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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Test Bank For A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

CHAPTER 3: Roman Liturgy and Chant

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In the Medieval Christian church, the primary purpose of liturgical music was to
a. aid in the delivery of the text
b. demonstrate the priests’ musical virtuosity
c. enable congregants to participate in the service
d. entertain the congregants who did not understand Latin
e. imitate angels

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   47                  TOP:   Purpose of the Liturgy

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The cycle of feasts celebrating events in the life of Christ and commemorating saints is called the
a. Christian Rite d. Office
b. church calendar e. Proper
c. Mass

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   47                  TOP:   Church Calendar

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Mass is a symbolic reenactment of which episode in the life of Christ?
a. the Baptism d. the Nativity
b. the Crucifixion e. the Resurrection
c. the Last Supper

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   47                  TOP:   Mass

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following took place during the Mass except
a. burning incense
b. drinking wine
c. reading passages from the New Testament
d. sacrificing a lamb
e. singing psalms

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   47–49            TOP:   Mass

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following Mass movements are parts of the Ordinary except the
a. Credo d. Kyrie
b. Gloria e. Sanctus
c. Introit

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   47–49            TOP:   Mass

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. This part of the Mass is sung only during Lent, the forty days before Easter.
a. Alleluia d. Offertory
b. Benedicamus Domino e. Tract
c. Gradual

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   48

TOP:   Mass| The Experience of the Mass MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The longest and most melismatic chant of the Mass Proper is the
a. Communion d. Introit
b. Credo e. Offertory
c. Gradual

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   48–49            TOP:   Propers for Christmas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The cycle of prayers said throughout the day in monasteries and convents is called the
a. Antiphoner d. Office
b. Breviary e. Rule of St. Benedict
c. Canticle

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   50–51            TOP:   The Office

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The liturgy of the Office focused primarily on chanting the
a. Epistles d. Pentateuch
b. Gospels e. psalms
c. Liber usualis

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   51                  TOP:   The Office

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which best describes a canticle?
a. another word for a psalm
b. a brief statement in praise of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
c. a newly composed text set to what was originally a melisma in an existing chant
d. a passage of poetry from anywhere in the Bible other than the Book of Psalms
e. a strophic song

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   51                  TOP:   The Office

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How many psalms are there?
a. 7 d. 150
b. 52 e. 365
c. 100

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   51 | 54

TOP:   The Office| Office Antiphons        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The manner of performance in which a soloist alternates singing with a choir is called
a. antiphonal d. responsorial
b. declamatory e. syllabic
c. melismatic

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   52                  TOP:   Characteristics of Chant

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The style of this chant is best described as
a. melismatic d. strophic
b. neumatic e. syllabic
c. soloistic

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   52                  TOP:   Characteristics of Chant

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Because the Credo is a very long text, the musical style of Credo chants will usually be
a. antiphonal d. responsorial
b. melismatic e. syllabic
c. neumatic

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   52 | 59            TOP:   Concept

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. All of the following statements about characteristics of chant melodies are true except
a. higher pitches often correspond with accented syllables
b. important notes in the mode are emphasized through repetition and circling
c. melodies move mostly by seconds and thirds
d. melodies usually ascend to the cadence
e. phrases are usually arch-shaped

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   52 | 56 | 57 | 58

TOP:   Characteristics of Chant | Melody and Declamation        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why is the Lesser Doxology added to the end of psalms?
a. to cue the celebrant to perform a ritual action
b. to link the psalm with the specific feast of the day
c. to provide a joyous melisma marking the end of the psalm
d. to provide a musical transition back to the Antiphon
e. to provide the psalm with a Christian context

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   54                  TOP:   Psalm Tones

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A genre that consists of several stanzas, each sung to the same melody, is called a(n)
a. canticle d. Kyrie
b. hymn e. responsory
c. Introit

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   56                  TOP:   Office Hymns

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In responsorial psalmody, the soloist sings which portion of the chant?
a. the antiphon d. the respond
b. the doxology e. the trope
c. the psalm verse

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   57

TOP:   Responsorial Psalmody in the Office and Mass              MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Evidence of solo singing of certain chants during the Middle Ages comes from
a. directions in liturgical books
b. eyewitness testimony
c. paintings in illuminated manuscripts
d. related Jewish traditions
e. the more ornate style of some chants as compared to others

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   59

TOP:   Responsorial Psalmody in the Office and Mass              MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which chant of the Ordinary is usually composed in a neumatic style?
a. Credo d. Offertory
b. Gloria e. Sanctus
c. Kyrie

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   59                  TOP:   Chants of the Mass Ordinary

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. All of the following are examples of tropes except
a. adding new melismas to an existing chant
b. adding new parts for instruments such as the organ
c. adding new words and music to the beginning of an existing chant
d. adding new words to a melisma of an existing chant
e. performing the text in dialogue with dramatic action

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   61

TOP:   Additions to Authorized Chants     MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following best represents the musical and textual form of a sequence?
a. A A B, B B C, C C D, etc. d. A B C D, A B C D, A B C D, etc.
b. A B A C A D A, etc. e. A BB CC DD, etc.
c. A B B A

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   62                  TOP:   Sequence

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The composer of Ordo virtutum is
a. Adam of St. Victor d. St. Benedict
b. Hildegard of Bingen e. Wipo of Burgundy
c. Notker Balbulus

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   64                  TOP:   Hildegard of Bingen

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why was Hildegard of Bingen’s music known only locally during her lifetime?
a. most composers in the Middle Ages had only a local reputation
b. most people rejected her unusual musical style
c. people did not believe her visions and prophecies
d. she was a radical
e. women were not allowed to compose

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   64                  TOP:   Hildegard of Bingen

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Hildegard of Bingen did all of the following except
a. advise emperors, kings, and popes d. travel around Germany to preach
b. compose music e. write poetry
c. officiate at Mass

