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Human Physiology An Integrated Approach 7th Edition by Silverthorn – Test Bank
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Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e, (Silverthorn)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Physiology

 

1) Physiology is the study of

  1. A) the structure of the body.
  2. B) the tissues and organs of the body at the microscopic level.
  3. C) growth and reproduction.
  4. D) the normal function of living organisms.
  5. E) the facial features as an indication of personality.

Answer:  D

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) The literal meaning of the term physiology is knowledge of

  1. A) organs.
  2. B) nature.
  3. C) science.
  4. D) chemistry.
  5. E) math.

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) Because anatomy and physiology have different definitions, they are usually considered separately in studies of the body.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body.

  1. tissue
  2. cell
  3. organ
  4. molecule
  5. organism
  6. organ system

 

The correct order from the smallest to the largest is

  1. A) 2, 4, 1, 3, 6, 5.
  2. B) 4, 2, 1, 6, 3, 5.
  3. C) 4, 2, 1, 3, 6, 5.
  4. D) 4, 2, 3, 1, 6, 5.
  5. E) 6, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

5) “Glucose is transported from blood into cells because cells require glucose to meet their energy needs.” This type of explanation is

  1. A) mechanistic.
  2. B) theological.
  3. C) teleological.
  4. D) metalogical.
  5. E) scatological.

Answer:  C

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

6) “Glucose is transported from blood into cells by transporters in response to insulin.” This type of explanation is

  1. A) mechanistic.
  2. B) theological.
  3. C) teleological.
  4. D) metalogical.
  5. E) scatological.

Answer:  A

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

7) Which of the following is a buffer zone between the outside world and most of the cells of the body?

  1. A) cell membrane
  2. B) red blood cells
  3. C) intracellular fluid
  4. D) extracellular fluid
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

8) Which of the following is one of Cannon’s “internal secretions”?

  1. A) hormones
  2. B) nutrients
  3. C) water
  4. D) inorganic ions
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

9) The study of body function in a disease state is

  1. A) necrology.
  2. B) physiology.
  3. C) microbiology.
  4. D) pathophysiology.
  5. E) histology.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) Homeostasis is the ability of the body to

  1. A) prevent the external environment from changing.
  2. B) prevent the internal environment from changing.
  3. C) quickly restore changed conditions to normal.
  4. D) ignore external stimuli to remain in a state of rest.
  5. E) prevent excessive blood loss.

Answer:  C

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) Oxytocin is a hormone that is released in response to cervical dilation. It in turn causes more uterine contractions that will further dilate the cervix. Which type of feedback loop does oxytocin trigger?

  1. A) negative feedback
  2. B) positive feedback
  3. C) local control
  4. D) nociceptive feedback

Answer:  B

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) How genetics influences the body’s response to drugs is called

  1. A) pharmacokinetics.
  2. B) pharmacogenetics.
  3. C) pharmacogenomics.
  4. D) pharmacodynamics.
  5. E) pharmageddon.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

13) A physician basing clinical decisions on primary research published in biomedical literature is doing ________ medicine.

  1. A) evidence-based
  2. B) traditional
  3. C) alternative
  4. D) whimsical
  5. E) holistic

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

14) A study in which a participant acts as an experimental subject in part of the experiment and a control in another part of the experiment is called a ________ study.

  1. A) double-blind
  2. B) crossover
  3. C) meta-analysis
  4. D) retrospective

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) The Internet database for molecular, cellular, and physiological information is called the ________ Project.

  1. A) Human Genome
  2. B) Physiognomy
  3. C) Physiosome
  4. D) Physiome
  5. E) Manhattan

Answer:  D

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) A placebo is

  1. A) any drug being tested in a clinical trial.
  2. B) any drug in a class of drugs commonly used as pain relievers.
  3. C) a drug or treatment that is expected to have no pharmacological effect.
  4. D) a nutritive and respiratory organ in fetal development.
  5. E) a hole in a cavity wall through which an organ protrudes.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

17) A technique used to resolve contradictory results in scientific studies is

  1. A) meta-analysis.
  2. B) retrospective analysis.
  3. C) prospective analysis.
  4. D) cross-sectional analysis.
  5. E) longitudinal analysis.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) A scientifically logical guess is a

  1. A) model.
  2. B) theory.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) law.
  5. E) variable.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) If a scientific model is supported or verified repeatedly by multiple investigators, it may become a

  1. A) model.
  2. B) theory.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) law.
  5. E) variable.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) Place these terms in the typical sequence in which they appear in the process of scientific inquiry: experimental data, theory, model, observation, hypothesis, replication.

  1. A) experimental data, theory, model, observation, hypothesis, replication
  2. B) replication, hypothesis, experimental data, theory, model, observation
  3. C) theory, observation, experimental data, hypothesis, replication, model
  4. D) observation, replication, model, experimental data, hypothesis, theory
  5. E) observation, hypothesis, experimental data, replication, model, theory

Answer:  E

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

21) You are interested in learning more about Parkinson’s disease, a neurological disorder that primarily affects motor function. Which is the best source to begin your investigation?

  1. A) Ask.com
  2. B) MedlinePlusPubMed
  3. C) public library
  4. D) physiology textbook
  5. E) a physician

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

22) Which of the following systems does NOT exchange material with the internal and external environments?

  1. A) respiratory system
  2. B) circulatory system
  3. C) digestive system
  4. D) urinary system
  5. E) All of the above.

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) The human environment is terrestrial, dry, and highly variable. However, our bodies expend enormous amounts of energy maintaining a constant internal environment. Studying why our bodies do this is what kind of scientific endeavor?

  1. A) mechanistic
  2. B) translational
  3. C) teleological
  4. D) anatomical
  5. E) meterological

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

24) Individuals with Type I diabetes do not make enough insulin. Which of the following would be a mechanistic explanation of how insulin is used by the body?

  1. A) Cells need insulin because glucose will not cross the cell membrane.
  2. B) Insulin is a hormone involved in glucose transport.
  3. C) Insulin binds to its receptor which triggers the movement of glucose transporters to the cell membrane.
  4. D) Since all cells need glucose, insulin is required.
  5. E) Without insulin most cells in the body would be unable to produce enough ATP.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

25) Excretion is a function of the body. Which of the following would be considered excretion?

  1. A) Movement of sodium from the intestines to the bloodstream.
  2. B) Movement of glucose from the kidney to the blood stream.
  3. C) Movement of potassium from kidney cells into one’s urine.
  4. D) Movement of salt from sweat glands to the surface of the skin.
  5. E) Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood stream.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

26) What is a nocebo effect?

Answer:  It is the phenomenon whereby a patient who has been informed of the side effects of a drug he is taking is more likely to experience some of the side effects than an otherwise similar patient receiving the same drug who has not been so informed.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) List the key concepts or themes in physiology.

Answer:  See Table 1.1 in the chapter.

Section:  Themes in Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) Adaptive significance is an important concept in physiology because it describes the

  1. A) importance of a highly variable external environment.
  2. B) physiological functions that promote an organism’s survival.
  3. C) ability of an organism to monitor and restore its internal state to normal conditions when necessary.
  4. D) similarities between ancient and modern marine organisms.
  5. E) parameters necessary to maintain a constant internal environment.

Answer:  B

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

29) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered an independent variable?

  1. A) age of subjects
  2. B) sex of subjects
  3. C) intensity of exercise
  4. D) heart rate
  5. E) More than one of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

30) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered a dependent variable?

  1. A) age of subjects
  2. B) sex of subjects
  3. C) intensity of exercise
  4. D) heart rate
  5. E) More than one of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

31) Why are physiology and anatomy frequently studied together?

Answer:  This is discussed in the “Physiology Is an Integrative Science” section of the chapter.

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

32) You want to display data on the finish times of the 10 fastest race horses in a single race at the Kentucky Derby.

Which type of graph would be best to display this information?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

33) You want to display data on the finish times of the 10 fastest race horses in a single race at the Kentucky Derby.

What would the labels be for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is horse name or number; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

34) A horse runs 10 races, each a mile long, during a 6-month period, and you are interested in determining if the horse’s race time changes with experience. You set up a graph to display the race finish times of this horse.

Which type of graph would be best to display the race finish times of this horse?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

35) A horse runs 10 races, each a mile long, during a 6-month period, and you are interested in determining if the horse’s race time changes with experience. You set up a graph to display the race finish times of this horse.

What would the labels be for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is race number or date; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

36) There are 10 cloned horses, born on the same day, with identical chromosomes. They are each subjected to the same physical training regimen, but given daily injections of different concentrations of a particular vitamin. They all run the same race. You set up a graph to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose.

Which type of graph is best to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

37) There are 10 cloned horses, born on the same day, with identical chromosomes. They are each subjected to the same physical training regimen, but given daily injections of different concentrations of a particular vitamin. They all run the same race. You set up a graph to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose.

What are the labels for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is vitamin dose; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

38) What is the difference between a peer-reviewed article and a review article?

Answer:  A peer-reviewed article describes original research by one author (or group of authors working together) that has gone through a screening process in which a panel of qualified scientists evaluate the work. A review article is a summary (usually a collection of published research that was previously peer-reviewed, usually from more than one independent lab) that discusses a particular topic in the field.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

39) What is the major problem with the deconstructionist view of biology?

