Sample Chapter

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Test Bank Of Human Communication in Society 4th Edition By Jess K. Alberts

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

CHAPTER 3: Communicating Identities

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_Q3.1    If a professor treats students with respect during class, the students may view themselves as more valuable and mature.  This is an example of how communication interactions create and shape ________.

  1. identities
  2. age
  3. religion
  4. ethnicity

Answer: a

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.2    The idea that one’s self-image is shaped by the ways others view them is called _____.

  1. social comparison
  2. self-fulfilling prophecy
  3. reflected appraisals
  4. self-concept

Answer: c

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.3    Josh’s parents always tell him he’s a wonderful child and express the same sentiment to their friends. This is likely to have a positive impact on his identity according to the concept behind _____.

  1. interaction
  2. social contact
  3. reflected
  4. internal

Answer: c

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

 

 

 

TB_Q3.4    Matt’s rugby coach told him that he should try out for a travel team because his skillset is much better than his current teammates.  Matt now has more confidence than before and seeing himself as a great rugby player because of this feedback from a ________ other.

  1. central
  2. decentralized
  3. particular
  4. generalized

Answer: c

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.5    Based upon information gathered from television and movies, one might assume that coming from a same-sex-parent  home is not common. A person’s identity may be influenced by these sources, which are referred to as ________ others.

  1. central
  2. decentralized
  3. particular
  4. generalized

Answer: d

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.6    The idea that many people would be happier working as the highest-paid employee at a small company than they would be as the lowest-paid employee at a huge corporation is an example of the way ________ can influence identities.

  1. the generalized other
  2. social comparisons
  3. self-fulfilling prophecies
  4. significant experiences

Answer: b

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.7    Heather’s soccer coach believes she is not a good athlete and therefore yells at her constantly during practices.  This makes her more likely to perform worse on the field. These behaviors demonstrate the concept of _____.

  1. social comparison
  2. reflected appraisals
  3. the looking-glass self
  4. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

 

 

Answer: d

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.8    Jose is assigned to coach a little league team that finished in last place during the prior season.  He has heard many parents talk to their children about the lack of skill on their team. Sure enough, the team finished in last place again. According to ________, this outcome was more likely.

  1. the self-fulfilling prophecy
  2. performing identities
  3. the self-esteem perspective
  4. the generalized other perspective

Answer: a

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.9    The fairly stable perceptions we have of ourselves are referred to as our _____.

  1. self-esteem
  2. self-concept
  3. social comparison
  4. self-fulfilling prophecy

Answer: b

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

TB_Q3.10    The feedback you receive can sometimes be inaccurate because others don’t want to hurt your feelings.  This feedback influences the ________ component of your self-concept to be inconsistent with how others see you.

  1. self-esteem
  2. self-appraisal
  3. self-worth
  4. self-value

Answer: a

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

 

 

 

TB_Q3.11    Chelsea was pulled over by a police officer for speeding.  During their interactions, Chelsea was extremely polite, maintaining steady eye contact the entire time the police offer wrote her a ticket.  This demonstrates the concept of ________.

  1. mutable identity
  2. role expectation
  3. enacted identity
  4. performance expectation

Answer: b

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.12    Ethnic identity is based upon ________ groups, while racial identity is based upon ________ groups.

  1. social; genetic
  2. genetic; social
  3. religious; biological
  4. biological; religious

Answer: a

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.13    Quinn’s mother is Asian and his father is Hispanic. This gives Quinn two racial identities, which is known as a _____ identity.

  1. interracial
  2. transracial
  3. multiracial
  4. triracial

Answer: c

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.14    A little girl is handed a doll and told to play inside the house while a little boy is sent outside with a ball.  This differentiation is attributed to _____ identity.

  1. gender
  2. sex
  3. age
  4. cultural

Answer: a

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.15    When we categorize someone as “male” or “female” we are describing the person’s _____.

