Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank For A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

1. ​Describe the circumstances under which Bessel discovered the importance of the human observer. To what two conclusions did his findings lead? What were the consequences of his work in terms of subsequent developments in early physiology?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

2. Describe Müller’s doctrine of the specific energies of nerves. Why was it so important to the early years of modern psychology?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

3. Identify the early physiologists who made substantial contributions to the mapping of brain functions and describe the methods and findings of each.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

4. Why did experimental psychology begin in Germany rather than in other European countries?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

5. What contributions led to the description of Helmholtz as “one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century”?

ANSWER:   ​Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

6. Describe the research and findings of Ernst Weber. What was the importance of his work on later physiologists? What was its importance to the new psychology?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

7. Discuss why Fechner’s work may have been the necessary precondition for the founding of psychology as a separate discipline.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

8. ​Why was David Kinnebrook fired?

a. ​He dated, but did not marry, the daughter of his boss.
b. ​His observations differed from the observations of his boss.
c. ​He was incompetent.
d. ​He was never able to learn to use the equipment correctly.
e. None of the choices are correct.​

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer

 

9. ​Bessel began the study of individual differences in perception by noting that ____.

a. ​humans differ in the speed with which they react to a loud sound
b. ​animals, such as dogs, have a wider range for hearing sounds than do humans
c. ​time space must be measured in relative units
d. ​astronomers differed in their time estimates in measuring the transit of a star
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer

 

10. Whose research would support the argument that there is no such thing as objective observation?​

a. ​Maskelyne’s
b. ​Bessel’s
c. ​Locke’s
d. ​Muller’s
e. ​Wundt’s

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer

 

11. ​Bessel’s discovery had an impact on which of the following sciences?

a. ​Psychology
b. ​Physiology
c. ​Biology
d. ​Astronomy
e. ​All of the above

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer

 

12. Until the work of ____, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.​

a. ​Galileo
b. ​Newton
c. ​J. Müller
d. ​Broca
e. ​Wundt

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

13. Johannes Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this ____.​

a. ​the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves
b. ​specificity
c. ​neuronal tubule clarity
d. ​the postmortem method
e. ​the experimental method in physiology

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

14. Johannes Müller’s most influential publications was ____.​

a. The Nervous system of Animals
b. The Senses
c. The Handbook of the Physiology of Mankind
d. Experimental Methods
e. Interpretation of Dreams

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

15. The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the ____.​

a. ​implementation of the experimental method in physiology
b. ​doctrine of the specific energies of nerves
c. ​electrical stimulation method
d. ​postmortem method
e. ​extirpation method

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

16. ____ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement.​

a. ​Hall
b. ​Broca
c. ​Flourens
d. ​Galvani
e. ​Gall

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

17. In his research, Flourens localized specific functions to how many brain areas?​

a. ​2
b. ​3
c. ​4
d. ​5
e. ​6

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

18. “Acts like a chicken with its head cut off” is a description of behavior that has its roots in ____ research.​

a. ​Hall’s
b. ​Flouren’s
c. ​Broca’s
d. ​Fritsch’s
e. ​Helmholtz’s

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

19. In modern medicine, the cause of a person’s dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology.​

a. ​Marshall’s
b. ​Flouren’s
c. ​Broca’s
d. ​Fritsch’s
e. ​Helmhotz’s

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

20. The ____ method is described as a type of posthumous extirpation.​

a. ​experimental
b. ​clinical
c. ​scientific
d. ​electrical stimulation
e. ​introspection

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

21. Electrical stimulation as a method of mapping the cerebral cortex was introduced by ____.​

a. ​Galvani and Aldini
b. ​Flourens and Hall
c. ​Gall and Spurzheim
d. ​Broca and Kinnebrook
e. ​Fritsch and Hitzig

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

22. ____ produced the theory of cranioscopy.​

a. ​Flourens
b. ​Broca
c. ​Spurzheim
d. ​Gall
e. ​Hall

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

23. ____ discovered, among other things, that the brain had both white and gray matter, and that fiber connect the two halves of the brain.​

a. ​Gall
b. ​Spurzheim
c. ​Broca
d. ​Hall
e. ​Flourens

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

24. ____ created phrenology, which proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his or her intellectual and emotional characteristics.​

a. ​Flourens
b. ​Gall
c. ​Spurzheim
d. ​Broca
e. ​Hall

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

25. Although he did not develop the theory called phrenology, ____ served as its popularizer.​

a. ​Gall
b. ​Spurzheim
c. ​Galvani
d. ​Fritsch
e. ​Hall

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

26. In the Unites States, the ____ brothers had a profitable and extensive business selling phrenology readings.​

a. ​Ringling
b. ​Fowler
c. ​Barnum
d. ​Smithson
e. ​James

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

27. The most effective criticisms of phrenology came from whom?​

a. ​Broca
b. ​Hall
c. ​Spurzheim
d. ​Fechner
e. ​Flourens

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

28. ____ systematically destroyed parts of the brain using extirpation.​

a. ​Broca
b. ​Gall
c. ​Spurzheim
d. ​Flourens
e. ​Fowler

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

29. The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is ____.​

a. ​Flourens
b. ​Galvani
c. ​Helmholtz
d. ​Müller
e. ​Sherrington

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

30. The representation of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-century reliance on ____.​

a. ​mechanism
b. ​determinism
c. ​experimentation
d. ​materialism
e. ​mentalism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

31. Who discovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord?​

a. ​Flourens
b. ​Fechner
c. ​Helmholtz
d. ​Cajal
e. ​Gall

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

32. The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was ____.​

a. ​the deductive method
b. ​the inductive method
c. ​the experimental method
d. ​the hypothetico-deductive method
e. ​structural equation modeling

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

33. In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including ____.​

a. ​only physics
b. ​physiology and medicine only
c. ​physics and chemistry only
d. ​all fields that used the experimental method
e. ​all areas that took a positivistic approach

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

34. ​German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because ____.

a. there were only two of them, so each received only the most talented faculty and students​
b. ​there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike
c. ​the British and the French were using unscientific methods to research the mind
d. ​anyone with independent income could be a gentleman-scientist
e. ​None of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