Answer:  Return to the topic of function and process. The deconstructionist view of biology predicted that once we uncovered the sequence of the human genome, the inner workings of the human body would be revealed. In reality, it is possible to know HOW a gene codes for a particular protein without knowing WHY that protein exists. Our knowledge of the human genome is only a piece of the puzzle.

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

40) Sarah has just flown around the world in the last 48 hours. She is having trouble sleeping, a condition known as insomnia. How do you think Sarah’s long flights and her insomnia are related to biological rhythms?

Answer:  Our sleep-wake cycle is a biological rhythm that lets our body know when it is time to rest. Most likely Sarah has ignored the signals like sleepiness, changes in body temperature, and mood that her body is sending. By ignoring these rhythms she has disrupted the cycle and the body is struggling to maintain homeostasis.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

41) Why is it necessary to label the axes of a graph?

Answer:  A graph with no axis labels is meaningless—without knowing what trend is being illustrated, there is no communication of scientific information.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) Why is it necessary to space grid marks on a graph proportionally to the quantity measured (example: each square represents one centimeter)?

Answer:  If this is not done, a trend would be obscured or even misrepresented.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

43) Explain why the prefix homeo- is used in the term homeostasis. Why do some physiologists prefer the term homeodynamics over homeostasis?

Answer:  The prefix homeo-, meaning like or similar, is used to indicate that the body’s internal environment is maintained within a range of acceptable values rather than a fixed state. Some physiologists argue that the term homeodynamics better reflects the small but constant changes that continuously take place in the internal environment, as opposed to homeostasis, which erroneously implies lack of change.

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

44) Explain why animals are used in research. Are there any limitations to the application of animal data to human physiology? Could these limitations be addressed using cell or tissue culture, or computer simulations?

Answer:  (Note to instructor: This may be a good question to ask early in the semester, then again toward the end, after the organ systems have been covered.) There is a brief discussion of using humans or animals in research in the chapter. This question is intended to stimulate students to think about how science is done, how data are generated, and how the process is challenged by social issues. Generally, there are limitations to the usefulness of computer simulations and cell/tissue culture systems for the same reason that nonhuman animal data are not 100% applicable to human physiology. How human organ systems perform may be different in very subtle ways from corresponding systems in other species. Cells in culture are in an artificial environment, and while much has been learned from such systems, it has also been noted that the behavior of cells in culture is not identical to cells in a living body. Furthermore, cells cultured from established lines can change over time, becoming less like the original cells from which they were derived, and presumably less like normal cells. Computer simulations are valuable, but are only as good as the data entered, and given that we don’t know everything there is to know about physiology, we can’t write a perfect computer program. All three approaches are useful, but for different reasons, and therefore one research system does not completely substitute for another, nor is it appropriate to abandon one entirely.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

45) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various levels of exercise influence heart rate. Explain why only 18-year-old males were used as subjects.

Answer:  An important part of scientific inquiry is to remove sources of variation from among subjects. By choosing subjects of one gender in a particular age group, it is easier to determine that the dependent variable (heart rate, in this case) depends only on the independent variable, level of exercise. This also allows a study to have fewer participants, assuming that subjects were randomly assigned to a level of exercise. If subjects were of random ages and genders, data would have to be collected from many more individuals.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

46) Use the following terms to develop a concept map:

brain, sensory neuron, an eye, foot, soccer ball, motor neuron

Answer:  Eye sees soccer ball.

Sensory neuron sends visual information.

Brain receives information and formulates a plan.

Motor neuron carries action information.

Foot muscle contracts and the ball is kicked.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

47) Provide an example of a control system. Be sure to include the three main components: an input signal, a controller, and an output signal.

Answer:  Variable. One example is blood glucose concentration. The input signal is a blood glucose concentration outside of the normal range, the controller is the pancreas, and the output signal is release of either insulin or glucagon.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Application

 

48) Write a teleological explanation for why heart rate increases during exercise. Now write a mechanistic explanation for the same phenomenon.

Answer:  Teleological: Heart rate increases because the increased activity of skeletal and cardiac muscles requires increased delivery of blood contents such as oxygen and glucose. Mechanistic: Heart rate increases in response to signals from the brain (pacemaker cells of the heart are stimulated by the nervous system).

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

49) What is a hypothesis? What are the steps involved in following the scientific method? How does one distinguish the dependent variable from the independent variable in an experiment? How are each of these represented on a graph?

Answer:  This is discussed in “The Science of Physiology” section of the chapter and in Figure 1.15.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

50) You are designing a study to assess the effects of a new treatment for hypertension. What ethical considerations would you employ when monitoring your progress?

Answer:  Major considerations should involve assessing the efficacy of the treatment such that the control group patients are not deprived as well as ensuring that the experimental treatment is not less effective than the standard treatments.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

51) You are designing a study to assess the effects of a new drug treatment for hypertension. In your study of this drug’s efficacy in treating hypertension, your subjects are white males, ages 40 to 60 years. Is your study applicable to all people? Explain.

Answer:  Possibly, but not necessarily. There are gender differences in appropriate therapies because of physiological effects of higher testosterone in males compared to females, for example. Drugs are often not tested in children, and children also have a different hormonal environment than adults (again, sex hormones are a good example, because their levels are low until just before the onset of puberty). There are also racial differences in effectiveness of therapies, and while it is a contentious issue as to whether these represent genetic or socioeconomic influences, they should be considered.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

52) High cholesterol levels have been shown to be a contributing factor to heart disease and death due to cardiovascular disease for many decades. In the 1970s, scientists used this information to develop a hypothesis that giving a medicine to reduce blood cholesterol levels could reduce the chances of developing cardiovascular disease or dying from cardiovascular disease. They tested a group of people living in a town called Framingham, Massachusetts. This study became known as the Framingham Study, and it is very well known because it did not support the hypothesis that giving cholesterol-lowering medications would reduce the risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease. Does this mean that high cholesterol is not a risk factor for heart disease? What does this demonstrate about the scientific process, especially as it pertains to human studies? You can find a copy of the study online and read it, if necessary.

Answer:  This demonstrates the difficulty in doing human research because, even though elevated cholesterol levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reducing cholesterol levels without addressing the reason those levels were high in the first place may not have the expected effect on reducing heart disease. Human testing on hypotheses is important because humans don’t always respond to treatments like other animals do, they may actually respond quite differently and each person may respond differently from the rest. It is why we need to test each hypothesis in circumstances as similar to the actual real group that would be treated.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

Use the table and graph below to answer the following questions.

 

Table 1.1

 

Figure 1.1

 

53)  List all of the errors in Figure 1.1.

Answer:

  1. The units of concentration are labeled as M when they should be mg.
  2. The x-axis is in decreasing order of concentration.
  3. The graph needs a legend.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

54) What is the reason for using a line graph to express the results of this study?

Answer:  Line graphs are commonly used when the independent variable (x-axis) is a continuous phenomenon. In this study the concentration of epinephrine is a continuous function. The line allows for interpolation (i.e., estimating values between the measured values).

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

55) Use Table 1.1 to graph the data appropriately. What can you CONCLUDE based on the new figure?

Answer:  Graphs should address the errors in Figure 1.1.

This small sample suggests that an increase in epinephrine concentration increases the average heart rate of Sprague-Dawley rats.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

Use the table and graph below to answer the following questions.

 

Table 1.2

 

Figure 1.2

 

56) Summarize the data shown in Figure 1.2.

Answer:  The systolic pressure of both genders increases with age. Under age 40, the systolic pressure of males is higher than that of females. After age 40, the systolic pressure of females is higher than that of males. The greatest rate of increase is from ages 50 to 70 in both genders. Blood pressure declines after age 70.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

57) Referring to Table 1.2, what general trend in systolic blood pressures is seen as both men and women increase in age?

Answer:  The systolic pressure of both genders increases with advancing age.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

58) Referring to Figure 1.2, at approximately what age do men begin to show higher systolic blood pressures than women? At what age does this trend reverse?

Answer:  From age 10 to 40, male pressures are higher; after age 40, female pressures are higher.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

59) You are doing an experiment to determine if caffeine consumption affects reaction time.

  1. Which is the dependent variable?
  2. Which is the independent variable?
  3. Briefly describe some ways you might manipulate the independent variable.
  4. Name three stimuli you could use, and how you might measure reaction time for each.
  5. Write an appropriate hypothesis for this study.
  6. You compute the following average values from your experiment. What would be a logical conclusion for these data?

Average caffeine consumer’s reaction time: 400 ms

Average noncaffeine consumer’s reaction time: 650 ms

  1. Sketch a simple graph to convey these results to your classmates. What kind of graph did you choose? Why? Which variable did you plot on the x-axis? Which one did you plot on the y-axis? Why?
  2. Do the results of this experiment support the hypothesis you chose?

