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Test Bank For Health Psychology 9th Edition by Shelley Taylor

 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Chapter 03

Health Behaviors

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 39)Which of the following statements best defines health promotion?
    A. A philosophy that good health is a personal and collective achievement
    B. The practice of preventing a disease rather than curing it
    C. The performance of a health behavior automatically without awareness
    D. A social activity designed to enhance and maximize awareness

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 39)A(n) _____ may initially develop because it is reinforced by a positive outcome, but eventually becomes independent of the reinforcement process.
    A. intervention
    B. appeal
    C. precontemplation
    D. health habit

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 39)A health habit is a health behavior that:
    A. is only performed under supervision of health specialists.
    B. is especially important for at-risk individuals to adopt.
    C. is not always beneficial to an individual’s metabolism and immune system.
    D. is often performed automatically without awareness.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 40)The _____ scale measures the degree to which people perceive their health to be under their personal control.
    A. health locus of control
    B. window of vulnerability
    C. health belief model
    D. abstinence violation effect

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 40)Russell had a few drinks for the first time at a party, and woke up the next day with a splitting headache. He thought his vision was blurred, and he could barely remember what he had planned for the day. He instantly realized that he may be vulnerable to health risks due to alcohol and decided to quit immediately. In this scenario, Russell’s health habits are most likely to be controlled by his _____.
    A. personal goals
    B. perceived symptoms
    C. social influence
    D. intelligence

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 41)People who are identified as intelligent in childhood:
    A. are more likely to take calculated health risks in adulthood.
    B. will be more knowledgeable in adulthood, but less healthy.
    C. may develop cognitive distortions in adulthood.
    D. have better health-related biological profiles in adulthood.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 41)Threatening messages that are designed to change health behaviors can cause _____ and lead people to respond defensively.
    A. psychological distress
    B. physiological symptoms
    C. negative perceptions
    D. physical stress

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 42)Health promotion efforts most commonly capitalize on _____.
    A. personal control
    B. personal goals
    C. values
    D. teachable moments

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 43)Focusing health promotions on people who are at-risk is more beneficial because:
    A. it is obvious that people who are not at risk are more likely to stay healthy.
    B. it is easier to prevent health problems among those who are not at risk.
    C. it helps to identify other factors that may increase risks.
    D. it helps to gradually reduce their risks.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 44)Most often people do not always perceive their risks correctly, and they view their poor health behaviors as shared by everyone. This perception is often _____.
    A. unrealistically optimistic
    B. unrealistically pessimistic
    C. socially influenced
    D. unambiguous

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 45)Education appeals make the assumption that:
    A. people who are predisposed to depression may react especially poorly to information about their risks.
    B. people from families with a familial disorder may know that their personal risk is higher.
    C. people will change their health habits if they have good information about their habits.
    D. people are afraid that a particular habit is hurting their health, and they will change their behavior to reduce their fear.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 46)_____ messages are more persuasive for encouraging health behaviors with certain outcomes.
    A. Prevention
    B. Promotion-oriented
    C. Negative
    D. Positive

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 48)_____ is the belief that one can control one’s practice of a particular behavior.
    A. Health locus-of-control
    B. Self-esteem
    C. Self-criticism
    D. Self-efficacy

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 48)The _____ theory examines how people appraise health threats, and how they appraise their abilities to manage threats.
    A. Implementation Intention
    B. Protection Motivation
    C. Self-Determination
    D. Planned Behavior

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 48)According to the theory of planned behavior, behavioral intentions are made up of:
    A. attitudes to a specific action, subjective norms, and perceptions of control.
    B. dimensions of poor health habits, and self-monitoring.
    C. behavior changes, autonomous motivation, and perceived competence.
    D. perceptions of vulnerability, magnitude of health threat, and self-efficacy.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 48)_____ is the perception that one can perform an action, and that the action will have the intended effect.
    A. Perceived vulnerability
    B. Perceived threat reduction
    C. Perceived health threat
    D. Perceived behavioral control

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 49)_____ is experienced when individuals have free will, and choice to make decisions regarding health behavior change.
    A. Self-reinforcement
    B. Locus of control
    C. Autonomous motivation
    D. Perceived competence

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 49)_____ refers to the belief that one is capable of making a health behavior change.
    A. Assertiveness
    B. Framing
    C. Actualizing
    D. Competence

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 49)When a person desires to practice a health behavior, it can be achieved by making a plan that links critical situations, or environmental cues to goal-directed responses. This is emphasized in the _____ model.
    A. Implementation Intentions
    B. Self-Determination Theory
    C. Health Belief
    D. Transtheoretical

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 50)The rationale underlying self-monitoring is that:
    A. people must understand the dimensions of the poor health habit before change can begin.
    B. people should believe that a health measure will reduce potential health threats.
    C. people should be afraid of their poor health habits in order to induce change.
    D. people will change their health habits if they have good information about their habits.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 50)A discriminative stimulus is important because:
    A. it helps in distracting an individual from performing the target behavior.
    B. its occurrence helps to eliminate a target behavior.
    C. it signals that a positive reinforcement will occur.
    D. it is incapable of eliciting a target behavior.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 50)Brenda has been trying to lose weight, and control her seemingly insatiable sweet tooth. To meet her goal, she has removed all cookies, candies, and ice cream from the kitchen cabinets and refrigerator. Instead, she has kept a bowl of fresh fruits on the kitchen counter to occasionally snack on. In this case, Brenda is practicing _____.
    A. vicarious self-control
    B. self-punishment
    C. stimulus control
    D. self-reinforcement

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 51)The use of Antabuse in the treatment of alcoholism involves having the client sip his or her favorite drink while ingesting Antabuse. After several pairings, alcohol becomes associated with the Antabuse and elicits a(n) _____.
    A. conditioned response
    B. conditioned stimulus
    C. unconditioned response
    D. unconditioned stimulus

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 51)Classical conditioning is the pairing of a(n) _____ with a new stimulus to produce a conditioned reflex.
    A. conditioned stimulus
    B. unconditioned response
    C. unconditioned reflex
    D. conditioned response

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 51)People often generate internal monologues that:
    A. facilitates in changing a poor health habit.
    B. interferes with the ability to change a behavior.
    C. elicits a positive thought process.
    D. inhibits a target behavior.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 52)The use of positive reinforcements, such as money or new clothing, to encourage weight loss in an obesity treatment program is an example of _____.
    A. shaping
    B. modeling
    C. operant conditioning
    D. classical conditioning

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 52)_____ is when a person acts as his or her own therapist, along with guidance from outside, in order to modify the antecedents and consequences of the target behavior.
    A. Self-control
    B. Self-efficacy
    C. Self-talk
    D. Self-actualization

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 52)Wanda’s weight-loss counselor has observed that she has a self-defeating pattern of beliefs and cognitions about her inability to control overeating. Specifically, when she eats something that is not allowed on her diet she instantly loses hope, and ponders over her weak will power. Wanda’s counselor is trying to encourage her to think otherwise, and continue with her diet routine even if she waivers a few times. In this case, the therapist is utilizing a technique called _____.
    A. cognitive restructuring
    B. positive reinforcement
    C. self-monitoring
    D. self-punishment

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 52)A behavioral response is most resistant to extinction if it is maintained by a _____ reinforcement schedule.
    A. continuous
    B. variable
    C. random
    D. static

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 52)Self-reinforcement involves:
    A. learning that occurs from witnessing another person perform a behavior.
    B. systematically rewarding oneself to increase or decrease the occurrence of a target behavior.
    C. forming a contract with another person detailing what rewards or punishments are contingent on the performance of a behavior.
    D. home practice activities that support the goals of a therapeutic intervention.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 52)Fred wants to lose 20 pounds. He places 20 one-pound boxes of lard in the refrigerator. As his weight-loss program proceeds, he removes one box of lard each time he succeeds in losing a pound. In this instance, Fred is using _____.
    A. positive self-punishment
    B. negative self-punishment
    C. positive self-reward
    D. negative self-reward

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 52)Positive self-punishment involves:
    A. rewarding oneself with something desirable after successful modification of a behavior.
    B. administering an unpleasant stimulus to punish an undesirable behavior.
    C. withdrawing a positive reinforcement in the environment each time an undesirable behavior is performed.
    D. removing an aversive factor in the environment after successful modification of the target behavior.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 53)_____ is learning that occurs from witnessing another person perform a behavior.
    A. Classical conditioning
    B. Operant conditioning
    C. Modeling
    D. Guided participation

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 53)The most important principle in modeling is _____.
    A. synergy
    B. differentiation
    C. similarity
    D. persuasion

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 53)Rhonda entered into an agreement with her friend, Nancy, in an attempt to establish a regular exercise program. According to their agreement, Nancy must pay $1 to Rhonda every day that she exercises for at least 30 minutes. If she fails to do so, Rhonda must pay $1 to Nancy. This is an example of a _____.
    A. self-reward
    B. token economy
    C. contingency contract
    D. vicarious reinforcement

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 53)Which of the following is an advantage of using behavioral assignments?
    A. The therapist becomes involved in the treatment.
    B. The therapist produces an analysis of the behavior that is useful in planning interventions.
    C. The client commits to the treatment program only when a legal agreement is established.
    D. The client gradually takes up responsibility for behavior change.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 53)Which of the following is a technique used in relaxation training?
    A. Self-talk
    B. Deep breathing
    C. Hypnosis
    D. Debriefing

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 54)Adolescents often begin to drink or smoke to reduce their nervousness in social situations by trying to communicate a cool and sophisticated image. This behavior is usually a response to _____.
    A. depression
    B. medication
    C. social anxiety
    D. relapse

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 54)_____ is a feeling of loss of control that results when a person has violated self-imposed rules.
    A. Relapse
    B. Social anxiety
    C. Window of vulnerability
    D. Abstinence violation effect

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 54)Relapse is more likely when an individual:
    A. is over performing at work.
    B. experiences negative affect.
    C. has socially appropriate behaviors.
    D. is unaware of treatment programs.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 54)Social anxiety is a maladaptive habit necessitating an alternative way of coping. Which of the following techniques would be most effective in treating social anxiety?
    A. Assertiveness training
    B. Self-talk
    C. Lifestyle rebalancing
    D. Self-monitoring

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 55)_____ involves restructuring the environment to avoid situations that evoke the target behavior.
    A. Modeling
    B. Discriminative stimulus
    C. Cue elimination
    D. Preparation

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 55)Long-term maintenance of a behavior change can be promoted by leading a person to make other health-oriented lifestyle changes. This technique is called _____.
    A. operant conditioning
    B. cognitive restructuring
    C. social engineering
    D. lifestyle rebalancing

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 56)In the precontemplation stage of the transtheoretical model of behavior change:
    A. people modify their behavior to overcome the problem.
    B. people intend to change their behavior but have not yet done so successfully.
    C. people have no intention of changing their behavior.
    D. people are aware that they have a problem, and are thinking about it.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 56)In the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model of behavior change, people are aware that they have a problem and are thinking about it, but have not yet made a commitment to taking action.
    A. maintenance
    B. contemplation
    C. action
    D. preparation

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 56)Julian has decided to lose 15 pounds. He is concerned about the amount of fat he consumes and suspects that his cholesterol levels are high. He has purchased a popular book on low-fat diets, and has decided to go walking thrice a week after he buys a new pair of walking shoes next week. According to the transtheoretical model of behavior change, Julian is in the _____ stage of behavior change.
    A. precontemplation
    B. contemplation
    C. preparation
    D. action

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 56)The _____ stage, of the transtheoretical model of behavior change, requires the commitment of time and energy to achieve real behavior change.
    A. contemplation
    B. maintenance
    C. preparation
    D. action

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 56)The _____ stage of the transtheoretical model of behavior change is conceptualized as a spiral.
    A. contemplation
    B. preparation
    C. maintenance
    D. action

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 58)Studies evaluating the effectiveness of the transtheoretical model of behavior change indicate that:
    A. interventions matched to the particular stage that an individual is in are always successful.
    B. interventions to bridge the gap between the preparation and action stages are inadequate.
    C. the model’s stages are inadequate in analyzing the processes that people go through.
    D. the model’s applications have shown mixed success.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 58)_____ is used to modify the environment in order to affect people’s health behavior.
    A. Relaxation training
    B. Cognitive restructuring
    C. Contingency contracting
    D. Social engineering

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 58)_____ involves modifying the environment to affect one’s ability to practice a particular health behavior.
    A. Social engineering
    B. Reconstruction
    C. Cognitive restructuring
    D. Passive retraining

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 58)A family physician may be a particularly effective agent in promoting health-related attitudes and behaviors because:
    A. individuals are more likely to follow a suggested treatment if they are paying for professional advice.
    B. individual behavior modification programs are unsuccessful compared to social engineering efforts.
    C. they recommend a one-to-one approach that is the least expensive and most efficient for changing health habits.
    D. they are a highly credible source, and their recommendations have the force of expertise behind them.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 59)Which of the following venues for health habit modification is known to have a natural intervention vehicle that can comfortably fit health interventions?
    A. The community
    B. The school system
    C. The Internet
    D. The workplace

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 60)Which of the following is a difference between community-based interventions and individual-based interventions?
    A. Community-based interventions can build on social-support for reinforcing health changes whereas individual-based interventions focus only on the individual.
    B. Community-based interventions are restricted to a limited environment whereas individual-based interventions reach more people.
    C. Community-based interventions are more influential among older adults whereas individual-based interventions are more successful among adolescents.
    D. Community-based interventions can bring about significant changes among participants whereas individual-based interventions bring about only modest changes.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 60)Mass media campaigns usually bring about:
    A. insignificant health changes.
    B. drastic attitude changes.
    C. long-term behavior changes.
    D. modest attitude changes.

