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Introduction To The Human Body, 9th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora – Test Bank
Sample  Questions   

 

Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: IHB9e

Chapter Number: 1

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) The science dealing with body functions is called

 

  1. a) physiology.
  2. b) cytology.
  3. c) anatomy.
  4. d) histology.
  5. e) biology.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.1 Define anatomy and physiology.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined.

 

 

2) The level of organization when different multiple types of tissues join together is called the

 

  1. a) chemical level.
  2. b) cellular level.
  3. c) tissue level.
  4. d) organ level.
  5. e) system level.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

3) A group of related organs that have a common function is called a(n)

 

  1. a) organ.
  2. b) system.
  3. c) tissue.
  4. d) group.
  5. e) organism.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

4) The process by which unspecialized cells become specialized cells is called

 

  1. a) anabolism.
  2. b) catabolism.
  3. c) metabolism.
  4. d) differentiation.
  5. e) homeostasis.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

5) The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the human body is referred to as

 

  1. a) anabolism.
  2. b) catabolism.
  3. c) metabolism.
  4. d) differentiation.
  5. e) homeostasis.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

6) All of the following are examples of organs EXCEPT

 

  1. a) stomach.
  2. b) heart.
  3. c) epithelium.
  4. d) brain.
  5. e) gallbladder.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

7) The maintenance of relatively stable conditions within the body is known as

 

  1. a) responsiveness.
  2. b) homeostasis.
  3. c) differentiation.
  4. d) growth.
  5. e) All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

8) All of the following are components of the negative feedback systems that control homeostasis EXCEPT

 

  1. a) control center.
  2. b) receptor.
  3. c) receiver.
  4. d) effector.
  5. e) All of these answer choices are basic components of the feedback system.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

9) In a negative feedback system, the response of the effector to a stimulus

 

  1. a) enhances the original stimulus.
  2. b) eliminates the original stimulus.
  3. c) reverses the original stimulus.
  4. d) does not change the original stimulus.
  5. e) is not related to the original stimulus.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

10) The life process of reproduction refers to

 

  1. a) an increase in the size of cells.
  2. b) the formation of new cells.
  3. c) the production of a new individual.
  4. d) both formation of new cells and production of a new individual.
  5. e) both an increase in the size of cells and formation of new cells.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

11) Which of the following structures of a feedback system sends input to the control center?

 

  1. a) effector.
  2. b) receptor.
  3. c) affector.
  4. d) stimulus.
  5. e) None of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

12) Baroreceptors in the feedback system that control blood pressure sense changes in

 

  1. a) the rate of blood flow through the aorta.
  2. b) the force of the blood as it presses against the walls of blood vessels.
  3. c) the temperature of the blood.
  4. d) the amount of stretch on the heart as it fills with blood.
  5. e) the amount of tissue damage inflicted by high blood pressure.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

13) Which of the following is a symptom of disease rather than a sign?

 

  1. a) nausea
  2. b) bleeding
  3. c) vomiting
  4. d) fever
  5. e) rash

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.4 Distinguish between symptoms and signs of a disease.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

14) The science that deals with the treatment of disease using drugs is called

 

  1. a) physiology.
  2. b) anatomy.
  3. c) epidemiology.
  4. d) pharmacology.
  5. e) pathophysiology.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.8 Define various medical terminology and conditions.

Section Reference 1: Medical Terminology and Conditions.

 

 

15) In the anatomical position, the subject

 

  1. a) is lying face down.
  2. b) has his/her arms placed above the head.
  3. c) has his/her arms folded on the chest.
  4. d) is standing upright facing the observer with the palms backwards.
  5. e) is standing upright facing the observer with the palms forward.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.1 Describe the anatomical position.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

16) A plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions is called a(n)

 

  1. a) parasagittal plane.
  2. b) midsagittal plane.
  3. c) frontal plane.
  4. d) transverse plane.
  5. e) oblique plane.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

17) A gluteal injection refers to an injection into the

 

  1. a) buttock.
  2. b) thigh.
  3. c) ankle.
  4. d) upper arm.
  5. e) abdomen.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

18) The sternum (breastbone) is ___ to the heart.

 

  1. a) posterior
  2. b) anterior
  3. c) inferior
  4. d) lateral
  5. e) distal

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

19) The plane that divides the body into a superior and inferior portion is a

 

  1. a) parasagittal plane.
  2. b) midsagittal plane.
  3. c) transverse plane.
  4. d) oblique plane.
  5. e) frontal plane.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

20) Which of the following is NOT a basic tissue type?

 

  1. a) connective tissue
  2. b) epithelial tissue
  3. c) cartilage tissue
  4. d) nervous tissue
  5. e) muscle tissue

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

21) Which of the following organs does NOT belong to the digestive system?

 

  1. a) liver
  2. b) gallbladder
  3. c) ureter
  4. d) stomach
  5. e) salivary glands

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

22) The organ system that regulates the body’s activities using chemical regulators called hormones is the

 

  1. a) digestive system.
  2. b) endocrine system.
  3. c) nervous system.
  4. d) cardiovascular system.
  5. e) integumentary system.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

23) The ___ is the region between the lungs from the breastbone to the vertebral column.

 

  1. a) vertebral canal
  2. b) pericardium
  3. c) mediastinum
  4. d) pleural cavity
  5. e) manubrium

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

24) The organ system that transports fats from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood in the cardiovascular system is the

 

  1. a) digestive system.
  2. b) endocrine system.
  3. c) lymphatic system.
  4. d) urinary system.
  5. e) respiratory system.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

25) The anatomical term which best describes a structure that is found toward the head is

 

  1. a) superficial.
  2. b) deep.
  3. c) inferior.
  4. d) superior.
  5. e) anterior.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

26) In the anatomical position, the ring finger is ___ to the little finger.

 

  1. a) lateral
  2. b) medial
  3. c) deep
  4. d) distal
  5. e) proximal

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

27) The anatomical term for navel is

 

  1. a) crural.
  2. b) inguinal.
  3. c) umbilical.
  4. d) femoral.
  5. e) coxal.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

28) Which of the following directional terms best describes structures found toward the back region of the body?

 

  1. a) ventral
  2. b) dorsal
  3. c) proximal
  4. d) distal
  5. e) medial

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

29) The spleen and liver are located in the

 

  1. a) pelvic cavity.
  2. b) cranial cavity.
  3. c) abdominal cavity.
  4. d) thoracic cavity.
  5. e) vertebral cavity.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

30) All of the following are found inferior to the diaphragm EXCEPT the

 

  1. a) thymus gland.
  2. b) gall bladder.
  3. c) large intestine.
  4. d) small intestine.
  5. e) urinary bladder.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

31) The body cavity containing the urinary bladder and portions of the large intestine is the

 

  1. a) pelvic cavity.
  2. b) abdominal cavity.
  3. c) mediastinum.
  4. d) pleural cavity.
  5. e) dorsal cavity.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

32) The pericardial cavity contains the

 

  1. a) lungs.
  2. b) thyroid glands.
  3. c) brain.
  4. d) heart.
  5. e) stomach.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

33) Which of the following is NOT one of the nine abdominopelvic regions?