Answer:

  1. Reaction time
  2. Caffeine consumption
  3. Vary the amounts of caffeine consumed; vary the source, for example, use coffee, pills, cola drinks, and/or chocolate; vary both the amounts and sources.
  4. Answers will vary. Example: a computer-based timer could measure the time elapsed between the subject’s detecting the appearance of an object on the computer monitor and depressing a key on the keyboard. Auditory or touch stimuli could be used, too.
  5. Depending on the answer to C, could choose: “Consumption of caffeine decreases reaction time” or similar statement.
  6. Consumption of caffeine improves reaction time by 250 ms, on average.
  7. Bar graph; allows comparison of the average of two groups. The x-axis: group, caffeine or none. The y-axis: reaction time in milliseconds.
  8. Yes, in case of hypothesis written in D.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

Following is a table of data collected from one section of an 8 a.m. physiology lab. There were 20 students present, 10 men and 10 women. Information collected from the students included their height, weight, age, gender, and resting pulse rate. In addition, the students were surveyed to see if they smoked cigarettes, considered themselves “regular exercisers,” if they had consumed caffeine the morning of the lab, and if they had eaten breakfast that day. A “y” or “n” (yes or no) was recorded to indicate their answers. Each student did “jumping jacks” for 5 minutes and recorded the time required to regain their resting heart rate, which is listed on the table as “recovery time.” Finally, each student participated in an exercise designed to measure their reaction time (in milliseconds) in catching an object dropped by a lab partner according to specified criteria. Use this table to answer the following questions. Ignore statistical problems caused by small sample size, and so on.

 

Table 1.3

 

Figure 1.3       

 

 

For these questions, the data were separated and analyzed by gender.

 

60) Refer to Table 1.3 and Figure 1.3 (bar graph).

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding gender and weight.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. Based on the data in the graph above, what is your conclusion?
  4. Why is a bar graph a good choice for presentation of these data? Would another type of chart be as effective?

Answer:

  1. Males weigh more than females.
  2. Weight depends on gender; thus weight is dependent, gender is independent.
  3. Males weigh more than females.
  4. Bar graph allows comparison of the average of two groups. No.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

61) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding gender and recovery time.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. Create a graph using the averages from the data table. Based on these data, what do you conclude?

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “Males recover from exercise more quickly than females” would be appropriate.
  2. The independent variable is gender; the dependent variable is recovery time.
  3. A bar graph such as the one below is appropriate. In this study, men recovered from exercise more quickly than women.

 

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

62) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding the effects of breakfast consumption on reaction time.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “Eating breakfast prior to testing improves reaction time of subjects (compared to subjects who did not eat breakfast)” is appropriate.
  2. The independent variable is breakfast consumption; the dependent variable is reaction time.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

63) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Disregarding gender, write a hypothesis that expresses the relationship between weight and height.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. From the data in Table 1.3, construct a graph that examines this relationship.

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “As height increases, weight increases” would be appropriate.
  2. The dependent variable would be weight, the independent variable is height.

C.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

64) Table 1.3 shows data on various factors that may or may not be related to resting pulse rate, time to recovery to resting pulse rate after a few minutes of exercise, and reaction time measured by how quickly a student could press a keyboard key after seeing a computer-generated prompt. For each question below, write a testable hypothesis, identify the dependent and independent variables, sketch an appropriate graph of the results, and draw a conclusion from the data presented in the table. Discuss your results.

  1. Does caffeine consumption have an effect on resting pulse rate?
  2. Does age play a role in resting pulse rate? Does weight?
  3. Is there a relationship between eating breakfast and recovery time?
  4. Is there a relationship between reaction time and height?
  5. Do women who smoke show differences in their resting pulse rates compared to female nonsmokers or to male smokers and nonsmokers?
  6. Does regular exercise have an effect on resting pulse rate?

Answer:  Answers will vary, but examples follow (conclusions written here are based on cursory examination of graphed data—no statistical tests of significance were performed).

  1. Hypothesis: Caffeine consumption increases heart rate.

Independent variable: caffeine consumption.

Dependent variable: resting pulse rate.

Conclusion: Mean pulse rates between caffeine-drinking (68 bpm) and control subjects 73 bpm) are similar (large variation between individuals); hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: Pulse rate is lower in older people and is higher in heavier people.

Independent variables: age and weight.

Dependent variables: resting pulse rate.

Conclusion: Pulse rate was similar in all groups; hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: People who ate breakfast have a faster reaction time.

Independent variable: breakfast consumption.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: People who ate breakfast had a faster reaction time (168.7 msec vs. 180.5 msec); hypothesis supported.

  1. Hypothesis: There is no relationship between height and reaction time.

Independent variable: height.

Dependent variable: reaction time.

Conclusion: Reaction time did not vary with height; hypothesis supported.

  1. Hypothesis: Smokers of both genders have a higher resting pulse rate than nonsmokers of either gender, and males and females are affected equally.

Independent variables: smoking and gender.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: There was no difference in pulse rate in any of the groups (70.4 bpm in nonsmokers vs. 70.3 bpm in smokers); hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: People who exercise regularly have a lower resting pulse rate.

Independent variable: exercise.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: Regular exercise had no effect on resting pulse rate (68.9 bpm in nonexercisers vs. 71.8 bpm in exercisers); hypothesis rejected.

 

Discussion may cover issues such as the effect of small sample size, use of adults of limited age range, lack of control over treatments (Were the subjects honest about age, eating breakfast, consuming caffeine, smoking, and exercising? Were the quantitative data of height and weight determined in the lab using the same equipment and same data collector?), the value of statistical analysis, and so on. It is likely that students will be surprised by some of the results and could make erroneous conclusions. For example, pulse rate may vary with age, but without including children and senior citizens in the sample population, this trend would be missed.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

65) The law of mass balance states:

  1. A) if a substance is to remain constant any gain must be offset by an equal loss.
  2. B) that homeostasis can be maintained when the load of a substance is continuously lost.
  3. C) if one is to survive they must have a certain amount of mass.
  4. D) that all matter is neither created or destroyed.
  5. E) that all substances in the body have equal mass.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

66) Mass balance involves determining the total amount of a substance in the body. We can determine the rate of production (i.e. Mass Flow) of this substance by which of the following formulas?

  1. A) intake + production – excretion – metabolism.
  2. B) (amount of substance / min) × (concentration of the substance)
  3. C) volume of flow / (amount of substance / min)
  4. D) (concentration of a substance) / volume flow
  5. E) (concentration of a substance) × (volume/min)

Answer:  E

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

67) ________ are kept within normal range by physiological control mechanisms which are used if the variable strays too far from its ________.

  1. A) Setpoints, regulated variable
  2. B) Independent variables, steady state
  3. C) Regulated variables, setpoint
  4. D) Dependent variables, lowest value
  5. E) Steady state values, integrating center

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

68) The vasodilation of blood vessels surrounding muscles due to the production of carbon dioxide during exercise is an example of which of the following?

  1. A) neural control
  2. B) long-distance control
  3. C) reflex control
  4. D) local control
  5. E) hormonal control

Answer:  D

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

69) Which of the following are used to keep our systems at or near their setpoints?

  1. A) positive feedback loops
  2. B) response loops
  3. C) feedback loops
  4. D) open control loops
  5. E) feedforward control loop

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e, (Silverthorn)

Chapter 3   Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

 

1) When cancer develops in one tissue and spreads to another via the blood or the lymph, the cancer is said to have undergone what process?

  1. A) differentiation
  2. B) metastasis
  3. C) cytokinesis
  4. D) mutation

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

2) The space that is surrounded by the tissue wall of hollow organs is known as the

  1. A) peritoneal cavity.
  2. B) lumen.
  3. C) extracellular space.
  4. D) epidural space.
  5. E) tract.

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

3) The lumen of a hollow organ such as the stomach is considered to be part of the ________ environment.

  1. A) internal
  2. B) external

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

4) The watery medium that surrounds a cell is known as

  1. A) cytosol.
  2. B) protoplasm.
  3. C) extracellular fluid.
  4. D) cytoplasm.
  5. E) plasma.

Answer:  C

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

5) Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?

  1. A) a cell wall
  2. B) a cell membrane
  3. C) plasma membrane
  4. D) plasmalemma
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?

  1. A) respond to extracellular molecules
  2. B) creating junctions between cells
  3. C) act as transport molecules for various solutes
  4. D) anchor or stabilize the cell membrane
  5. E) produce energy

Answer:  E

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) Cell membranes are said to be

  1. A) impermeable barrier.
  2. B) freely permeable barrier.
  3. C) selectively permeable barrier.
  4. D) only permeable to water soluble molecules.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) What is/are the major role(s) of the phospholipid bilayer in the cellular membrane?

  1. A) the absorption of fats only
  2. B) the formation of a barrier that is selectively permeable to lipid-soluble molecules only
  3. C) to provide a framework for membrane proteins only
  4. D) to carry water-soluble molecules through a hydrophobic environment only
  5. E) the formation of a barrier that is a selective for lipid-soluble molecules and to provide a framework for membrane proteins

Answer:  E

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

9) Which of the following is NOT a membrane lipid?

  1. A) sphingolipids
  2. B) cholesterol
  3. C) phospholipids
  4. D) All are membrane lipids.

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) Which structure is a lipid bilayer that controls which objects can leave or enter the cell?