  1. gender identity
  2. biological sex
  3. sexual orientation

Answer: b

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.16    If a friend tells you they are heterosexual, he or she is revealing a(n) _____.

  1. gender belief
  2. social class
  3. sexual identity
  4. ethnicity

Answer: c

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.17    Where you live, the income you earn, and your educational achievements are a part of your ________ identity.

  1. religious
  2. social class
  3. sexual
  4. national

Answer: b

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False Questions

 

TB_Q3.18    Our identities can change over time.

Answer: True

LO 3.1: Identify five reasons identity is important to communication.

Topic: The Importance of Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.19    One aspect of identity is that it is both fixed and dynamic.

Answer: True

LO 3.2: Define identity.

Topic: What is Identity?

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.20   A female firefighter is a challenge to traditional gender and professional scripts.

Answer: True

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.21    National identity requires that a nation’s government recognizes you as a member of its country.

Answer: True

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.22    People whose national identity is different from their ethnic identity cannot maintain strong forms of both.

Answer: False

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.23    Amara’s national identity as a Nigerian is part of her social identity.

Answer: True

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.24   According to the text, social class identity tends to reproduces itself, meaning that the social class you are born into is the one that you often remain in for the duration of your life.

Answer: True

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.25  Individuals with an impairment of some form are classified with a disability identity.

 

Answer: True

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.26  Your religious identity is only important for you within your family and does not matter in the public sphere.

Answer: False

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.27  When people use language that denigrates other people, it reflects on their ethics.

Answer: True

LO 3.5: Discuss three ethical considerations for communicating in a sensitive manner to and about others’ identities.

Topic: Ethics and Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

Completion (fill-in-the-blank) Questions

 

TB_Q3.28  As part of your self-concept, ________ describes how you evaluate yourself overall.

Answer: self-esteem

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q3.29  One’s             identity refers to how and to what extent one identifies with the social construction of masculinity and femininity.

Answer: gender

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

TB_Q3.30  Children born with both male and female sexual organs are referred to as ________ individuals.

Answer: intersex

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.31  Tribal identities are used to identify _____ identities in some parts of the world.

Answer: ethnic

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q3.32  A person’s spiritual beliefs are part of their _____ identity.

Answer: religious

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay Questions

 

TB_Q3.33  Describe how self-fulfilling prophecies can result in stereotype threat.

Answer: Self-fulfilling prophecies can have a powerful effect on an individual’s performance, especially when they are grounded in stereotypes of one’s identity. For example, stereotypes exist that Asian students excel at math, that African American students are less verbally competent than white students, and that females are worse at math and spatial reasoning than males. Studies have shown that even subtly or implicitly reminding individuals of these stereotypical expectations can impact their performance, a concept called stereotype threat.

LO 3.3: Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Topic: The Individual and Identity

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q3.34  Describe the characteristics of your age identity and how it has changed over time. What factors led to these changes?

Answer: Age, when thought of strictly as the number of years you’ve been alive, is an important identity for everyone. But your age identity is a combination of how you feel about your age as well as what others understand that age to mean. How old is “old”? How young is “young”? Have you noticed how your own notions of age have changed over the years? When you were in first grade, did high school students seem old to you? Although age is a relative term, so are the categories we use for age groups. Today, for example, we use the terms teenager, senior citizen, adult, and minor, but these terms have meaning only within our social and legal system. For example, the voting age is eighteen, but people have to wait until they are twenty-one to buy liquor. Someone who commits a heinous crime can be charged as an adult, even if he or she is not yet eighteen. Still, whether a person feels like an adult goes beyond what the law decrees and comes from some set of factors that is far more complex.

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q3.35  Explain why more research is necessary on disability identities and propose one question that a researcher might ask to discover more.

Answer: The term “disability” means, with respect to an individual (A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual;

(B) a record of such an impairment; or (C) being regarded as having such an impairment (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990, 2008). Although this legal definition may be helpful to some, it does not tell us what this identity means and how it is performed by those who identify as disabled, nor does it tell us how disability is viewed by others. A researcher might ask if a person who is disabled believes that a healthcare worker could have a different definition for disabled than a person not in the health care field and how this affects the identity of the disabled individual.