 

  1. a) left lumbar region
  2. b) right upper region
  3. c) right inguinal region
  4. d) epigastric region
  5. e) pubic region

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.2 Explain why the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions and quadrants.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

34) Which of the following abdominopelvic regions contains portions of the stomach?

 

  1. a) right hypochondriac region
  2. b) left hypochondriac region
  3. c) epigastric region
  4. d) both right hypochondriac region and left hypochondriac region
  5. e) both left hypochondriac region and epigastric region

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

35) Failure of the body to maintain homeostasis will

 

  1. a) have no effect on health.
  2. b) cause illness and possibly death.
  3. c) always cause death.
  4. d) initiate positive feedback.
  5. e) enhance the immune response to pathogens.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.4 Distinguish between symptoms and signs of a disease.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

36) All of the following are controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, EXCEPT

 

  1. a) the skeletal muscle contractions used for walking.
  2. b) blood pressure.
  3. c) body temperature.
  4. d) blood sugar levels.
  5. e) breathing rate.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

37) Which of the following physiological processes is controlled by positive feedback?

 

  1. a) regulation of blood sugar
  2. b) initiation of blood clotting
  3. c) control of blood pressure
  4. d) maintenance of body temperature
  5. e) control of breathing rate

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.3 Compare the operation of negative and positive feedback systems.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

38) The organs found inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are commonly referred to as

 

  1. a) mediastinum.
  2. b) mammary glands.
  3. c) abdominal organs.
  4. d) viscera.
  5. e) pleural organs.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

39) All of the following are functions of the cardiovascular system EXCEPT

 

  1. a) oxygen transport.
  2. b) carbon dioxide transport.
  3. c) red blood cell production.
  4. d) mending damaged blood vessels.
  5. e) transport of nutrients and wastes.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

40) The smallest living units within an organism are

 

  1. a) atoms.
  2. b) molecules.
  3. c) cells.
  4. d) tissues.
  5. e) organs.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

41) Two or more atoms combine together to form

 

  1. a) cells.
  2. b) organs.
  3. c) organ systems.
  4. d) molecules.
  5. e) None of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

42) The organ system that consists of skin, along with associated structures like hair and sweat glands, is the

 

  1. a) skeletal system.
  2. b) integumentary system.
  3. c) muscular system.
  4. d) endocrine system.
  5. e) cardiovascular system.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

43) The anatomical term used to describe the region of the neck is

 

  1. a) facial.
  2. b) brachial.
  3. c) cervical.
  4. d) thoracic.
  5. e) mental.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

44) The splitting of proteins into amino acids which are then used to make new proteins is an example of the life process called

 

  1. a) responsiveness.
  2. b) reproduction.
  3. c) metabolism.
  4. d) differentiation.
  5. e) homeostasis.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

45) Which of the following is NOT a change associated with aging?

 

  1. a) wrinkled skin
  2. b) diminished reflexes
  3. c) increased insulin production
  4. d) decreased muscle strength
  5. e) loss of bone mass

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.5 Describe some of the anatomical and physiological changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis.

 

 

46) A disease that affects a limited area of the body is referred to as a(n) ___ disease.

 

  1. a) systemic
  2. b) local
  3. c) systematic
  4. d) epidemic
  5. e) endemic

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.8 Define various medical terminology and conditions.

Section Reference 1: Medical Terminology and Conditions.

 

 

47) The science that deals with medical problems and care of the elderly is called

 

  1. a) epidemiology.
  2. b) geriatrics.
  3. c) pathology.
  4. d) pharmacology.
  5. e) obstetrics.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.8 Define various medical terminology and conditions.

Section Reference 1: Medical Terminology and Conditions.

 

 

48) The science that deals with the nature and causes of abnormal conditions, and the structural and functional changes that diseases produce is called

 

  1. a) epidemiology.
  2. b) geriatrics.
  3. c) pathology.
  4. d) pharmacology.
  5. e) obstetrics.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.8 Define various medical terminology and conditions.

Section Reference 1: Medical Terminology and Conditions.

 

 

49) The release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells in response to an increase in the blood glucose concentration after a meal is an example of which of the following life processes?

 

  1. a) metabolism
  2. b) responsiveness
  3. c) movement
  4. d) growth
  5. e) differentiation

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

50) The life process by which a hemocytoblast (unspecialized stem cell) becomes an erythroblast that will then mature into a red blood cell is called

 

  1. a) metabolism.
  2. b) movement.
  3. c) growth.
  4. d) differentiation.
  5. e) reproduction.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

51) In the negative feedback system that controls the body’s response to decreased body temperature, the skeletal muscles play the role of

 

  1. a) receptors.
  2. b) input signals.
  3. c) control centers.
  4. d) output signals.
  5. e) effectors.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

52) Otitis refers to inflammation in what region of the body?

 

  1. a) nose
  2. b) eye
  3. c) neck
  4. d) cheek
  5. e) ear

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

53) Anatomy refers to both structure and function of the body.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.1 Define anatomy and physiology.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined.

 

 

54) The chemical level of structural organization includes all chemicals needed to maintain life.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

55) The integumentary system protects all the other body systems.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.2 Outline the body systems and explain how they relate to one another.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

56) Reproduction refers exclusively to the formation of new cells for growth, repair, and replacement.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

57) Stress can cause disruptions in homeostasis, because it creates an imbalance in the internal environment.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

58) The control center determines the range within which a controlled condition needs to be maintained.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

59) To describe the position of one body structure relative to another, anatomists use directional terms.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

60) A midsagittal plane always divides the body into equal superior and inferior portions.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

61) The spinal cord and the brain are located in the cranial cavity.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

62) The heart is located in the mediastinum.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

63) For practical purposes, clinicians prefer to use the quadrant system of dividing the abdominopelvic cavity instead of the nine region system used by anatomists.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.2 Explain why the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions and quadrants.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

64) Childbirth is a good example of a positive feedback mechanism.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.3 Compare the operation of negative and positive feedback systems.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

65) The heart is superior to the cranium.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

66) Aging is a normal process associated with a reduced ability to maintain homeostasis.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.5 Describe some of the anatomical and physiological changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis.

 

 

67) Aging affects all body systems.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.5 Describe some of the anatomical and physiological changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis.

 

 

68) Aging can cause a decreased susceptibility to cancer.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.5 Describe some of the anatomical and physiological changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis.

 

 

69) Less efficient functioning of the digestive system and decreased function of the kidneys are changes often associated with aging.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.5 Describe some of the anatomical and physiological changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis.

 

 

70) Pathology is the science that deals with why, when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted within a defined human population.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.8 Define various medical terminology and conditions.

Section Reference 1: Medical Terminology and Conditions.

 

 

71) The endocrine system would be the most likely control system for a homeostatic process that requires a rapidly induced change.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

72) The wrist is proximal to the fingers.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

Question type: Text Entry

 

 

73) The science dealing with the structures of the human body is called ___.

 

Answer: anatomy

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.1 Define anatomy and physiology.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined.

 

 

74) All the body systems combined make up a(n) ___.

 

Answer: organism

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

75) Molecules combine to form structures at the ___ level of organization.

 

Answer: cellular

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

76) Largest level of organization within the human body is the ___ level.

 

Answer: organismal

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

77) Ability to detect and respond to changes in either the internal or external environment is called ___.

 

Answer: responsiveness

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

78) Maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the internal environment of the human body is called ___.

 

Answer: homeostasis

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

79) A life process by which unspecialized cells become specialized cells is called ___.

 

Answer: differentiation

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.3 Define the important life processes of humans.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.3 Life Processes.

 

 

80) Blood pressure, which is the force of flowing blood against the walls of the arteries, is maintained within a narrow range by a ___ feedback system.

 

Answer: negative

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.3 Compare the operation of negative and positive feedback systems.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

81) The basic component of a feedback system that receives output from the control center and produces a response is called the ___.

 

Answer: effector

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

82) The component of a feedback system that monitors changes in the controlled condition is called the ___.

 

Answer: receptor

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

83) The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior segments is the ___ plane.

 

Answer: frontal (or coronal)

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

84) The fluid surrounding body cells within the tissues is called ___ fluid.

 

Answer: interstitial

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

85) The stomach is ___ to the lungs.

 

Answer: inferior

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

86) The humerus is ___ to the radius

 

Answer: proximal

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

87) The abdominal and pelvic cavities combine to form the ___ cavity.

 

Answer: abdominopelvic

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

88) The correct anatomical term for the front of the elbow is ___.

 

Answer: antecubital

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

89) All the bones of the body, their associated cartilages, and joints belong to the ___ system.

 

Answer: skeletal

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

90) Homeostasis is controlled by the ___ and ___ systems.

 

Answer: nervous; endocrine

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.2 Describe the components of a feedback system.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

 

 

91) The smallest structural units of matter that participate in chemical reactions within the human body are called ___.

 

Answer: atoms

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

 

 

92) The umbilical region of the abdominopelvic cavity is ___ to the pubic region.

 

Answer: superior

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

93) Using the quadrant system of dividing the abdominopelvic cavity, the liver is found primarily in the ___ quadrant.

 

Answer: right upper

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1. Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

94) Where on the diagram is the femoral area?

 

  1. a) D
  2. b) E
  3. c) I
  4. d) J
  5. e) K

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

95) Where on the diagram is the sacral area?

  1. a) C
  2. b) D
  3. c) E
  4. d) I
  5. e) J

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

96) Where on the diagram is the cervical area?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) G
  4. d) F
  5. e) H

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

97) Where on the diagram is the brachial area?

  1. a) C
  2. b) E
  3. c) I
  4. d) K
  5. e) D

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.2 Identify the major regions of the body and relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical terms for various parts of the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

98) Name and briefly describe the six levels of structural organization in the human body.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.2 Outline the levels of organization of the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.2.1 Describe the structural organization of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems.

Solution: The chemical level: includes atoms and molecules.

The cellular level: includes all different cells made of combinations of molecules.

The tissue level: tissues consist of groups of similar cells.

The organ level: organs are formed when different types of tissues join together.

The system level: consists of related organs that have a common function.

The organismal level: the highest level of structural organization includes all organ systems making up the entire organism.

 

 

99) Name and briefly describe the common planes used to describe anatomy of body parts that have been sectioned.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

Solution: A sagittal plane divides the body or body part into right and left portions.

A midsagittal plane divides the body or body part into equal right and left portions.

A parasagittal plane divides the body or body part into unequal right and left portions.

A frontal (coronal) plane divides the body or body part into anterior and posterior portions.

A transverse plane divides the body or body part into superior and inferior portions.

An oblique plane passes through the body or body part at an angle between the planes mentioned above.

 

 

100) Define homeostasis.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.4 Understand the importance of homeostatic feedback systems and how imbalances are related to disorders.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.4.1 Define homeostasis and explain its importance.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits.

Solution: Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment of the body is maintained within certain physiological limits.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

101) Which labeled cavity in the diagram can be subdivided into three smaller cavities called the pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

102) Which of the labeled cavities in the diagram is lined with a serous membrane called the peritoneum?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

103) Which labeled cavity in the diagram contains the urinary bladder and the internal organs of reproduction?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.7 Identify the four major body cavities, emphasizing the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.7.1 Describe the principal body cavities and the organs they contain.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.7 Body Cavities.

 

 

104) Which of the labeled planes in the diagram is a coronal (or frontal plane)?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

 

 

105) What type of plane is labeled E in the diagram?

  1. a) Oblique plane
  2. b) Transverse plane
  3. c) Frontal plane
  4. d) Midsagittal plane
  5. e) Parasagittal plane

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 1.6 Describe the anatomical position and how anatomical terms are used to describe the human body.

Learning Objective 2: LO 1.6.3 Define the directional terms and the anatomical planes and sections used to locate parts of the human body.

Section Reference 1: Section 1.6 Anatomical Terms.

Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: IHB9e

Chapter Number: 3

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) The plasma membrane consists of

 

  1. a) cellulose and carbohydrates.
  2. b) mostly proteins.
  3. c) only phospholipids.
  4. d) phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  5. e) only carbohydrates and lipids.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

2) The cytoplasm is a term that refers to

 

  1. a) all cell organelles combined.
  2. b) microtubules and microfilaments only.
  3. c) the fluid portion of the cell.
  4. d) the cytosol plus cell organelles.
  5. e) the communication center of the cell.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.1 Name and describe the three main parts of a cell.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell.

 

 

3) Which of the following statements are TRUE for the plasma membrane?

 

  1. a) It is selectively permeable.
  2. b) It contains glycoproteins.
  3. c) It contains cholesterol.
  4. d) It is selectively permeable and contains glycoproteins.
  5. e) It is selectively permeable and contains glycoproteins and cholesterol.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

4) The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is permeable to all of the following substances EXCEPT

 

  1. a) amino acids.
  2. b) fat-soluble vitamins.
  3. c) steroids.
  4. d) oxygen.
  5. e) water.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

5) Endocytosis is an example of

 

  1. a) excretion.
  2. b) passive transport.
  3. c) active transport.
  4. d) facilitated diffusion.
  5. e) simple diffusion.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

6) Which of the following is necessary for simple diffusion to take place?

 

  1. a) a concentration gradient
  2. b) a selectively permeable membrane
  3. c) a hypertonic solution
  4. d) cellular energy
  5. e) All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

7) A normal red blood cell that is placed into a hypotonic solution will

 

  1. a) lose water.
  2. b) gain water.
  3. c) neither gain nor lose water.
  4. d) become crenated.
  5. e) not change shape.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

8) Which of the following solutions are isotonic for normal human red blood cells?