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) nucleus
  4. D) plasma membrane
  5. E) ribosome

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

11) A liposome is

  1. A) only an additive to creams and lotions.
  2. B) only a drug-delivery vehicle.
  3. C) only a type of lipid.
  4. D) only a structural component of cell membranes.
  5. E) an additive to creams and lotions and a drug-delivery vehicle.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) An immunoliposome is a liposome that

  1. A) suppresses the immune system.
  2. B) stimulates the immune system.
  3. C) can recognize cancer cells.
  4. D) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

13) Intermediate filaments

  1. A) provide the cell with strength.
  2. B) stabilize the position of organelles.
  3. C) transport materials within the cytoplasm.
  4. D) form the neurofilaments in nerve cells.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

14) Which proteins assist in the movement of vesicles along microtubules?

  1. A) kinesins
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) Golgi complex

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) Which of the following is an example of a membranous organelle?

  1. A) lysosome
  2. B) cilia
  3. C) centriole
  4. D) ribosome
  5. E) cytoskeleton

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) The thickest protein fibers from the following group are

  1. A) microtubules.
  2. B) neurofilaments.
  3. C) microfilaments.
  4. D) myosin molecules.
  5. E) keratin filaments.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

17) Ribosomal RNA is formed by

  1. A) the endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. B) Golgi complexes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) nucleoli.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

18) Each of the following statements concerning mitochondria is true except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) The mitochondrial cristae form the inner membrane forming separate compartments.
  2. B) The matrix of the mitochondria contains metabolic enzymes involved in energy production.
  3. C) The intermembrane space plays an important role in mitochondrial ATP production.
  4. D) The mitochondria contain no DNA or RNA.
  5. E) The mitochondria produce most of a cell’s ATP.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) In humans, only ________ cells have flagella.

  1. A) respiratory tract lining
  2. B) intestine lining
  3. C) stomach lining
  4. D) sperm
  5. E) uterine tube lining

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) Tay-Sachs is a disease caused by having ineffective

  1. A) mitochondria.
  2. B) Golgi bodies.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) Microvilli are found

  1. A) mostly in muscle cells.
  2. B) on the inside of cell membranes.
  3. C) in large numbers on cells that secrete hormones.
  4. D) in cells that are actively engaged in absorption.
  5. E) only on cells lining the reproductive tract.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

22) Microtubules

  1. A) are composed of tubulin.
  2. B) are hollow, filamentous structures.
  3. C) form cilia that aid in cell movement.
  4. D) are the largest cytoplasmic fibers.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) Centrioles

  1. A) function as pipelines to move fluid through the cell.
  2. B) direct the movement of DNA during cell division.
  3. C) hold the cell’s ribosomes in place.
  4. D) are white blood cells out of vessels.
  5. E) provide shape and stability to a cell.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

24) Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the

  1. A) ribosomes.
  2. B) endoplasmic reticulum.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) Golgi apparatus.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

25) Which does NOT accurately complete the sentence? One of the major functions of BOTH types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the

  1. A) synthesis of biomolecules.
  2. B) storage of genetic material for the cell.
  3. C) transport of biomolecules.
  4. D) storage of biomolecules.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

26) All of the following are synthesized along various sites of the endoplasmic reticulum except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) proteins
  2. B) fatty acids
  3. C) steroids
  4. D) RNA
  5. E) phospholipids

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) Which of the following is NOT a molecule synthesized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?

  1. A) fatty acids
  2. B) steroids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) lipids
  5. E) All are synthesized in the SER.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?

  1. A) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) mitochondria
  4. D) nucleoli
  5. E) Golgi apparatus

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

29) All of the structures listed below are involved in storage, EXCEPT

  1. A) lysosomes.
  2. B) peroxisomes.
  3. C) mitochondrial cristae.
  4. D) storage vesicles.
  5. E) All are involved in cellular storage.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

30) The proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are then sent to the

  1. A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum for storage.
  2. B) Golgi complex for packaging.
  3. C) lysosome for modification.
  4. D) cell membrane for secretion.
  5. E) nucleus for cellular use.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

31) If a cell lacked lysosomes, it would not be able to

  1. A) synthesize lipids.
  2. B) produce enzymes.
  3. C) digest cellular wastes and bacteria.
  4. D) destroy H2O2.
  5. E) transport water-soluble molecules.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

32) Which substance is responsible for activating the digestive enzymes inside lysosomes?

  1. A) air
  2. B) water
  3. C) acid
  4. D) enzymes
  5. E) base

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

33) Peroxisomes

  1. A) use an enzyme to destroy H2O2that is toxic to the cell.
  2. B) are a type of lysosome.
  3. C) are responsible for the atrophy of unused muscles.
  4. D) are sites for synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, and phospholipids.
  5. E) All of the answers accurately describe peroxisomes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

34) The number of mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells is ________ adipose (fat) cells.

  1. A) greater than
  2. B) less than
  3. C) equal to

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

35) The control center for cellular operations is the

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) mitochondria.
  3. C) Golgi complex.
  4. D) endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. E) ribosomes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

36) The beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin, a protein-based hormone. Which of the following organelles would be found in higher levels in the beta cells?

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) ribosomes
  3. C) microvilli
  4. D) lysosomes

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

37) If the adrenal cortex produces lipid-based hormones such as aldosterone, which organelle would be higher in cells of the adrenal cortex than in the adrenal medulla?

  1. A) Golgi apparatus
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) ribosome
  4. D) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  5. E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

38) The nucleus stores all the information needed to synthesize which of the following molecules?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) phospholipids
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

39) The term secretion refers to

  1. A) the process by which a cell releases a substance into the extracellular space.
  2. B) synthesis of a protein for export from the cell.
  3. C) the manufacture and assembly of a material.
  4. D) storage of a material, until it is time for it to leave the cell.
  5. E) None of the answers describe secretion.

Answer:  A

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

40) Which cellular organelle is considered the powerhouse of the cell because it produces most of the ATP?

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) mitochondria
  4. D) nucleus
  5. E) ribosome

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

41) Arrange the following events in protein secretion in the proper sequence.

  1. The polypeptide chain enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. A secretory vesicle is formed.
  3. A transport vesicle is formed.
  4. The polypeptide chain enters the lumen of the Golgi complex.
  5. A) 1, 2, 3, 4
  6. B) 1, 3, 2, 4
  7. C) 1, 3, 4, 2
  8. D) 4, 3, 1, 2
  9. E) 3, 1, 4, 2

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) Movement of material between cells is known as the ________ pathway.

  1. A) transcellular
  2. B) paracellular
  3. C) metacellular
  4. D) transendothelial
  5. E) cisendothelial

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

43) All but one of the structures listed below are a type of cell junction. Identify the exception.

  1. A) desmosomes
  2. B) tight junctions
  3. C) gap junctions
  4. D) loose junctions
  5. E) adherens junctions

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

44) The esophagus is a tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. It does not secrete any enzymes or absorb any nutrients, but it does need to stand up to significant friction and stress. The type of epithelium most likely lining the esophagus would be

  1. A) cuboidal epithelium.
  2. B) simple squamous epithelium.
  3. C) simple columnar epithelium.
  4. D) stratified squamous epithelium.
  5. E) transitional epithelium.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

45) The type of protein found in gap junctions is the

  1. A) claudin.
  2. B) occludin.
  3. C) cadherin.
  4. D) connexin.
  5. E) integrin.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

46) Disappearance of which type of junction most likely contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells throughout the body?

  1. A) gap
  2. B) tight
  3. C) anchoring

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

47) The types of junction proteins important in nerve growth and development are

  1. A) claudins.
  2. B) occludins.
  3. C) CAMs.
  4. D) connexins.
  5. E) integrins.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

48) Each of the following is a primary tissue type except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) muscle tissue
  2. B) neural tissue
  3. C) osseous tissue
  4. D) connective tissue
  5. E) epithelial tissue

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

49) Functions of epithelia include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) providing physical protection.
  2. B) controlling permeability.
  3. C) producing specialized secretions.
  4. D) storing energy reserves.
  5. E) movement.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

50) Epithelial cells that are adapted for membrane transport of materials, such as ions and nutrients, usually have ________ on their apical surface.

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) cilia or flagella
  3. C) microvilli
  4. D) junctional complexes
  5. E) vesicles

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

51) Epithelia are connected to underlying connective tissues by

  1. A) a basement membrane only.
  2. B) protein filaments embedded in glycoprotein only.
  3. C) a basal lamina only.
  4. D) an apical membrane and protein filaments embedded in proteoglycans only.
  5. E) a basement membrane, protein filaments embedded in proteoglycans, and a basal lamina.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

52) Glands that secrete hormones into the blood via tissue fluids are

  1. A) endocrine glands.
  2. B) mixed glands.
  3. C) exocrine glands.
  4. D) unicellular glands.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

53) Exocrine glands

  1. A) may make either mucous or serous secretions.
  2. B) release their secretions into the external environment.
  3. C) release their secretions through open tubes, called ducts.
  4. D) may work as single cells or as a multicellular organ.
  5. E) All of the statements are true.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

54) Every substance that enters or leaves the internal environment of the body must cross an epithelium.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

55) Due to the fact that they divide frequently, epithelia are prone to the genetic mutations associated with cancer.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

56) The function of microvilli, often seen on the apical membrane of transporting epithelia, is to

  1. A) increase the movement of extracellular fluid.
  2. B) increase the resistance of the cell to viruses.
  3. C) increase the cell’s surface area.
  4. D) increase the toughness of the cell.
  5. E) allow the cell to move through a fluid medium.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

57) The simple squamous epithelial lining of blood vessels is called

  1. A) basolateral epithelium.
  2. B) endothelium.
  3. C) luteal cells.
  4. D) the vasa recta.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

58) Which type of tissue below has minimal extracellular matrix?