LO 3.4: Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age, social class, disability, and religious identities.

Topic: The Individual, Identity, and Society

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q3.36  Explain the three ways a person can communicate more effectively about identities.

Answer: The first guideline concerns the self-fulfilling prophecy we discussed previously: How you communicate to someone and about someone can influence how they perform their identity or how it develops. If a parent continually communicates with the child as if she were irresponsible, then the child is likely to act irresponsibly. To communicate effectively, be aware of the ways you create self-fulfilling prophecies through your own communication. Second, there are many ways to perform a particular identity. You can improve your ability to communicate if you are tolerant of the many variations. For example, even if you believe that “real men” should act in certain ways, you are likely to communicate more effectively if you do not impose your beliefs on others. For example, you should not assume that because someone is male, he enjoys watching football, baseball, and other sports; wants to get married and have children; or eats only meat and potatoes. If you do, you are likely to communicate with some men in ways they will find less interesting than you intend. Third, remember that people change over time. If you have been out of touch with friends for a period of time, when you encounter them again you may find that they have embraced new identities. Sometimes people change religious identities, or sometimes they change occupations. You can increase your communication effectiveness if you recognize that people change and that their new identities may be unfamiliar to you.

LO 3.6: Explain three ways to communicate more effectively about identities.

Topic: Skills for Communicating About Identities

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Eleven: Communicating in Organizations

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_Q11.1 The communication function of organizations that is used to accomplish tasks is called _____.

  1. assimilation
  2. production
  3. maintenance
  4. innovation

Answer: b

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.2 Instituting a suggestion box at an organization is an example of the ________ function of organization.

  1. production
  2. maintenance
  3. structure
  4. innovation

Answer: d

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.3 In hierarchically-structured organizations, communication between peers is called ________ communication.

  1. downward
  2. horizontal
  3. upward
  4. diagonal

Answer: b

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.4 Communicating with one’s manager is an example of ________ communication.

  1. downward
  2. horizontal
  3. upward
  4. diagonal

Answer: c

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.5 The process of adapting to the organizational culture where one works is called _____.

  1. enculturation
  2. integration
  3. assimilation
  4. co orientation

Answer: c

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.6 Leslie decided to work for a credit union rather than a traditional for-profit bank because she felt her values would overlap with those of a credit union, not a bank. This is an example of _____.

  1. organizational identification
  2. assimilation
  3. organizational poaching
  4. empowerment

Answer: a

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.7 Which of the following information-seeking tactics is a passive strategy used by new employees when assimilating to an organizational culture?

  1. questioning third parties
  2. testing limits
  3. observing
  4. note taking

Answer: c

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

 

 

 

TB_Q11.8  Enrique did not want to tell his manager that it was not likely his employees would meet the looming production deadline. He was fearful that he would be blamed if he told his manager this information. In terms of the semantic-information distance, this is an example of _____.

  1. perceptual distancing
  2. upward distortion
  3. compliance gaining
  4. vertical miscommunication

Answer: b

 

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.9 ________ describes supervisors who are willing to share their ideas as well as listen to others in a way that avoids conveying negative or disconfirming feedback.

  1. Openness
  2. Encouragement
  3. Motivation
  4. Empowerment

Answer: a

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q11.10 Increasing employees’ feelings of self-efficacy is referred to as _____.

  1. motivation
  2. empowerment
  3. supportiveness
  4. openness

Answer: b

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

 

 

 

TB_Q11.11  Brett knew that if he did a good job on the international assessments project, he would be up for the promotion of division head at his company. The possibility of this promotion gives Brett a feeling of personal investment in the project and demonstrates the concept of _____.

  1. rationality
  2. efficiency
  3. ingratiation
  4. motivation

Answer: d

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.12  In Susan’s role as a psychologist, she must remain calm and supportive even when her clients become abusive or hostile to her. This job requirement is known as _____.