35. The “publish or perish” ethic, which is a hallmark of the most prestigious U.S. research universities and colleges, is a direct descendant of the 19th-century ____ universities.​

a. ​British
b. ​French
c. ​German
d. ​Austrian
e. ​Russian

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

36. Helmholtz emphasized a(n) ____ approach.​

a. ​materialistic and mechanistic
b. ​deterministic and mentalistic
c. ​experimental and mentalistic
d. ​mechanistic and deterministic
e. ​materialistic and experimental

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

37. Who invented the ophthalmoscope?​

a. ​Weber
b. ​Fechner
c. ​Helmholtz
d. ​Cajal
e. ​Wundt

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

38. Which of the following was NOT one of the research areas of Helmholtz?​

a. ​theory of color vision
b. ​perception of combination and individual tones
c. ​resonance theory of hearing
d. ​speed of neural impulse
e. ​All of the choices were research areas of Helmholtz.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

39. One of Helmholtz’s particular contributions to psychology was his work on ____.​

a. ​vision
b. ​the skin senses
c. ​the conservation of energy
d. ​geometric axioms
e. ​mental telegraphy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

40. Why did Helmholtz abandon his research into human reaction times?​

a. ​He found differences from one individual to the next.
b. ​He found differences in the same individual.
c. ​He never did any such research on human subjects.
d. ​He did not abandon this research.
e. ​He found differences from one individual to the next and he found differences in the same individual.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

41. Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition?

a. ​Cajal
b. ​Fechner
c. ​Wundt
d. ​Helmholtz
e. ​Weber

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
NOTES:   WWW

 

42. With regard to the speed of the nerve impulse, perhaps the most important conclusion of Helmholtz’s research for psychology was the determination ____.​

a. ​that the nerve impulse’s speed is 900 feet/second
b. ​that thought and movement are not simultaneous
c. ​of the specific energies of nerves
d. ​of the nature of harmony
e. ​of the problem of resonance

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

43. The modern notion of subliminal perception rests on the idea that the threshold of perception or consciousness can be determined. The first experimental illustration of psychological threshold was demonstrated by ____.​

a. ​Helmholtz
b. ​Weber
c. ​Fechner
d. ​Wundt
e. ​Freud

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

44. Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the ____.​

a. ​threshold of consciousness
b. ​just noticeable difference
c. ​cognizant awareness
d. ​limen of consciousness
e. ​method of average error

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

45. ​Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference?

a. Weber​
b. ​Helmholtz
c. ​Fechner
d. ​Wundt
e. ​Cajal

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)
NOTES:   WWW

 

46. Whose major contributions to the new psychology involved the two-point threshold and the just noticeable difference?​

a. ​Hermann von Helmholtz
b. ​Gustav Fechner
c. ​Friedrich Bessel
d. ​Wilhelm Wundt
e. ​Ernst Weber

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

47. ​What is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli?

a. ​absolute threshold
b. ​doctrine of specific nerve energies
c. ​decision threshold
d. ​just noticeable difference
e. ​threshold of consciousness

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

48. ​What was the ratio of a weight to its just noticeable difference weight when they were lifted? What was the ratio of a weight to its just noticeable difference weight when the weights were placed in the subject’s hands?

a. ​1:40; 1:30
b. 1:30; 1:40​
c. ​1:40; 1:25
d. ​1:25; 1:50
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

49. Weber suggested that discrimination among sensations depended on ____.​

a. ​audition
b. ​vision
c. ​a constant ratio that would be consistent for all of the senses
d. ​the absolute difference between two weights
e. ​the relative difference or ratio between two weights

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

50. Weber’s experiments led to two important contributions: (a) further research and (b) the focus of attention of later physiologists and the new psychology on the development of ____.​

a. ​experimental methods for studying mind-body relationships
b. ​the method of introspection
c. ​the application of experimentation to physiological events
d. ​the field he called “psychophysics”
e. ​cranioscopy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

51. Which of the following is true of Fechner?​

a. ​He taught at Leipzig.
b. He developed the notion of the pleasure principle.​
c. ​He seriously damaged his eyes by looking at the sun through colored glasses.
d. ​He was “cured” of some symptoms by eating spiced raw ham soaked in Rhine wine and lemon juice.
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

52. Fechner wrote satirical essays ridiculing medicine and science under the pen name ____.​

a. ​Dr. Weber
b. ​Dr. Mises
c. ​Mr. Misfortune
d. ​Dr. Kopf
e. ​Dr. Misfortune

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

53. After Fechner obtained the very important appointment of professor at the University of Leipzig, he ____.​

a. ​became depressed
b. ​married his fiancé
c. ​became angry
d. ​was “cured” of depression
e. ​celebrated in an inappropriate manner

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

54. As a form of occupational therapy, Fechner ____.​

a. ​chopped carrots and turnips
b. ​made strings and bandages
c. ​grinded a sugarloaf into powdered sugar
d. ​dipped candles
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

55. While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner ____.​

a. ​had to be hospitalized
b. ​developed the idea of the pleasure principle
c. ​stumbled on the notion of free association
d. ​ate ham soaked in Rhine wine
e. ​declared he was Napoleon

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
NOTES:   WWW

 

56. Fechner’s flash of insight about the mind-body connection was that there is a(n) ____ relationship between a mental sensation and a material stimulus.​

a. ​null
b. ​quantitative
c. ​one-to-one
d. ​qualitative
e. ​unobservable

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

57. According to Fechner, the effects of stimulus intensities are not ____ but are ____ to the amount of sensation that already exists.​

a. ​equal; related
b. ​relative; absolute
c. ​noticeable; relevant
d. ​related; equal
e. ​absolute; relative

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

58. Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the ____.​

a. ​quantification of the mind-body relationship
b. ​determination that the effect of a stimulus intensity change is relative to the intensity that already exists
c. ​determination of the pleasure principle
d. ​qualitative relationship between a physical stimulus and the mental sensation of it
e. ​study of the differential threshold

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

59. Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was ____.​

a. ​whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed
b. ​the point of sensitivity at which the least change in a stimulus results in a change of sensation
c. ​the level at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished
d. ​the smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
NOTES:   WWW

 

60. The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in a sensation is a definition of ____.​

a. ​the just noticeable difference
b. ​the absolute threshold
c. ​Weber’s Law
d. ​the differential threshold
e. ​the stimulus change threshold

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

61. The point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced is a definition of the ____.​

a. ​just noticeable difference
b. ​absolute just noticeable difference
c. ​differential threshold
d. ​differential just noticeable difference
e. ​absolute threshold

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

62. ____ discovered the law, S = K log R.​

a. ​Müller
b. ​Weber
c. ​Helmholtz
d. ​Fechner
e. ​Wundt

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

63. The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of ____.​

a. ​psychophysics
b. ​Wundt’s psychology
c. ​Weber’s Law
d. ​Fechner’s Law
e. ​cranioscopy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

64. In Fechner’s Law as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases ____.​

a. ​arithmetically
b. ​geometrically
c. ​metaphysically
d. ​mathematically
e. ​psychophysically

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
NOTES:   WWW

 

65. In Fechner’s law, S is the ____.​

a. ​magnitude of the stimulus
b. ​duration of the stimulus
c. ​intensity of the stimulus
d. ​magnitude of the sensation
e. ​duration of the sensation

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

66. Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship ____.​

a. ​came in a vision
b. ​was essentially what Weber’s work had shown
c. ​had not been suggested to him by Weber’s work
d. ​was inspired by Helmholtz
e. ​would not have come to him if he hadn’t eaten wine-soaked ham

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

67. The calculation of the mean of a group of scores is the same as Fechner’s ____.​

a. ​method of limits
b. ​differential threshold
c. ​method of constant stimuli
d. ​method of average error
e. ​differential average

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

68. ​The original source material on Fechner reproduced in your textbook was taken from the book ____.

a. Physics and Medicine
b. The Connection between Mind and Body
c. Dealing with Depression
d. Physics, Physiology, and Psychophysics
e. Elements of Psychophysics

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

69. According to Fechner in the original source material, “Psychophysics should be understood as an exact theory of the functionally dependent relations of…” ____ and ____.​

a. ​soul; body
b. ​physical world; psychological world
c. ​the material; the mental
d. ​All of the choices are correct.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

70. In the original source material from one of his books, Fechner states that, “____ depends on ____”.​

a. ​an outer part; an inner part
b. ​an inner part; an outer part
c. ​empirical; metaphysical
d. ​stimulation; sensation
e. ​sensation; stimulation

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
NOTES:   WWW

 

71. How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses?​

a. ​The BritE developed more precise experiments than the GerP to study the senses.
b. ​The BritE applied mathematics to the study of the senses whereas the Germans did not.
c. ​The BritE concentrated on the study of vision and the GerP studied hearing.
d. ​The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses.
e. ​They did not differ.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Formal Founding of Psychology

 

72. Fechner’s work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that ____.​

a. ​nothing good ever comes out of Leipzig
b. ​psychology could never be a science
c. ​the brain would never be mapped
d. ​mental phenomena do not exist
e. ​sensations reliably reflect the object in the material world

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

73. ​Psychology was founded by ____.

a. ​Helmholtz
b. ​Weber
c. Fechner
d. ​Wundt
e. ​James

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Formal Founding of Psychology

 

74. ​The royal astronomer of England, Nevil Maskelyne, discovered the phenomenon that is known as the personal equation.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer
NOTES:   WWW

 

75. ​The personal equation is a formula that describes the precise role that each of a person’s voluntary behaviors contributes to his or her personality (behavioral style).

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   David K. Makes a Mistake: The Importance of the Human Observer

 

76. Physiology did not adopt the experimental method until the 1830s.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

77. ​The theory of the specific energies of nerves was the work of Johannes Müller.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

78. Flourens is known for the systematic nature of his extirpation research.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

79. Both Hall and Flourens studied localization of function using the method of electrical stimulation.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

80. Broca’s area was discovered using the extirpation method.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

81. Today, a differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s or Pick’s disease can be made only by autopsy. Thus, the extirpation method continues to be invaluable to research in psychology.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

82. ​Hall and Flourens found that stimulating particular cortical areas in animals caused motor responses.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

83. Gall’s work on phrenology has been strongly supported by subsequent research.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

84. ​Gall’s ideas reinforced the growing belief among scientists that it was possible to localize specific brain functions.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology
NOTES:   WWW

 

85. The electrical nature of the nerve impulse was one of the most important discoveries in physiology concurrent with the founding of psychology in the late 1800s.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

86. ​The major principle of the Berlin Physical Society was that all phenomena could be accounted for by the principles of physics.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Developments in Early Physiology

 

87. ​The work of Helmholtz along with that of Fechner and Wundt was instrumental in starting the new discipline of psychology.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

88. Biology was very rapidly accepted as a science in England and France.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

89. Unlike Cambridge University, Oxford University facilitated and supported scientific research in the 19th century.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

90. In 19th-century England, the sole means of pursuing a career in science was as a gentleman-scientist.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

91. U.S. universities’ principle of “publish or perish” can be traced directly to the ideology of the 19th-century German university system.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

 

92. Even though he made contributions to the emerging discipline of psychology, Helmholtz was a minor figure in 19th century science.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

93. The first empirical measurement of the rate of conduction of the nerve impulse was by Galvani.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

94. ​Helmholtz produced the first empirical evidence that thought and movement are successive and not concurrent.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
NOTES:   WWW

 

95. ​The work of Helmholtz served to strengthen the experimental approach to the study of psychological questions.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

96. Helmholtz’s work included the first systematic experimental demonstration of the sensory threshold.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

 

97. Fechner discovered the two-point threshold.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

98. ​The essence of Weber’s Law is that the just noticeable difference depends on the relative difference between two intensities of stimulation.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

99. Helmholtz’s work was more important than Weber’s in demonstrating the utility of experimentation to assess psychological events.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

 

100. Fechner wanted to be remembered for his work on psychophysics.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

101. Fechner began his medical studies and ended his career at the University of Leipzig.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

102. Fechner seriously injured his eyes in the chemistry lab.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

103. Fechner found that an increase in the intensity of a stimulus produces a one-to-one increase in the intensity of the resultant sensation.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

104. Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was his work in physiology.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

105. The unique aspect of Weber’s Law was the discovery of the logarithmic relationship between the stimulus and the experience.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
NOTES:   WWW

 

106. ​The originator of psychophysics was Gustav Fechner.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

107. Gustav Fechner founded the independent discipline of psychology.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)

 

1. Describe, compare, and contrast the three stages of behaviorism.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

2. Describe the points of agreement among the neobehaviorists. What are the major differences between the neobehaviorists as a group and Watsononian behaviorism?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

3. Describe what Tolman meant by the name “purposive behaviorism,” how it is manifested in his learning theory, and the classic experiment that supports his theory.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

4. Describe Tolman’s five “causes” of behavior. What were Hull’s positions on each of these factors?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

5. What is an intervening variable? Explain how they are operationally defined and used by the neobehaviorists, describing in detail at least one intervening variable used by Tolman and one used by Hull.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

6. What role did mechanism and mathematics play in Hull’s theory? Describe the four methods he considered useful for scientific research, identifying and explaining the method that was unique to him.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

7. What were Skinner’s opinions about theory, mechanism, intervening variables, statistics, and large sample sizes?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

8. What are the central differences between respondent and operant conditioning? How did Skinner propose using operant conditioning to modify behavior and to improve society?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

9. Describe Bandura’s social cognitive theory, focusing in detail on his conceptualizations regarding reinforcement as well as behavior modification.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

10. What is Rotter’s approach to cognitive processes? Describe his concept of locus of control including the difference between internal and external.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

11. Skinner’s former students demonstrated which of the following with the advent of the IQ Zoo?​

a. ​Operant conditioning can be taken out of the lab and applied to the real world.
b. ​Behaviorism is a very lucrative business after receiving a Ph.D. from Skinner.
c. ​Animals, like humans, are intelligent and have vastly complex minds.
d. ​Behaviorism is useless to solving real-world problems.
e. ​There are many hardships associated with animal psychology.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The IQ Zoo

 

12. Watson’s behaviorism ____.​

a. ​transformed psychology overnight
b. ​was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought
c. ​was essentially the same as neobehaviorism
d. ​lead directly to the cognitive revolution
e. ​eventually was abandoned by psychology

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Three Stages of Behaviorism

 

13. The era of neobehaviorism consisted of the years ____.​

a. ​1913-1958
b. ​1925-1938
c. ​1930-1960
d. ​1930-1990
e. ​1904-1990

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Three Stages of Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

14. The dominant area of study for the neobehaviorists was ____.​

a. ​perception
b. ​the neurophysiology of the brain
c. ​learning
d. ​unconscious mental processes
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Three Stages of Behaviorism

 

15. A point on which the neobehaviorists agreed AND to which they gave much more emphasis than did Watson was ____.​

a. ​the importance of human subjects
b. ​learning and conditioning as the crux of the science of psychology
c. ​operationism
d. ​positivism
e. ​the rejection of the concept of consciousness

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

16. Operationism was ____.​

a. ​a major characteristic of neobehaviorism
b. ​intended to rid psychology of pseudo-problems
c. ​intended to make the language of science more objective and precise
d. ​All of the choices are correct.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

17. Operationism was formulated by ____.​

a. ​John B. Watson
b. ​B.F. Skinner
c. ​Percy Bridgman
d. ​Edward Tolman
e. ​Clark Hull

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

18. Operationism means that a concept ____.​

a. ​must be defined in logical terms
b. ​is synonymous with its methods of measurement
c. ​must be mathematical
d. ​operates to control human mental processes
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism
NOTES:   WWW

 

19. The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it is called ____.​

a. ​positivism
b. ​science
c. ​operationism
d. ​mechanism
e. ​determinism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

20. If we define consciousness in terms of EEG output, then the construct of consciousness is ____.​

a. ​acceptable to materialists
b. ​acceptable to operationists
c. ​still a metaphysical construct
d. ​still lacks epistemological meaningfulness
e. ​inappropriate

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

21. For Bridgman, a construct was acceptable if and only if it ____.​

a. ​could be objectively measured
b. ​was detectable by the instruments used in physics
c. ​was observable by humans and simultaneously detectable by instruments used in physics
d. ​was confined to the domain of human experiences (animal psychology was unacceptable)
e. ​could be measured qualitatively as well as quantitatively

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

22. Bridgman argued that a construct must be ____.​

a. ​measurable
b. ​able to be manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions
c. ​measurable in terms of its effects on behavior
d. ​invisible to experimenters
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

23. The concept of operationism can be directly traced to the theories of ____.​

a. ​Descartes
b. ​Comte
c. ​Mach
d. ​the British empiricists
e. ​the French materialists

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

24. A primary reason psychology so quickly embraced operationism was that it ____.​

a. ​was first adopted by physics
b. ​validated their desire for greater consistency in the science of psychology
c. ​validated the use of rats to determine basic laws of human behavior
d. ​facilitated a new relationship with research endeavors in medicine
e. ​was easy to apply to experiments

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism
NOTES:   WWW

 

25. Tolman’s graduate training was in ____, as is reflected in his later work.​

a. ​philosophy
b. ​structuralism
c. ​Gestalt psychology
d. ​behaviorism
e. ​Both B and C

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

26. Tolman’s concept of cognitive maps, i.e., that the animal learns the “whole,” might be traced to his work ____.​

a. ​with Koffka on Gestalt psychology during graduate school
b. ​with Lewin and Lewin’s system of the “life space”
c. ​with Lewin and Lewin’s use of topology and geometry to explain behavior
d. ​in engineering at Harvard
e. ​with the OSS in World War II

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

27. Edward C. Tolman’s system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called ____.​

a. ​molar behavior
b. ​stimulus-response associations
c. ​intervening behaviorism
d. ​purposive behaviorism
e. ​goal setting theory

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

28. For Tolman, the obvious and objective behavioral evidence of purpose was ____.​

a. ​that the rat readily leaves the start box of a maze
b. ​that the rat behaves so as to obtain food
c. ​that the animal changes its speed of running when the reward size is altered
d. ​learning
e. ​sign Gestalts

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)
NOTES:   WWW

 

29. Tolman described the conscious experience of the animal as ____.​

a. ​having no influence on the animal’s overt behavior
b. ​defined by intervening variables
c. ​necessary for learning to take place
d. ​being the animal’s private business and therefore of no interest to him
e. ​important but unobservable by any means

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

30. Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?​

a. ​environmental stimuli
b. ​physiological drives
c. ​heredity
d. ​motivation
e. ​age

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

31. Tolman specified that the independent variables (stimuli) affect processes within the organism. These processes then control the occurrence of behavior (response). These internal processes are known as ____.​

a. ​operational variables
b. ​mental sets
c. ​cognitive variables
d. ​intervening variables
e. ​concrete variables

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

32. In Tolman’s system, intervening variables were ____.​

a. ​observable
b. ​dependent variables
c. ​the determinants of behavior
d. ​independent variables
e. ​as useful as the notion of consciousness

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

33. The term intervening variable refers to ____.​

a. ​irrelevant stimuli in the conditioning setting
b. ​cognitive factors that may either interfere with or facilitate conditioning
c. ​internal processes that “connect” the stimulus with a response
d. ​an explanation for insight learning
e. ​preventive conditioning

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

34. Tolman’s position on Thorndike’s law of effect was to ____.​

a. ​accept it
b. ​accept it as long as reward or reinforcement was omitted from the law
c. ​reject it
d. ​incorporate it into his own purposive behavior theory
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

35. For Tolman, each experience with a task strengthens the relationship between cues in the environment and the organism’s ___.​

a. ​learned responses
b. ​learned associations
c. ​expectations
d. ​response cues
e. ​habit strength

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

36. In Tolman’s system, the repetition of an act leads to ____.​

a. ​no change in the habit strength
b. ​sign Gestalts
c. ​knowledge of environment cues
d. ​cognitive awareness of the environment cues
e. ​the combination of movements into acts

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

37. For Tolman, a cognitive map is ____.​

a. ​the same as consciousness
b. ​a pattern of sign Gestalts
c. ​a set of S-R cues
d. ​a set of motor habits
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

38. According to Tolman’s learning theory, as a rat learns all of the sign-Gestalt relationships in a maze, the rat has acquired a ____.​

a. ​Habit
b. ​Drive
c. ​Tropism
d. ​cognitive map
e. ​good habit

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

39. What is the primary difference between locus of control and self-efficacy?​

a. ​The former emphasizes success and failure whereas the latter emphasizes mental state.
b. ​The former emphasizes internal versus external attribution of success while the latter ignores it.
c. ​The latter emphasizes internal versus external attribution of success while the former ignores it.
d. ​The latter is not a useful construct whereas the former is.
e. ​The latter is the basis of sociobehaviorism whereas the former is an elaboration of it.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)
NOTES:   WWW

 

40. Whose system was a forerunner of contemporary cognitive psychology?​

a. ​Tolman’s
b. ​Guthrie’s
c. ​Lewin’s
d. ​Wertheimer’s
e. ​Köhler’s

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

41. The pragmatic value of intervening variables is that they ____.​

a. ​obscure the consciousness versus behaviorist distinction
b. ​are positivist
c. ​are observable
d. ​are essential for dealing with hypothetical constructs
e. ​have been reified

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

42. Tolman described ____ as alternatively “creepy” and “delightful.”​

a. ​Watson’s ideas
b. ​operational definitions
c. ​intervening variables
d. ​white laboratory rats
e. ​the laboratories in which he worked

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

43. From 1930 until the 1960s, the ____ was the primary research subject for the neobehaviorists and learning theorists.​

a. ​human being
b. ​white man
c. ​white bunny
d. ​white rat
e. ​cat

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)
NOTES:   WWW

 

44. It was assumed by Tolman and others that research on white rats would ____.​

a. ​demonstrate the role of reinforcement in learning
b. ​provide the basic foundation from which other studies could be devised in order to replicate the results with other species
c. ​provide insights into the basic processes underlying the behavior of humans and other animals
d. ​yield basic information on motivation and motivation
e. ​serve as an intervening variable between higher and lower species

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

45. According to Schultz and Schultz, “perhaps no other psychologist was so devoted to the problems of the scientific method” than was ____.​

a. ​Watson
b. ​Tolman
c. ​Hull
d. ​Holt
e. ​Skinner

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

46. Hull had an immense knowledge of ____ and ____.​

a. ​biology and chemistry
b. ​formal logic and mathematics
c. ​mathematics and operationism
d. ​behavior and thought processes
e. ​psychology and the occult

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

47. Hull’s form of behaviorism was ____ than ____.​

a. ​much freer of intervening variables; Tolman’s
b. ​much less free of intervening variables; Tolman’s
c. ​less sophisticated and complex; Watson’s
d. ​more sophisticated and complex; Watson’s
e. ​more organismic; Tolman’s

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

48. Throughout his life, Hull ____.​

a. ​remained one of the wealthiest psychologists
b. ​kept himself in top physical condition
c. ​was able to run races faster than most of his contemporaries
d. ​had inadequate laboratory facilities
e. ​suffered from poor health and eyesight

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

49. According to Schultz and Schultz, Hull’s “greatest asset was ____.”​

a. ​an intense motivation to succeed
b. ​an intellect greater than that of his contemporaries
c. ​the quiet perseverance learned from his father
d. ​his inherited wealth
e. ​the social connections he made

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

50. The learning theorist ____ persevered in the face of numerous obstacles to success.​

a. ​Tolman
b. ​Hull
c. ​Skinner
d. ​Bandura
e. ​Rotter

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

51. Hull’s work contributed to which of the following?​

a. ​the hypothetico-deductive method
b. ​learning theory
c. ​drive reduction theory
d. ​increasing generalizability
e. ​A, B, and C