  1. A) epithelial only
  2. B) connective only
  3. C) neural only
  4. D) muscle only
  5. E) epithelial, neural, and muscle

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

59) Functions of connective tissue include

  1. A) establishing a structural framework for the body.
  2. B) transporting fluids and dissolved materials.
  3. C) providing protection for delicate organs.
  4. D) storing energy reserves.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

60) Cells that store fat are called

  1. A) fibroblasts.
  2. B) liposomes.
  3. C) adipocytes.
  4. D) mast cells.
  5. E) melanocytes.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

61) Loose connective tissue functions in

  1. A) supporting small glands.
  2. B) supporting epithelia.
  3. C) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

62) Plasma is not

  1. A) a dilute solution of ions and dissolved organic molecules.
  2. B) the fluid portion of blood.
  3. C) a subdivision of the ECF.
  4. D) considered an extracellular matrix.
  5. E) a sticky solution containing glycoproteins and proteoglycans.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

63) The term meaning “programmed cell death” is

  1. A) necrosis.
  2. B) apoptosis.
  3. C) oncogenesis.
  4. D) diuresis.
  5. E) cytocide.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

64) The term meaning “a mitotic population of cells that persists into adulthood” applies to

  1. A) stem cells.
  2. B) totipotent cells.
  3. C) apoptosis.
  4. D) nurse cells.
  5. E) gametocytes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

65) Groups of tissues that carry out related functions may form structures known as

  1. A) cells.
  2. B) organs.
  3. C) organelles.
  4. D) organisms.
  5. E) Impossible to tell from the information given.

Answer:  B

Section:  Organs

Learning Outcome:  3.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) The heaviest organ in the body is the

  1. A) liver.
  2. B) brain.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) stomach.
  5. E) urinary bladder.

Answer:  C

Section:  Organs

Learning Outcome:  3.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

67) This organelle is the site of most ATP synthesis in the cell.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

68) These degrade long chain fatty acids and toxic foreign molecules.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

69) This is the digestive system of a cell, degrading and/or recycling bacterial or organic components.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

70) This modifies proteins and packages them into secretory vesicles for export from the cell.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

71) The simplest cell-cell junction is called a(n)

  1. A) gap junction.
  2. B) tight junction.
  3. C) anchoring junction.
  4. D) desmosome.
  5. E) neuromuscular junction.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

72) This junction contributes to the blood-brain barrier.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) desmosome
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

73) These junctions can be cell-matrix junctions.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) connexin
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

74) The loss of these junctions are a characteristic of cancer.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) claudin constructed junction
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

75) This tissue is made up of adipocytes.

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) dense, irregular connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) dense, regular connective tissue

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

76) Fibroblasts that secrete collagen-rich matrix dominants this tissue.

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) blood

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

77) Chondrocytes secrete a firm but flexible matrix to form what tissue?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) blood

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

78) An osteocyte is the main cell type in which of the following?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) adipose
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) blood
  5. E) bone

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

79) Which of the following plays a role in temperature regulation in infants?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) brown fat
  3. C) collagen
  4. D) bone
  5. E) white fat

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

80) Nucleoli function in the production of

  1. A) peroxisomes.
  2. B) secretory vesicles.
  3. C) RNA for ribosomes.
  4. D) DNA that controls all cell functions.
  5. E) proteins.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

81) Cell membranes are said to be ________ because they allow some substances to pass but not others.

  1. A) hydrophilic
  2. B) a physical barrier
  3. C) structural
  4. D) selectively permeable
  5. E) metabolically active

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

82) The nucleus is surrounded by a(n)

  1. A) plasmalemma.
  2. B) nuclear envelope.
  3. C) cell wall.
  4. D) protein coat.
  5. E) adhesion molecule.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

83) Communication between the nucleus and cytosol occurs through

  1. A) plasmalemma.
  2. B) desmosomes.
  3. C) sodium channels.
  4. D) nuclear pores.
  5. E) nucleoli.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

84) Cells are transformed into specialized units during

  1. A) differentiation.
  2. B) mitosis.
  3. C) apoptosis.
  4. D) transcription.
  5. E) programed cell death.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

85) The lining of the heart is called

  1. A) transporting epithelium.
  2. B) ciliated epithelium.
  3. C) protective epithelium.
  4. D) endothelium.
  5. E) secretory epithelium.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

86) ________ is the extracellular component of connective tissues.

  1. A) Cytoplasm
  2. B) Blood
  3. C) Mucous
  4. D) Cartilage
  5. E) Ground substance

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

87) The combination of fibers and ground substance in supporting connective tissues is known as

  1. A) cytoplasm.
  2. B) extracellular matrix.
  3. C) blood.
  4. D) mucous.
  5. E) micelles.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

88) The fluid substance of blood is called

  1. A) interstitial fluid.
  2. B) cytoplasm.
  3. C) peroxide.
  4. D) endothelium.
  5. E) plasma.

Answer:  E

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

89) The study of tissue structure and function is called

  1. A) histology.
  2. B) plasticity.
  3. C) differentiation.
  4. D) physiology.
  5. E) remodeling.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) Structures composed of epithelial cells that produce secretions are called

  1. A) nuclear pores.
  2. B) cell junctions.
  3. C) glands.
  4. D) ducts.
  5. E) micelles.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

91) ________ is a tissue that is modified to transmit chemical and electrical signals from one cell to another.

  1. A) Endothelium
  2. B) Neural tissue
  3. C) Connective tissue
  4. D) Exocrine tissue
  5. E) Epithelia tissue

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

92) ________ secretions are released onto an epithelial surface.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Hormonal
  3. C) Microtubular
  4. D) Exocrine
  5. E) Endocrine

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

93) ________ secretions are released into interstitial space to diffuse into the blood.

  1. A) Endocrine
  2. B) Exocrine
  3. C) Mucous
  4. D) Serous
  5. E) Ribosomal

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

94) ________ proteins extend all the way across the cell membrane.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Transmembrane
  3. C) Cytoskeletal
  4. D) Peripheral
  5. E) Glycolipid

Answer:  B

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

95) ________ proteins attach loosely to other membrane proteins or polar regions of phospholipids.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Transmembrane
  3. C) Cytoskeletal
  4. D) Peripheral
  5. E) Glycolipid

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

96) ________ is a protective layer made up of mostly membrane carbohydrates.

  1. A) Epidermis
  2. B) Glycocalyx
  3. C) Connective tissue
  4. D) Focal Adhesion
  5. E) Cadherin

Answer:  B

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

97) Explain the relationship between microtubules, cilia, flagella, centrioles, spindle fibers, and the centrosome.

Answer:  Microtubules are a cytoskeletal protein made of tubulin. Microtubules form a major component of the internal scaffolding of the cell. Microtubules can also be assembled into cilia and flagella, which are organelles that produce cell-generated movements, and into centrioles and spindle fibers. Centrioles produce the spindle fibers, which are responsible for changing the position of chromosomes during nuclear division. Centrioles are part of a larger structure known as the centrosome, which also includes a darkly staining material and acts as the cell’s microtubule organizing center.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

98) List the four major tissue types. Give an example and location of each.

Answer:  See Table 3.4 and the “Tissues of the Body” section in the chapter.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

99) Describe the structure of the cytoskeleton, and list its functions.

Answer:  The cytoskeleton consists of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules and forms a scaffold throughout the cytoplasm. An interesting feature is that some of the proteins are relatively fixed in position, whereas others can be rapidly assembled or disassembled as necessary. The functions include providing mechanical strength and shape, stabilizing position of organelles, intracellular transport system, functional linkage to other cells and to extracellular space, and cell-generated movements.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

100) Define, compare, and contrast each term listed and explain how the terms are related to each other: rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and Golgi Apparatus.

Answer:  All are structures involved in synthesis of biomolecules. All but ribosomes are membranous structures. Ribosomes may be free or attached to ER, making it rough. See Figure 3.4 in the chapter.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

101) Sketch a cell membrane. Label at least three components and briefly explain what each one does.

Answer:  See Figure 3.2

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

102) Describe the composition and function of the extracellular matrix.

Answer:  In any tissue, the extracellular matrix consists of two basic components: proteoglycans and insoluble proteins. The matrix plays an important role in processes ranging from growth and development to cell death. The matrix aids in cell communication with its environment by attaching to the cell membrane or cytoskeleton.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

103) Define, compare, and contrast each term listed, and explain how the terms are related to each other: tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone.