  1. emotion labor
  2. burnout
  3. emotional exhaustion
  4. depersonalization

Answer: a

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.13  When an organization expects or requires workers to display particular feelings, employees are engaging in _____.

  1. stress
  2. emotion labor
  3. burnout
  4. role conflict

Answer: b

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.14  Loren has been a firefighter in California for 13 years. He recently was the first responder to a fatal car accident in which his close friend was a victim. Since then, he has been feeling like no matter what he does, he can’t make a difference in the community and has felt detached from his coworkers. Loren is experiencing _____.

 

 

 

 

  1. emotion labor
  2. assimilation
  3. burnout
  4. work overload

Answer: c

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.15  Carly is an elementary school teacher who is expected to both nurture her students and enforce strict policies. When Jimmy acts out and breaks the rules, Carly knows it is because he has trouble at home. Discipline only causes him to act out more. She feels as though she is stuck between helping and harming him. This is an example of _____.

  1. role conflict
  2. role ambiguity
  3. work overload
  4. burnout

Answer: a

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.16  Companies have initiated programs like flextime, family leave, and dependent-care benefits in response to _____ conflict that families face as they try to balance job and home responsibilities.

  1. burnout
  2. emotion labor
  3. work–life
  4. social

Answer: c

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.17  When Google released Google+ in an attempt to build a social networking site to compete with Facebook, Facebook promptly made changes within just a few days and more within a few weeks. This competitiveness reflects the basis for a(n) ________ organization.

  1. urgent
  2. contingent
  3. disposable
  4. divergent

 

 

 

Answer: a

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.18  A recent study showed that nearly ____ of American workers reported being bullied at some point in their careers.

  1. 10%
  2. 30%
  3. 65%
  4. 95% percent

Answer: b

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.19  Simone’s co-worker Brad keeps asking her out on a date and she doesn’t want to go out with him. He also calls her names like “sweetie” and “baby” at work instead of addressing her by her first name. Brad’s actions are an example of a(n) _____ work environment.

  1. predatory
  2. submissive
  3. hostile
  4. linear

Answer: c

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

True/False Questions

 

TB_Q11.20  An assembly line in a fulfillment center warehouse is an example of the production function of organizational communication.

Answer: True

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.21  The maintenance function of organizations preserves the stability of existing systems.

Answer: True

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.22  There tends to be very little overlap in terms of the various functions of organizations.

Answer: False

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.23  The structure of organizational communication refers to the lines of communication and the method in which messages flow.

Answer: True

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.24  Organizational culture refers to a pattern of shared beliefs, values, and behaviors that make up a social community.

Answer: True

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.25  Ingratiation refers to behaviors in an individual that cause others to dislike them.

Answer: False

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.26 Nadine’s new boss has given her a project but Nadine doesn’t know if she is totally responsible for the entire project or just the marketing portion since she works in the marketing department. Nadine just started her job two weeks ago and is hesitant to ask her boss because she doesn’t want to look like she doesn’t know what to do. Nadine is demonstrating role ambiguity.

Answer: True

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.27 The new social contract between employers and employees expects that workers will stay with companies for most of their lives.

Answer: False

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.28 Urgent organizations develop because of the over-supply of a particular product.

Answer: False

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q11.29 Sexual harassment is primarily a communicative behavior.

Answer: True

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Completion (fill-in-the-blank) Questions

 

TB_Q11.30 ________ are  the  set  of  interactions  that  members  of  groups  use  to  accomplish  their individual and common goals.

Answer: Organizations

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.31 In terms of organizational functions, ________ involves recurring patterns of interaction among organizational members.

Answer: structure

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.32 The gap in information and understanding between supervisors and subordinates on specific issues is called ________.

Answer: semantic-information distance

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q11.33 Laura is stationed in New York and collaborates daily with a colleague in New Zealand. Her opportunity to learn about his culture and to trade ideas in the professional sphere demonstrates the connectedness of the world and is an example of ________.