 

Level: Factual

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 39)Health habits usually develop in childhood and begin to stabilize around age 20 or 25.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 40)The first and most common strategy of primary prevention is to get people to alter their problematic health behaviors.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 42)The window of vulnerability concept refers to the fact that certain times are better than others for modifying health practices.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 44)Testing positive for a risk factor usually leads people into needless worry or hypervigilant behavior.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 47)Promotion-oriented messages may be more successful in getting people to initiate behavior change, and prevention messages may be more helpful in getting them to maintain behavior change over time.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 47)Perceived threat reduction is the perception that one can perform an action, and that action will have the intended effect.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 50)Cognitive-behavioral interventions use several complementary methods to intervene in the modification of a target problem and its context.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 54)There is no effort to dismantle the denial or irrational beliefs that often accompany bad health behaviors in motivational interviewing.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 55)Self-talk helps participants to talk themselves through tempting situations.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 56)The precontemplation stage in the transtheoretical model of behavior change occurs when a person has no intention of changing his or her behavior.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 39)Have the patterns of disease in the United States changed since the turn of the twentieth century? Considering the current trends, explain the importance of lifestyle rebalancing.

Patterns of disease in the United States have changed substantially in the twentieth century. There has been a decline in acute infectious disorders due to changes in public health standards, but there has been an increase in the preventable disorders. It is clear that the role of behavioral factors have led to the development of these disorders. Therefore, it is essential to make lifestyle changes such as adding an exercise program, or using stress management techniques to promote health. Long-term maintenance of behavior change can be promoted by leading an individual to make other health-oriented lifestyle changes. This technique is termed as lifestyle rebalancing. This helps to promote a healthy lifestyle and reduce the likelihood of relapse.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 39)As a philosophy, how is health promotion viewed differently by different people?

Health promotion is a philosophy that good health or wellness is a personal and collective achievement. Individuals view it as developing a program of good health habits. Medical practitioners view it as teaching people how to achieve a healthy lifestyle, and helping people at risk for particular health problems off set or monitoring those risks. Health psychologists consider it the development of interventions to help people practice healthy behaviors. For community and national policy makers, it involves emphasizing good health, and providing information and resources to help people change poor health habits.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 45)How effective are educational appeals in changing attitudes toward health behaviors?

Educational appeals make the assumption that people will change their health habits if they have good information about their habits. Early and continuing efforts to change health habits focused heavily on education and changing attitudes. Some of the following characteristics of educational appeals can make it especially persuasive:

• The communicator should be an expert, prestigious, trustworthy, likable, and similar to the audience.
• Strong arguments should be presented at the beginning and at the end of a message.
• Messages should be short, clear, and direct, and state conclusions explicitly.

Communications should be colorful and vivid rather than steeped in statistics and jargon. If possible, they should also use case histories.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 47)Charles is a college student who smokes cigarettes. Use the health belief model to explain why Charles continues to smoke even though he is aware of the Surgeon General’s warning about the relationship between cigarettes and cancer, or heart disease.

The health belief model depends on two factors: whether a person perceives a personal threat, or whether a person believes that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat. The latter also consists of two components: whether the person thinks the health practice will be effective, and whether the cost of undertaking that measure exceeds its benefits. Therefore, if an individual thinks that the effectiveness of undertaking a program would interfere with his or her current lifestyle, the individual might not want to undertake such an action. Although, Charles knows the potential dangers of his habit, he is reluctant to modify his behavior as it will interfere with his current enjoyment.

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 51)How is the Internet useful in contributing toward health interventions? Find an Internet health campaign and explain its pros and cons.

The Internet provides information and low-cost access to health interventions for millions of people. Websites for smoking cessation and other health habits have been developed, and computer-tailored lifestyle interventions targeting multiple risk factors are also available. The Internet can also be used to augment the effectiveness of other interventions such as school-based smoking cessation programs or interventions with patient groups. CBT interventions for health habit modification delivered via the Internet are as effective as face-to-face interventions. The Internet also enables researchers to recruit a large number of participants for studies at relatively low costs thus enabling data collection related to health habits. Therefore, Internet is a low cost and effective tool used for health interventions.

 

Level: Applied

 

Chapter 11

Management of Chronic Illness

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 213)Which of the following is a chronic illness?
    A. Cold
    B. Influenza A
    C. Teething
    D. Hearing loss

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 213)Chronic illness conditions are:
    A. rare among children.
    B. either moderate or severe and life-threatening.
    C. less likely among young adults between ages 18 and 44.
    D. always life-threatening and ultimately lead to death.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 214)Which of the following is a component of quality of life?
    A. Logical functioning
    B. Longevity
    C. Psychological status
    D. Economic functioning

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 214)Medical measures of quality of life are:
    A. seldom based on objective criteria.
    B. poorly correlated with patients’ and relatives’ assessments.
    C. poorly correlated with patients’ assessments but are moderately correlated with relatives’ assessments.
    D. moderately correlated with health psychologists’ assessments.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 214)A broad array of measures for evaluating quality of life is available:
    A. only for adults.
    B. for both adults and children.
    C. only for children.
    D. for both alive and dead patients.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 214)Studying quality of life:
    A. makes it possible to determine what kinds of interventions may be needed.
    B. is an unnecessary intrusion into patients’ lives.
    C. cannot be used to compare therapies.
    D. tells us little that the diagnosis does not provide.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 215)Assessment of quality of life:
    A. identifies the likely problems associated with acute diseases.
    B. discourages comparison of therapies.
    C. evaluates the practitioners’ experience in dealing with illnesses.
    D. assesses the impact of treatments.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 215)Immediately after a chronic illness is diagnosed, _____.
    A. patients face job discrimination
    B. patients seek the help of dietitians and therapists
    C. patients resort to a feeling of calmness
    D. patients experience a psychological disequilibrium

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 215)Which of the following is true of denial?
    A. It is a defense mechanism by which people accept the implications of an illness.
    B. It is a method adopted by health care practitioners to deny information to patients.
    C. It is a method adopted by health care practitioners to deny information to patient’s family.
    D. It is a defense mechanism by which people avoid the implications of an illness.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 215)Denial serves as a protective function:
    A. before the patient seeks medical treatment.
    B. during the acute phase of the illness.
    C. when patients must play an active role in the treatment regimen.
    D. during the rehabilitative phase of the illness.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 215)Denial is useful in helping patients to:
    A. control their emotional reaction to illness.
    B. monitor their physical condition.
    C. seek treatment.
    D. become active in their treatment regimen.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 215)Of the following situations, patients’ anxiety would be the highest:
    A. after the physician had explained the diagnosis and treatment regimen.
    B. after the patient has received a test result.
    C. while the patient is awaiting an invasive medical procedure.
    D. while the patient is explained about the side effects of a medical procedure.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 215)Which of the following is true of anxiety?
    A. Anxious diabetic patients have better glucose control.
    B. Anxious MI patients are more likely to return to work on schedule.
    C. Anxiety is prevalent among people with acute illnesses.
    D. Anxious patients cope more poorly with surgery.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 215)Anxiety is _____ when anticipating or experiencing adverse side effects of treatment
    A. very low
    B. low
    C. moderate
    D. high

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 216)Up to _____ of all medical inpatients with chronic disease suffer from severe depression.
    A. one-quarter
    B. one-tenth
    C. one-half
    D. one-fourth

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 216)Unlike anxiety and denial, depression:
    A. may be a long-term reaction to chronic illness.
    B. is at a steady state during the course of chronic illness.
    C. is the first response to chronic illness.
    D. may be intermittent and unrelenting.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 216)Which of the following is a predictor of depression among chronically ill patients?
    A. Social support
    B. Marital status
    C. Chronic pain
    D. Gender

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 216)Which of the following is true of depression?
    A. Depression increases with the severity of the illness.
    B. Treatment for depression increases symptoms associated with the illness.
    C. Depression increases as a result of telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy.
    D. Treatment for depression aggravates psychological distress.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 216)The stable set of beliefs about one’s qualities and abilities is known as _____.
    A. self-esteem
    B. self-concept
    C. self-image
    D. self-evaluation

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 216)_____ refers to the evaluation of whether one feels good or bad about one’s personal qualities and attributes.
    A. Self-concept
    B. Self-esteem
    C. Self-image
    D. Self-evaluation

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 217)The perception and evaluation of one’s physical functioning and appearance comprise one’s _____.
    A. physical self
    B. self-concept
    C. body image
    D. self-evaluation

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 217)Who is most likely to have a negative aura of their body image?
    A. Sara, who lost weight after a viral fever
    B. Sally, who fractured her leg in an accident
    C. Susan, who has a scar on her forehead from birth
    D. Sandra, who lost her hair as a result of chemotherapy

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 217)Which of the following is true about body image?
    A. Body image remains constant during chronic illness.
    B. Body image plummets only during acute illness.
    C. Changes in body image are long-lived in acutely ill patients.
    D. Negative evaluations last longer in chronically ill patients.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 217)Succeeding through vocational and avocational activities is also an important source of self-esteem and the self-concept. Which self-evaluation aspect of the self-concept explains this?
    A. Private self
    B. Social self
    C. Physical self
    D. Achieving self

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 217)Which of the following focuses on the effect of chronic illness on a patient’s ambitions, goals, and desires for the future?
    A. Achieving self
    B. Social self
    C. Physical self
    D. Private self

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 218)According to a study of cancer patients conducted by Dunkel-Schetter and her colleagues (1992), the most frequently cited stressor was:
    A. fear and uncertainty about the future.
    B. limitations in physical abilities.
    C. pain management.
    D. altered physical appearance and lifestyle.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 218)Alex is suffering from migraine. He avoids it completely by eating and sleeping excessively. Which of the following coping strategies is Alex using here?
    A. Distancing
    B. Cognitive escape
    C. Behavioral escape
    D. Social support

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 218)Analyses of the effectiveness of coping strategies in managing the stress associated with chronic illness conclude that:
    A. the coping strategies used by chronically ill patients are significantly different from the strategies observed in healthy samples.
    B. avoidant coping is associated with reduced psychological distress and better psychological adjustment.
    C. confrontative coping is associated with better adjustment than the use of multiple coping strategies.
    D. active coping is more consistently associated with good adjustment.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 219)Successful adjustment to chronic illness is associated with:
    A. having an appropriate or accurate illness schema about the nature of one’s illness.
    B. developing an acute model of one’s disorder.
    C. blaming others for one’s illness and thus minimizing self-blame.
    D. having a personal sense of control, even in medical situations, in which little personal control is possible.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 219)Which of the following is a goal of physical rehabilitation?
    A. To learn the ways of controlling energy expenditure
    B. To learn how to deviate from the treatment regimen
    C. To learn new social management skills
    D. To learn how to use one’s mind as much as possible

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 220)_____ is a functional somatic disorder.
    A. Heart attack
    B. Hearing loss
    C. Tissue abnormality
    D. Chemical sensitivity

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 220)Functional somatic disorders are:
    A. more common in women than in men.
    B. extremely easy to treat.
    C. more common in children.
    D. always psychiatric in origin.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 221)During physical rehabilitation, patients need a _____ management program for the alleviation of discomfort.
    A. health
    B. mind
    C. disease
    D. pain

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 221)Which of the following is to be included in a comprehensive rehabilitation program for chronically ill patients?
    A. Rigorous exercise
    B. Unrestricted diet
    C. Family isolation
    D. Stress management

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 221)Stress management programs are increasingly incorporated into physical treatment regimens due to the debilitating effects of stress on:
    A. psychosocial adjustment.
    B. chronic diseases.
    C. coping strategies.
    D. acute disorders.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 222)Adherence to treatment regimens is:
    A. significantly higher in patients being treated for acute disorders.
    B. significantly lower in patients being treated for acute disorders.
    C. unaffected by the side effects of treatment.
    D. problematic with people who have chronic illnesses.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 222)Which of the following predicts adherence to chronic disease regimens?
    A. Low expectations for controlling one’s health
    B. Knowledge of the treatment regimen
    C. Low expectations for controlling self-efficacy
    D. Hereditary factors associated with the patients

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 223)Which of the following activities is performed by physical therapists?
    A. Planning recreational activities to help patients become more self-sufficient
    B. Helping people with muscle, nerve, or bone diseases or injuries overcome their disabilities
    C. Assessing the dietetic needs of patients and supervising the service of meals
    D. Helping patients regain physical or emotional stability and relearn daily routines

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 223)James works with patients injured in motorcycle accidents. He helps them learn to use adaptive devices in order to perform tasks and become accustomed to new ways of performing old tasks. He is a(n) _____.
    A. massage therapist
    B. occupational therapist
    C. physical therapist
    D. dietitian

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 223)Which of the following activities is performed by occupational therapists?
    A. Helping people with muscle, nerve, or bone diseases or injuries overcome their disabilities
    B. Planning and directing recreational activities to help patients become more self-sufficient
    C. Assessing the dietetic needs of patients and supervising the service of meals
    D. Developing individualized treatment programs to increase patients’ strength and endurance

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 223)John works with patients who are emotionally and mentally disabled. He helps them regain their physical, mental, or emotional stability. Sometimes he teaches painting, weaving, or other crafts. He is a(n) _____.
    A. massage therapist
    B. occupational therapist
    C. physical therapist
    D. dietitian

 

Level: Applied

 

 

  1. (p. 223)Eric works with people with diabetes. He helps them learn to control their caloric intake and the types of foods they eat. He is a(n) _____.
    A. massage therapist
    B. occupational therapist
    C. physical therapist
    D. dietitian

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 223)Adam works with cancer patients at County General Hospital. His particular specialty is in enabling the newly diagnosed cancer patients to understand the illness and its treatment and to negotiate the difficult emotional and social identity issues associated with the illness. He is a(n) _____.
    A. medical social worker
    B. medical psychologist
    C. health psychologist
    D. occupational therapist

 

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 224)Studies of reactions to the disabled indicate that they tend to elicit:
    A. pity.
    B. curiosity.
    C. ambivalence.
    D. compassion.

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 224)Adverse changes in social interactions after a diagnosis of chronic disease are more likely to be observed in:
    A. family members.
    B. friends and acquaintances.
    C. employers.
    D. intimate others.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 224)One of the chief changes brought about by chronic illness is a(n):
    A. decreased dependency of the chronically ill person on other family members.
    B. increased dependency of the family members on chronically ill person.
    C. decreased dependency of the family members on chronically ill person.
    D. increased dependency of the chronically ill person on other family members.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 224)Most caregiving for the chronically ill is provided by:
    A. formal services such as home health nurses or nursing homes.
    B. men.
    C. women.
    D. friends.

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 224)Which of the following is true of caregiving?
    A. It is always long-term and intermittent.
    B. It threatens the health of elderly caregivers.
    C. It is most commonly associated with men than with women.
    D. It often strains the relationship between patient and caregiver.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 225)Researchers investigating gender differences in the receipt of social support have found that:
    A. disabled women are more effective than disabled men in establishing effective social support networks.
    B. being married appears to protect men, but not women, from institutionalization.
    C. married women spend fewer days in nursing homes than married men.
    D. disabled men are less likely to be married than disabled women.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 225)Collins et al. (1990) reported that more than _____ percent of the cancer patients in their study reported at least some beneficial changes in their life as a result of the cancer.
    A. 20
    B. 45
    C. 75
    D. 90

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 227)Emotional disorders associated with chronic illness are especially likely among patients who:
    A. are entering into very aggressive medical treatment regimens.
    B. are employed and have a high socioeconomic status.
    C. are having a history of depression or other mental illness.
    D. are not the members of minority groups.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 227)Compared to therapy with other clients, psychotherapy provided to medical patients is more likely to:
    A. be continuous and long term in nature.
    B. involve collaboration with the patient’s family and physician.
    C. be expensive and time consuming.
    D. challenge the client’s defenses and promote a realistic assessment of his or her situation.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 228)Family support of the chronically ill patient is especially important because they:
    A. encourage the patient to stay cheerful always.
    B. are the only source of social support for a patient.
    C. promote adherence to treatment.
    D. need no guidance on the harmful actions that will upset a patient.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 229)The website WebMD is:
    A. scrupulously careful about the information they post.
    B. usually accurate but not always careful about the information they provide.
    C. like most of the information the Web, not to be trusted.
    D. always associated with the risk of misinformation.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 229)A social support group is most likely to appeal to:
    A. Fred, an insurance company executive who is recovering from an acute myocardial infarction (MI).
    B. Arnel, a recent immigrant from the Philippines who suffers from Lyme disease.
    C. Sybil, a high-school dropout with three children who is recovering from pneumonia.
    D. Edith, a physician who is also an osteoarthritis patient.

 

Level: Applied

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 213)Younger people have more physical limitations than older people.
    FALSE

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 214)Medical measures are weakly related to patients’ or relatives’ assessments of quality of life.
    TRUE

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 217)For chronically ill patients changes in body image are always short-lived.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 217)Family participation in the illness management process is widely encouraged.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 219)Research evidence consistently supports the notion that self-blame is associated with poor adjustment to chronic illness.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

 

 

  1. (p. 220)Functional somatic disorders are more common in men than in women.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 221)Many chronic illnesses lead to a decrease in sexual activity.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 223)Physical therapists plan and direct recreational activities to help patients become more self-sufficient.
    FALSE

 

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 226)Sometimes children must be exposed to isolating and terrifying procedures to treat their chronic illness.
    TRUE

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 228)The Internet is a good source of information about skills for coping with common illness-related problems.
    TRUE

 

Level: Factual

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 215)What role does denial play in the emotional response to chronic illness? When does it facilitate coping? When is it dysfunctional?

Answers will vary

Feedback: Denial is a defense mechanism by which people avoid the implications of an illness. It is a common early reaction to chronic illness. Patients may act as if the illness is not severe, it will shortly go away, or it will have few long-term implications. Immediately after the diagnosis of illness, denial can serve a protective function by keeping the patient from having to come to terms with problems posed by the illness when he or she is least able to do so. Over time, however, any benefit of denial gives way to its costs. It can interfere with taking in necessary treatment information and compromise health.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 219)How are patients’ beliefs about chronic illness related to adjustment?

Answers will vary

Feedback: Patients adopt an inappropriate model for their disorder, which is most notably, an acute model. People with chronic illnesses often develop theories about where their illness came from. These theories about origins of the illness include stress, physical injury, disease-causing bacteria, and God’s will. Self-blame for chronic illness is widespread. Patients frequently perceive themselves as having brought on their illness through their own actions. Some patients believe that their disorder was brought about by stress caused by family members, ex-spouses, or colleagues at work. Blame of this other person or persons may be tied to unresolved hostility, which can interfere with adjustment to the disease. Patients develop a number of control-related beliefs. They may believe that they can prevent a recurrence of the disease through good health habits or even sheer force of will. They may believe that by complying with treatments and physicians’ recommendations, they achieve vicarious control over their illness.

 

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. (p. 219-221)Explain how physical rehabilitation methods help in managing chronic illnesses.

Answers will vary

Feedback: Physical rehabilitation involves several goals: to learn how to use one’s body as much as possible, to learn how to sense changes in the environment to make the appropriate physical accommodations, to learn new physical management skills, to learn a necessary treatment regimen, and to learn how to control energy expenditure. Not all chronic illnesses require physical rehabilitation, but some do. Exercise goes a long way in reducing the symptoms of many chronic disorders. Physical activity can, in turn, pave the way for more general changes in self-efficacy. Physical therapy can ameliorate the age-related declines and can also help patients recover from treatments designed to alleviate them, such as surgery.

 

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 223)Discuss the different careers involved in the rehabilitation of the chronically ill. What do the different people do? Which is of most interest to you and why?

Answers will vary

Feedback: A variety of professionals work with chronically ill people. Physical therapists help people with muscle, nerve, joint, or bone diseases or injuries overcome their disabilities. They work primarily with accident victims, disabled children, and older people. Occupational therapists work with people who are emotionally and physically disabled to determine skills, abilities, and limitations. They help patients regain physical, mental, or emotional stability; relearn daily routines, such as eating, dressing, writing, or using a telephone; and prepare for employment. They plan and direct educational, vocational, and recreational activities to help patients become more self-sufficient. Clinical dietitians assess the dietetic needs of patients, supervise the service of meals, instruct patients in the requirements and importance of their diets, and suggest ways of maintaining adherence to diets after discharge. Many dietitians work with diabetics because these patients control their caloric intake and types of foods. Social workers help patients and their families with social problems that can develop during illness and recovery by providing therapy, making referrals to other services, and engaging in general social planning. They work in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, rehabilitation centers, and nursing homes.

 

Level: Applied

 

 

  1. (p. 225)Studies have found that the quality of life reported by cancer patients is higher than healthy community samples. Explain how chronically ill patients cope with their illnesses and maintain a positive self-concept.

Answers will vary

Feedback: In a study by Collins, Taylor, & Skokan in 1990, more than 90 percent of cancer patients reported at least some beneficial changes in their lives as a result of the cancer, including an increased ability to appreciate each day and the inspiration to do things now rather than postponing them. These patients said that they were putting more effort into their relationships and believed they had acquired more awareness of others’ feelings and more empathy and compassion for others. They reported feeling stronger and more self-assured as well. Many chronically ill patients perceive control over what happens to them, hold positive expectations about the future, and have a positive view of themselves. These beliefs are adaptive for mental and physical health much of the time (Taylor, 1983), but they become especially important when a person faces a chronic illness.

 

Level: Conceptual