Answer:  Each term is a type or subtype of connective tissue. Tendons attach skeletal muscle to bone, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone. Cartilage and bone together are structurally supportive tissues. See Figure 3.12 and 3.13 in the chapter.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

104) If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to

  1. A) maintain its balance.
  2. B) synthesize proteins.
  3. C) produce DNA.
  4. D) metabolize sugars.
  5. E) undergo nuclear division.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

105) Which of the following cytoskeleton components are responsible for the movement of chromosomes during cell division?

  1. A) microfilaments
  2. B) intermediate filaments
  3. C) thick filaments
  4. D) microtubules
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

106) A flagellum moves a cell through a fluid medium. What moves the fluid medium across the surface of cells that are not free to move?

  1. A) centrioles
  2. B) thick filaments
  3. C) cilia
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

107) Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding mitochondria?

  1. A) The outer mitochondrial membrane is responsible for its shape.
  2. B) The intermembrane space is used in the production of ATP.
  3. C) Mitochondria contain their own DNA and RNA.
  4. D) Mitochondria can replicate themselves only when directed by the cell’s nuclear DNA.
  5. E) Mitochondria are responsible for providing energy to the cell.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

108) Plasma is to blood as ________ is to cytoplasm.

  1. A) inclusion
  2. B) organelle
  3. C) protein
  4. D) cytosol
  5. E) serum

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

109) Examination of a sample of glandular cells reveals an extensive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Which of the following would be a likely product of these cells?

  1. A) digestive enzymes
  2. B) steroid hormones
  3. C) protein (peptide) hormones
  4. D) transport proteins
  5. E) antibodies

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

110) In a pancreatic cell producing digestive enzyme, you would expect to find an elaborate

  1. A) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

111) Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to

  1. A) blood.
  2. B) epithelium.
  3. C) fat.
  4. D) bone.
  5. E) neural tissue.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

112) The tissue(s) that is/are considered excitable because of the ability to generate electrical signals is/are called ________ tissue.

  1. A) muscle
  2. B) neural
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) muscle tissue and neural
  5. E) muscle tissue, neural tissue, and epithelial

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

113) You are looking at a slide of an unknown organ that has an empty lumen with stratified squamous epithelium contacting the lumen. Deep to the epithelium is a basement membrane and then two layers of smooth muscle. Which of the following organs would this most likely belong to and why?

  1. A) The intestines because they need to move food along and absorb digested products.
  2. B) The liver because it secretes enzymes and bile and needs to move them to the gallbladder.
  3. C) The esophagus because it is a passageway that needs to move but not absorb food products.
  4. D) The urinary bladder because it needs to stretch and constrict to store and eliminate urine.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

114) A layer of glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments that prevents the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the connective tissue to epithelium describes

  1. A) interfacial canals.
  2. B) the basal lamina.
  3. C) the reticular lamina.
  4. D) areolar tissue.
  5. E) endothelium.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

115) The distinguishing characteristic of connective tissue is

  1. A) that it is arranged in sheets of tissue that lie on body surfaces.
  2. B) that it is always dividing, constantly being replaced throughout the body.
  3. C) the presence of extensive extracellular matrix containing widely scattered cells.
  4. D) the collagen fibers that offer support.
  5. E) All of these characteristics help make connective tissue unique.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

116) Which type of connective tissue does NOT fit with the typical characteristic of a dense ground substance?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) blood
  4. D) adipose
  5. E) tendons

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

117) Close examination of an organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels, and one surface of the cells faces the internal cavity of the organ. This tissue is probably

  1. A) epithelium.
  2. B) muscle tissue.
  3. C) connective tissue.
  4. D) neural tissue.
  5. E) fat tissue.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

118) Increasing muscle mass and decreasing fat content in your body can increase ones use of energy. Why is this?

  1. A) Fat is a connective tissue and not an excitable one.
  2. B) Muscle cells have more mitochondria than fat cells.
  3. C) Adipocytes contain more cytoplasmic inclusions.
  4. D) Fat cells have no blood supply.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

119) Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals an open framework of fibers with a large volume of fluid ground substance and elastic fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the

  1. A) inner wall of a blood vessel.
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) larynx.
  4. D) tissue that separates skin from underlying muscle.
  5. E) bony socket of the eye.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

120) Mature nerve and muscle cells are expected to lack which organelle(s)?

  1. A) nucleus
  2. B) endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) centrioles
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) Golgi bodies

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

121) Neurons in the CNS of the adult don’t contain centrioles. What does that tell you about CNS neurons?

  1. A) They don’t produce any products.
  2. B) It doesn’t tell you much of anything.
  3. C) They don’t replicate themselves.
  4. D) They don’t carry nerve impulses.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

122) Only totipotent stem cells are capable of producing new cells in an adult.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

123) A lysosome is considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

124) Mitochondria are considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

125) A ribosome is considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

126) Cilia are considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) adheren
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) mitochondrial protein
  5. E) protein fiber

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

127) The endoplasmic reticulum is considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) adheren
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) mitochondrial protein
  5. E) glycocalyx

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

128) This type of epithelia is found in the epidermis, esophagus, and mouth, and these stacked layers of cells prevent exchange, while they resist chemicals, bacteria, and other destructive forces.

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) transport
  3. C) ciliated
  4. D) protective
  5. E) secretory

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

129) This type of epithelia actively and selectively regulates the exchange of nongaseous material, such as ions and nutrients, and can be regulated in response to various stimuli.

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) transport
  3. C) ciliated
  4. D) protective
  5. E) secretory

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

130) This type of epithelia is composed of thin, flattened cells that allow the rapid passage of O2 and CO2 in and out of the lungs and of certain blood vessels.

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) transport
  3. C) ciliated
  4. D) protective
  5. E) secretory

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

131) This type of epithelia has cells that produce a substance and release it, either onto a surface or into the blood.

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) transport
  3. C) ciliated
  4. D) protective
  5. E) secretory

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

132) This type of epithelia is composed of cells with membrane extensions that beat in a coordinated fashion to move fluid and particles across the tissue.

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) transport
  3. C) ciliated
  4. D) protective
  5. E) secretory

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

On the row of cells indicated below, match A-E to the terms in the following question(s).

 

Figure 3.1

 

133) Referring to Figure 3.1, which letter represents the apical membrane?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

134) Referring to Figure 3.1, which letter represents the basolateral membrane?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

135) Referring to Figure 3.1, which letter represents the basal lamina?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

136) Referring to Figure 3.1, which letter represents the plasma membrane?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

137) Referring to Figure 3.1, which letter represents the cytosol?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

138) Design a concept map for the types of cell junctions and the proteins that compose them.

Answer:  This is discussed in the “Tissues of the Body” section of the chapter and shown in Figure 3.8a.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

139) Cancer is abnormal, uncontrolled cell division. Which property of epithelial tissues makes them more prone to develop this condition?

Answer:  Epithelial tissues contain a population of dividing cells, which divide at a moderate rate.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

140) Describe the progression of a fertilized egg, from totipotent cell through pluripotent and multipotent stem cells. How might stem cells be of therapeutic value? What is plasticity?

Answer:  This is discussed in the “Tissue Remodeling” section of the chapter.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

141) Describe the anatomical and fluid compartments of the body. How do the lumens of hollow organs fit into these classifications? Which fluid-containing cavities are considered to be internal and which are external? Of those that are external, why are they external (give examples)? You may wish to design a flow chart to help answer this.

Answer:  The anatomical compartments are the cranial cavity, containing the brain; the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs; and the abdominopelvic cavity, containing organs of the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. The fluid compartments are the intracellular fluid (inside the cells) and the extracellular fluid (outside the cells). The extracellular fluids are found in the interstitial fluid between cells and the plasma of the blood, which is in the lumen of the circulatory system. Lumens of hollow organs such as the digestive and urinary tracts are part of the external environment, whereas the intracellular and interstitial fluids are internal. The lumen of the circulatory system is also internal. External lumens are those that open to the outside environment. These openings include the mouth, nostrils, anus, urethral, and vaginal orifices.

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

142) Describe the two general meanings of the term membrane, as used in biology. Which usage indicates layers of cells and which indicates layers of molecules?

Answer:  Prior to the use of microscopes, membranes were simply thin, flexible layers of cells that separated large compartments or lined large cavities. When microscopic study of cells allowed visualization of the cell envelope and organelles, the term membrane was additionally applied to thin layers of molecules.

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

143) Give three examples of structures whose formation involves molecular interactions that either increase or decrease contact with water molecules, explaining how they are similar and how they differ from each other. (Hint: They all involve molecules that have both polar and nonpolar portions.)

Answer:  Phospholipids have a polar portion that is attracted to water and a nonpolar portion that repels water. The molecules orient in water such that water is excluded from contacting the nonpolar portions. This is seen in: the bilayer arrangement of phospholipids in cell membranes, in which hydrophobic tails are in the middle of the layer; micelles, in which a single layer of phospholipids forms a sphere with the hydrophobic tails in the middle; and liposomes, which are hollow spheres made from phospholipid bilayers that can be filled with water-soluble molecules.

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

144) Your study partner is having difficulty understanding dense fibrous connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments. Explain to her how they are related to each other and how they are different from other categories of connective tissue.

Answer:  Dense fibrous connective tissue is a category of connective tissue, distinct from loose, adipose, blood, bone, and cartilage. It is not as dense as cartilage and bone but is denser than the other types listed. Like loose connective tissues, fibroblasts are the primary cell type, but unlike loose, the matrix consists of relatively more protein fibers and less ground substance. Like bone and cartilage, the fibers are primarily collagen. The fibers can be arranged randomly (irregular) or parallel to each other (regular). Tendons and ligaments are both composed of dense fibrous connective tissue. Tendons attach muscles to bones, whereas ligaments attach bones to bones; tendons lack elastic fibers, but they are present in ligaments; therefore ligaments are slightly stretchy.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

145) Define and distinguish between necrosis and apoptosis, and give specific examples of each.

Answer:  Necrosis is cell death as a result of damage from toxins, physical trauma, or lack of oxygen; damaged cells release chemicals that may damage neighboring cells. An example is death of skin cells as a result of sunburn. Apoptosis is programmed cell death, which is an internally regulated process and does not involve neighboring cells unless they too are so programmed. An example is the loss of skin webbing between fingers and toes in a fetus.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

146) What is the difference between cell movements in response to outside forces and cell-generated movements (in response to specific cell activity)? (Hint: Do red blood cells move because of RBC activity? What causes cell movements associated with cytokinesis?) Using the index of your text to guide you to relevant sections in other chapters (look up entries for the various cytoskeletal proteins), explain the different types of movements that cells generate.

Answer:  Red blood cells and other cells in circulation move because they are suspended in a flowing fluid (blood or lymph); the axon of a nerve cell in the arm will move when the arm moves. Cell-generated movements involve the activity of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules, and myosin thick filaments (in muscle). The processes of chromosome alignment during mitosis/meiosis, cytoplasmic pinching during cytokinesis, beating of cilia and flagella, endocytosis and exocytosis, and muscle contraction are all examples of cell-generated movements.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

147) If a person who has not exercised regularly begins a consistent exercise routine, she will notice that her metabolism will seem to increase as her endurance improves. Why is this?

Answer:  Metabolism will increase with endurance because the number of mitochondria will increase with consistent exercise. The increase in mitochondria will improve endurance and increase metabolism of glucose because they will be metabolizing more glucose into ATP.

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

148) What is the benefit of having some of the cellular organelles enclosed by a membrane similar to the cell (plasma) membrane?

Answer:  The isolation of the internal contents of membrane-bound organelles allows them to manufacture or store secretions, enzymes, or toxins that could adversely affect the cytoplasm in general. Another benefit is the increased efficiency of having specialized enzyme systems concentrated in one place, for example, those necessary for energy production in the mitochondrion. In addition, the membranes themselves serve as “workspace,” allowing the anchoring of enzymes or other proteins into a stabilized location.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

149) Sketch a short series of simple columnar epithelial cells. Label each of the three different borders. Briefly explain the different kinds of activities that may go on at each border, and tell how their structures and junctions support these functions.

Answer:  This is discussed in the “Tissues of the Body” section of the chapter.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

150) Which type of epithelium would one expect to compose the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs? Defend your answer.

Answer:  Since gases must diffuse across the alveoli and associated capillaries you would expect to find exchange epithelia, composed of very thin cells (simple squamous epithelium). Thicker types of epithelial cells would slow the process of gas diffusion to and from the blood.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

151) During a lab practical, Laurant examines a tissue that is composed of densely packed protein fibers that are running parallel and form a cord. There are few nuclei and no striations, and there is no evidence of other cellular structures. Laurant identifies the tissue as skeletal muscle. Why is Laurant’s choice wrong, and which tissue is he probably observing?

Answer:  Skeletal muscle tissue is made up of densely packed fibers running in the same direction, but since muscle fibers are composed of cells, they would have many nuclei and mitochondria. Skeletal muscle also has an obvious banding pattern or striations due to the arrangement of the actin and myosin filaments within the cell. Laurant is probably looking at a slide of tendon (dense connective tissue).

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17, 3.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

152) Cancer is not one disease but a group of related diseases, caused by abnormal genes, environmental factors, and/or viral infections. Describe the basic common characteristics of cancers, including the role of anchoring junctions and proteases. What is a tumor? What is metastasis? Is cancer usually considered to be contagious? Explain.

Answer:  Cancer results when cells begin to divide and grow and do not respond to normal controls that would limit their growth. Anchoring junctions eventually fail to keep the cancer cells together, allowing them to spread to other organs where they continue to grow uncontrolled. Some cancer cells secrete proteases that improve their ability to spread or metastasize. A tumor is a lump of cancerous cells. Cancer is usually not contagious, being caused instead by genetic mutations in an individual or exposure to environmental factors by that individual; exceptions are cancers caused by viruses, which are believed to be the minority.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

153) In typical women of reproductive age, the epithelial cells lining the uterus (the endometrium) die and are shed from the body roughly once every month, in the process of menstruation. The triggers in this process include chemical (hormonal) changes and contraction of the blood vessels in the lining. Cell death may be a result of either apoptosis or necrosis. Give the characteristics of each process. Devise an argument for classifying the process of menstruation as an example of apoptosis, and then argue for classifying it as necrosis. Which is correct?

Answer:  (Note to instructor: If students have not yet studied the reproductive system, they may not be able to answer the final question, therefore it could be omitted.) Necrosis is cell death as a result of damage from toxins, physical trauma, or lack of oxygen; damaged cells release chemicals that may damage neighboring cells. Apoptosis is programmed cell death, which is an internally regulated process and affects only the cell it occurs within. Menstruation may result from necrosis if the causative factor is changes in blood flow to the endometrium such that the oxygen supply is inadequate. Menstruation may result from apoptosis if it results from hormonal changes that directly kill the cells. While menstruation is a normal event and removes unneeded cells (characteristics of apoptosis), it results directly from the decrease in circulation, causing the cells to die from lack of oxygen; thus it is an example of necrosis.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

154) The most common types of cancer in America include colon cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer. What do all of these cancers have in common and why are they so prevalent in our society?

Answer:  All of these structures have epithelial tissue that is reproducing at a rapid rate. Because they undergo mitosis so often if a failure of apoptosis occurs or if a mutation alters the DNA of one of the cells, the new copies of the existing cells will cause an increase in the cancerous cells at a much faster rate than in other tissues that divide at a much slower rate.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

155) Apoptosis and necrosis are described as the two ways cells die. Which one is “messy”? Which is “tidy”? Explain. Why do these forms of cell death exist? What are some advantages and/or disadvantages of each? Use the lining cells of the digestive tract in an example of an advantageous process.

Answer:  Necrosis is a result of damage to cells. The cells swell and rupture, and the enzymes that are released cause damage to other cells in the area; hence the descriptor “messy.” Necrosis has the disadvantage of damaging cells that might otherwise have survived unscathed. Necrosis is not an advantageous process, but it is unavoidable because trauma to cells is unavoidable; we all get hurt sometimes. Apoptosis is “tidy” in that the cells do not rupture and release damaging enzymes; instead the cell breaks up into membrane-surrounded pieces that are consumed by immune cells. Apoptosis is advantageous in that it can shape a structure such as fingers and toes during development. In the case of the digestive tract, the harsh chemical environment would lead to frequent necrosis if it weren’t for the programmed apoptosis occurring every day or so.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

156) A.   Define stem cells and differentiation, and describe the different types and the extent to which they are present during the life of an individual (include the fertilized egg as well as the adult that eventually results).

  1. Which of the four tissue types contain populations of stem cells of known function, and what is that function? Which types of tissue have stem cells of unknown function? Do any types of tissue lack stem cells?
  2. How do fully differentiated cells differ from stem cells? How can stem cells be used in medical treatment? Give examples.

Answer:

  1. Stem cells are cells that are mitotic and not fully differentiated. Differentiation is the process cells undergo as they become more and more specialized in structure and function as is typical of the specific tissues they compose. The fertilized egg and the cells resulting from the first few cleavage divisions after fertilization are totipotent, which means they can ultimately produce all the types of cells in an adult. Within the first week after conception, the cells begin differentiation and become capable of producing many types of cells but not all. These cells are pluripotent. By adulthood, stem cells can be described as multipotent, which are stem cells that can produce many of the cell types in a specific tissue, and committed stem cells, which can only become one specific cell type within that tissue.
  2. Epithelial and connective tissues have active populations of multipotent stems cells, which replace cells lost to damage or normal turnover. Muscle and nervous tissues contain stem cells but appear to be unable to replace lost cells. They were once thought to lack stem cells altogether.
  3. Once cells are fully differentiated, they can no longer divide to produce more cells. Disease conditions or injuries that result in cell loss may be remedied by treatment with appropriate stem cells. Examples are neurological injuries and diseases marked by irreversible damage to cells that cannot (yet) be replaced by new cells.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

157) Stem cell research has become a political topic in the last few decades. Explain why the research is being done, why some cells are favored for this research over others, and what the factors are that cause some people not to support this type of research. Are any alternatives available that are less opposed?