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

52. Throughout his professional career, Hull emphasized ____.​

a. ​objective methods and functional laws
b. ​the importance of being open-minded
c. ​that psychology must, above all, stress the basic
d. ​the importance of schedules of reinforcement
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

53. From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?​

a. ​Tolman’s students and disciples
b. ​functional theorists
c. ​Hullians
d. ​radical behaviorists
e. ​Skinnerians

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)
NOTES:   WWW

 

54. Who authored an early study of the effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency?​

a. ​Hull
b. ​Spence
c. ​Miller
d. ​Mowrer
e. ​Brown and Farber

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

55. Hull’s background in mathematics and engineering was demonstrated in ____.​

a. ​his development of statistical analysis methods
b. ​his invention of a machine to calculate correlations
c. ​the use of postulates and axioms in his system
d. ​his description and explanation of behavior in mathematical equations
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

56. Which of the following men devoted 10 years to the experimental investigation of hypnotic suggestibility?​

a. ​Dollard
b. ​Tolman
c. ​Pavlov
d. ​Hull
e. ​Miller

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

57. Hull’s primary research focus was grounded in ____.​

a. ​Pavlov’s laws of conditioning
b. ​respondent behavior
c. ​Watson’s behaviorism
d. ​Estes’s stimulus-sampling hypothesis
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

58. Hull’s system sought to describe and explain ____.​

a. ​respondent behavior
b. ​operant behavior
c. ​intervening variables
d. ​referents of consciousness
e. ​all behavior

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

59. Of all the neobehaviorists, the one who most obviously espoused mechanism was ____.​

a. ​Tolman
b. ​Rotter
c. ​Hull
d. Skinner​
e. ​Bridgman

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

60. Hull intended to express the laws of behavior in the language of ____.​

a. ​field theory
b. ​vectors (response directions and strengths)
c. ​valences (reward values)
d. ​mathematics
e. ​behavior

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

61. Hull’s training in engineering was manifest in his belief that all behavior could be reduced to the language of ____.​

a. ​mathematics
b. ​vectors (response directions and strengths)
c. ​valences (reward values)
d. ​field theory
e. ​biology

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

62. Hull’s experiments were directed by ____.​

a. ​deduced theorems and corollaries
b. ​equations
c. ​objective definitions
d. the limitations of the rat and maze method
e. ​and limited to respondent conditioning

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

63. Contemporary path analysis techniques let us test theoretical propositions. Such an approach appears similar to whose research method?​

a. ​Newton’s
b. ​Tolman’s
c. ​Guthrie’s
d. ​Hull’s
e. ​Wundt’s

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)
NOTES:   WWW

 

64. The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was ____.​

a. ​simple observation
b. ​systematic controlled observation
c. ​experimental testing of hypotheses
d. ​the hypothetico-deductive method
e. ​one-trial learning

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

65. Hull proposed that to achieve a paradigm (in Kuhn’s sense of the term) in psychology, one would have to implement which method?​

a. ​simple observation
b. ​systematic controlled observation
c. ​experimental testing of hypotheses
d. ​operant conditioning
e. ​the hypothetico-deductive method

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

66. Hull proposed the hypothetico-deductive method as the means to develop learning theory. Which of the following statements is the best explanation of Hull’s method?​

a. ​Psychology should try to develop strictly empirical principles of behavior. Theory should only include statements as to how reinforcement controls behavior.
b. ​From a set of theoretical postulates, deductions are made. These deductions become hypotheses that are tested experimentally. The experimental results are then used to confirm the postulates or change them if necessary.
c. ​Data from experiments are used to produce theories of learning. Once the theory is formed, there is no need to test the theory, since theory is more important than data.
d. ​Any of the choices might be correct, depending on the circumstances.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

67. “A state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior” is a definition of ____.​

a. ​drive
b. ​habit strength
c. ​magnitude of conditioning
d. ​reflex reserve
e. ​magnitude of a respondent

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

68. For Hull, drive reduction is ____.​

a. ​an intervening variable
b. ​the sole basis for reinforcement
c. ​an independent variable
d. ​a dependent variable
e. ​a vector

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

69. Hull’s concept of motivation is grounded in the doctrine of ____.​

a. ​biology
b. ​drive reduction
c. ​the hypothetico-deductive method
d. ​induction
e. ​the variability hypothesis

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

70. In Hull’s system, a drive is a(n) ____.​

a. ​intervening variable
b. ​stimulus
c. ​response
d. ​intervening variable and stimulus
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

71. Which of the following is NOT an example of a primary drive?​

a. ​hunger
b. ​defecation
c. ​sleep
d. ​pain relief
e. ​exercise

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

72. In Hull’s system, drive ____.​

a. ​is a specific consequence of a specific state manipulated by the experimenter
b. ​directs behavior toward a specific goal
c. ​energizes behavior
d. ​is always learned
e. ​is a respondent

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

73. In Hull’s system, the reduction or satisfaction of a drive is the sole basis of ____.​

a. ​purposive behavior
b. ​intervening variables
c. ​the length of deprivation of a physiological need
d. ​the degree of satisfaction the organism expects
e. ​reinforcement

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

74. Secondary drives are ____.​

a. ​those less vital than primary drives
b. ​learned drives
c. ​those not included in the categories of food, liquid, or warmth
d. ​those not associated with food, water, or warmth
e. ​those that occur in uncontrolled (nonexperimental) situations such as “real life”

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

75. Hull’s law of primary reinforcement is a restatement of ____.​

a. ​Hartley’s law of contiguity
b. ​Rotter’s locus of control
c. ​Thorndike’s law of effect
d. ​Thorndike’s law of exercise
e. ​Skinner’s continuous reinforcement principle

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

76. Thorndike and Hull agreed that, in order for learning to occur, the organism must ____.​

a. ​form cognitive maps of the situation
b. ​represent the environment in terms of mental elements
c. ​have a need state
d. ​experience reinforcement occurring after a response
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

77. Secondary drives are ____.​

a. ​innate drives
b. ​biologically driven
c. ​a result of pairing with a primary drive
d. ​only used to reduce pain responses
e. ​reinforced only when primary drives are satisfied

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

78. If seeing McDonald’s golden arches decreases your hunger, then the arches are ____.​

a. ​primary reinforcement
b. ​secondary reinforcement
c. ​habits
d. ​organismic variables
e. ​dependent variables

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

79. In Hull’s system, habit strength is ____.​

a. ​the strength of the S-R connection
b. ​evidence of latent learning
c. ​a function of the number of reinforcements
d. ​a function of the size of the drive
e. ​a function of the size of the reward (incentive)

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

80. This person claimed that his own life was “predetermined, lawful, and orderly” just as his system would predict.​

a. ​Pavlov
b. ​Watson
c. ​Tolman
d. ​Hull
e. ​Skinner

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
NOTES:   WWW

 

81. Skinner pursued graduate work in psychology at Harvard ____.​

a. ​because he was inspired by William James
b. ​because he was awed by the work of Watson and Pavlov
c. ​after reading Bridgman’s work on operationism
d. ​after reading Berman’s (1927) The Religion Called Behaviorism
e. ​because a woman he was interested in also went there

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

82. Skinner defined a reflex as a(n) ____.​

a. ​objectively observable product of the autonomic nervous system
b. ​intervening variable
c. ​respondent
d. ​S-R connection
e. ​S-R correlation and nothing more

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

83. The author of The Behavior of Organisms was ____, who did not receive acclaim for the text until 50 years later.​

a. ​Skinner
b. ​Washburn
c. ​Tolman
d. ​Hull
e. ​Frost

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

84. The success of Skinner’s book The Behavior of Organisms can be attributed to ____.​

a. ​how clearly it was written
b. ​the Zeitgeist, demonstrated by its immediate success
c. ​the publicity about and popularity of the air crib
d. ​the utopia he described in Walden Two and the book’s popularity among college students in the 1950s
e. ​the application of his principles in education and clinical psychology

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

85. To the end of his life, Skinner questioned whether psychology could be a science if it ____.​

a. ​ignored biological factors
b. ​was a science of the mind
c. ​could not explain cognition
d. ​did not adapt to the changing world
e. ​was not a natural science in its methods

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

86. Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the ____.​

a. ​importance of contiguity
b. ​importance of reinforcement
c. ​focus on operants rather than on respondents
d. ​quantification of responses
e. ​lack of theoretical framework

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

87. Skinner’s research was unique among that of the major neobehaviorists in his ____.​

a. ​use of the single-subject design
b. ​relative lack of a theoretical framework
c. ​concern with describing rather than explaining behavior
d. ​rejection of variables inside the organism
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

88. For Skinner, what is the primary characteristic of living things?​

a. ​oxygen
b. ​life on earth
c. ​behavior
d. ​stimuli
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

89. Which of the following philosophers is discussed by Skinner in the “In Their Own Words” section of the text?​

a. ​Nietzsche
b. ​John Stuart Mill
c. ​Descartes
d. ​Berkeley
e. ​James Mill

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

90. Who first distinguished between respondent and operant behavior?​

a. ​Skinner
b. ​Hull
c. ​Watson
d. ​Tolman
e. ​Bandura

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

91. Who drew a distinction between operant behavior and respondent behavior?​

a. ​Pavlov
b. ​Hull
c. ​Watson
d. ​Tolman
e. ​Skinner

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

92. Skinner claimed that he studied ____ while Pavlov studied ____.​

a. ​free behavior; reflexive behavior
b. acquired behavior; reflexive behavior​
c. ​elicited behavior; emitted behavior
d. ​explanations; descriptions
e. ​operant behavior; respondent behavior

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

93. For Skinner, the dependent variable is the ____.​

a. ​rate of response
b. ​force of the response
c. ​velocity of the response
d. ​number of trials to criterion
e. ​number of reinforced trials

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

94. The law of acquisition states that the key variable in learning is ____.​

a. ​practice
b. ​repetition
c. ​reinforcement
d. ​the operant
e. ​stimulus control

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

95. The central difference between Skinner’s law of acquisition and Thorndike and Hull’s position on learning is that ____.​

a. ​Skinner thought that all behavior is controlled by reinforcement whereas Thorndike and Hull did not think reinforcement was necessary for learning to occur
b. ​There is none because all were interested in acquisition, not learning
c. ​For Thorndike and Hull human behavior is purposive and controlled by free will whereas Skinner was a strict determinist
d. ​Thorndike and Hull were concerned with description; Skinner was concerned with explanation
e. ​Skinner’s law is strictly descriptive while Thorndike and Hull’s positions are explanatory

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

96. A schedule of reinforcement ____.​

a. ​lists which behaviors can be conditioned
b. ​depicts the steps necessary to establish an operant response
c. ​is not used by operant researchers
d. ​depicts the steps necessary to establish a respondent
e. ​determines when reinforcement occurs

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

97. Parents and employers must determine when and under what conditions children will be rewarded and employees will be paid. In both cases, they must select ____.​

a. ​applied psychology principles
b. ​schedules of reinforcement
c. ​rates of responding
d. ​only continuous schedules
e. ​extinction schedules

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

98. Skinner raised his daughter in an “air crib” with the result that she ____.​

a. ​is a behaviorally disturbed individual
b. ​was not adversely affected
c. ​took longer to be cared for than children raised by traditional methods
d. ​refused to look at people as an adult
e. ​was unable to sleep in a regular bed

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

99. The use of positive reinforcement to control the behavior of individuals and groups is called ____.​

a. ​behavior modification
b. ​chaining
c. ​trial-and-learning
d. ​omission training
e. ​sneaky

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

100. A criticism of Skinner’s work is his ____.​

a. ​use of the hypothetico-deductive method
b. ​emphasis on positive reinforcement and rejection of punishment
c. ​willingness to extrapolate from the data, especially with regard to human behavior
d. ​work on instinctive behavior
e. ​unassailable adherence to operationism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

