96)The major purpose of the sclera is to _____.
    A. help maintain the shape of the eye and protect it from injury
    B. control the size of the pupil
    C. focus light on the retina
    D. record what we see and convert it to neural impulses for processing in the brain

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 98)The iris is the _____.
    A. clear membrane just in front of the cornea through which light first passes
    B. colored part of the eye that contains muscles that control the size of the pupil
    C. white outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury
    D. light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye that records what we see and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 98)Rods and cones are located in the _____.
    A. retina
    B. lens
    C. cornea
    D. occipital lobe

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 98)The pupil is the _____.
    A. white, outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury
    B. colored part of the eye, which might be light blue in one individual and dark brown in another
    C. opening in the center of the iris, which appears black
    D. multilayered light-sensitive surface in the eye that records electromagnetic energy

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 98)The multilayered light-sensitive surface in the eye that records electromagnetic energy and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain is known as the _____.
    A. sclera
    B. iris
    C. retina
    D. optic nerve

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 98)The _____ is a transparent and somewhat flexible, disklike structure filled with a gelatin-like material.
    A. retina
    B. lens
    C. optic nerve
    D. fovea

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 98)As light enters the eye, eventually it reaches the light-sensitive _____ at the back of the eye.
    A. iris
    B. lens
    C. retina
    D. cornea

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 99)Jane is having trouble sleeping. As she sits in bed looking around the darkened room, she notices that her peripheral vision seems to be better than her central vision. This is because vision in low light conditions _____.
    A. depends on the rods
    B. depends on the cones
    C. doesn’t require the use of the pupil
    D. doesn’t require the retina

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 99)Cones _____.
    A. are receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light
    B. are specialized receptor cells that enable us to see color
    C. function best at night or under low illumination conditions
    D. are concentrated in the blind spot

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 99)You try to note the incredibly fine details of a computer microchip through a magnifying glass. On which area of the retina should you be focusing this image?
    A. Optic chiasm
    B. Rods
    C. Periphery
    D. Fovea

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 99)The tiny area in the center of the retina that contains only cones is called the _____.
    A. cornea
    B. fovea
    C. chiasm
    D. optic nerve

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 99)The _____ is made up of axons of the ganglion cells, which carries visual information to the brain for further processing.
    A. fovea
    B. optic nerve
    C. lens
    D. iris

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 99)The _____ is the area near the center of the retina where there are no rods and no cones.
    A. cornea
    B. blind spot
    C. fovea
    D. lens

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 100)The crossover point where the right visual field information goes to the left hemisphere is called the _____.
    A. fovea
    B. optic nerve
    C. retina
    D. optic chiasm

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 101)The simultaneous distribution of sensory information across different neural pathways is called _____.
    A. binding
    B. bottom-up processing
    C. top-down processing
    D. parallel processing

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 101)The purpose of parallel processing is to _____.
    A. allow sensory information to travel rapidly through the brain
    B. allow rods and cones to function simultaneously
    C. prevent the misinterpretation of colors
    D. use binocular cues to perceive depth

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 101)_____ is a process that involves coupling of the activity of various cells and pathways and helps integrate information about an object.
    A. Parallel processing
    B. Binding
    C. Depth perception
    D. Perceptual integration

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 102)Which of the following theories of vision can best explain the occurrence of afterimages (i.e., sensations that remain after a stimulus is removed)?
    A. Trichromatic theory
    B. Opponent-process theory
    C. Frequency theory
    D. Place theory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 102)The _____ theory states that cells in the visual system respond to complementary pairs of red-green and blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue.
    A. trichromatic
    B. place
    C. frequency
    D. opponent-process

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 102)Which of the following statements about research on color blindness is true?
    A. Most individuals who are color-blind literally see the world in black and white. They are unable to perceive any colors other than black or white.
    B. Color blindness is more common among women than among men.
    C. The nature of color blindness depends on which of the three kinds of cones (green, red, and blue) is inoperative.
    D. Research on color blindness does not support the trichromatic theory of vision.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 104)The _____ is the principle by which we organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out and those that are left over.
    A. opponent-process theory
    B. trichromatic theory
    C. apparent movement
    D. figure-ground relationship