 

  1. a) 10 % NaCl solution
  2. b) 2% NaCl solution
  3. c) 0.9% NaCl solution
  4. d) pure water
  5. e) 0.9% glucose solution

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

9) Pinocytosis and phagocytosis involve structural changes in the

 

  1. a) cytosol.
  2. b) plasma membrane.
  3. c) ribosomes.
  4. d) mitochondria.
  5. e) cell nucleus.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

10) The movement of solute molecules across a plasma membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration requires

 

  1. a) cellular energy.
  2. b) facilitated diffusion.
  3. c) integral proteins.
  4. d) cellular energy and facilitated diffusion.
  5. e) cellular energy and integral proteins.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

11) Certain white blood cells can destroy bacteria using the process of

 

  1. a) pinocytosis.
  2. b) phagocytosis.
  3. c) exocytosis.
  4. d) transcytosis.
  5. e) None of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

12) Which of the following statements BEST describes essential characteristic(s) of active transport?

 

  1. a) Moves solutes down their concentration gradient.
  2. b) Requires a carrier protein or pump.
  3. c) Requires cellular energy.
  4. d) Requires osmotic pressure gradient.
  5. e) Requires both a pump and cellular energy.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

13) Chromatin is found in the

 

  1. a) nucleus.
  2. b) nuclear pores.
  3. c) ribosomes.
  4. d) mitochondria.
  5. e) lysosomes.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

14) Which of following organelles is primarily involved in the modification (e.g. glycosylation), sorting, and packaging of proteins?

 

  1. a) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. b) Golgi complex
  3. c) mitochondria
  4. d) lysosomes
  5. e) nucleus

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

15) Which of the following organelles is the site of synthesis of steroid hormones like estrogens and testosterone?

 

  1. a) Golgi complex
  2. b) ribosomes
  3. c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  4. d) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  5. e) mitochondria

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

16) The organelle that contains as many as 60 different digestive enzymes is called the

 

  1. a) Golgi complex.
  2. b) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  3. c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. d) lysosome.
  5. e) mitochondrion.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

17) The synthesis of plasma membrane proteins occurs in ribosomes attached to the outer surface of the

 

  1. a) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. b) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  3. c) mitochondria.
  4. d) Golgi complexes.
  5. e) lysosomes.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

18) Which of the following organelles are commonly referred to as the “powerhouses” of a cell?

 

  1. a) lysosomes
  2. b) ribosomes
  3. c) nucleoli
  4. d) mitochondria
  5. e) peroxisomes

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

19) Which of the following intracellular structures is considered to be part of the cytoskeleton?

 

  1. a) cytosol
  2. b) mitochondria
  3. c) microtubules
  4. d) centromere
  5. e) flagella

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

20) An organelle located near the nucleus that consists of two cylindrical structures composed of clusters of microtubules is called the

 

  1. a) nucleolus.
  2. b) centrosome.
  3. c) flagellum.
  4. d) microtubule.
  5. e) cilium.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

21) Which of the following organelles in liver cells contains enzymes that help to detoxify drugs and potentially harmful substances in the blood?

 

  1. a) nucleus
  2. b) lysosomes
  3. c) rough ER
  4. d) smooth ER
  5. e) vacuoles

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

22) The process by which worn-out cellular organelles are digested is called

 

  1. a) autolysis.
  2. b) autoregulation.
  3. c) autophagy.
  4. d) lysis.
  5. e) phagocytosis.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

23) The human somatic cells contain ___ chromosomes.

 

  1. a) 46
  2. b) 23
  3. c) 43
  4. d) 24
  5. e) 54

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

24) Which of the following is a component of RNA only?

 

  1. a) adenine
  2. b) cytosine
  3. c) guanine
  4. d) thymine
  5. e) uracil

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

25) The anticodon is located on the

 

  1. a) mRNA.
  2. b) rRNA.
  3. c) tRNA.
  4. d) DNA.
  5. e) ribosome.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

26) The protein synthesis process called translation requires

 

  1. a) a nucleus.
  2. b) a nucleolus.
  3. c) a smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. d) ribosomes.
  5. e) proteasomes.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

27) Amino acids that participate in protein synthesis are picked up in the cytosol by

 

  1. a) mRNA.
  2. b) rRNA.
  3. c) tRNA.
  4. d) ribosomes.
  5. e) ATP.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

28) A CGT base triplet within a gene on DNA is transcribed into mRNA as

 

  1. a) CAT.
  2. b) GCA.
  3. c) GCU.
  4. d) ACU.
  5. e) TGC.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

29) When translation of a particular protein is complete, termination of protein synthesis is indicated by the presence of a(n)

 

  1. a) promoter.
  2. b) amino acid.
  3. c) stop codon.
  4. d) start codon.
  5. e) carrier protein.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

30) All of the following are nucleotide bases commonly found in DNA molecules EXCEPT

 

  1. a) adenine.
  2. b) cytosine.
  3. c) guanine.
  4. d) thymine.
  5. e) uracil.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

31) The characteristics of each individual protein are based on their sequence of

 

  1. a) fatty acids.
  2. b) amino acids.
  3. c) molecules.
  4. d) monosaccharides.
  5. e) glycerides.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

32) The type of cell division that produces two identical cells is called

 

  1. a) somatic cell division.
  2. b) meiosis I.
  3. c) meiosis II.
  4. d) cytokinesis.
  5. e) reproductive cell division.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

33) During somatic cell division, the process in which the cytoplasm and its organelles are divided is referred to as

 

  1. a) meiosis.
  2. b) the cell cycle.
  3. c) reproductive cell division.
  4. d) mitosis.
  5. e) cytokinesis.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

34) In somatic cell division, the phase in which the DNA is replicated is called

 

  1. a) mitotic phase.
  2. b) prophase.
  3. c) anaphase.
  4. d) interphase.
  5. e) cytokinesis.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

35) The football-shaped assembly of microtubules that is used to move chromosomes to opposite poles of a dividing cell is called the

 

  1. a) centromere.
  2. b) chromosome.
  3. c) chromatin.
  4. d) basal body.
  5. e) mitotic spindle.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

36) Which phase of somatic cell division involves the splitting of centromeres followed by separating the two resultant members of each chromatid pair?

 

  1. a) prophase
  2. b) anaphase
  3. c) metaphase
  4. d) telophase
  5. e) cytokinesis

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

37) The final stage of mitosis in which a nuclear envelope forms around the two new chromatin masses is called

 

  1. a) prophase.
  2. b) interphase.
  3. c) anaphase.
  4. d) telophase.
  5. e) metaphase.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

38) The branch of medicine dealing with medical issues of aging is called

 

  1. a) pediatrics.
  2. b) obstetrics.
  3. c) oncology.
  4. d) psychology.
  5. e) geriatrics.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

39) The study of tumors is called

 

  1. a) pathology.
  2. b) oncology.
  3. c) epidemiology.
  4. d) pharmacology.
  5. e) histology.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

40) The spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body is referred to as

 

  1. a) hyperplasia.
  2. b) metastasis.
  3. c) malignancy.
  4. d) mutation.
  5. e) hypertrophy.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

41) A chemical agent or radiation that causes cancer is referred to as a(n)

 

  1. a) oncogene.
  2. b) mutant.
  3. c) carcinogen.
  4. d) neoplasm.
  5. e) biopsy.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

42) Which of the following is a protein that promotes the growth of new networks of blood vessels that support tumor growth?

 

  1. a) tumor necrosis factor
  2. b) thromboplastin
  3. c) epidermal growth factor
  4. d) tumor angiogenesis factor
  5. e) tissue plasminogen activator

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

43) Meiosis is the type of cell division used during the formation of

 

  1. a) sperm cells.
  2. b) skin cells.
  3. c) red blood cells.
  4. d) cancer cells.
  5. e) All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

44) Which of the following statements is always true for active transport processes and never true for passive transport processes?

 

  1. a) Moves solutes from area of high concentration to area of low solute concentration.
  2. b) Requires energy in the form of ATP.
  3. c) Uses a carrier protein.
  4. d) Results in the net diffusion of water across the membrane.
  5. e) All of the answer selections are true for active transport and not for passive transport.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

45) The major function of the ribosomes is to

 

  1. a) coordinate lipid synthesis.
  2. b) synthesize proteins.
  3. c) detoxify drugs and alcohol.
  4. d) digest damaged organelles.
  5. e) form vesicles.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

46) Which of the following statements correctly describes the events that occur when a normal red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?

 

  1. a) Net movement of water molecules into a cell.
  2. b) Net movement of water molecules out of a cell.
  3. c) No net movement of water molecules across the cell’s membrane.
  4. d) Decreased osmotic pressure inside cell.
  5. e) None of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

47) Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE with regard to the cytoplasm?

 

  1. a) site of many chemical reactions in the cell.
  2. b) responsible for nuclear division during mitosis.
  3. c) liquid portion is known as the cytosol.
  4. d) composed of a lattice of protein filaments called the cytoskeleton.
  5. e) contains cellular organelles like the mitochondria.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

48) The primary role that integral membrane proteins play in active transport is to

 

  1. a) move solute molecules down the concentration gradient.
  2. b) control cellular metabolism.
  3. c) move water by osmosis to maintain balance in the intracellular compartment.
  4. d) produce the cellular energy needed for active transport.
  5. e) bind and transport solute molecules against the concentration gradient.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

49) The cellular organelle primarily responsible for transforming the chemical energy found in nutrients into ATP is the

 

  1. a) ribosome.
  2. b) mitochondria.
  3. c) lysosome.
  4. d) Golgi Apparatus
  5. e) nuclear envelope

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

50) Jennifer loves perfume. She visits her local discount store regularly. Today she came to class wearing her latest purchase and soon everyone in the entire classroom was familiar with the scent. What concept important to transport processes is being demonstrated here?

 

  1. a) osmosis
  2. b) diffusion
  3. c) phagocytosis
  4. d) active transport
  5. e) wise shopping

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

51) Specific DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes that protect the chromosomes from erosion and sticking together are called

 

  1. a) telophase.
  2. b) telomeres.
  3. c) geriatrics.
  4. d) centromeres.
  5. e) telemetrics.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

52) The study of the processes and problems associated with aging is called

 

  1. a) elderly psychology.
  2. b) oncology.
  3. c) gerontology.
  4. d) pathophysiology.
  5. e) geriatrics.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

53) In a mature human body, which of the following types of cells do not divide?

 

  1. a) skin cells
  2. b) bone cells
  3. c) nerve cells
  4. d) hair cells
  5. e) all cells divide

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

54) An orderly, genetically programmed cell “death” involving activation of “cell-suicide” genes is called

 

  1. a) anaphase.
  2. b) atrophy.
  3. c) apoptosis.
  4. d) adenopathy.
  5. e) necrosis.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

55) The multistep process by which cancer develops is referred to as

 

  1. a) neoplasia.
  2. b) carcinogenesis.
  3. c) angiogenesis.
  4. d) cytokinesis.
  5. e) gamateogenesis.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

56) A semipermeable membrane, which permits water movement but not ion movement, separates two solutions. Solution A contains 0.9% NaCl and solution B contains 9.0 % NaCl. With respect to this system, which of the following statements would be true?

 

  1. a) Water would move from solution A to solution B.
  2. b) Water would move from solution B to solution A.
  3. c) Na+ would move from solution A to solution B.
  4. d) Na+ would move from solution B to solution A.
  5. e) No net movement of water or ions would occur.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport across the Plasma membrane.

 

 

57) The type of body fluid found in the microscopic spaces between cells of tissues is called

 

  1. a) intracellular fluid.
  2. b) interstitial fluid.
  3. c) plasma.
  4. d) lymph.
  5. e) cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

58) All of the following are associated with mitochondria EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) double membrane.
  2. b) cristae.
  3. c) matrix.
  4. d) proteasomes.
  5. e) small number of genes and ribosomes.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

59) To initiate the transcription of a gene, RNA polymerase binds to a ___, which is usually found near the beginning of the gene.

 

  1. a) promoter
  2. b) terminator
  3. c) start codon
  4. d) stop codon
  5. e) anticodon

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

60) Which of the following types of cells contain microvilli to increase the surface area of their plasma membrane for absorption?

 

  1. a) sperm cell
  2. b) smooth muscle cell
  3. c) nerve cell
  4. d) red blood cell
  5. e) epithelial cell of the small intestine

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.8 Cellular Diversity.

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

61) The term cytoplasm refers to all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.1 Name and describe the three main parts of a cell.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell.

 

 

62) Peripheral proteins penetrate all the way through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

63) Most proteins can easily move across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

64) Facilitated diffusion requires a membrane carrier protein and cellular energy.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

65) Osmotic pressure is the pressure that builds up inside a cell and resists net water movement across its membrane.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

66) The nucleus can communicate with the cytosol via nuclear pores in the nuclear envelope.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

67) Ribosomes consist of three subunits of equal size.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

68) The Golgi complex produces some of the components of lysosomes.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

69) During interphase, a cell replicates its DNA and does most of its growing.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

70) The first stage of mitosis is called prophase.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

71) Cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA and it only hydrogen bonds with a complementary nitrogenous base called guanine.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

72) Protein synthesis begins with a DNA code in the nucleus. DNA is copied as an mRNA strand. The mRNA goes to the ribosome where tRNA brings in the appropriate amino acids. These amino acids bond to form a protein. The process continues until the stop codon is read.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

73) In passive transport, the net result is that solutes move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

74) Passive transport requires the use of cellular energy (e.g. ATP) but active transport does not.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

75) Usually only one mutation is needed to convert a non-cancerous adenoma into a cancerous carcinoma.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

76) Protective ends of chromosomes called telomeres shorten with each cycle of cell division.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

77) Normal cells grown outside the body divide a certain number of times and then stop dividing, suggesting this is a normal, programmed event.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.9 Aging and Cells.

 

 

78) The nucleus acts as barrier between a cell’s internal and external environment.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.1 Name and describe the three main parts of a cell.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell.

 

 

79) The only type of cell in the human body that contains a flagellum is a sperm cell.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

80) All cells in the human body contain a single centrally located nucleus.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

81) The main functions of rRNA occur in the nucleus.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

82) Virtually all cervical cancers in women are caused by an oncogenic virus called human papillomavirus (HPV).

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.10 Describe the disorders that affect cells.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

Question type: Text Entry

 

 

83) The basic chemical framework of the plasma membrane is the lipid ___.

 

Answer: bilayer

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

84) Proteins loosely attached to the interior or exterior surface of the cell membrane are called ___ proteins.

 

Answer: peripheral

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.2 The Plasma Membrane.

 

 

85) When solutes move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, they are moving down their ___.

 

Answer: concentration gradient

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

86) A solution containing the same concentration of water molecules and solutes as a red blood cell is considered to be a(n) ___ solution.

 

Answer: isotonic

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

87) The shrinkage that occurs when cells are placed into a hypertonic solution is called ___.

 

Answer: crenation

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

88) Water moves through a selectively permeable membrane using the process of ___.

 

Answer: osmosis

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

89) Solute molecules can be transported from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration by ___ transport.

 

Answer: active

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

90) The liquid portion of the cytoplasm is called the ___.

 

Answer: cytosol

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

91) The nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear ___.

 

Answer: envelope

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

92) Cristae are a series of folds in the inner membrane of ___.

 

Answer: mitochondria

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

93) Microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments are all part of an intracellular network called the ___.

 

Answer: cytoskeleton

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

 

 

94) A group of nucleotides on a DNA molecule that codes for a particular protein is called a(n) ___.

 

Answer: gene

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.5 Nucleus.

 

 

95) A base triplet of AUG on mRNA would match the anticodon ___ on tRNA

 

Answer: UAC

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

96) Codons are located on ___.

 

Answer: mRNA

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

97) The two major steps in synthesis of a protein based on the sequence of nucleotides in a gene are ___ and ___.

 

Answer: transcription; translation

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Outline the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis.

 

 

98) Meiosis is also called ___ cell division.

 

Answer: reproductive

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

99) Name five cell organelles and briefly describe the function of each.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.4 Cytoplasm.

Solution: Golgi complex—sorts, modifies, and packages proteins and lipids: the Golgi complexes also form lysosomes.

Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.

Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and digest cell substances and foreign microbes.

Mitochondria are the site of ATP production.

The nucleus is the control center of the cell.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the production of proteins for export.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of lipid synthesis.

Centrosomes act as organizing centers for microtubules and the mitotic spindle.

Cilia and flagella aid in various types of cellular movements.

Proteasomes degrade faulty proteins.

Peroxisomes detoxify various types of substances.

 

 

100) Define osmosis. What is the primary driving force for osmosis?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

Solution: Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. The primary driving force for osmosis is the water concentration gradient across the membrane, with water always moving from the area of high water (low solute) concentration to the area of lower water (or higher solute) concentration.

 

 

101) Briefly describe the stages of mitosis.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

Solution: 1) Prophase: the chromatin condenses and shortens into visible chromosomes, the nucleoli disappear, and the nuclear membrane breaks down. The mitotic spindle is formed during this stage of mitosis.

2) Metaphase: the chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate (equatorial plate).

3) Anaphase: the centromeres split, the sister chromatids separate, and each daughter chromosome moves toward the opposite poles of the cell.

4) Telophase: chromosomal movement stops, microtubules disappear, a nuclear envelope reforms.

 

 

102) Describe the differences between meiosis, mitosis, and cytokinesis.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

Solution: Meiosis is reproductive cell division used to generate gametes including sperm and oocytes. Both mitosis and cytokinesis are components of somatic cell division with mitosis involving the division of the nucleus and cytokinesis involving the division of the cytoplasm. Cytokinesis occurs with meiosis also.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

103) Which diagram and picture in the figure best represents the results obtained when placing red blood cells into a hypertonic solution?

  1. a) A and D
  2. b) B and E
  3. c) C and F
  4. d) A and E
  5. e) B and F

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

104) Which diagram and picture in the figure best represents the results obtained when placing red blood cells into a hypotonic solution?

  1. a) A and D
  2. b) B and E
  3. c) C and F
  4. d) A and E
  5. e) B and F

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

105) Which diagram and picture in the figure best represents the results obtained when placing red blood cells into a normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl)?

  1. a) A and D
  2. b) B and E
  3. c) C and F
  4. d) A and E
  5. e) B and F

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane.

 

 

106) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram has structural features that allow it to conduct electrical impulses over long distances within the body?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.8 Cellular Diversity.

 

 

107) Based on the structural features of the cells shown in the diagram, which cell is most likely to be capable of locomotion?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.8 Cellular Diversity.

 

 

108) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram best represents the type of absorptive cells that line the small intestine?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.8 Cellular Diversity.

 

 

109) During which phase of cell division labeled in the diagram is cytokinesis completed?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

110) The phase of mitosis labeled B in the diagram is called

  1. a) telophase.
  2. b) metaphase.
  3. c) prophase.
  4. d) anaphase.
  5. e) interphase.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

111) During which phase of cell division labeled in the diagram do the chromatid pairs line up along the equatorial plate?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic cell division.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.7 Somatic Cell Division.

 

 

112) The body of an average sized adult human contains approximately

 

  1. a) 1 million cells.
  2. b) 10 million cells.
  3. c) 100 million cells.
  4. d) 100 billion cells.
  5. e) 100 trillion cells.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Section Reference 1: Section 3.8 Cellular Diversity.

 

Package Title: Test Bank

Course Title: IHB9e

Chapter Number: 11

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is NOT true?

 

  1. a) regulates the size of the pupils
  2. b) uses a single neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
  3. c) consists of two motor subdivisions
  4. d) regulates visceral activities
  5. e) controls involuntary effectors

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

2) The first motor neuron in an autonomic pathway is called a

 

  1. a) preganglionic neuron.
  2. b) postganglionic neuron.
  3. c) autonomic ganglion.
  4. d) sympathetic neuron.
  5. e) parasympathetic neuron.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.1 Identify the structural features of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

3) The sympathetic division of the ANS is also referred to as the

 

  1. a) autonomic division.
  2. b) craniosacral division.
  3. c) thoracolumbar division.
  4. d) somatic division.
  5. e) ganglionic division.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

4) All of the following are sympathetic ganglia EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) sympathetic trunk ganglia
  2. b) celiac ganglia
  3. c) superior mesenteric ganglia
  4. d) basal ganglia
  5. e) inferior mesenteric ganglia

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

5) Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe a characteristic of the autonomic nervous system?

 

  1. a) Autonomic pathways consist of two types of motor neurons.
  2. b) ANS stimulation of involuntary effectors is always excitatory.
  3. c) The output (motor) portion of the ANS can be divided into two principal branches.
  4. d) The postganglionic neuron lies entirely in the peripheral nervous system.
  5. e) All of the answer selections describe characteristics of the ANS.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

6) Sympathetic preganglionic neurons

 

  1. a) originate in the brainstem and sacral region of the spinal cord.
  2. b) originate in the cerebrum of the brain.
  3. c) originate in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord.
  4. d) tend to be relatively long.
  5. e) synapse in the terminal ganglion.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

7) The brain region that controls most autonomic responses is the

 

  1. a) hypothalamus.
  2. b) cerebrum.
  3. c) cerebellum.
  4. d) thalamus.
  5. e) epithalamus.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

8) All of the following are common effectors of the ANS EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) cardiac muscle
  2. b) smooth muscle
  3. c) skeletal muscle
  4. d) nervous tissue
  5. e) all of the listed answers are common ANS effectors

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

9) The ___ nervous system contains sensory neurons and motor neurons associated with voluntary actions only.