101. Animals tend to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that have been reinforced. This tendency is called ____.​

a. ​contrariness
b. ​reinforcement drift
c. ​reinforcement flow
d. ​instinctual drift
e. ​reward flow

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

102. From the 1950s to the 1980’s, American Psychology was shaped more by the work of ____ than by the work of any other psychologist.​

a. ​Tolman
b. ​Hull
c. ​Skinner
d. ​Tolman.
e. ​Mowrer

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

103. The “third stage” of behaviorism refers to ____.​

a. ​the advent of humanism
b. ​sociobehaviorism
c. ​the reframing of psychoanalytic concepts in behavioristic terms
d. ​the implementation of behaviorism’s laws of learning in clinical psychology
e. ​the return to Watsonian thought

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Sociobehaviorism: The Cognitive Challenge

 

104. Bandura proposed that reactions to stimuli ____.​

a. ​are self-activated
b. ​require observable S-R contiguity
c. ​require reinforcement for acquisition
d. ​occur in one trial
e. ​are often overlooked because of the focus on acts rather than movements

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

105. A type of reinforcement identified by Bandura is ____.​

a. ​fixed interval
b. ​variable interval
c. ​fixed ratio
d. ​variable ratio
e. ​vicarious

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

106. Bandura argues that what changes a person’s behavior is ____.​

a. ​what the organism thinks the schedule of reinforcement is
b. ​the actual schedule of reinforcement
c. ​their free will
d. ​the result of his or her intelligence
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

107. For Bandura, the agent who controls the ____ controls behavior.​

a. ​reinforcers
b. ​punishers
c. ​models
d. ​stimuli
e. ​expectancies

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

108. A concept of Bandura that reflects one’s beliefs about one’s own adequacy is ____.​

a. ​striving for superiority
b. ​self-esteem
c. ​self-concept
d. ​feelings of inferiority
e. ​self-efficacy

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

109. Whereas a concern of Skinner was the improvement of society through his technology of behavior, Bandura’s is more specific, namely the ____.​

a. ​alleviation of abnormal behavior
b. ​reduction of media violence
c. ​identification of the characteristics that are most potent
d. ​identification of factors that influence locus of control
e. ​identification of the observable referents of self-efficacy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

110. The main criticism of Bandura’s system is ____.​

a. ​the notion that cognitive processes cause behavior
b. ​that cognitive processes are as mystical as consciousness
c. ​that cognitive processes have no physiological or physical referents
d. ​the importance he attributes to modeling
e. ​the importance he attributes to the construct of self-efficacy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

111. The term social learning theory was coined by ____.​

a. ​Tolman
b. ​Bandura
c. ​Rotter
d. ​Neisser
e. ​Skinner

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

112. People who believe reinforcement depends on their own behavior have ____.​

a. ​a tendency toward depression
b. ​an external locus of control
c. ​an internal locus of control
d. ​a subjective expectations and experiences
e. ​a low locus of control

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

113. Rotter has suggested that locus of control ____.​

a. ​is acquired in infancy, much like Horney’s basic anxiety
b. ​is acquired in childhood
c. ​is acquired in adolescence, much like Erikson’s ego identity
d. ​is acquired over the life span, much like Erikson’s ego integrity
e. ​fluctuates in accord with one’s self-efficacy

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

114. The neobehaviorists agreed that the essence of psychology is learning.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Three Stages of Behaviorism

 

115. Bridgman argued that a construct is the same as its corresponding set of operations.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

116. If a concept can be measured and manipulated under controlled conditions to determine its effects on behavior, then it is not a pseudo-problem.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Operationism

 

117. For Tolman, the sheer fact of learning was evidence of purpose in animals.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

118. Tolman proposed ten causes of behavior in addition to environmental stimuli.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

119. Tolman argued that factors within the organism are the actual causes of behavior.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

120. In Tolman’s system, learned relationships are sign Gestalts.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

121. In experiments that tested the presence of rats’ cognitive maps, Tolman found that rats “learned to turn right” rather than learning the location of food.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

122. Tolman is recognized as the forerunner of contemporary applied psychology.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

123. Tolman’s intervening variables were not accepted by mainstream psychology because they could not be operationally defined.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

124. Tolman hated rats throughout his entire career.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

125. Tolman recognized that research on rats could not uncover basic processes of human behavior.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)

 

126. Hull’s behaviorist approach to psychology dominated American Psychology from the 1940s to the 1960s.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

127. Hull was interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov’s laws of conditioning.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

128. For Hull, behavior could be reduced to the language of physiology.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

129. Hull’s system is exemplary in the degree to which it is quantifiable.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

130. The method least unique to Hull’s system of psychology is the hypothetico-inductive method.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

131. In Hull’s theory, primary reinforcement results in drive reduction.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

132. In Hull’s system, the strength of a drive can be empirically determined.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

133. For Hull, habit strength is wholly dependent on the number and size of the reinforcements.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)

 

134. Skinner defined a reflex as a correlation between a stimulus and a response.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
NOTES:   WWW

 

135. Skinner’s behaviorism is devoted to the study of responses.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

136. Skinner borrowed the term empty organism approach from Descartes’s concept of the undulatio reflexa.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

137. Skinner stressed the importance of individual differences.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

138. For Skinner, the dependent variable is the rate of response.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

139. The key variable in Skinner’s system is vicarious reinforcement.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
NOTES:   WWW

 

140. A key aspect of Skinner’s behavior modification is a reliance on punishment.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 

141. In vicarious reinforcement, learning can occur in the absence of personal reinforcement.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

142. Bandura suggested that there is not a direct link between stimulus and response.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

143. In Bandura’s system, social interaction is a critical factor in human learning.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

144. Self-efficacy is defined by Bandura as a sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)
NOTES:   WWW

 

145. Bandura believed that using modeling techniques was ineffective to change behavior.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Albert Bandura (1925-)

 

146. The term social learning theory was coined by Bandura.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

147. In Rotter’s system, our subjective expectations and values are not important.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

148. Locus of control is variable and changes for everyone daily.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)

 

149. A major cognitive variable in Bandura’s system is locus of control.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Julian Rotter (1916-)
NOTES:   WWW