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 104)Gestalt psychologists emphasize that _____.
    A. perception is the same as sensation
    B. we learn to perceive the world through experience
    C. the whole is more than the sum of its parts
    D. perception is a neurological process

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 104)Depth perception involves _____.
    A. perceiving three dimensions
    B. seeing in three colors
    C. the pinna
    D. the papillae

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 104)_____ depth vision cues depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes.
    A. Monocular
    B. Binocular
    C. Gradient
    D. Parallel

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 105)In order to get a good idea of an object’s depth, we rely on a number of binocular and monocular cues. Which of the following would be an example of a binocular cue?
    A. Texture gradient
    B. Convergence
    C. Height in field of view
    D. Shading

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 105)In depth perception, familiar size, height in field of view, and shading are examples of _____.
    A. binocular cues
    B. monocular cues
    C. stereograms
    D. feature detectors

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 105)Which depth cue accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer together the farther away they are?
    A. Texture gradient
    B. Superposition
    C. Vertical position
    D. Linear perspective

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 106)The perception that a stationary object is moving is known as _____.
    A. real movement
    B. apparent movement
    C. convergence
    D. depth perception

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 107)Perceptual constancy refers to our ability to _____.
    A. switch back and forth between the figure and the ground in a figure-ground problem.
    B. have all of our sensory systems working on overload in a highly stressful situation.
    C. adjust to the amount of light in the room even if that requires light or dark adaptation.
    D. see an object as the same size even though we move closer to it or farther from it.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 107)Looking at a quarter in your hand casts a different image on your retina compared to looking at a quarter across the room, yet we know that the quarter is the same and retains the same dimensions. This phenomenon is known as _____.
    A. perceptual constancy
    B. figure-ground
    C. the Ponzo illusion
    D. Gestalt closure

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 107)The tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in size, shape, and/or color is called _____.
    A. monocular constancy
    B. perceptual constancy
    C. linear perspective
    D. the figure-ground principle

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 107)If we see a German shepherd standing thirty feet from us, we perceive that it is just as big as it was when it was much closer to us. This is primarily due to _____.
    A. size constancy
    B. shape constancy
    C. proximity
    D. figure-ground

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 107)A door is still perceived as a rectangle even after we view it from different angles. This is due to _____.
    A. depth cues
    B. retinal disparity
    C. shape constancy
    D. linear constancy

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 109)_____ is the perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound.
    A. Amplitude
    B. Loudness
    C. Pitch
    D. Sound wave

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 109)The pitch of a sound is a function of the sound wave’s _____, whereas the loudness of a sound is a function of the sound wave’s _____.
    A. frequency/amplitude
    B. amplitude/frequency
    C. decibel level/melodic waveform
    D. melodic waveform/decibel level

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 109)Which of the following is the unit of measurement for assessing loudness?
    A. Pitch
    B. Saturation
    C. Hue
    D. Decibel

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 109)Mark’s ability to distinguish a trumpet and a trombone or his mother’s voice from his sister’s voice is due to the _____ of these stimuli.
    A. pitch
    B. amplitude
    C. decibels
    D. timbre

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 109)When sound waves enter the auditory canal, they first cause the _____.
    A. eardrum to vibrate
    B. oval window to move
    C. cochlea to vibrate
    D. hammer to vibrate

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 109)Which of the following is true of the nature of sound?
    A. Loudness is the perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound.
    B. Timbre is the amount of pressure the sound wave produces relative to a standard.
    C. Frequency is the perception of the sound wave’s amplitude.
    D. Sound waves vary in frequency as well as in amplitude.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 110)The primary function of the _____ is to collect sounds and channel them into the inner ear.
    A. cochlea
    B. pinna
    C. cilia
    D. basilar membrane

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 111)The eardrum is located in the _____.
    A. auditory cortex
    B. inner ear
    C. middle ear
    D. outer ear

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 111)The major function of the _____ is to amplify vibrations and pass them on to the inner ear.
    A. pinnae
    B. hammer, anvil, and stirrup
    C. papillae
    D. olfactory epithelium

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 111)When one hears any sound, one’s eardrum vibrates. These vibrations are then transferred to the inner ear by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. These three bones are all located in the _____.
    A. outer ear
    B. middle ear
    C. inner ear
    D. marginal ear