Answer: globalization

LO 11.4: Discuss the current social influences on organizations and organizational communication.

Topic: The Individual, Organizational Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Essay Questions

 

TB_Q11.34 Describe the three major functions of organizations and provide at least two examples to illustrate each function.

Answer: Traditionally, scholars recognized three major functions of organizational communication (Daniels, Spiker, & Papa, 1996). Production refers to communication that coordinates individuals’ activities so they can accomplish tasks. For example, when a manager

creates a set of store opening and closing procedures, informs employees of monthly sales goals, or develops a standardized process for assembling products, she allows employees to accomplish various tasks. The maintenance function of organizational communication serves to maintain existing aspects of the organization. Consider, for example, awarding an employee-of-the-month plaque, conducting a performance review, and clarifying a vague set of workflow procedures—all of which enforce the status quo and keep the system running smoothly. A third function is innovation, which involves communication that encourages change in the organization. Examples might include suggestion boxes, restructuring and retraining, policy revisions, and the like.

LO 11.2: Define organizations and explain their structures and communication functions.

Topic: Defining Organizational Communication

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q11.35 Four communication strategies tend to contribute to a supervisor’s success. Describe those strategies, provide examples, and indicate why you believe these strategies are related to a supervisor’s success.

Answer: Openness occurs when communicators are willing to share their ideas and listen to others in a way that avoids conveying negative or disconfirming feedback (Cheney, 1995; Jablin, 1979). When supervisors are open, they create an environment of trust that decreases the likelihood that upward communication will be distorted. Even though openness is a desirable characteristic, one can engage in too much openness. For example, if an employee is on leave to undergo rehabilitation for addiction, a supervisor typically should not share that information directly, or even indirectly, with others because doing so would be inappropriate. In addition, sometimes supervisors need to shield their employees from information. For example, informing subordinates of a possible layoff before the decision is final could cause unnecessary stress and panic.

Supportive supervisors provide their subordinates with access to information and resources. Thus, supportive supervisors explain roles, responsibilities, and tasks to those they manage; they also take the time to answer employees’ questions. Further, managers are supportive when they give their subordinates the tools, skills, education, and time they need to be successful. Overall, supervisors who help their employees solve problems, listen actively, provide feedback, and offer encouragement are not only supportive, but they are also successful. Productive and successful supervisors are able to motivate their subordinates.

Workers experience motivation when they feel personally invested in accomplishing a specific activity or goal (Kreps, 1991). Many U.S. American supervisors and organizations focus on creating extrinsic or external motivators, such as pay raises, bonuses, promotions, titles, and benefits. However, supervisors who can instill intrinsic motivation in their subordinates are more successful. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people experience satisfaction in performing their jobs well, find their jobs to be enriching, and are, therefore, dedicated to their organizations or professions (Cheney et al., 2004). Supervisors can create intrinsic motivation by setting clear and specific goals that are challenging but attainable and by engaging workers in the creation of those goals. In addition, they need to provide frequent and specific feedback, including praise, recognition, and corrections. Positive feedback is especially important because it encourages job satisfaction, organizational identification, and commitment (Larson, 1989). Finally, intrinsic motivation thrives in a positive work environment that stresses camaraderie or social relationships.

Empowerment, the fourth characteristic that improves communication, relates to the supervisor’s ability to increase employees’ feelings of self-efficacy. He or she does this by instilling the feeling that the subordinate is capable of performing the job and has the authority to decide how to perform it well (Chiles & Zorn, 1995). In general, supervisors who empower their subordinates function more like coaches than traditional managers. They encourage employees to be involved in decision making, to take responsibility for their tasks, and to provide suggestions for improving their own and the organization’s performance. Employees who feel empowered are more likely to develop intrinsic motivation and to communicate openly with their supervisors.

LO 11.3: Understand the types of communication that occur among coworkers and explain their functions.

Topic: Organizational Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult