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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-10: 0077862465
ISBN-13: 978-0077862466
ISBN-13: 9780077862466

 

Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving –

Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 03

Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. Although the conflict may appear initially to be win-lose to the parties, ____________ and _____________________ will usually suggest win-win alternatives.

________________________________________

 

2. Those wishing to achieve integrative results find that they must manage the ____________ and ____________ of the negotiation in order to gain the willing cooperation and commitment of the other party.

________________________________________

 

3. Effective ____________ exchange promotes the development of good integrative solutions.

________________________________________

 

4. Successful integrative negotiation requires that the negotiators search for solutions that meet the ____________ and ____________ of both (all) sides.

________________________________________

 

5. In an integrative negotiation, negotiators must be ____________ about their primary interests and needs, but ___________ about the manner in which these interests and needs are met through solutions.

________________________________________

 

6. In integrative negotiation, ____________ are measured by the degree to which they meet both negotiators’ goals.

________________________________________

 

7. The ________________________ step is often the most difficult step in the integrative negotiation process.

________________________________________

 

8. As a problem is defined jointly, it should accurately reflect both parties’ ____________ and ___________.

________________________________________

 

9. For positive problem solving to occur, both parties must be committed to stating the problem in ____________ terms.

________________________________________

 

10. Problem definition should specify what ____________ must be overcome for the goal to be attained.

________________________________________

 

11. Instead of ____________ solutions, negotiators should develop standards by which potential solutions will be judged for how well they fit.

________________________________________

 

12. _________ interests are related to how the negotiations unfold.

________________________________________

 

13. ________________________ is not directly related to the substantive issues being discussed.

________________________________________

 

14. Research has shown that when brainstormers work at the process for a long period of time, the best ideas are most likely to surface during the ____________ part of the activity.

________________________________________

 

15. Integrative negotiation solutions should be judged on two major criteria: how ____________ they are, and how ____________ they will be to those who have to implement them.

________________________________________

 

16. The strategy of ____________ is effective not only in inventing options, but also as a mechanism to combine options into negotiated packages.

________________________________________

 

17. A ____________ goal is one in which both parties work toward a common end but one that benefits each party differently.

________________________________________

 

18. Those who do not share a belief that they can work together in an integrative negotiation are less willing to invest the time and energy in the potential payoffs of a collaborative relationship and are more likely to assume a ____________ or ____________ approach to conflict.

________________________________________

 

19. Integrative negotiation requires negotiators to accept both their own and the other’s attitudes, interests and desires as ___________.

________________________________________

 

20. For integrative negotiation to succeed, the parties must be motivated to ____________ rather than to compete.

________________________________________

 

21. Even cooperatively motivated negotiators have less trust, exchange less information about preferences and priorities, and achieve agreements of lower joint profit when they can ____________ the other party than when they do not have this capability.

________________________________________

 

22. People who are interdependent but do not trust each other will act ____________ or ___________.

________________________________________

 

23. When people trust each other, they are more likely to share _____________ and to _____________ accurately their needs, positions, and the facts of the situation.

________________________________________

 

24. When there are strong negative feelings or when one or more parties are inclined to dominate, negotiators may create ___________, ____________ procedures for communication.

________________________________________

 

 


True / False Questions

25. In integrative negotiation, the goals of the parties are mutually exclusive.

True    False

 

26. The failure to reach integrative agreements is often linked to the failure to exchange sufficient information that will allow the parties to identify integrative options.

True    False

 

27. Integrative agreements have been shown to be facilitated when parties exchanged information about their positions on particular issues, but not necessarily about their priorities on those issues.

True    False

 

28. Parties should enter the integrative negotiation process with few preconceptions about the solution.

True    False

 

29. For positive problem solving to occur, both parties must be committed to stating the problem in neutral terms.

True    False

 

30. An integrative negotiation problem should be defined as a solution process rather than as a specific goal to be attained.

True    False

 

31. In integrative negotiations, negotiators are encouraged to state the problem in terms of their preferred solution and to make concessions from these most desired alternatives.

True    False

 

32. If both parties understand the motivating factors for the other, they may recognize possible compatibilities in interests that permit them to invent new options which both will endorse as an acceptable settlement.

True    False

 

33. Intrinsic relationship interests exist when the parties derive positive benefits from the relationship and do not wish to endanger future benefits by souring it.

True    False

 

34. In logrolling, if the parties do in fact have different preferences on different issues, each party gets their most preferred outcome on their high priority issue and should be happy with the overall agreement.

True    False

 

35. “Expanding the pie” as a method of generating alternative solutions is a complex process, as it requires much more detailed information about the other party than do other methods.

True    False

 

36. Successful bridging requires a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the parties are no longer squabbling over their positions; instead, they are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties’ needs.

True    False

 

37. In generating alternative solutions to the problem, groups should also adopt procedures for defining the problem, defining the interests, and generating options, however, to prevent the group process from degenerating into a win-lose competition or a debating event.

True    False

 

38. In brainstorming, participants are urged to be spontaneous, even impractical, and to censor anyone’s ideas (including their own).

True    False

 

39. Electronic brainstorming may be especially useful for integrative negotiations that involve multiple parties or during preparation for integrative negotiations when there are disparate views within one’s team.

True    False

 

40. Focusing on interests allows parties to move beyond opening positions and demands to determine what the parties really want—what needs truly must be satisfied.

True    False

 

41. When a specific solution must meet the criteria of both quality and acceptability, those evaluating the solution options may have to be prepared to make trade-offs between the two to insure that both criteria are met.

True    False

 

42. Intangibles can lead the negotiator to fight harder to attain a particular solution option if that option satisfies both tangibles and intangibles.

True    False

 

43. A common goal is one in which all parties share the result equally.

True    False

 

44. Negotiators who are firmer about insisting that their own point of view become incorporated into the group solution achieve less integrative agreements than those who are less firm.

True    False

 

45. For successful integrative negotiation to occur, each party should be as interested in the objectives and problems of the other side as each is in his own.

True    False

 

46. Although there is no guarantee that trust will lead to collaboration, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that mistrust inhibits collaboration.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

47. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a successful integrative negotiator?

A. honesty and integrity

 

B. an abundance mentality

 

C. seeking mutual exclusivity

 

D. systems orientation

 

E. superior listening skills

 

48. Which of the following processes is central to achieving almost all integrative agreements?

A. moderating the free flow of information to ensure that each party’s position is accurately stated

 

B. exchanging information about each party’s position on key issues

 

C. emphasizing the commonalties between the parties

 

D. searching for solutions that maximize the substantive outcome for both parties

 

E. All of the above processes are central to achieving integrative agreements.

 

49. Which of the following is a major step in the integrative negotiation process?

A. identifying and defining the problem

 

B. understanding the problem and bringing interests and needs to the surface

 

C. generating alternative solutions to the problem

 

D. evaluating and choosing a specific solution

 

E. All of the above are major steps in the integrative negotiation process.

 

50. In which major step of the integrative negotiation process of identifying and defining the problem would you likely find that if the problem is complex and multifaceted the parties may not even be able to agree on a statement of the problem?