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 111)The cochlea is part of the _____.
    A. pinnae
    B. inner ear
    C. middle ear
    D. outer ear

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 112)Place theory states that _____.
    A. in vision, depth perception occurs because of a combination of binocular and monocular cues
    B. in vision, color perception occurs because of different types of cones
    C. in hearing, a cluster of neurons “volley” neural impulses in rapid succession.
    D. in hearing, each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 112)Which of the following is true of place theory?
    A. Place theory states that the perception of a sound’s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires.
    B. Place theory adequately explains low-frequency sounds but not high-frequency sounds.
    C. Place theory states that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina.
    D. Place theory states that low-frequency vibrations maximally displace areas of the membrane closer to the tip of the cochlea.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 112)One criticism of place theory is that it _____.
    A. adequately explains low-frequency sounds but not high-frequency sounds.
    B. adequately explains high-frequency sounds but not low-frequency sounds.
    C. doesn’t explain findings from split-brain research.
    D. can’t explain the different functions of rods and cones.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 112)Which of the following statements about cochlear implants is false?
    A. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that is surgically implanted in the ear and head.
    B. Cochlear implants, like hearing aids, work by amplifying sound.
    C. Cochlear implants stimulate whatever working auditory nerves the recipient has in his or her cochlea with electronic impulses.
    D. Cochlear implants work best if they are inserted shortly after hearing loss.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 113)_____ best explains those high-frequency sounds (above 1,000 times per second).
    A. A combination of frequency and place theory
    B. Place theory
    C. Decibel theory
    D. A combination of opponent-process and trichromatic theory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 113)Which of the following is true of auditory processing in the brain?
    A. Auditory information moves down the auditory pathway via electrochemical transmission in a less complex manner than does visual information in the visual pathway.
    B. In the auditory system, information about sound moves from the auditory nerve to the hair cells of the inner ear.
    C. Most of the auditory information from the left ear goes to the right side of the brain, but some also goes to the left side of the brain.
    D. Many synapses occur in the ascending auditory pathway, with all fibers proceeding directly to the hemisphere on the same side as the ear of reception.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 115)You touch a baby’s forehead and realize that he feels warm and must have a fever. What type of sensory receptors relayed information about your baby’s temperature to your brain?
    A. Thermoreceptors
    B. Endorphins
    C. Rods
    D. Cones

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 115)When something warm touches your skin, you feel warmth. When something cold touches your skin, you feel coldness. If things both warm and cold touch your skin, stimulating adjacent thermoreceptors for warmth and cold, you will feel _____.
    A. hotness
    B. coldness
    C. both hotness and coldness
    D. neither hotness nor coldness

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

 

  1. (p. 115)Which of the following is true of touch?
    A. Our sensitivity to touch is equally good across all areas of the skin.
    B. The brain devotes more space to analyzing touch signals coming from the legs than from the hands.
    C. In touch we detect mechanical energy, or pressure against the skin.
    D. Human toolmakers need much less touch discrimination in their hands.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 116)Which of the following is true of pain?
    A. Pain receptors differ anatomically.
    B. Pain receptors are similar in the type of physical stimuli to which they most readily react.
    C. Pain receptors have a much lower threshold for firing than receptors for temperature and touch.
    D. Pain receptors react mainly to physical stimuli that distort them or to chemical stimuli that irritate them into action.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 117)In the _____ fibers connect directly with the thalamus and then to the motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex.
    A. slow pathway
    B. fast pathway
    C. kinesthetic sense
    D. vestibular sense

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

 

  1. (p. 117)Endorphins are _____.
    A. neurotransmitters that function as natural opiates in producing pleasure and pain
    B. believed to be released mainly in the synapses of the fast pathway
    C. hormones that are involved the kinesthetic sense
    D. hormones that are involved in the vestibular sense

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 118)The sensory receptors for taste called taste buds are located in the _____.
    A. papillae
    B. pinna
    C. salivary glands
    D. olfactory epithelium

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 119)The lining of the nasal cavity that contains a sheet of receptor cells for smell is known as the _____.
    A. semicircular canal
    B. papillae
    C. olfactory epithelium
    D. cochlea

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

 

  1. (p. 119)Which of the following implies that smell elicits more vivid memories than the other senses?
    A. Smells are often stronger than sights, sounds, and other stimuli.
    B. The sense of smell takes a more direct neural pathway to emotion, and memory centers in the brain than do other senses.
    C. Smells are more often associated with stronger emotions, particularly those associated with threat or harm.
    D. The sense of smell is closely related to finding food to eat for survival, it is directly connected to the areas in the brain responsible for primary survival behaviors.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 121)The _____ senses provide information about movement, posture, and orientation, whereas the _____ senses provide information about balance and movement.
    A. kinesthetic; vestibular
    B. vestibular; kinesthetic
    C. limbic; thalamic
    D. thalamic; limbic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

  1. (p. 121)Sensory receptors for the kinesthetic sense are located in _____.
    A. spinal cord
    B. thalamus
    C. muscle fibers and joints
    D. small bones in the inner ear

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

 

  1. (p. 121)The purpose of semicircular canals in the inner ear is to _____.
    A. protect the ear from damage
    B. detect high-frequency sounds
    C. detect low-frequency sounds
    D. detect the motion of your head

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 85-86)Compare and contrast the process of sensation and perception. What purpose or function does sensation and perception serve?

Sensation and perception are the processes by which we connect with the world. Sensation and perception are distinct yet interrelated processes. Sensation involves receiving stimulus energies from the external environment. For example, you may look up into the sky and receive visual stimuli on your retina. Sensory receptors send their messages to the brain, where they will be organized and interpreted. The brain gives meaning to sensation through perception. Thus, information about the stimulus’ size, shape, color, texture, and context may lead you to the realization that you are looking at an airplane. Sensation and perception serve the important function of allowing us to adapt to our environment. Being able to detect a predator, the presence of prey, or the appearance of a mate increases an organism’s probability of survival.

 

Blooms: Analysis
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 89-91)Describe the distinction between an absolute threshold and a difference threshold.

The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time. The absolute threshold of a sense marks the difference between not being able to perceive a stimulus and just barely being able to see it. For example, if you are listening to music, the very fact that you can hear it means that the absolute threshold has been crossed. The difference threshold is the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected. For example, if you are listening to music, you might wonder how much the volume must be turned down for you to notice a difference.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

  1. (p. 93-95)Explain how social context and a person’s pre-existing expectations and motivations can affect perception.

Perception is not only driven by the features of the stimulus object, but also by the perceiver’s pre-existing motivations and expectations. According to the principle of selective attention, human beings have the ability to focus on specific aspects of an experience while ignoring others. If you have ever tried to have a phone conversation in a crowded public setting and tried to ignore the background noise while focusing on the voice of the person you are speaking to, you have experienced selective attention. People are also very capable of shifting their attention. For example, you may be paying attention to your psychology lecture, yet look over to the student next to you who dropped his book. The fact that attention is both selective and capable of shifting suggests that the characteristics of the perceiver play an important role in shaping the perception process. Perception is also influenced by a person’s pre-existing expectations. A perceptual set is a psychological predisposition to perceive one thing but not another.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: How We Sense and Perceive the World

 

  1. (p. 98-99)What are rods and cones? Describe their functions in the eye.

Rods and cones are visual receptor cells, and they are found in the retina. Rods and cones help us to process information about light. Rods are cylindrical cells that are extremely sensitive to light; cones, named for their cone-like shape, help us to focus and perceive color in bright light. Cones can be found in plenteous number on the fovea, which lends additional help in focusing on objects. Outside the fovea, the number of cones decreases. The number of rods is greatest just outside the fovea, and there are no rods in the fovea. Rods help us to see objects in our periphery, outside of our main focus, and they are particularly active in dimly lit situations. Both rods and cones help people to adjust to changes in light levels. Ultimately, it is the job of the rods and cones to transmit visual information to bipolar cells and continue the information processing chain to the brain.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 102)Describe the main principles of trichromatic theory. How does this theory explain color vision and color blindness?

Trichromatic theory suggests that there are three types of color receptors located in the eye’s retina, and each type responds to a specific range of light wavelengths. One type processes blue-violet information; a second processes green information; and the final type processes information about yellow-red colors. According to the theory, our ability to perceive color or differences in color is determined by which of the three types of receptors (or a combination of them) are active or inactive. When our color receptor cells are working normally, we can distinguish between at least seven million different colors. However, some people’s receptors do not operate normally, and they experience color blindness. Color blindness is a condition that affects more men than women. Color blindness generally results in perceiving red and green objects as yellow; other impairments in color perception also exist. According to trichromatic theory, color blindness occurs when one of the color receptor types is impaired. When this happens, the colors associated with that receptor are not perceived correctly.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 104-105)Explain how even though images appear on the retina in two-dimensional space, we are able to perceive objects in three dimensions.

We use cues from the environment to perceive three-dimensionally. Binocular cues are depth cues that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes. The image from each eye is slightly different because the eyes are in slightly different positions. The brain uses this “disparity” to determine depth. Convergence is another binocular cue to depth and distance. When we use our two eyes to look at the something, they are focused on the same object. If the object is near us, our eyes converge, or move together, almost crossing. If the object is farther away, we can focus on it without pulling our eyes together. The muscle movements involved in convergence provide information about how far away or how deep something is. Additionally, we use monocular cues (or depth cues) such as familiar size, height in field of view, linear perspective, overlap, shading, and texture gradient.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

  1. (p. 107)Describe the three types of perceptual constancies (size, shape, and color) and explain how they help us construct meaningful perceptions.

Perceptual constancy is the recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing. Size constancy is the recognition that an object remains the same size even though the retinal image of the object changes. Shape constancy is the recognition that an object retains the same shape even though its spatial orientation may change. Color constancy is the recognition that an object retains the same color even though there may be variations in the amount of light that falls on it.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Visual System

 

  1. (p. 110-112)Describe the structures and functions of the ear.

The ear serves the purpose of transmitting a high-fidelity version of sounds in the world to the brain for analysis and interpretation. The ear is divided into three parts: outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the external auditory canal.
The funnel-shaped pinna is the outer, visible part of the ear. The pinna collects sounds and channels them into the interior of the ear. After passing the pinna, sound waves move through the auditory canal to the middle ear. The middle ear channels the sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear. The eardrum, or tympanic membrane, separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound. It is the first structure that sound touches in the middle ear. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are an intricately connected chain of very small bones. When they vibrate, they transmit sound waves to the fluid-filled inner ear. The muscles that operate these tiny bones take the vibration of the eardrum and transmit it to the oval window, the opening of the inner ear. The function of the inner ear, which includes the oval window, cochlea, and basilar membrane, is to convert sound waves into neural impulses and send them on to the brain. The stirrup is connected to the membranous oval window, which transmits sound waves to the cochlea. The cochlea is a tubular, fluid-filled structure that is coiled up like a snail. The basilar membrane lines the inner wall of the cochlea and runs its entire length.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

 

  1. (p. 112-113)Compare and contrast the two major theories of hearing, place theory and frequency theory.

Place theory states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane. Research shows that place theory adequately explains high-frequency sounds but not low-frequency sounds. According to frequency theory, the perception of a sound’s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires. One limitation of frequency theory is that a single neuron has a maximum firing rate of about 1,000 times per second, and thus this theory cannot explain tones with frequencies that would require a neuron to fire more rapidly. To deal with this limitation, a modification of frequency theory called the volley principle states that a cluster of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession, producing a volley of impulses. Thus, although individual neurons cannot fire faster than 1,000 times per second, by teaming up and alternating their firing, they can attain a combined frequency above 1,000 times per second.

 

Blooms: Analysis
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Auditory System

  1. (p. 121)Define the vestibular sense and kinesthetic sense and explain how these senses can allow us to monitor our body’s position, balance, and movement.

The kinesthetic sense monitors movement, posture, and orientation. Kinesthetic sensory receptors, located throughout the body in our muscles and joints, relay their messages to the brain. The vestibular sense provides information about balance and movement, or more specifically, information about whether our head (and hence usually our body) is moving. The sensory receptors that detect head motion and balance are located in the semicircular canals of the inner ear.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Other Senses