 

  1. a) peripheral
  2. b) somatic
  3. c) autonomic
  4. d) central
  5. e) parasympathetic

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

10) Which of the following is true of BOTH the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system?

 

  1. a) have long preganglionic neurons
  2. b) have ganglia located next to the effectors
  3. c) use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter in the ganglia
  4. d) use acetylcholine to excite the effector
  5. e) have long postganglionic neurons

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

11) In the autonomic nervous system, there are ___ neuron(s) between the CNS and the visceral effector.

 

  1. a) 5
  2. b) 4
  3. c) 3
  4. d) 2
  5. e) 1

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

12) The preganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic division of the ANS release

 

  1. a) epinephrine.
  2. b) norepinephrine.
  3. c) acetylcholine.
  4. d) GABA.
  5. e) glutamate.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

13) Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS synapse with postganglionic neurons in the

 

  1. a) sympathetic trunk ganglia.
  2. b) celiac ganglia.
  3. c) mesenteric ganglia.
  4. d) terminal ganglia.
  5. e) prevertebral ganglia.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

14) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division?

 

  1. a) usually have many branches
  2. b) leave the spinal cord through the anterior root
  3. c) synapse with many postganglionic cell bodies
  4. d) are longer than the postganglionic fibers
  5. e) use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

15) The sympathetic division of the ANS does all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) speeds up digestion so glucose is available to skeletal muscles
  2. b) conducts impulses through the trunk ganglia
  3. c) speeds up heart rate
  4. d) speeds up respiratory rate
  5. e) uses epinephrine as a signaling molecule

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

16) The neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division is

 

  1. a) norepinephrine.
  2. b) acetylcholine.
  3. c) acetylcholinesterase.
  4. d) dopamine.
  5. e) epinephrine.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

17) The neurotransmitter released by postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic division is

 

  1. a) glycine.
  2. b) acetylcholine.
  3. c) acetylcholinesterase.
  4. d) dopamine.
  5. e) norepinephrine.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

18) An involuntary effector that receives impulses from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS is said to have

 

  1. a) somatic innervation.
  2. b) dual innervation.
  3. c) antagonistic innervation.
  4. d) synergistic innervation.
  5. e) agonistic innervation.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

19) All of the following events occur during the fight-or-flight response EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) increased heart rate
  2. b) increased blood pressure
  3. c) constriction of the pupils
  4. d) dilation of the bronchioles
  5. e) decreased digestive secretions

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

20) Somatic motor neurons

 

  1. a) have long preganglionic fibers.
  2. b) release norepinephrine.
  3. c) release acetylcholine.
  4. d) innervate smooth muscle.
  5. e) are regulated by the hypothalamus.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

21) The autonomic nervous system

 

  1. a) is under voluntary control.
  2. b) is always inhibitory.
  3. c) uses one motor neuron to connect the CNS with its effector.
  4. d) operates without conscious control.
  5. e) innervates skeletal muscles.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

22) The portion of the nervous system regulating smooth muscle activity is called the

 

  1. a) central nervous system.
  2. b) special sense system.
  3. c) autonomic nervous system.
  4. d) somatic nervous system.
  5. e) somatosensory system.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

23) The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity or autonomic “tone” is regulated by the

 

  1. a) hypothalamus.
  2. b) thalamus.
  3. c) cerebellum.
  4. d) medulla oblongata.
  5. e) pituitary gland.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

24) Which of the following systems is responsible for controlling skeletal muscle activity?

 

  1. a) autonomic nervous system
  2. b) sympathetic nervous system
  3. c) parasympathetic nervous system
  4. d) somatosensory system
  5. e) somatic nervous system

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

25) The axon of the preganglionic neurons, the autonomic ganglia and the postganglionic neurons are all parts of the ___ nervous system.

 

  1. a) somatic
  2. b) peripheral
  3. c) central
  4. d) somatosensory
  5. e) visceral

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.1 Identify the structural features of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

26) Which of the following responses is a sympathetic response?

 

  1. a) increased bile secretion
  2. b) increased breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
  3. c) vasodilation leading to erection of the penis (men) and clitoris (women)
  4. d) promotion of insulin secretion
  5. e) all of these answer choices are correct

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

27) The ANS ganglia that run vertically along both sides of the backbone are called the

 

  1. a) sympathetic trunk ganglia.
  2. b) terminal ganglia.
  3. c) parasympathetic ganglia.
  4. d) prevertebral ganglia.
  5. e) superior mesenteric ganglia.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

28) All of the following are effects of the parasympathetic division EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) conserving body energy
  2. b) restoring body energy
  3. c) dilation of pupils
  4. d) promoting digestion
  5. e) increasing bile secretion

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

29) Insulin secretion from the pancreas is promoted by the activity of the

 

  1. a) sympathetic division.
  2. b) pituitary gland.
  3. c) somatic nervous system.
  4. d) parasympathetic division.
  5. e) pineal gland.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

30) The adrenal glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine to intensify and prolong the effects elicited by ___ postganglionic neurons.

 

  1. a) CNS
  2. b) endocrine
  3. c) somatic
  4. d) parasympathetic
  5. e) sympathetic

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

31) Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of a potential path followed by a preganglionic sympathetic neuron?

 

  1. a) synapse with a postganglionic neuron in the sympathetic trunk ganglion
  2. b) ascend or descend the trunk ganglia and synapse at another level
  3. c) continue through the trunk ganglia and synapse in a prevertebral ganglion
  4. d) continue through the trunk ganglia and synapse in a terminal ganglion
  5. e) extend directly to the adrenal medulla

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

32) The acronym “SLUDD” is a convenient way to remember the responses of

 

  1. a) somatic motor system.
  2. b) parasympathetic division.
  3. c) “fight or flight” division.
  4. d) somatosensory system.
  5. e) endocrine system.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

33) The parasympathetic nervous system decreases all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) heart rate
  2. b) respiratory rate
  3. c) digestion
  4. d) pupil size
  5. e) air pathway diameter

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

34) One effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on the eye is to

 

  1. a) move the eye to focus directly on an object.
  2. b) decrease the secretion of tears.
  3. c) change the shape of the retina.
  4. d) constrict the pupil.
  5. e) adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

35) An inherited disorder in which the ANS functions abnormally resulting in symptoms like reduced tear gland secretion, motor incoordination, skin blotching and difficulty swallowing is called

 

  1. a) autonomic dysreflexia.
  2. b) dysautonomia.
  3. c) Raynaud phenomenon.
  4. d) SLUDD.
  5. e) hypotension.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

36) The most important aspect of mind body exercise is to be

 

  1. a) highly flexible.
  2. b) physically strong.
  3. c) open to physical and emotional sensations.
  4. d) in excellent cardiovascular health.
  5. e) highly coordinated.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

37) The word “autonomic” literally means

 

  1. a) self starting.
  2. b) involuntary control.
  3. c) self law.
  4. d) self inflicted.
  5. e) self motivated

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

38) Horner’s syndrome is

 

  1. a) caused by loss of parasympathetic control of one side of the body.
  2. b) characterized by increased twitching and sweating.
  3. c) only seen in the elderly.
  4. d) caused by a loss of sympathetic control to one side of the face.
  5. e) All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

39) An abnormally large colon caused by improperly developed parasympathetic neurons to the distal end of the colon is called

 

  1. a) hypercolon.
  2. b) ulcerative colitis.
  3. c) mesocolon.
  4. d) megacolon.
  5. e) Horner’s syndrome.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

40) Nearly 80% of parasympathetic outflow to the terminal ganglia is conducted through

 

  1. a) the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  2. b) the oculomotor nerve.
  3. c) the vagus nerve.
  4. d) spinal nerves from the thoracic region.
  5. e) spinal nerves from the sacral region.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

41) Which of the following situations is NOT commonly associated with sympathetic activation?