A. define the problem in a way that is mutually acceptable to both sides.

 

B. state the problem with an eye toward practicality and comprehensiveness.

 

C. state the problem as a goal and identify the obstacles to attaining this goal.

 

D. depersonalizing the problem.

 

E. separate the problem definition from the search for solutions.

 

51. Substantive interests

A. are the interests that relate to the focal issues under negotiation.

 

B. are related to the way we settle the dispute.

 

C. mean that one or both parties value their relationship with each other and do not want to take actions that will damage the relationship.

 

D. regard what is fair, what is right, what is acceptable, what is ethical, or what has been done in the past and should be done in the future.

 

E. All of the above relate to substantive interests.

 

52. Which of the following statements about interests is true?

A. There is only one type of interest in a dispute.

 

B. Parties are always in agreement about the type of interests at stake.

 

C. Interests are often based in more deeply rooted human needs or values.

 

D. Interests do not change during the course of an integrative negotiation.

 

E. All of the above statements about interests are true.

 

53. Successful logrolling requires

A. that the parties establish more than one issue in conflict and then agree to trade off among these issues so one party achieves a highly preferred outcome on the first issue and the other person achieves a highly preferred outcome on the second issue.

 

B. no additional information about the other party than his/her interests, and assumes that simply enlarging the resources will solve the problem.

 

C. that one party is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and he/she then “pays off” the other party for accommodating his/her interests.

 

D. a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the parties are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties’ needs.

 

E. Successful logrolling requires all of the above.

 

54. In nonspecific compensation

A. resources are added in such a way that both sides can achieve their objectives.

 

B. one party achieves his/her objectives and the other’s costs are minimized if he/she agrees to go along.

 

C. the parties are able to invent new options that meet each sides’ needs.

 

D. one person is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and “pay off” the other person for accommodating his interests.

 

E. All of the above are related to nonspecific compensation.

 

55. What questions can be asked to facilitate nonspecific compensation?

A. What are the other party’s goals and values?

 

B. How can both parties get what they are demanding?

 

C. What issues are of higher and lower priority to me?

 

D. What risks and costs does my proposal create for the other?

 

E. None of the above can be used to facilitate nonspecific compensation.

 

56. “What are the other’s real underlying interests and needs?” is a question that can facilitate the _____________ process.

A. expanding the pie

 

B. logrolling

 

C. nonspecific compensation

 

D. bridging and superordination

 

E. The question should not be used with any of the above processes.

 

57. In brainstorming

A. individuals work in a large group to select a single optimal solution.

 

B. all solutions are judged and critiqued as they are recorded, and a weighted-average percentage is assigned to each solution.

 

C. parties are urged to be spontaneous and even impractical.

 

D. the success of the approach depends on the item-by-item evaluation and critique of the solutions as presented.

 

E. None of the above is a part of the brainstorming process.

 

58. When identifying options in an integrative negotiation, solutions are usually attained through:

A. hard work

 

B. information exchange

 

C. focusing on interests rather than positions

 

D. firm flexibility

 

E. Solutions are attained by using all of the above.

 

59. When confronted with complex problems, or a large number of alternative options, which of the following steps is necessary?

A. broaden the range of solution options

 

B. evaluate solutions on the basis of quality, standards, and acceptability

 

C. decide on criteria while evaluating options

 

D. maintain a focus on the influence of tangibles in selecting options

 

E. All of the above steps should be used when confronted with complex problems.

 

60. Which guideline should be used in evaluating options and reaching a consensus?

A. keep the range of solution options as wide as possible

 

B. evaluate the solutions on the basis of speed and expediency

 

C. keep detailed records throughout the discussion and evaluation process

 

D. be alert to the influence of intangibles in selecting options

 

E. None of the above should be used in the evaluation process.

 

61. A common goal is one in which

A. all parties share the result equally.

 

B. the parties work toward a common end but benefit differently.

 

C. all parties work together to achieve some output that will be shared.

 

D. individuals with different personal goals agree to combine them in a collective effort.

 

E. All of the above are characteristics of a common goal.

 

62. A joint goal is one in which

A. all parties share the result equally.

 

B. the parties work toward a common end but benefit differently.

 

C. individuals with different personal goals agree to combine them in a collective effort.

 

D. all parties work together to achieve some output that will be shared.

 

E. All of the above are characteristics of a common goal.

 

63. Which of the following is not necessary for integrative negotiation to succeed?

A. Each party should be as interested in the objectives and problems of the other as each is in his/her own—each must assume responsibility for the other’s needs and outcomes as well as for his/her own.

 

B. The parties must be committed to a goal that benefits both of them rather than to pursuing only their own ends.

 

C. The parties must be willing to adopt interpersonal styles that are more congenial than combative, more open and trusting than evasive and defensive, more flexible (but firm) than stubborn (but yielding).

 

D. Needs have to be made explicit, similarities have to be identified, and differences have to be recognized and accepted.

 

E. All of the above are essential for integrative negotiation to succeed.

 

64. Which of the following is a major characteristic of a presettlement settlement?

A. The settlement results in a firm, legally binding written agreement between the parties.

 

B. It occurs in advance of the parties undertaking a full-scale negotiation.

 

C. The parties intend that the agreement will be replaced by a more clearly delineated long-term agreement which is to be negotiated.

 

D. It resolves only a subset of the issues on which the parties disagree, and may simply establish a framework within which the more comprehensive agreement can be defined and delineated.

 

E. All of the above are characteristics of a presettlement settlement.

 

65. When people do not trust each other they are more than likely to engage in which of the following behaviors?

A. promoting collaboration

 

B. communicating accurately

 

C. positional bargaining

 

D. committing to a joint solution

 

E. none of the above

 

 

Short Answer Questions

66. What must an experienced negotiator manage to achieve successful integrative outcomes?

 

 

 

 

67. What are the four major steps in the integrative negotiation process?

 

 

 

 

68. How should the problem statement be constructed?

 

 

 

 

69. How can personal preferences get in the way of integrative negotiations?

 

 

 

 

70. How should integrative negotiators separate the problem definition from the search for solutions?

 

 

 

 

71. Identify and define the four types of interests.

 

 

 

 

72. What is the benefit of bringing different interests to the surface?

 

 

 

 

73. What two approaches can be used to generate alternative solutions?

 

 

 

 

74. Define “nonspecific compensation.”

 

 

 

 

75. Define “bridging.”

 

 

 

 

76. What rules should be observed to facilitate successful brainstorming?

 

 

 

 

77. What is a disadvantage to brainstorming over surveys?

 

 

 

 

78. What tactics can be used to communicate firm flexibility to an opponent?

 

 

 

 

79. What guidelines should be used in evaluating options and reaching a consensus?

 

 

 

 

80. Why should criteria be decided in advance of evaluating options?

 

 

 

 

81. What approaches to logrolling can be particularly helpful in the “evaluation and selection of alternatives” phase of integrative negotiation?

 

 

 

 

82. What are the potential pitfalls of voting on final agreements or packages?

 

 

 

 

83. What are the preconditions necessary for the integrative negotiation process?

 

 

 

 

84. How can motivation and commitment to problem solving be enhanced?

 

 

 

 

85. Define presettlement settlements.

 

 

 

 

86. Why is analogical learning an especially powerful way to learn about integrative negotiation?

 

 

 

Chapter 05

Ethics in Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. ____________ can be defined as individual and personal beliefs for deciding what is right and wrong.