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   65                  TOP:   Hildegard of Bingen

MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The portions of the Mass sung by the soloist, choir, and congregation changed between the time of the early Christians and the standardization of the liturgy in the ninth century.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   46 | 49 | 54-55 | 57 | 59 | 60

TOP:   Concept         MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The texts for the Mass are the same every week of the year.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   47                  TOP:   Mass

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The most florid chants of the Mass accompanied ritual actions.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   48 | 57–58

TOP:   Mass| The Experience of the Mass| Responsorial Psalmody in the Office and Mass

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Liber usualis contains the complete cycle of chants for the church year as it was sung in the Middle Ages.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   51                  TOP:   Liturgical Books

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When writing chants, composers sought to express the emotional qualities of the text in the music.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   52                  TOP:   Melody and Declamation

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The musical phrases of a given chant tend to match the phrasing and pronunciation of spoken Latin.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   52                  TOP:   Melody and Declamation

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Antiphons are sung only during the Office.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   56–57

TOP:   Antiphonal Psalmody in the Mass  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In responsorial psalmody, such as the Gradual, the soloist sings the psalm verse.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   57–58

TOP:   Responsorial Psalmody in the Office and Mass              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The liturgy, music, and manner of performing the Mass remained unchanged from its standardization in the ninth century until the reforms of the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   60–61

TOP:   Additions to Authorized Chants     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Nowadays when people hear Gregorian chant, it is mostly detached from its original liturgical functions.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   66

TOP:   The Continuing Presence of Chant MSC:  Conceptual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain the difference between the Proper and Ordinary texts of the Mass.

 

ANS:

Proper texts differ for each day of the church calendar and are specific to the feast being celebrated. For example, the Gradual for Christmas Day would be different from the Gradual for Easter. The Gradual for Christmas talks about the miracle of Christ’s birth. The Gradual for Easter may talk about Christ’s sacrifice. Ordinary texts are the same from week to week. For example, the Gloria text is always the same.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   49–50            TOP:   Mass              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is a monastery?

 

ANS:

A monastery is a community of religious men (monks) who devote their lives to prayer. Communities of religious women (nuns) are called convents.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   51                  TOP:   The Office     MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Explain the difference between antiphonal and responsorial performance.

 

ANS:

In antiphonal performance two soloists or two groups sing in alternation. In responsorial performance a soloist alternates with a group (choir or congregation).

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   52 | 55           TOP:   Characteristics of Chant| Office Antiphons

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A nun in a medieval convent is about to sing a psalm during Matins. How would she decide what mode of psalm tone to use?

 

ANS:

She would identify the mode of the assigned antiphon and sing the psalm using the psalm tone in the same mode.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   53–54            TOP:   Psalm Tones| Office Antiphons

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Below is a verse of a psalm (in English translation). Using appropriate terms, explain how this text might be chanted using a psalm tone.

 

“Praise him with the sound of the trumpet:

praise him with the psaltery and the harp.” (Ps. 150, v. 3)

 

ANS:

The first words, “praise him,” would be sung to a brief melodic phrase called an intonation. The words “with the sound of the” would be sung on a single repeated note called the reciting tone. At the word “trumpet” there would be a simple descending phrase called the mediant to signal the end of the line or textual phrase. The next words, “praise him with the psaltery,” would also be sung using the reciting tone. The final words, “and the harp,” would be sung to a small cadential phrase called the termination.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   53–54            TOP:   Psalm Tones   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is an antiphon? How and when is it used?

 

ANS:

An antiphon is a fully-composed melody that is sung before and after the verses of a psalm. Since the psalms are from the Old Testament and all 150 psalms are sung every week, antiphons link the psalms to the particular feast day and give Christian meaning to the psalms. Antiphons occur in both the Office and the Mass. Antiphons tend to be shorter and simpler than some of the other types of chants, reflecting the history of group/choral singing.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   54–56

TOP:   Office Antiphons| Antiphonal Psalmody in the Mass      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In its early history, the Introit consisted of an antiphon, a entire psalm sung antiphonally, the Lesser Doxology, and a repeat of the antiphon. Eventually this was shortened to the antiphon, a single psalm verse, the Lesser Doxology, and the repeat of the antiphon. Why did it change?

 

ANS:

The Introit was originally used to accompany a procession. Eventually the opening procession of the Mass was shortened and the Introit was no longer used to accompany the ritual. Instead it was sung after the opening procession, so the Introit was abbreviated to a single psalm verse.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   56                  TOP:   Antiphonal Psalmody in the Mass

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Explain the differences between hymns and sequences in terms of their musical and poetic forms.

 

ANS:

Hymns are strophic. A hymn consists of several stanzas, each with the same number of lines, syllables per line, and rhyme scheme, so every stanza can be sung to a single, unchanging melody. Sequences may begin with a single line of text, set to its own melody, followed by several paired lines of text. Within each pair, the lines will have the same number of syllables and will rhyme, and so each line will be set to the same melody. But the next pair of lines will be different from the preceding pair (number of syllables, end rhyme), and will be set to a different melody.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   56 | 61–62     TOP:   Office Hymns| Sequences

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why was troping considered a way of increasing the solemnity of a chant?

 

ANS:

It increased the importance of the chant by enlarging it, interpreting it, and linking it more closely with the specific occasion on which it was sung.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   61                  TOP:   Tropes            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why are liturgical dramas considered tropes rather than completely new additions to the liturgy?