 

  1. a) exercise
  2. b) emergency
  3. c) excitement
  4. d) eating
  5. e) embarrassment

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

42) The terminal ganglion that houses the synapses involved in parasympathetic control of the ciliary muscle and circular muscles of the iris of the eye is the

 

  1. a) ciliary ganglion.
  2. b) pterygopalatine ganglion.
  3. c) submandibular ganglion.
  4. d) otic ganglion.
  5. e) celiac ganglion.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

43) The hypothalamus regulates the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

44) The autonomic nervous system innervates skeletal muscles.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

45) The outflow of parasympathetic nerve impulses originates in the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

46) The sympathetic division promotes changes in the body associated with increased energy expenditure.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

47) Fear stimulates the activation of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

48) The dilation of the pupils in the eye is an autonomic response.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

49) The preganglionic neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla release acetylcholine.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

50) Terminal ganglia are part of the sympathetic division of the ANS.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

51) Parasympathetic ganglia are usually found near or within visceral effectors.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

52) Parasympathetic stimulation increases sweat secretion.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

53) The outflow of parasympathetic nerve impulses is carried exclusively in cranial nerves.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

54) The parasympathetic nervous system has long preganglionic axons and short postganglionic axons.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

55) Because of its connection to “fight or flight” response, increased sympathetic stimulation is connected to acute stress reactions.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

56) Pre- and postganglionic fibers are present in the somatic nervous system.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

57) Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions use two different types of neurotransmitters in the output pathways that stimulate their effectors.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

58) The effects of the adrenal medulla are linked to the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

59) One of the abnormalities caused by Horner’s syndrome is a megacolon.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

60) Learning relaxation and stress reduction skills can reduce the harmful effects of stress on the body.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

61) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system relaxes the ciliary muscle of the eye to adjust the lens for distant vision.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

62) Autonomic dysreflexia is related to spinal cord injury and involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

63) Instead of exercise to tone up muscles or the heart, some people use mind body exercise to tone up their parasympathetic nervous systems.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

64) Parasympathetic responses usually involve the simultaneous activation of a large number of effectors.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

65) Some autonomic effectors, like sweat glands and blood vessels, are only innervated by the sympathetic division.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

66) The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for the “fight-or-flight” response.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

67) Autonomic dysreflexia is a severe condition observed primarily in individuals that have previously experienced strokes, seizures or heart attacks.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

68) Name the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and compare their general functions.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

Solution: The parasympathetic division of the ANS controls bodily functions during normal activities, while the sympathetic nervous system takes over during physical or emotional stress and prepares the body for the “fight-or-flight” response.

 

 

69) Describe the anatomical differences between the two divisions of the ANS. Name the neurotransmitters used by each type of neuron found in the two divisions.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

Solution: Parasympathetic division arises from the brain and sacral portion of the spinal cord. It has long preganglionic fibers that release acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter, and short postganglionic fibers that also release acetylcholine. Sympathetic division arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. It has short preganglionic fibers that release acetylcholine, and long post ganglionic fibers that release norepinephrine.

 

 

70) Briefly describe the major functional differences between the autonomic and somatic nervous system.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

Solution: The somatic nervous system innervates skeletal muscles and is under voluntary control. The autonomic nervous system innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands and is under involuntary control.

 

 

71) List the primary types of parasympathetic responses observed in humans.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

Solution: Parasympathetic activation leads to increased Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Digestion, and Defecation (SLUDD). It also leads to “three decreases” which are decreased heart rate, decreased airway diameter, and decreased diameter of the pupils.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

72) Which of the diagrams in the figure shows a motor pathway that is under voluntary control?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) More than one of the pathways is voluntary.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.1 Compare the main structures and functions of the somatic and autonomic parts of the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.

 

 

73) Which of the diagrams in the figure shows a motor pathway that uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) All of the pathways shown use acetylcholine.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

74) Which of the following neurotransmitter is used to stimulate the effectors in the motor pathway labeled B in the figure?

  1. a) epinephrine.
  2. b) acetylcholine.
  3. c) norepinephrine.
  4. d) epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  5. e) epinephrine and acetylcholine.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.3 Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

75) The ganglion labeled D in the diagram that stimulates saliva secretion from the parotid gland is called the

  1. a) ciliary ganglion.
  2. b) otic ganglion.
  3. c) submandibular ganglion.
  4. d) pterygopalatine ganglion.
  5. e) salivary ganglion.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

76) Which of the following cranial nerves (labeled E in the diagram) carries the parasympathetic outflow to the heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera?

  1. a) oculomotor nerve
  2. b) abducens nerve
  3. c) vagus nerve
  4. d) facial nerve
  5. e) glossopharyngeal nerve

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

77) What portion of the nervous system is shown in this diagram?

  1. a) somatic nervous system
  2. b) somatosensory nervous system
  3. c) sympathetic division of ANS
  4. d) parasympathetic division of ANS
  5. e) enteric nervous system (ENS)

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

78) Which of the following labeled structures in the diagram are considered to be terminal ganglia of the ANS?

  1. a) C
  2. b) D
  3. c) E
  4. d) All of these answer choices are correct.
  5. e) None of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

79) Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is the sympathetic chain ganglion?

  1. a) C
  2. b) D
  3. c) E
  4. d) F
  5. e) All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

80) What portion of the nervous system is shown in this diagram?

  1. a) somatic nervous system
  2. b) somatosensory nervous system
  3. c) sympathetic division of ANS
  4. d) parasympathetic division of ANS
  5. e) enteric nervous system (ENS)

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.2 Compare the organization of the autonomic pathways in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.

 

 

81) Which of the following is the distinguishing symptom of Raynaud’s phenomenon?

 

  1. a) fingers and toes look white due to reduced blood flow
  2. b) difficulty swallowing
  3. c) emotional instability
  4. d) severe hypertension
  5. e) profuse sweating

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.4 Describe the disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Common Disorders.

 

 

82) The dendrites of postganglionic neurons from the sympathetic division of the ANS are found in the

 

  1. a) brain stem.
  2. b) hypothalamus.
  3. c) spinal cord.
  4. d) dorsal root ganglia.
  5. e) autonomic ganglia.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 11.2 Describe the location and function of somatic pathways.

Learning Objective 2: LO 11.2.1 Identify the structural features of the autonomic nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Section 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System.