________________________________________

 

2. The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

________________________________________

 

3. Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ___________.

________________________________________

 

4. Negotiation is based on information dependence—the exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator.

________________________________________

 

5. The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponent’s networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ___________.

________________________________________

 

6. There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it.

________________________________________

 

7. Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.

________________________________________

 

8. The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiator’s ______________ in the bargaining environment.

________________________________________

 

9. The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics.

________________________________________

 

10. When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic’s use.

________________________________________

 

11. A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act _____________.

________________________________________

 

12. Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for one’s own conduct.

________________________________________

 

13. Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ___________.

________________________________________

 

14. “Calling” the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ___________.

________________________________________

 

15. If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation.

________________________________________

 

16. In general, the “respond in kind” approach is best treated as a ________________________ strategy.

________________________________________

 

 


True / False Questions

17. The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

True    False

 

18. The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

True    False

 

19. The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics.

True    False

 

20. Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth.

True    False

 

21. Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process.

True    False

 

22. Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common-value issue.

True    False

 

23. Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission.

True    False

 

24. Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uninformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high.

True    False

 

25. Real consequences—rewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using it—should not only motivate a negotiator’s present behavior, but also affect the negotiator’s predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future.

True    False

 

26. One’s own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well.

True    False

 

27. Explanations allow the negotiator to convince others that conduct that would ordinarily be wrong in a given situation is acceptable and are looked upon as self-serving for one’s own conduct.

True    False

 

28. The use of silence by a negotiator creates a “verbal vacuum” that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

29. The concept of “duty ethics” states that

A. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

 

B. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

 

C. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

D. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

 

E. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

 

30. Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define

A. what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other.

 

B. what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation.

 

C. what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct.

 

D. what the law defines as acceptable practice.

 

E. All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct.

 

31. Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies?

A. End-result ethics.

 

B. Duty ethics.

 

C. Social context ethics.

 

D. Personalistic ethics.

 

E. Reasoning ethics.

 

32. Which of the following arguments refutes Carr’s claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy?

A. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions.

 

B. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business.

 

C. Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception.

 

D. Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest.

 

E. None of the above arguments refute Carr’s claim.

 

33. What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?

A. We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.

 

B. We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their dishonesty.

 

C. We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

D. We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level.

 

E. None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust.

 

34. Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?

A. Traditional Competitive Bargaining

 

B. Emotional Manipulation

 

C. Misrepresentation to Opponent’s Networks

 

D. Bluffing

 

E. All of the above

 

35. Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?

A. misrepresentation

 

B. bluffing

 

C. misrepresentation to opponent’s network

 

D. inappropriate information collection

 

E. All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics.

 

36. Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common-value issue?

A. misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission

 

B. misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission

 

C. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission

 

D. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission

 

E. None of the above forms of deception is used in misrepresenting the common-value issue.

 

37. McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when

A. they had a distant relationship with the subject.

 

B. the information at stake was unimportant.

 

C. lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship.

 

D. the victim had used deceptive tactics as well.

 

E. Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases.

 

38. When using the justification that “the tactic was unavoidable,” the negotiator is saying that

A. the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible.

 

B. what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant.

 

C. the tactic helped to avoid greater harm.

 

D. the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences.

 

E. The justification that “the tactic was unavoidable” implies all of the above.

 

39. When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

 

B. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

 

C. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

 

D. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic.

 

40. When using the “altered information” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie.

 

B. exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to “correct” the statement.

 

C. point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying.

 

D. indicate one’s true concern for the other’s welfare.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic.

 

41. Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks”?

A. ignoring the tactic

 

B. “calling” the tactic

 

C. responding in kind

 

D. discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors

 

E. None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party’s dirty tricks.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

42. Define ethics.

 

 

 

 

43. According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation?

 

 

 

 

44. How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker?

 

 

 

 

45. What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?

 

 

 

 

46. Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponent’s networks?

 

 

 

 

47. What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics?

 

 

 

 

48. When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate?

 

 

 

 

49. As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on:

 

 

 

 

50. What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process?

 

 

 

 

51. What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks?”

 

 

 

 

52. Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someone’s face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women?

 

 

 

 

53. Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic?

 

 

 

Chapter 07

Communication

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. In negotiations, language operates at two levels: the _____________ level (for proposals or offers) and the _____________ level (for semantics, syntax, and style).

________________________________________

 

2. The use of _________________________ is defined as when negotiators use positive words when speaking of their own positions, and negative words when referring to the other party’s position.

________________________________________

 

3. High levels of _________________________ denote comfort and competence with language, and low levels denote discomfort, anxiety, or inexperience.

________________________________________

 

4. Nonverbal communication—done well—may help negotiators achieve better outcomes through _____________ coordination.

________________________________________

 

5. Researchers have been examining the effects of channels in general, and _____________ in particular, on negotiation processes and outcomes during much of the past decade.

________________________________________

 

6. _____________ questions cause attention, get information and start thinking.

________________________________________

 

7. _________________________ involves receiving a message while providing no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

________________________________________

 

8. _________________________ techniques allow negotiators to understand more completely the other party’s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that they are understood.

________________________________________

 

9. Achieving _____________ in negotiation is, in large part, making decisions to accept offers, to compromise priorities, to trade off across issues with the other party, or some combination of these elements.

________________________________________

 

 


True / False Questions

10. While the blend of integrative versus distributive communication content varies as a function of the issues being discussed, it is also clear that the content of communication is only partly responsible for negotiation outcomes.

True    False

 

11. Researcher Thompson and her colleagues found that winners and losers evaluated their own outcomes equally when they did not know how well the other party had done, but if they found out that the other negotiator had done better, or was even pleased with his or her outcome, then negotiators felt less positive about their own outcome.

True    False

 

12. Mitigating circumstances occur where negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

True    False

 

13. Sitkin and Bies suggest that negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes and that the negative effects of poor outcomes can be mitigated by communicating explanations for them.

True    False

 

14. Low verbal immediacy is intended to engage or compel the other party, while high verbal immediacy is intended to create a sense of distance or aloofness.

True    False

 

15. High levels of language intensity are used to convey strong feelings in the recipient, while low intensity conveys weak feelings.

True    False

 

16. A negotiator’s choice of words may only signal a position; it may never shape or predict it.

True    False

 

17. Manageable questions cause difficulty, give information, and bring the discussion to a false conclusion.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

18. Define exonerating circumstances.

A. Negotiators suggest that they had no choice in taking the positions they did.

 

B. Negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

 

C. Outcomes can be explained by changing the context.

 

D. Negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes.

 

E. None of the above can define exonerating circumstances.

 

19. Which of the following is not one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

A. the use of polarized language

 

B. the conveyance of verbal immediacy

 

C. the degree of lexical diversity

 

D. the extent of low-power language style

 

E. All of the above are elements of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats.

 

20. Gibbons, Bradac, and Busch suggest that threats can be made more credible and more compelling by using

A. positively polarized descriptions of the other party.

 

B. low immediacy.

 

C. high intensity.

 

D. low verbal diversity.

 

E. None of the above can make threats more credible and compelling.

 

21. What are the most dominant contributors to breakdowns and failures in negotiation?

A. failures and distortions in perception, meaning, and feedback.

 

B. failures and distortions in perception, feedback, and behaviors.

 

C. failures and distortions in perception, communication, and framing.

 

D. failures and distortions in perception, cognition, and communication.

 

E. None of the above contribute to breakdowns and failures in negotiation.

 

22. Questions can be used to

A. manage difficult or stalled negotiations.

 

B. pry or lever a negotiation out of a breakdown or an apparent dead end.

 

C. assist or force the other party to face up to the effects or consequences of their behaviors.

 

D. collect and diagnose information.

 

E. Questions can be used for all of the above.

 

23. Which of the following are types of manageable questions?

A. close-out questions that force the other party into seeing things your way

 

B. leading questions that point toward an answer

 

C. impulse questions that occur “on the spur of the moment,” without planning

 

D. loaded questions that put the other party on the spot regardless of his/her answer

 

E. None of the above is types of manageable questions.

 

24. In passive listening

A. the receivers restate or paraphrase the sender’s message in their own language.

 

B. the receivers interject responses to keep communicators sending messages.

 

C. the receiver provides no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

 

D. senders may misinterpret acknowledgments as the receiver’s agreement with their position, rather than that they are simply receiving the message.

 

E. None of the above occurs in passive listening.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

25. A communication framework for negotiation is based on what assumptions?

 

 

 

 

26. Having a BATNA changes which things in a negotiation?

 

 

 

 

27. Define “reframing explanations.”

 

 

 

 

28. Define the “information is weakness” effect.

 

 

 

 

29. What are the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

 

 

 

 

30. How can using the five linguistic dimensions make threats more credible and compelling?

 

 

 

 

31. Some nonverbal acts, called attending behaviors, are particularly important in connecting with another person during a coordinated interaction like negotiation. Why?

 

 

 

 

32. Define social bandwidth.

 

 

 

 

33. What three main techniques are available for improving communication in negotiation?

 

 

 

 

34. We know that role reversal can be a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party’s position in negotiation. But when is it useful?

 

 

 

 

35. As negotiations come to a close, what are the two key aspects of communication and negotiation that negotiators must attend to simultaneously?

 

 

Chapter 09

Relationships in Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. Negotiations occur in a rich and complex social context that has a significant impact on how the ____________ interact and how the process evolves.

________________________________________

 

2. Researchers have simulated complex negotiations by simplifying the complexity in a ____________ laboratory.

________________________________________

 

3. Distributive issues within ____________ negotiations can be emotionally hot.

________________________________________

 

4. In some negotiations, relationship preservation is the overarching negotiation goal and parties may make concessions on ____________ issues to preserve or enhance the relationship.

________________________________________

 

5. In communal sharing, collective identity takes precedence over _______________________.

________________________________________

 

6. According to John Gottman’ studies; successful long-term relationships are characterized by continuing to stress what one likes, values, appreciates and ____________ in the other.

________________________________________

 

7. ____________ is the legacy that negotiators leave behind after a negotiation encounter with another party.

________________________________________

 

8. McAllister defines ____________ as “an individual’s belief in and willingness to act on the words, actions and decisions of another.”

________________________________________

 

9. An individual’s ________________________ toward trust can be described as individual differences in personality that make some people more trusting than others.

________________________________________

 

10. Integrative processes tend to increase trust, while more ____________ processes are likely to decrease trust.

________________________________________

 

11. Trust enhances the sharing of information in a negotiation, and greater information sharing generally leads to ____________ negotiation outcomes.

________________________________________

 

12. Distributive justice is about the distribution of ___________.

________________________________________

 

13. ____________ justice is about how organizations appear to treat groups of individuals and the norms that develop for how they should be treated.

________________________________________

 

14. Negotiators who helped develop a group negotiation strategy were more ____________ to it and to the group’s negotiation goals.

________________________________________

 

15. Trying to overcome a bad reputation, rebuilding trust, or restoring ____________ to a relationship are much easier to talk about than to actually do.

________________________________________

 

 

True / False Questions

16. Negotiations occur in a rich and complex social context that has a significant impact on how the parties interact and how the process evolves.

True    False

 

17. Some research questions are best answered under controlled laboratory conditions because it would be impossible to repeatedly encounter or simulate the same conditions consistently in actual negotiations.

True    False

 

18. In a relationship, gathering information about the other’s ideas, preferences and priorities is often the most important activity.

True    False

 

19. One of the disadvantages of negotiating in a game or simulation is that there is a defined end.

True    False

 

20. In relationship negotiations, parties should never make concessions on substantive issues to preserve or enhance the relationship.

True    False

 

21. First impressions and early experiences with others are powerful in shaping others’ expectations; once these expectations are shaped, they become easy to change over time.

True    False

 

22. The early research on trust generally showed that higher levels of trust make negotiation easier, while lower levels of trust make negotiation more difficult.

True    False

 

23. Systemic justice is about the way that organizations appear to treat groups of individuals.

True    False

 

24. When some groups are discriminated against, disfranchised, or systematically given poorer salaries or working conditions, the parties may be more concerned about specific procedural elements and less concerned that the overall system may be biased or discriminatory in its treatment of certain groups and their concerns.

True    False

 

25. Idiosyncratic deals must be managed effectively in order to make sure they can exist without disrupting others’ sense of fairness.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

26. Laboratory controlled research is much easier to conduct than field research because studying live negotiators in the middle of an often complex negotiation causes them to object to all but one of the following?

A. to conduct interviews.

 

B. to ask questions.

 

C. to publicly report actual successes.

 

D. to publicly report actual failures.

 

E. they object to all of the above.

 

27. Which of the following parameters shapes our understanding of relationship negotiation strategy and tactics?

A. Negotiating within relationships takes place at a single point in time.

 

B. Negotiation in relationships is only about the issue.

 

C. Negotiating within relationships may never end.

 

D. Parties never make concessions on substantive issues.

 

E. All of the above parameters shape our understanding of relationship negotiation strategy and tactics.

 

28. Because relationship negotiations are never over,

A. parties generally tackle negotiations over tough issues first in order to “get off on the right foot.”

 

B. it is often impossible to anticipate the future and negotiate everything “up front.”

 

C. issues on which parties truly disagree will go away with the conclusion of the negotiation.

 

D. parties should never make concessions on substantive issues.

 

E. All of the above are consequences of relationship negotiations.

 

29. There are several ways that an existing relationship changes negotiation dynamics. Which one of the following is not one of those ways?

A. Negotiating may never end.

 

B. Relationship preservation is the overarching negotiation goal.

 

C. Distributive issues can be emotionally hot.

 

D. In many negotiations, the other person is the focal problem.

 

E. Negotiating with relationships takes place immediately at the beginning.

 

30. Which of the statements is supported by research in communal sharing relationships?

A. Parties in a communal sharing relationship are more cooperative and empathetic.

 

B. Parties in a communal sharing relationship craft better quality agreements.

 

C. Parties in a communal sharing relationship focus more attention on the norms that develop about their working together.

 

D. Parties in a communal sharing relationship are more likely to share information with the other and less likely to use coercive tactics.

 

E. All of the above statements are supported by research in communal sharing relationships.

 

31. What key elements become more critical and pronounced when they occur within a negotiation?

A. the agency relationship, the number of negotiation parties, and the role of emotion

 

B. the agency relationship and the role of trust and fairness

 

C. the roles of reputation, trust and justice

 

D. the structure of the constituency and the agency relationship

 

E. none of the above is key elements in managing negotiations within relationships

 

32. Reputation is:

A. a perceptual identity.

 

B. reflective of the combination of personal characteristics.

 

C. demonstrated behavior.

 

D. intended images preserved over time.

 

E. all of the above statements define reputation.

 

33. Which type of justice is about the process of determining outcomes?

A. Distributive

 

B. Interactive

 

C. Procedural

 

D. Systemic

 

E. None of the above.

 

34. How parties treat each other in one-to-one relationships is the process of which of the following justices?

A. Procedural

 

B. Interactional

 

C. Systemic

 

D. Distributive

 

E. None of the above

 

35. Which of the following conclusions about the issue of fairness is not a true statement?

A. Involvement in the process of helping to shape a negotiation strategy increases commitment to that strategy and willingness to pursue it.

 

B. Negotiators (buyers in a market transaction) who are encouraged (“primed”) to think about fairness are more cooperative in distributive negotiations.

 

C. Parties who are made offers they perceive as unfair may reject them out of hand, even though the amount offered may be better than the alternative settlement, which is to receive nothing at all.

 

D. Establishment of some “objective standard” of fairness has a positive impact on the negotiations and satisfaction with the outcome.

 

E. All of the above are true statements.

 

36. Which question that should be asked about working on the improvement of a relationship is false?

A. If the relationship is in difficulty, what might have caused it, and how can I gather information or perspective to improve the situation?

 

B. How can we take the pressure off each other so that we can give each other the freedom of choice to talk about what has happened, and what is necessary to fix it?

 

C. Trust repair is a long and slow process. It requires adequate explanations for past behavior, apologies, and perhaps even reparations. Interestingly, cultures differ in the way they manage this process

 

D. Must we surface the deeply felt emotions that have produced anger, frustration, rejection and disappointment? Should we effectively vent these emotions, or understand their causes, so that we can move beyond them?

 

E. How can we begin to appreciate each other’s contributions, and the positive things that we have done together in the past? How can we restore that respect and value each other’s contributions?

 

37. Within relationships, we see that parties shift their focus considerably, away from a sole focus on price and exchange, to also attend to

A. the future of the relationship.

 

B. the level of trust between the parties.

 

C. the emotions and evaluations of the other negotiator.

 

D. questions of fairness.

 

E. Within relationships, parties shift their focus to attend to all of the above.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

38. Why are some research questions best answered under controlled laboratory conditions?

 

 

 

 

39. What are the three relationship components in managing negotiations within relationships?

 

 

 

 

40. In relationship negotiation, the resolution of simple distributive issues can have what effects on future decisions?

 

 

 

 

41. What are some of the findings of the limited amount of negotiation research about communal-sharing relationships?

 

 

 

 

42. Give some examples of traits that help influence the definition of a reputation.

 

 

 

 

43. Why are negative reputations difficult to repair?

 

 

 

 

44. What are the three things that contribute to the level of trust one negotiator may have for another?

 

 

 

 

45. Define interactional justice.

 

 

 

 

46. How does an egocentric bias play out in judgments about fairness?

 

 

Chapter 11

International and Cross-Cultural Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. The term ____________ refers to the shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a group of people.

________________________________________

 

2. In order to understand the complexity of international negotiations, one must understand how the factors in both the ____________ and ____________ contexts can influence negotiation processes and outcomes.

________________________________________

 

3. There are six factors identified by Salacuse in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations they are: political and legal pluralism, international economics, foreign governments and bureaucracies, instability, ideology, and ___________.

________________________________________

 

4. Countries differ in the extent to which the government regulates ____________ and organizations.

________________________________________

 

5. Negotiators faced with unstable circumstances should include ____________ in their contracts that allow for easy cancellation or neutral arbitration.

________________________________________

 

6. Relative power is not simply a function of ____________ but appears to be due to management control of the project.

________________________________________

 

7. The most frequently studied aspect of international negotiation is ___________.

________________________________________

 

8. The “culture-as-learned-behavior” approach concentrates on creating a ____________ of behaviors that foreign negotiators should expect when entering a host culture.

________________________________________

 

9. In the “culture-as-shared-value” approach, cross-cultural comparisons are made by finding the important ________________________ that distinguish one culture from another.

________________________________________

 

10. In individualistic societies, negotiators are considered interchangeable, and ____________ (rather than relationship) is an important consideration when choosing a negotiator.

________________________________________

 

11. Proponents of the ____________ approach recognize that negotiation behavior is multiply determined and using culture as the sole explanation of behavior is oversimplifying a complex social process.

________________________________________

 

12. Cultures differ in the degree to which ___________, or the formality of the relations between the two negotiating parties, is important.

________________________________________

 

13. To avoid offending the other party in negotiations across borders, the international negotiator needs to observe cultural rules of ____________ carefully.

________________________________________

 

14. Negotiation in risk-_____________ cultures will seek further information and will be more likely to take a wait-and-see stance.

________________________________________

 

15. Decision making in group-oriented cultures involves ____________ and may take considerably more time than American negotiators are accustomed to.

________________________________________

 

16. Researchers Gelfand and Realo found that accountability to a constituent influenced negotiators from individualistic and ____________ cultures differently.

________________________________________

 

17. One approach for negotiators who have very low familiarity with the other party’s culture is to hire an ____________ who is familiar with the cultures of both parties.

________________________________________

 

18. Many types of ____________ may be used in cross-cultural negotiations, ranging from someone who conducts introductions and then withdraws, to someone who is present throughout the negotiation and takes responsibility for orchestrating the negotiation process.

________________________________________

 

19. The “coordinate adjustment” strategy can be thought of as a special instance of negotiating the ____________ of negotiation.

________________________________________

 

 

True / False Questions

20. Countries can have only one culture; however cultures can span national borders.

True    False

 

21. There are six factors in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations and these factors can act to limit or constrain organizations that operate internationally whether negotiators understand or appreciate their effects.

True    False

 

22. Political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times.

True    False

 

23. Ideological clashes increase the communication challenges in cross-border negotiations in the broadest sense because the parties may disagree on the most fundamental levels about what is being negotiated.

True    False

 

24. In all cross-cultural negotiations, both parties approach the negotiation deductively.

True    False

 

25. High-conflict situations that are based on ethnicity, identity or geography are most easy to resolve.

True    False

 

26. The relationship the principal negotiating parties develop before the actual negotiations will have an important impact on the negotiation process and outcome.

True    False

 

27. Tangible and intangible factors play only a minor role in determining the outcomes of cross-border negotiations.

True    False

 

28. Many popular books and articles on international negotiation treat culture as expected behavior, providing lists of dos and don’ts to obey when negotiating with people from different cultures.

True    False

 

29. The “culture-as-shared-values” approach has advantages over the “culture-as-dialectic” approach because it can explain variations within cultures.

True    False

 

30. Outside of North America there appears to be a great deal of variation across cultures in the extent to which negotiation situations are initially perceived as distributive or integrative.

True    False

 

31. Risk-oriented cultures will be more willing to move early on a deal and will generally take more chances.

True    False

 

32. Research studies suggest that culture does have an effect of negotiation outcomes, although it may not be direct and it likely has an influence through differences in the negotiation process in different cultures.

True    False

 

33. The best approach to manage cross-cultural negotiations is to be insensitive to the cultural norms of the other negotiator’s approach.

True    False

 

34. Research suggests that negotiators may naturally negotiate differently when they are with people from their own culture than when they are with people from other cultures.

True    False

 

35. Francis found that negotiators from a familiar culture (Japan) who made no attempt to adapt to American ways were perceived more positively than negotiators who made moderate adaptations.

True    False

 

36. Weiss states that a negotiator should only use one strategy throughout an entire negotiation.

True    False

 

37. Negotiators using the “adapt to the other party’s approach” strategy maintain a firm grasp on their own approach, but make modifications to help relations with the other negotiator.

True    False

 

38. To use the “improvise an approach” strategy, both parties to the negotiation need to have high familiarity with the other party’s culture and a strong understanding of the individual characteristics of the other party.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

39. We use the term “culture” to refer to the

A. religious beliefs of a group of people.

 

B. ethnicity of a group of people.

 

C. geographic nationality of a group of people.

 

D. shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a group of people.

 

E. Culture refers to none of the above.

 

40. According to Salacuse, which of the following is not a factor in the environmental context of negotiations?

A. political and legal pluralism

 

B. foreign governments and bureaucracies

 

C. relative bargaining power

 

D. international economic factors

 

E. All of the above are factors in the environmental context of negotiations.

 

41. Which of the following is an immediate context factor in cross-cultural negotiations?

A. external stakeholders

 

B. instability

 

C. international economic factors

 

D. relationship between negotiators

 

E. All of the above are immediate context factors in cross-cultural negotiations.

 

42. Political and legal pluralism can make cross cultural negotiations more complex because

A. there may be implications for the taxes that the organization pays.

 

B. there may be implications for the labor codes or standards that the organization must meet.

 

C. there may be different codes of contract law and standards of enforcement.

 

D. political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times.

 

E. Political and legal pluralism can make cross-cultural negotiations more complex because of all of the above.

 

43. Which of the following factors most influences relative bargaining power?

A. the extent to which negotiators frame the negotiation differently

 

B. tangible and intangible factors

 

C. management control

 

D. personal motivations of external stakeholders

 

E. None of the above factors influence relative bargaining power.

 

44. Which of the following is not one of Janosik’s four ways that culture is used in international negotiation?

A. culture as learned behavior

 

B. culture as economic indicator

 

C. culture as shared values

 

D. culture as dialectic

 

E. Each of the above is one of Janosik’s four ways that culture is used in international negotiation.

 

45. The “culture-as-shared-value” approach

A. concentrates on documenting the systematic negotiation behavior of people in different cultures.

 

B. concentrates on understanding the central values and norms of a culture and then building a model for how these norms and values influence negotiations within that culture.

 

C. recognizes that all cultures contain dimensions or tensions among their different values.

 

D. recognizes that no human behavior is determined by a single cause.

 

E. All of the above are elements of the “culture as shared” value approach.

 

46. The individualism/collectivism dimension describes

A. the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

 

B. the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group.

 

C. the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine.

 

D. the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.

 

E. None of the above describes the individualism/collectivism dimension.

 

47. Power distance describes

A. the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

 

B. the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group.

 

C. the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine.

 

D. the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.

 

E. None of the above describes power distance.

 

48. What consequences do negotiators from high uncertainty avoidance cultures bring to negotiations?

A. Negotiators will strongly depend on cultivating and sustaining a long-term relationship.

 

B. Negotiators may be more likely to “swap” negotiators, using whatever short-term criteria seem appropriate.

 

C. Negotiators may need to seek approval from their supervisors more frequently.

 

D. Negotiators may not be comfortable with ambiguous situations and may be more likely to seek stable rules and procedures when they negotiate.

 

E. All of the above are consequences of high uncertainty avoidance cultures.

 

49. Risk-avoiding cultures will

A. be willing to move early on a deal.

 

B. generally take more chances.

 

C. seek further information.

 

D. be less likely to take a wait-and-see stance.

 

E. Risk avoiding cultures will generally take all of the above actions.

 

50. In group-oriented cultures

A. the individual comes before the group’s needs.

 

B. decisions are primarily made by senior executives.

 

C. decision making is an efficient, streamlined process.

 

D. negotiators may be faced with a series of discussions over the same issues and materials with many different people.

 

E. All of the above occur in group-oriented cultures.

 

51. According to Graham, which of the following statements would be characteristic of a Japanese negotiator?

A. Higher profits are associated with making opponents feel uncomfortable.

 

B. Higher profits are achieved by making opponents feel comfortable.

 

C. The use of powerful and deceptive strategies is more likely to receive higher outcomes.

 

D. Representational strategies are negatively related to profits.

 

E. None of the above is characteristics of a Japanese negotiator.

 

52. According to Weiss, when choosing a strategy, negotiators should

A. choose one strategy and stick with it throughout the entire negotiation.

 

B. be aware of their own culture, but minimize the other culture’s norms.

 

C. not try to predict or influence the other party’s approach.

 

D. understand the specific factors in the current relationship.

 

E. Weiss states that negotiators should do all of the above when preparing for negotiations.

 

53. Which of the following strategies should negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture choose?

A. employ agents or advisers

 

B. adapt to the other party’s approach

 

C. coordinate adjustment

 

D. embrace the other party’s approach

 

E. Negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture should not choose any of the above strategies.

 

54. Which among the following lists reflects Weiss’s culturally responsive joint strategies for cross-cultural negotiations?

A. employ agents or advisors, bring in a mediator, adapt to the other party’s approach, improvise an approach

 

B. employ agents or advisors, adapt to the other party’s approach, embrace the other party’s approach, effect symphony

 

C. bring in a mediator, coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, effect symphony

 

D. coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, adapt to the other party’s approach, embrace the other party’s approach

 

E. None of the above list only joint strategies for cross cultural negotiations.

 

55. “Adapting to the other negotiator’s approach” is best used by parties with

A. no familiarity.

 

B. low familiarity.

 

C. moderate familiarity.

 

D. high familiarity.

 

E. Adapting to the other party’s approach is equally effective for all parties.

 

56. “Coordinating adjustment” involves

A. adopting completely the approach of the other party.

 

B. making conscious changes to your approach so that it is more appealing to the other party.

 

C. both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation.

 

D. crafting an approach that is specifically tailored to the negotiation situation.

 

E. “Coordinating adjustment” involves all of the above.

 

57. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves

A. adopting completely the approach of the other party.

 

B. both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation.

 

C. creating a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or practices from a third culture.

 

D. persuading the other party to use your approach.

 

E. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves all of the above.

 

58. When working to create a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or adopt practices from a third culture, negotiators are using what approach?

A. effect symphony

 

B. improvise an approach

 

C. embrace the other party’s approach

 

D. employ agents or advisors

 

E. Negotiators are using all of the above approaches.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

59. What is the most frequently studied aspect of international negotiations?

 

 

 

 

60. According to Salacuse, what are the six factors that make global negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations?

 

 

 

 

61. How does the exchange value of international currencies affect cross-cultural negotiation decisions?

 

 

 

 

62. How does ideology contribute to making international negotiations difficult?

 

 

 

 

63. Phatak and Habib define external stakeholders as:

 

 

 

 

64. What are Phatak and Habib’s immediate context factors?

 

 

 

 

65. What is the main challenge for every global negotiator?

 

 

 

 

66. The “culture-as-learned-behavior” approach to understanding the effects of culture concentrates on:

 

 

 

 

67. What is the “culture-in-context” approach to using culture to understand global negotiation?

 

 

 

 

68. Foster suggests that culture can influence negotiations across borders in what different ways?

 

 

 

 

69. How does the nature of agreements vary between cultures?

 

 

 

 

70. What did researchers Adler, Brahm and Graham find about the differences in negotiation strategies and tactics in the cultures of the Chinese and Americans?

 

 

 

 

71. What is the danger in modifying the negotiator’s approach to match the approach of the other negotiator?

 

 

 

 

72. What factors indicate that negotiators should not make large modifications to their approach when they negotiate across borders?

 

 

 

 

73. Weiss observes that a negotiator may be able to choose among which culturally responsive strategies when negotiating with someone from another culture?

 

 

 

 

74. What are the disadvantages to using the “induce the other party to use your approach” strategy?

 

 

 

 

75. What is the challenge in using the “adapt to the other party’s approach” strategy?

 

 

 

 

76. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves:

 

 

 

 

77. Which is the most flexible of Weiss’ eight strategies for negotiating with someone from another culture?

 

 

 

 

78. What are the risks of using the “effect symphony” strategy?

 

 

 

Chapter 11

International and Cross-Cultural Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. The term ____________ refers to the shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a group of people.

________________________________________

 

2. In order to understand the complexity of international negotiations, one must understand how the factors in both the ____________ and ____________ contexts can influence negotiation processes and outcomes.

________________________________________

 

3. There are six factors identified by Salacuse in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations they are: political and legal pluralism, international economics, foreign governments and bureaucracies, instability, ideology, and ___________.

________________________________________

 

4. Countries differ in the extent to which the government regulates ____________ and organizations.

________________________________________

 

5. Negotiators faced with unstable circumstances should include ____________ in their contracts that allow for easy cancellation or neutral arbitration.

________________________________________

 

6. Relative power is not simply a function of ____________ but appears to be due to management control of the project.

________________________________________

 

7. The most frequently studied aspect of international negotiation is ___________.

________________________________________

 

8. The “culture-as-learned-behavior” approach concentrates on creating a ____________ of behaviors that foreign negotiators should expect when entering a host culture.

________________________________________

 

9. In the “culture-as-shared-value” approach, cross-cultural comparisons are made by finding the important ________________________ that distinguish one culture from another.

________________________________________

 

10. In individualistic societies, negotiators are considered interchangeable, and ____________ (rather than relationship) is an important consideration when choosing a negotiator.

________________________________________

 

11. Proponents of the ____________ approach recognize that negotiation behavior is multiply determined and using culture as the sole explanation of behavior is oversimplifying a complex social process.

________________________________________

 

12. Cultures differ in the degree to which ___________, or the formality of the relations between the two negotiating parties, is important.

________________________________________

 

13. To avoid offending the other party in negotiations across borders, the international negotiator needs to observe cultural rules of ____________ carefully.

________________________________________

 

14. Negotiation in risk-_____________ cultures will seek further information and will be more likely to take a wait-and-see stance.

________________________________________

 

15. Decision making in group-oriented cultures involves ____________ and may take considerably more time than American negotiators are accustomed to.

________________________________________

 

16. Researchers Gelfand and Realo found that accountability to a constituent influenced negotiators from individualistic and ____________ cultures differently.

________________________________________

 

17. One approach for negotiators who have very low familiarity with the other party’s culture is to hire an ____________ who is familiar with the cultures of both parties.

________________________________________

 

18. Many types of ____________ may be used in cross-cultural negotiations, ranging from someone who conducts introductions and then withdraws, to someone who is present throughout the negotiation and takes responsibility for orchestrating the negotiation process.

________________________________________

 

19. The “coordinate adjustment” strategy can be thought of as a special instance of negotiating the ____________ of negotiation.

________________________________________

 

 

True / False Questions

20. Countries can have only one culture; however cultures can span national borders.

True    False

 

21. There are six factors in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations and these factors can act to limit or constrain organizations that operate internationally whether negotiators understand or appreciate their effects.

True    False

 

22. Political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times.

True    False

 

23. Ideological clashes increase the communication challenges in cross-border negotiations in the broadest sense because the parties may disagree on the most fundamental levels about what is being negotiated.

True    False

 

24. In all cross-cultural negotiations, both parties approach the negotiation deductively.

True    False

 

25. High-conflict situations that are based on ethnicity, identity or geography are most easy to resolve.

True    False

 

26. The relationship the principal negotiating parties develop before the actual negotiations will have an important impact on the negotiation process and outcome.

True    False

 

27. Tangible and intangible factors play only a minor role in determining the outcomes of cross-border negotiations.

True    False

 

28. Many popular books and articles on international negotiation treat culture as expected behavior, providing lists of dos and don’ts to obey when negotiating with people from different cultures.

True    False

 

29. The “culture-as-shared-values” approach has advantages over the “culture-as-dialectic” approach because it can explain variations within cultures.

True    False

 

30. Outside of North America there appears to be a great deal of variation across cultures in the extent to which negotiation situations are initially perceived as distributive or integrative.

True    False

 

31. Risk-oriented cultures will be more willing to move early on a deal and will generally take more chances.

True    False

 

32. Research studies suggest that culture does have an effect of negotiation outcomes, although it may not be direct and it likely has an influence through differences in the negotiation process in different cultures.

True    False

 

33. The best approach to manage cross-cultural negotiations is to be insensitive to the cultural norms of the other negotiator’s approach.

True    False

 

34. Research suggests that negotiators may naturally negotiate differently when they are with people from their own culture than when they are with people from other cultures.

True    False

 

35. Francis found that negotiators from a familiar culture (Japan) who made no attempt to adapt to American ways were perceived more positively than negotiators who made moderate adaptations.

True    False

 

36. Weiss states that a negotiator should only use one strategy throughout an entire negotiation.

True    False

 

37. Negotiators using the “adapt to the other party’s approach” strategy maintain a firm grasp on their own approach, but make modifications to help relations with the other negotiator.

True    False

 

38. To use the “improvise an approach” strategy, both parties to the negotiation need to have high familiarity with the other party’s culture and a strong understanding of the individual characteristics of the other party.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

39. We use the term “culture” to refer to the

A. religious beliefs of a group of people.

 

B. ethnicity of a group of people.

 

C. geographic nationality of a group of people.

 

D. shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a group of people.

 

E. Culture refers to none of the above.

 

40. According to Salacuse, which of the following is not a factor in the environmental context of negotiations?

A. political and legal pluralism

 

B. foreign governments and bureaucracies

 

C. relative bargaining power

 

D. international economic factors

 

E. All of the above are factors in the environmental context of negotiations.

 

41. Which of the following is an immediate context factor in cross-cultural negotiations?

A. external stakeholders

 

B. instability

 

C. international economic factors

 

D. relationship between negotiators

 

E. All of the above are immediate context factors in cross-cultural negotiations.

 

42. Political and legal pluralism can make cross cultural negotiations more complex because

A. there may be implications for the taxes that the organization pays.

 

B. there may be implications for the labor codes or standards that the organization must meet.

 

C. there may be different codes of contract law and standards of enforcement.

 

D. political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times.

 

E. Political and legal pluralism can make cross-cultural negotiations more complex because of all of the above.

 

43. Which of the following factors most influences relative bargaining power?

A. the extent to which negotiators frame the negotiation differently

 

B. tangible and intangible factors

 

C. management control

 

D. personal motivations of external stakeholders

 

E. None of the above factors influence relative bargaining power.

 

44. Which of the following is not one of Janosik’s four ways that culture is used in international negotiation?

A. culture as learned behavior

 

B. culture as economic indicator

 

C. culture as shared values

 

D. culture as dialectic

 

E. Each of the above is one of Janosik’s four ways that culture is used in international negotiation.

 

45. The “culture-as-shared-value” approach

A. concentrates on documenting the systematic negotiation behavior of people in different cultures.

 

B. concentrates on understanding the central values and norms of a culture and then building a model for how these norms and values influence negotiations within that culture.

 

C. recognizes that all cultures contain dimensions or tensions among their different values.

 

D. recognizes that no human behavior is determined by a single cause.

 

E. All of the above are elements of the “culture as shared” value approach.

 

46. The individualism/collectivism dimension describes

A. the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

 

B. the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group.

 

C. the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine.

 

D. the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.

 

E. None of the above describes the individualism/collectivism dimension.

 

47. Power distance describes

A. the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

 

B. the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group.

 

C. the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine.

 

D. the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.

 

E. None of the above describes power distance.

 

48. What consequences do negotiators from high uncertainty avoidance cultures bring to negotiations?

A. Negotiators will strongly depend on cultivating and sustaining a long-term relationship.

 

B. Negotiators may be more likely to “swap” negotiators, using whatever short-term criteria seem appropriate.

 

C. Negotiators may need to seek approval from their supervisors more frequently.

 

D. Negotiators may not be comfortable with ambiguous situations and may be more likely to seek stable rules and procedures when they negotiate.

 

E. All of the above are consequences of high uncertainty avoidance cultures.

 

49. Risk-avoiding cultures will

A. be willing to move early on a deal.

 

B. generally take more chances.

 

C. seek further information.

 

D. be less likely to take a wait-and-see stance.

 

E. Risk avoiding cultures will generally take all of the above actions.

 

50. In group-oriented cultures

A. the individual comes before the group’s needs.

 

B. decisions are primarily made by senior executives.

 

C. decision making is an efficient, streamlined process.

 

D. negotiators may be faced with a series of discussions over the same issues and materials with many different people.

 

E. All of the above occur in group-oriented cultures.

 

51. According to Graham, which of the following statements would be characteristic of a Japanese negotiator?

A. Higher profits are associated with making opponents feel uncomfortable.

 

B. Higher profits are achieved by making opponents feel comfortable.

 

C. The use of powerful and deceptive strategies is more likely to receive higher outcomes.

 

D. Representational strategies are negatively related to profits.

 

E. None of the above is characteristics of a Japanese negotiator.

 

52. According to Weiss, when choosing a strategy, negotiators should

A. choose one strategy and stick with it throughout the entire negotiation.

 

B. be aware of their own culture, but minimize the other culture’s norms.

 

C. not try to predict or influence the other party’s approach.

 

D. understand the specific factors in the current relationship.

 

E. Weiss states that negotiators should do all of the above when preparing for negotiations.

 

53. Which of the following strategies should negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture choose?

A. employ agents or advisers

 

B. adapt to the other party’s approach

 

C. coordinate adjustment

 

D. embrace the other party’s approach

 

E. Negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture should not choose any of the above strategies.

 

54. Which among the following lists reflects Weiss’s culturally responsive joint strategies for cross-cultural negotiations?

A. employ agents or advisors, bring in a mediator, adapt to the other party’s approach, improvise an approach

 

B. employ agents or advisors, adapt to the other party’s approach, embrace the other party’s approach, effect symphony

 

C. bring in a mediator, coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, effect symphony

 

D. coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, adapt to the other party’s approach, embrace the other party’s approach

 

E. None of the above list only joint strategies for cross cultural negotiations.

 

55. “Adapting to the other negotiator’s approach” is best used by parties with

A. no familiarity.

 

B. low familiarity.

 

C. moderate familiarity.

 

D. high familiarity.

 

E. Adapting to the other party’s approach is equally effective for all parties.

 

56. “Coordinating adjustment” involves

A. adopting completely the approach of the other party.

 

B. making conscious changes to your approach so that it is more appealing to the other party.

 

C. both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation.

 

D. crafting an approach that is specifically tailored to the negotiation situation.

 

E. “Coordinating adjustment” involves all of the above.

 

57. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves

A. adopting completely the approach of the other party.

 

B. both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation.

 

C. creating a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or practices from a third culture.

 

D. persuading the other party to use your approach.

 

E. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves all of the above.

 

58. When working to create a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or adopt practices from a third culture, negotiators are using what approach?

A. effect symphony

 

B. improvise an approach

 

C. embrace the other party’s approach

 

D. employ agents or advisors

 

E. Negotiators are using all of the above approaches.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

59. What is the most frequently studied aspect of international negotiations?

 

 

 

 

60. According to Salacuse, what are the six factors that make global negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations?

 

 

 

 

61. How does the exchange value of international currencies affect cross-cultural negotiation decisions?

 

 

 

 

62. How does ideology contribute to making international negotiations difficult?

 

 

 

 

63. Phatak and Habib define external stakeholders as:

 

 

 

 

64. What are Phatak and Habib’s immediate context factors?

 

 

 

 

65. What is the main challenge for every global negotiator?

 

 

 

 

66. The “culture-as-learned-behavior” approach to understanding the effects of culture concentrates on:

 

 

 

 

67. What is the “culture-in-context” approach to using culture to understand global negotiation?

 

 

 

 

68. Foster suggests that culture can influence negotiations across borders in what different ways?

 

 

 

 

69. How does the nature of agreements vary between cultures?

 

 

 

 

70. What did researchers Adler, Brahm and Graham find about the differences in negotiation strategies and tactics in the cultures of the Chinese and Americans?

 

 

 

 

71. What is the danger in modifying the negotiator’s approach to match the approach of the other negotiator?

 

 

 

 

72. What factors indicate that negotiators should not make large modifications to their approach when they negotiate across borders?

 

 

 

 

73. Weiss observes that a negotiator may be able to choose among which culturally responsive strategies when negotiating with someone from another culture?

 

 

 

 

74. What are the disadvantages to using the “induce the other party to use your approach” strategy?

 

 

 

 

75. What is the challenge in using the “adapt to the other party’s approach” strategy?

 

 

 

 

76. The “embrace the other party’s approach” strategy involves:

 

 

 

 

77. Which is the most flexible of Weiss’ eight strategies for negotiating with someone from another culture?

 

 

 

 

78. What are the risks of using the “effect symphony” strategy?