 

ANS:

Liturgical dramas started out like other tropes as additions of words and music to the beginning of authorized chants (like the Introit for Easter). But since texts of these tropes were dialogues or conversations among people and included dramatic action, it was only natural that people started to sing them responsively and include staged action and costumes. As these dramas became longer, they were sometimes staged separately from the liturgy.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   63                  TOP:   Liturgical Drama

MSC:  Conceptual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. Alleluia d. Introit
b. antiphon e. Kyrie
c. Credo

 

 

  1. this chant contains the statement of faith

 

  1. this chant has a melisma called a jubilus

 

  1. this chant has a three-part text in Greek

 

  1. this chant includes the Lesser Doxology

 

  1. this chant precedes and follows a psalm verse

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

 

 

  1. Lesser Doxology

 

  1. melismatic setting

 

  1. neumatic setting

 

  1. psalm tone

 

  1. trope

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the use of psalms in both the Mass and the Office.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Chants of the Mass and Office display a spectrum of melodic styles, from simple recitation formulas to elaborate composed melodies. Relate the varying melodic styles of chant to their liturgical functions and manners of performance.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 13: New Styles in the Seventeenth Century

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The term baroque was first applied to art and music by
a. critics in the early 1600s who preferred the new style
b. critics in the mid-1700s who disliked the style
c. composers in the 1600s who created new genres and styles
d. patrons who supported seventeenth-century composers
e. musicians and actors who performed avant-garde works

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292        TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How did Baroque artists, poets, and musicians evoke theatricality in their works?
a. by following Greek models and forms in sculpture, poetry, and music
b. by using contrasts and motion to arouse feelings
c. by stressing balance, proportion, straight lines and columns
d. by emphasizing stillness, contemplation, and extended moments with few changes
e. by including audience members and viewers in the entertainment in a convivial and conversational manner

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   292–295        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. You find a music manuscript that sets a poem’s vivid words with unprepared dissonances.  Who is a probable composer?
a. Giovanni Maria Artusi d. Claudio Monteverdi
b. Giulio Caccini e. Gioseffo Zarlino
c. René Descartes

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–300        TOP:   The Second Practice

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The practice of basso continuo reflects what trend that occurred around 1600?
a. a preference for polyphony
b. composers’ interest in theatricality and dramatic expression
c. increased word painting
d. increased dissonance and chromaticism
e. increased emphasis on the melody and bass lines

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300–301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

The excerpt above shows an early form of

a. music written specifically for harpsichord
b. a concerto
c. ground bass
d. figured bass
e. tablature

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Figured bass           MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The primary purpose of the basso continuo part is to
a. illustrate the text d. foster cadenzas
b. control dissonances e. emphasize the meter
c. accompany

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which of the following was not a common continuo instrument during the 1600s?
a. harpsichord d. piano
b. lute e. theorbo
c. organ

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which of the following does not follow concertato medium or concertato style?
a. one or two voices, plus harpsichord and organ
b. multiple voices and multiple instruments
c. multiple voices, plus harpsichord or lute with viola da gamba
d. multiple voices in a sacred vocal work with organ
e. solo harpsichord

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Concertato   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How did changes in instrumentation affect tuning and performance practice during the 1600s?
a. chromaticism was viewed as detrimental to ensemble tuning and was used less often for expressive purposes
b. performers no longer needed to compromise; all could employ just intonation
c. increased reliance on fretted instruments prompted a move to mean-tone temperament
d. increased reliance on harpsichord and organ caused mean-tone temperament to predominate
e. dissonances became more obvious, causing composers and performers to avoid them in vocal and instrumental compositions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. During the Baroque era, chromaticism was used to
a. express intense emotion in vocal works and suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
b. express indecisiveness in vocal works and suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
c. express intense emotion in vocal works, suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works, and create distinctive subjects in contrapuntal ones
d. express sensuality in vocal works and return to harmonic stability in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
e. express sensuality in vocal works, return to harmonic stability in instrumental works, and create distinctive subjects in contrapuntal ones

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   302–303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Chromaticism

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In music, the word idiomatic refers to
a. an instrument that you shake or strike
b. music composed for dancing
c. a type of ornamentation
d. music composed for a specific instrument or instrument family
e. nationalistic or regional styles

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Idiomatic     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The prevalence of dance rhythms in Baroque music fostered the use of
a. barlines in scores d. the violin family
b. basso continuo e. the harpsichord
c. ornamentation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Regular and Flexible Rhythm

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Composers in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries would describe their works as
a. diatonic and tonal
b. operating within the tonal system, although to modern listeners they sound modal
c. operating within the modal system, although to modern listeners they sound tonal
d. using major or minor keys
e. using the traditional eight church modes, not Glareanus’s system of twelve modes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   306                TOP:   Modal to Tonal

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. By the end of the 1600s, which country was the dominant political and artistic power in Europe?
a. Spain d. Italy
b. England e. France
c. Germany

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   291

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Factual

 

  1. The illustration below shows how Baroque architecture often used ________, similar to that found in music.
a. straight lines d. columns
b. intricate embellishments e. homogeneous forms
c. multi-tiered structures

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   292

TOP:   The Baroque as  Term and Period  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In music, the Baroque period lasted from approximately
a. 1550–1650 d. 1650–1750
b. 1600–1700 e. 1650–1775
c. 1600–1750

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   292

TOP:   The Baroque as  Term and Period  MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The bottom two staves of the following example are
a. cello, viola, and violin lines d. the basso continuo part
b. the harpsichord part e. the basso ostinato
c. the ground bass

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   300–304

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The top line of the following excerpt is the original melody.  It and the line immediately below it show what?
a. the composer’s rough draft and the fully notated score
b. how some performers added extended embellishments
c. the principal violin part
d. how to turn this song into a duet
e. how to create a vocal exercise based on this melody

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300–304

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. By the end of the Baroque period, counterpoint became
a. more complex d. more reliant on augmentation
b. less harmonically driven e. less reliant on augmentation
c. more harmonically driven

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Harmonically driven counterpoint

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following did not contribute to the evolution of tonality?
a. standard cadential progressions
b. bass movement by fourth or by fifth
c. long-standing and consistent use of certain musical techniques
d. use of suspensions to create forward momentum
e. sudden rejection of past musical practices

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   306

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. This is an early Baroque composition that sparked controversy.
a. The Passions of the Soul d. Cruda Amarilli
b. The Five Senses e. Sweet Amaryllis
c. Treatise on Harmony

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–299        TOP:   Second Practice

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Early Baroque composers’ emphasis on drama and theatricality led to more of this type of performer.
a. child d. eccentric
b. professional e. loud
c. amateur

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   295–296        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. “The invidious enemy, Love, circles

The fortress of my heart.

Hurry up, for he is not far away.

Arm yourselves!”

 

The excerpt above reflects how Baroque poets

a. did not use rhyme
b. preferred short lines
c. focused on military subjects
d. used words to suggest action or a theatrical performance
e. preferred imperatives

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   293–294

TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque| The Dramatization of Poetry      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The following excerpts show

A

B

 

a. two contrasting renderings of a continuo part
b. the first edition vs. the second edition of a piece
c. the use of smaller note heads for the accompaniment
d. the keyboard vs. the lute version of a piece
e. the organ vs. the harpsichord version of a piece

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Basso Continuo

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ________ helped stimulate music publications, opera houses, and public concerts.
a. Colonization d. The Thirty Years’ War
b. Capitalism e. Scientists
c. The Counter-Reformation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   291

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Conceptual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The term Baroque was used by people living in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to describe the period in which they lived.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292        TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The term Baroque was originally a compliment.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   292                TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. During the 1600s, rulers, cities, and aristocratic families supported music and the arts often as a way of competing for prestige.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   290

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Factual

 

  1. Composers of instrumental music in the 1600s sought to portray their personal feelings rather than general emotional states.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   296                TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. During the early Baroque era, many people believed experiencing a range of emotions through music could improve one’s physical and psychological health.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   296                TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The dominant texture in early Baroque music is polyphony.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Performers who realized the figured bass could improvise and vary the piece according to personal taste and ability.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. During the Baroque, the musical score was regarded as an outline that could be adapted, added to, or altered.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303–305

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Ornamentation and Alteration

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Rhythms during the Baroque became increasingly free and flexible and therefore pieces did not require barlines.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music |  Regular and Flexible Rhythms

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Musicians working in the early 1600s knew they were creating music in new ways.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   288

TOP:   New Styles in the Seventeenth Century                           MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Although the term ________ originally meant abnormal, bizarre, and exaggerated, it now has a more positive meaning.

 

ANS:

Baroque

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292       TOP:   The Baroque as Term and Period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The ________ relied on mathematics, observation, practical experiments, and perceived effects, rather than on tradition and received wisdom.

 

ANS:

Scientific Revolution

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   289–290

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century | The scientific revolution

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the early 1600s, new styles in art, architecture, and music began in which country?

 

ANS:

Italy

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   292                TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The two statues below reflect the shift in artistic values from the ________ era to the ________.   How does the one on the right reflect emerging values?

 

 

ANS:

Renaissance/Baroque

It depicts motion and change; it suggests dramatic action and evokes an emotional response.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   292–293        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Baroque era initiated many musical developments that endure today.  Name and describe at least three of these.

 

ANS:

[Answers will vary.] The development of opera, concerto, oratorio, cantata, solo sonata, fugue; first public concerts; development of professional performers and more passive listeners; development of the orchestra; transition to tonal system; emphasis on melody; idiomatic writing; rule-breaking as an expressive device.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   287 | 295 | 299 | 302–306

TOP:   The Seventeenth Century, The Dramatic Baroque, and Enduring Conventions

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to René Descartes and other seventeenth-century thinkers, the ________ were relatively stable states of the soul.  Another more modern term for these states is ________.

 

ANS:

affections/emotions or passions

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   296–297        TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The soprano line in this excerpt creates two ________ with the bass part.

 

ANS:

unprepared dissonances

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–298        TOP:   Second Practice

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The basso continuo gradually caused composers and theorists to think of consonant sounds as ________ rather than as a set of intervals over the bass.

 

ANS:

chords or triads

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Chords and dissonances

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Baroque composers often juxtaposed or paired very ________ rhythms with very ________ ones.  Recitative and aria pairs and fugues preceded by toccatas reflect this practice.

 

ANS:

free, flexible, or fluid/metric; regular, or strictly metered

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Regular and Flexible Rhythms

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Baroque musicians used ________ as a means of moving the emotions. Examples include trills, appoggiaturas, and mordents.

 

ANS:

ornamentation or ornaments

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Ornamentation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. basso continuo or thoroughbass d. seconda pratica or second practice
b. concertato medium or style e. theorbo
c. prima pratica or first practice

 

 

  1. a large lute with extra bass strings

 

  1. a style of polyphony

 

  1. from the Italian “to reach agreement,” combining instruments and voices

 

  1. broke voice-leading rules to express the text

 

  1. melody and bass line are notated; inner parts are not

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. cadenza d. realization
b. figured bass e. tonality
c. division or figuration

 

 

  1. playing the basso continuo part

 

  1. an extended embellishment

 

  1. decorating an important cadence

 

  1. harmonic system that uses major and minor keys

 

  1. composers add flat or sharp signs or numbers over the staff

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the dispute between Artusi and Monteverdi concerning the new style of music. What does Artusi object to about the new style and why? How does Monteverdi defend himself against Artusi’s attack? What is the primary difference between the first practice (prima pratica) and the second practice (seconda pratica), according to Monteverdi?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. There are varying opinions on how seventeenth- and eighteenth-century music should be performed. Why is this?  What kinds of evidence and what arguments do scholars use when discussing this topic?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

 

CHAPTER 21: Opera and Vocal Music in the Early Classic Period

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. If you were to attend a dramatic performance at a public theatre in the early 1700s that was sung throughout, had six or more singing characters, and had a contemporary plot centered around ordinary people, it would be an
a. improvisation in commedia dell’arte style
b. opera seria
c. opera rusticana
d. opera buffa
e. intermezzo

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. This example appears to be
a. a recitative from an opera buffa d. a chorus from an opera seria
b. an aria from an opera buffa e. an ensemble from an intermezzo
c. an ensemble from an opera seria

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   478–479        TOP:   Opera Buffa | Aria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ____________ is one of the most famous and successful intermezzi.
a. The Beggar’s Opera d. Orfeo ed Euridice
b. Cleofide e. La serva padrona
c. Le devin du village

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   480                TOP:   Intermezzo

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which aspect of intermezzi differs from opere serie?
a. the action progressed through alternating recitatives and arias
b. they were performed exclusively at court theaters
c. they employed spoken dialogue and familiar tunes
d. they often had heroic characters and plots that reinforced social hierarchies
e. they often parodied heroic characters and questioned social hierarchies

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   480 | 482–483

TOP:   Intermezzo and Opera Seria           MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In La serva padrona, why does Pergolesi use orchestrally accompanied recitative while Uberto debates whether to marry Serpina?
a. using a convention normally reserved for high drama increases the comic effect
b. it avoids contrasting elements and shows the character’s genuine anguish
c. it suggests Uberto’s somber and pensive self-examination
d. it allows for increased development of a single motive throughout the aria that follows
e. it allows Pergolesi to avoid writing an extended da capo aria

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   481                TOP:   Intermezzo

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In a comic opera in the late 1700s, an act would most likely end with
a. a moral to the story sung by the main character
b. a sung thank-you to the audience for attending
c. an elegant aria sung by the lead female character
d. all characters onstage, singing together
e. a love duet between the leading characters

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   482                TOP:   Later Comic Opera

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of Italian comic opera in the mid-1700s?
a. periodic phrasing
b. tuneful melodies
c. sparse accompaniment, often with continuo
d. complex harmonies
e. stylistic contrasts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   482                TOP:   Later Comic Opera

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In an opera seria, action progresses through
a. arias and duets
b. choruses that comment upon the drama
c. orchestral interludes
d. large ensembles that include all the characters
e. recitative, either simple or accompanied

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   483                TOP:   Opera Seria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The musical example shown here demonstrates that
a. Hasse wrote the ornamentation that he wanted singers to use
b. Hasse used unsteady rhythms in the bass to highlight the melody
c. Hasse wrote violin and flute parts that embellish the melody
d. Hasse preferred that each phrase have a distinctive opening motive
e. Hasse wrote elegant melodies that allow singers to add a variety of ornaments

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   484 | 486–487

TOP:   The Aria         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why did Jean-Jacques Rousseau praise Italian composers’ emphasis on melody?
a. he chose to write his operas in the Italian style and wanted his compositions to receive positive reviews from critics
b. he thought that layering melodies (counterpoint) was truer to nature because it expressed multiple ideas and emotions
c. he believed that melody aroused sentiments in the soul
d. he felt that captivating melodies provided the best foundation for complex accompaniments
e. he believed that the Italian tradition’s equal emphasis on melody and harmony allowed for greater text expression

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   485

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France | The Merits of Italian Opera

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Beginning in the 1720s and 1730s, composers of Italian operas began to use contrasting musical ideas within A and B sections of arias to
a. surprise audiences d. express a succession of moods
b. depict waning emotions e. keep performers satisfied
c. construct through-composed arias

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   481 | 483

TOP:   Intermezzo and Opera Seria | The Aria                            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why were serious plots more common in the opéra comique in France in the later part of the eighteenth century?
a. they were in vogue with the aristocracy, and became important at the Théâtre de l’Opéra Comique in Paris
b. audiences tired of Italian and English comic operas
c. they touched on social issues that arose during the years before and during the French Revolution
d. serious operas were less likely to be freshly composed, and contained well-known arias
e. in serious opera, the ariettes offered more opportunity for Italianate ornamentation, which had grown popular in France

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   488

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. If you were to hear an aria from a ballad opera, it probably would
a. use da capo form
b. use a familiar tune from a folk or popular song
c. contain mostly original, through-composed music
d. have sections sung in other languages
e. use speechlike vocal lines

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   488

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | England                                          MSC:   Applied

 

  1. What is one reason that Singspiel became an important genre in Germany?
a. it was a vehicle for singers to perform ornamentation and other vocal pyrotechnics
b. composers adapted imported elements, recitatives for dialogue in particular
c. it was unfamiliar and new, which created new audiences for the genre
d. German playwrights translated and adapted English Ballad operas into German
e. it achieved great renown in musical circles and was played by professional musicians in concerts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   489–490

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | Germany and Austria           MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of reform opera?
a. composers sought to make it more “natural” with more varied structures and less ornamentation
b. composers alternated recitative and arias more flexibly to move action forward more quickly and realistically
c. composers used accompanied recitative and ensembles less frequently
d. composers made the orchestra more important, particularly for depicting scenes and evoking moods
e. composers reinstated the use of chorus

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   491                TOP:   Opera Reform

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Gluck supervised the production of his operas and wanted singers, both soloists and the chorus, to
a. move more realistically and think of themselves as actors
b. draw attention to the text by standing still while singing
c. express the text through colorful and extensive ornamentation
d. draw attention to the orchestral material through coordinated gestures
e. display the agility of their voices

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   492                TOP:   Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The preface to the score of ____________explains the goals of operatic reformers in the mid-1700s.
a. Orfeo ed Euridice d. Alceste
b. Iphigénie en Tauride e. Armide
c. Iphigénie en Aulide

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   493

TOP:   Source Reading | Principles of Reform Opera                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Composers published many songs for home performance in different countries, reflecting the
a. rise of professional pianists
b. increased use of guitar for accompaniment
c. change in quality and quantity of professional performers who sang at people’s homes
d. growing presence of composers who were unable or unwilling to write opera or large- scale church works
e. growing interest in amateur music-making

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of German Lieder in the 1700s?
a. opportunity for virtuosic display
b. strophic, lyric poetry
c. melodies that were easy, even for untrained singers
d. accompaniment that was subordinate to vocal line
e. composition style that aimed to please the performer and the listener

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Songs of the late eighteenth century are infrequently performed today, yet they embody the ideals of the Enlightenment because they
a. feature clear, direct melodies
b. frequently use word-painting
c. express feelings indirectly
d. match the accents and moods of each stanza of the text
e. feature difficult and virtuosic accompaniments

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   490 | 494        TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. ____________ church musicians employed the musical idioms of opera, such as orchestral accompaniments, da capo arias, accompanied recitatives, and choruses, to express the text and inspire listeners in worship services.
a. Pietist d. Methodist
b. Anglican e. Mennonite
c. Catholic

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Stabat Mater by ____________ became one of the most popular and frequently printed musical works of the century.
a. J. S. Bach d. G. B. Pergolesi
b. C. H. Graun e. Leonardo Vinci
c. C. W. Gluck

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Congregations in New England were encouraged to read music, which led to the development of
a. singing schools
b. music classes in public schools
c. private piano lessons
d. church choir directors who taught their choirs to read music
e. books that let people teach themselves musical notation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most of William Billings’s compositions were “plain tunes,” but later collections included ____________, pieces that open with a syllabic and homophonic section, feature a passage in free imitation, and close with voices again in homophony.
a. fancy tunes d. anthems
b. psalm-singer tunes e. fuging tunes
c. continental harmonies

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. William Billings declared independence from normal rules of counterpoint, and wrote that he had devised a better set of rules. He often used
a. parallel octaves and fifths and open chords without thirds
b. chromaticism
c. dissonances that were resolved unconventionally
d. tritones and other problematic intervals
e. unusual rhythms, including syncopations

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Opera buffa both entertained and served a moral purpose by poking fun at human foibles.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Arias in comic Italian operas typically have long, difficult phrases with little repetition, and are accompanied by complex orchestration.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opera seria plots often focus on human conflicts resolved by heroic deeds.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   482–483        TOP:   Opera Seria

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the late 1700s, composers of Italian opera wrote arias that expressed a succession of moods, were dominated by melody, and combined short units to create longer phrases.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   483                TOP:   Opera Seria | The Aria

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most vehement voices arguing against including Italian opera elements in French opera.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   485

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opera reformers in Italy stressed the predominance of the music and the talents of the solo singers.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   491                TOP:   Opera Reform

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In France, solo songs such as the romance were simple, strophic, only lightly ornamented, and set sentimental texts.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Few Italian composers wrote both opera and church music.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Metrical psalm-singing was one of the central musical elements in Calvinist worship in New England.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Moravians imported current musical styles from Europe and used a variety of instruments in their church services.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   497                TOP:   Church Music | Moravians

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. The accompaniment and the vocal line of this example open with two-measure phrases that form a(n) ________________________ pair.

 

ANS:

antecedent-consequent

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   478–479        TOP:   Opera Buffa | Aria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. By the mid-1700s, melodies in vocal works tended to use ________________________ -measure phrases.

 

ANS:

two to four

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   478 | 483       TOP:   Aria                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The opera libretti written by ________________________ were set hundreds of times by leading composers.

 

ANS:

Pietro Metastasio

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   482                TOP:   Opera Seria    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The focus of the audience’s attention in an opera seria was on ____________________________ such as Faustina Bordoni, rather than the composer, the story, or the scenery.

 

ANS:

star singers

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   486                TOP:   Faustina Bordoni and the Art of Embellishment

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opéra comique and ballad opera use ____________________________ rather than recitative.

 

ANS:

spoken dialogue

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   488                TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France and England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. ________________________ began around 1710 as popular entertainment comprised of vaudevilles, but developed throughout the century to have newly-composed ariettes.

 

ANS:

Opéra comique

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   487–488        TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France and England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. One of the most successful and famous ballad operas is ____________________________.

 

ANS:

The Beggar’s Opera

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   489                TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Composers of reform operas, such as Jommelli, Traetta and Gluck, brought together the operatic traditions of what two countries?

 

ANS:

France and Italy

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   491–492        TOP:   Opera Reform | Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Gluck believed that the ________________________ should “apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to be represented.”

 

ANS:

overture

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   492–493        TOP:   Opera Reform | Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. William Billings’s ____________________________ was the first published collection of music composed entirely in North America and the first music book published in North America by a single composer.

 

ANS:

New England Psalm-Singer

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. querelle des bouffons d. fuging tunes
b. Lied e. Singspiel
c. ballad opera

 

 

  1. a song that sets lyric poetry; originally intended for home performance

 

  1. a work with spoken dialogue and musical numbers; usually has a comic plot

 

  1. opens with a syllabic and homophonic section, then features a passage in free imitation, then returns to another homophonic section

 

  1. a written disagreement over the merits of Italian comic opera

 

  1. includes spoken dialogue and songs, many of which feature new words set to well-known tunes

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. opera seria d. The Bay Psalm Book
b. opéra comique e. intermezzo
c. opera buffa

 

 

  1. a full-length comic work that employed recitative

 

  1. the first book to be published in North America

 

  1. performed in two to three segments between the acts of a serious opera or play

 

  1. a full-length dramatic work without comic scenes or characters

 

  1. a French form of opera

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss reform opera. What did reformers seek to change and why? How did Gluck do so in his compositions and what was the effect on later composers?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Compare and contrast opera buffa and opera seria. How do they differ? How are they similar? Address plots, types of characters, and the music they contain.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

CHAPTER 31: The Early Twentieth Century: Vernacular Music

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The expression “long nineteenth century” denotes historians’ view of the nineteenth century as
a. more violent and tumultuous than previous centuries
b. beginning with the French Revolution and extending up to World War I
c. more thoroughly documented than any preceding century
d. extending from the July Revolution of 1830 to the ascent of the Nazis in 1933
e. a century in which musical compositions retained the genres and techniques of the last decades of the eighteenth century

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   765                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. One of the first important signs of the emergence of the United States as a world power was
a. the Chicago World’s Fair of 1889
b. its entry into World War I
c. its entry in the Franco-Prussian War as an ally of France
d. the end of the American Civil War
e. its victory in the Spanish-American War

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   766                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The entry of the United States into World War I helped bring about the defeat of
a. Germany and Japan d. Italy and Austria-Hungary
b. Germany and Russia e. Russia and Austria-Hungary
c. Germany and Austria-Hungary

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   766                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The impressionist movement was spurred by
a. a painting by Claude Monet d. a painting by Édouard Manet
b. a painting by Paul Cézanne e. a poem by Stefan George
c. a composition by Claude Debussy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   767                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Stefan George, Paul Verlaine, and Paul Valéry represent the artistic movement known as
a. symbolism d. impressionism
b. expressionism e. realism
c. cubism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   767                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Emil Berliner was
a. the architect of the first steel skyscraper
b. the chancellor of Germany at the start of World War I
c. the inventor of the flat phonograph disc
d. the composer of the music for The Birth of a Nation
e. an early exponent of cubism in painting

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   768                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following technological developments took place between 1890 and 1930 except
a. the construction of the first steel skyscrapers
b. the invention of the automobile
c. the development of airplane flight
d. the invention of the Edison phonograph
e. the invention of the electric microphone

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   768                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A problem that plagued early recording technology prior to the 1920s was
a. its inability to record orchestral music
b. the unreliability of electronic microphones used in recording
c. its inability to record vocal music
d. the limited range of frequencies that could be reproduced by discs
e. the lack of devices available to consumers that could play recordings

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   768                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The compact disc became commercially available in the
a. 1950s d. 1980s
b. 1960s e. 1990s
c. 1970s

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   769                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The wide availability of recorded music in the twentieth century resulted in
a. the disengagement of listeners from music-making and participation in performance
b. the disappearance of critical distinctions among genres of music
c. the disappearance of the cultural divide between art and popular music
d. the neglect of historical repertoires in favor of new music
e. the sharp increase in amateur domestic and community music-making

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   769                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Phonograph disc technology advanced in 1948 when
a. wax discs were replaced by metal discs
b. discs were designed that could contain almost six times as much music as earlier ones
c. discs were made obsolete by the commercial availability of magnetic tape recorders
d. digital recording technology was introduced
e. the electric phonograph was introduced

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   769                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. “Vernacular” music refers to
a. music intended for concert halls and other formal venues
b. vocal music with texts written in a locally spoken language
c. vocal or instrumental folk music
d. musical traditions outside the classical concert hall and opera house
e. arrangements of classical music for amateur ensembles

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   771

TOP:   The Early Twentieth Century | Vernacular Music            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Vernacular musical traditions are more prominent in twentieth-century music historiography than in historiography of other periods mainly because
a. there are recordings of twentieth-century vernacular music
b. vernacular music received more critical acclaim in the twentieth century than in earlier centuries
c. vernacular music was more frequently and broadly cultivated by composers in the twentieth century than in earlier centuries
d. vernacular music was first written down in scores in the twentieth century
e. prejudices against vernacular genres and styles were overcome by the start of the twentieth century

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   771

TOP:   Vernacular Musical Traditions        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The genre of the musical originated in the work of
a. D. W. Griffith in Hollywood d. George Edwardes in London
b. John Playford in London e. Georges Braque in Paris
c. Gaston Paulin in Paris

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   772

TOP:   Popular Song and Stage Music        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, films were shown in theaters
a. in silence, with neither spoken or musical audio tracks, and spoken dialogue was displayed on film frames
b. with synchronized, recorded musical accompaniment, and spoken dialogue was displayed on film frames
c. with live orchestral or solo musical accompaniment, and spoken dialogue was displayed on film frames
d. with synchronized, recorded dialogue and musical accompaniment
e. not at all, as moving film technology was not introduced until 1926

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   773                TOP:   Music for Silent Films

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Giuseppe Becce’s Kinothek was
a. an anthology of diverse musical numbers appropriate for film accompaniment
b. the first public cinema in Italy
c. an avant-garde film for which the first audio sound track was recorded
d. the first German instruction manual for audio recording technology
e. the Paris film studio where L’assassinat du duc de Guise was filmed

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   773                TOP:   Music for Silent Films

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The School of Ragtime was
a. an opera by Scott Joplin
b. a musical by George M. Cohan
c. a 1930s historical study of the development of ragtime style
d. a set of exercises by Scott Joplin demonstrating ragtime style
e. a composition by Jelly Roll Morton

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   775                TOP:   Ragtime

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Around the turn of the twentieth century, women were able to assume rare leadership roles in vernacular music-making as
a. band music performers d. film music composers
b. ragtime composers e. music technology inventors
c. Tin Pan Alley song composers

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   774                TOP:   Band Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The term “ragging” referred to
a. inserting prerecorded orchestral music into an existing film soundtrack
b. an English folk dance step
c. improvising with syncopation in the performance of a piece
d. the illegal publication of a Tin Pan Alley song in violation of the composer’s copyright
e. the fluctuations in pitch heard in early wax cylinder recordings because of the variable speed of phonograph motors

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   775                TOP:   Ragtime

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Will Marion Cook was an important figure in the early history of
a. recording technology d. film music
b. band music e. Broadway musicals
c. New Orleans jazz

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   775                TOP:   Ragtime

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Early jazz is distinguished from ragtime largely because early jazz was
a. more flexible than ragtime in its treatment of rhythm, especially the uneveness of equal note values
b. played on wind and percussion instruments, while ragtime was primarily a piano genre
c. used for dancing, while ragtime was not
d. written down, while ragtime was improvised from traditional melodic formulas
e. cultivated primarily by African-American musicians, while ragtime was primarily the domain of white musicians

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   776                TOP:   Early Jazz

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The term “jazz” was first used by
a. Afro-Caribbean slaves in the 1850s as a generic description of their communal music-making
b. New Orleans musicians at the turn of the twentieth century to describe among themselves a new style of ensemble playing
c. New Orleans musicians to describe their style to audiences in northern cities like Chicago and New York
d. social critics to denigrate what they saw as a vulgar genre that would corrupt American musical taste
e. Creole inhabitants of Louisiana in the 1870s to describe the distinctive rhythmic traits of African American music

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   776                TOP:   Early Jazz

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jazz thrived early in New Orleans for all the following reasons except
a. the distinctive French and Spanish cultural elements of the city
b. the ability of African slaves to gather in public in the city
c. the geographical proximity of Caribbean island cultures
d. the city’s cross-fertilization of African and Caribbean musical styles with European styles
e. the lack of Jim Crow laws in Louisiana after the Civil War

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   776 | 777        TOP:   Early Jazz

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the example below, the texture and rhythmic profile of the music suggests that this piece is an example of
a. the blues d. an English folk song
b. ragtime e. a cakewalk
c. a waltz

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   775                TOP:   Ragtime

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Although ragtime fell out of favor in the 1920s, there was a revival of interest in the genre during the
a. 1950s d. 1980s
b. 1960s e. 1990s
c. 1970s

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   777

TOP:   Classics of Vernacular Music         MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The Eiffel Tower was built to commemorate the dead of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   765                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Rural migration to urban centers played an important role in the development of African American music.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   766                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. New theories of mind and psychology at the turn of the twentieth century emphasized the beneficial role of modern culture in liberating individuals from their internal inhibitions and repressions.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   766                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Impressionism in painting suggested detached observation of subject matter, rather than emotional engagement with it.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   770                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. As the United States emerged as a world political and economic power, its cultural ambitions led to the rapid expansion of classical music and opera at the expense of native vernacular musical traditions, which therefore atrophied.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   771 | 772

TOP:   Recorded Sound | Vernacular Musical Traditions            MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A French film director in Paris first projected a film accompanied by music.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   773                TOP:   Music for Silent Films

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Early-twentieth-century British band music composers frequently invoked folk music in their works.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   774                TOP:   Band Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. African Americans were averse to the musical culture of bands that was so popular among white musicians at the beginning of the twentieth century.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   774                TOP:   African American Traditions

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Original Dixieland Jazz Band was an ensemble of white musicians who were early adaptors of jazz style.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   776                TOP:   Early Jazz

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Although ragtime and jazz grew in popularity in the United States, the styles were too idiosyncratic and parochial to win understanding or acceptance outside the United States.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   777

TOP:   Classics of Vernacular Music         MSC:  Conceptual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. An important showcase of modern technological innovation was the exposition held in 1889 in the city of

 

ANS:

Paris

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   765                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The U.S. president in office at the end of World War I was

 

ANS:

Woodrow Wilson

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   766                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The late-nineteenth-century literary movement that used intense imagery and disrupted syntax to evoke indefinite, dreamlike states is known as

 

ANS:

symbolism

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   767                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A French art exhibition organized in 1874 marked the public debut of an artistic style that would be named

 

ANS:

impressionism

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   767                TOP:   Modern Times, 1889–1918

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The opera singer who quickly exploited new recording technology starting in 1902 was

 

ANS:

Enrico Caruso

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   768                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The first disc recording of an orchestral symphony was performed by the ________ Philharmonic.

 

ANS:

Berlin

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   768                TOP:   Recorded Sound

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The adaption of African drumming and hand clapping cultivated among African slaves in the United States was called

 

ANS:

juba

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   774–775        TOP:   African American Traditions

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The dance known as the cakewalk was an immediate predecessor to the syncopated style of

 

ANS:

ragtime or rags

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   775                TOP:   Band Music    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the 1910s, a new genre of American music called ________ evolved mainly from a mixture of ragtime, dance music, and elements of the blues.

 

ANS:

jazz

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   776                TOP:   Early Jazz      MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the post–Civil War decades of Reconstruction, laws introduced across the southern states to restrict the rights of African Americans were collectively referred to as ________ laws.

 

ANS:

Jim Crow

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   777                TOP:   Early Jazz      MSC:  Factual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each technological, artistic, or intellectual innovation with the person most strongly associated with it.

a. early motion pictures d. early car manufacturing
b. psychoanalytic theory e. aerodynamics
c. acoustic recording

 

 

  1. Sigmund Freud

 

  1. Henry Ford

 

  1. Émile Reynaud

 

  1. Thomas Edison

 

  1. Wright brothers

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

Match each work to its composer.

a. Lincolnshire Posy d. Dionysiaques
b. Toccata marziale e. In Dahomey
c. Naughty Marietta

 

 

  1. Victor Herbert

 

  1. Will Marion Cook

 

  1. Ralph Vaughan Williams

 

  1. Florent Schmitt

 

  1. Percy Grainger

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What role did the United States play at the turn of the twentieth century in the development of vernacular musical styles and genres? What new developments took place there? What factors contributed to the particular ways in which American music developed? Discuss a variety of relevant composers and compositions that illustrate these developments.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. What are the origins of jazz in the United States? What historical, social, racial, and economic factors influenced the course of its development? What particular musical styles and genres preceded and contributed to the emergence of jazz? Discuss a variety of relevant composers and compositions that illustrate these origins.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.