Answer:  Stem cell therapy may remedy previously untreatable diseases and conditions such as those involving brain and spinal injury. It has become political because one source of stem cells that are highly desirable for research is those removed from human embryos and fetuses. These cells are less differentiated and therefore more likely to be able to yield the specific types of mature cells desired. Many people opposed to abortions of human pregnancies are opposed to the use of human embryos and fetuses as a source of stem cells because these embryos and fetuses are destroyed in the process. Use of umbilical cord blood from live births is less opposed, though these cells are somewhat limited in the types of cells they can produce and therefore may not be valuable for treating as large a variety of diseases and injuries.

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

158) Nervous tissue consists of two general types of cells: nerve cells and glial cells. Glial cells are mitotic, whereas neural cells are not (excluding the small population of stem cells). Which type of cell is most likely to be involved in brain cancer, and why?

Answer:  Cancer results from uncontrolled cell division in mitotic cells. Therefore, glial cell cancers (gliomas) are the most common type of nervous system cancers, as they have the most mitotic activity.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

159) Cell membranes consist of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate in relative amounts that vary according to cell type. Describe the relative proportions of these substances in three structures, and relate these differences to cell function where possible.

Answer:  (Note to instructor: This may be a good question to use on a comprehensive final exam, as it ties together basic membrane composition with cell functions revealed in later chapters.) See Table 3.1 in the chapter. Red blood cells have nearly equal amounts of protein and lipid, with a small amount of carbohydrate, in this ratio of protein:lipid:carbohydrate: 49:43:8. Myelin is almost all lipid, followed by protein and carbohydrate in this ratio of lipid:protein:carbohydrate: 79:18:3. In later chapters on the nervous system, it will be seen that this preponderance of lipid results in electrical insulation, which is one of the main functions of myelin. The inner mitochondrial membrane is mostly protein, in this ratio of protein:lipid:carbohydrate: 76:24:0. This reflects the function of this membrane in chemical synthesis that relies on a variety of protein enzymes.

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

160) Nutrients undergo the last stages of digestion by enzymes located on the cells of the small intestine; then the nutrients are absorbed by these same cells by way of various membrane transport processes. Adipose cells absorb and store excess food energy in the form of fat. You and the other students in the physiology lab you are taking are doing an analysis of cell membrane composition, on unknown animal tissue samples labeled A and B. All lab groups determined that sample A contained, on average, 81% protein, 18% lipid, and 1% carbohydrate. Sample B contained 85% lipid, 10% protein, and 5% carbohydrate. Sketch a graph of the class data. You now have to make a logical conclusion as to which sample is more likely to be intestine and which is adipose tissue. What do you conclude, and why?

Answer:  A bar graph would be appropriate, as in the figure below. The presence of digestive enzymes and membrane transporters in small intestine cells indicate there should be a significant amount of protein present. Adipose cells, on the other hand, are relatively inactive and can passively absorb lipids by way of simple diffusion through the membrane phospholipids. Adipose tissue is expected, therefore, to consist primarily of lipids. Sample A is most likely small intestine, and sample B adipose.

 

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e  (Silverthorn)

Chapter 11   Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control

 

1) Nicotine is thought to cause approximately ________ deaths per year, worldwide.

  1. A) 500
  2. B) 5,000
  3. C) 50,000
  4. D) 500,000
  5. E) 5,000,000

Answer:  E

Section:  Introduction

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) The two divisions of the efferent side of the peripheral nervous system are

  1. A) somatic motor neurons and voluntary neurons.
  2. B) somatic motor neurons and autonomic neurons.
  3. C) the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
  4. D) voluntary nervous system and somatic motor neurons.

Answer:  B

Section:  Introduction

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for intense levels of activity and stress is the

  1. A) sympathetic division.
  2. B) parasympathetic division.
  3. C) craniosacral division.
  4. D) intramural division.
  5. E) somatomotor division.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) Which statements apply to the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?

  1. A) It is dominant during “resting and digesting.”
  2. B) Its ganglia are nearby, on or near their target organs.
  3. C) Epinephrine is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic division.
  4. D) It is dominant during “resting and digesting” and its ganglia are nearby, on or near their target organs.
  5. E) All of the statements apply.

Answer:  D

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

5) Nicotine enhances the release of ________ in the brain.

  1. A) serotonin
  2. B) dopamine
  3. C) acetylcholine
  4. D) epinephrine
  5. E) glutamate

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) Which area is NOT normally considered to be an autonomic control center?

  1. A) pons
  2. B) medulla
  3. C) amygdala
  4. D) hypothalamus

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) Antagonistic control of efferent output is typical of the ________ division.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) sensory
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) somatic and sensory
  5. E) somatic and autonomic

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the ________ division.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) sensory
  3. C) autonomic
  4. D) somatic and sensory
  5. E) somatic and autonomic

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

9) The adrenal medulla is important to the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system because

  1. A) it is a source of catecholamines.
  2. B) it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion.
  3. C) it releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood.
  4. D) it is a source of catecholamines and it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion.
  5. E) it is a source of catecholamines, it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and it releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood.

Answer:  E

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

10) Each of these statements is true EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) Monoamine oxidase is the main enzyme responsible for the degradation of catecholamines.
  2. B) β1receptors respond equally well to both epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  3. C) β2receptors are not innervated by sympathetic neurons, so are more sensitive to epinephrine, delivered via the blood.
  4. D) Activation of α receptors opens Na+channels in the membrane.

Answer:  D

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) Which of the following has its cell body in the ganglion?

  1. A) preganglionic neuron
  2. B) postganglionic neuron
  3. C) somatic motor neuron
  4. D) preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron
  5. E) preganglionic neuron, postganglionic neuron, and somatic motor neuron

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

12) Which area(s) of the brain exert(s) control over the autonomic nervous system?

  1. cerebrum
  2. cerebellum
  3. hypothalamus
  4. pons
  5. medulla
  6. thalamus
  7. A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  8. B) 1, 3, 5
  9. C) 1, 3, 4, 5
  10. D) 1, 2, 3, 5
  11. E) 2, 3, 4, 5

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

13) Which functions are controlled through the autonomic nervous system?

  1. blood pressure
  2. heart rate
  3. water balance
  4. temperature regulation
  5. A) 1 and 2
  6. B) 1 and 3
  7. C) 1, 2, 3
  8. D) 2, 3, 4
  9. E) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer:  E

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

14) Sweat glands contain

  1. A) cholinergic receptors.
  2. B) alpha receptors.
  3. C) beta receptors.
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

15) Increased parasympathetic stimulation

  1. A) increases heart rate.
  2. B) increases gastric motility.
  3. C) causes sweat glands to release sweat.
  4. D) causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate.
  5. E) causes the pupils to dilate.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

16) “Dual innervation” refers to an organ receiving

  1. A) two nerves from the spinal cord.
  2. B) both autonomic and somatomotor nerves.
  3. C) both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
  4. D) nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

17) The motor end plate is

  1. A) a folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold.
  2. B) the same as the neuromuscular junction.
  3. C) the same as the synaptic cleft.
  4. D) formed by the membrane of enlarged axon terminals, or boutons, that lie on the surface of skeletal muscle cells.
  5. E) a special fibrous matrix whose collagen fibers hold the axon terminal in proper position.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

Match the following with its description.

 

  1. acetylcholine
  2. norepinephrine
  3. cholinergic nicotinic receptor
  4. adrenergic receptor
  5. cholinergic muscarinic receptor

 

18) parasympathetic tissue receptor

Answer:  E

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

19) target receptor for preganglionic neurons

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

20) released by all autonomic preganglionic neurons

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

21) primary sympathetic neurotransmitter

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

22) sympathetic tissue receptor

Answer:  D

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Match the answers to the questions.

 

  1. true only for the sympathetic division
  2. true only for the parasympathetic division
  3. true for both divisions

 

23) The neural pathway from the spinal cord to the target tissue has two neurons, the preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

24) Most preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

25) The cell bodies of preganglionic neurons are found either in the brain stem or in the sacral region of the spinal cord.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

26) Inside the ganglia are interneurons, which modulate messages.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

27) The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released by neurons at the neuroeffector synapse.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

28) The ganglia are found in a chain that runs close to the spinal cord or along the descending aorta.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

29) It releases norepinephrine at the neuroeffector synapse.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

30) It contains cholinergic neurons.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

31) The adrenal medulla is closely allied with this system.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

32) On average, one preganglionic neuron synapses with eight or nine postganglionic neurons, each innervating a different target.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

33) It is important during stress or emergencies (fight-or-flight).

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

34) It dominates during resting-and-digesting activities.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

35) The two types of cholinergic receptors are ________ and ________.

Answer:  nicotinic, muscarinic

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

36) Cholinergic receptors respond to the neurotransmitter ________.

Answer:  acetylcholine

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

37) Cholinergic nicotinic receptors are found in the ________ of the ANS.

Answer:  autonomic ganglia

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

38) Cholinergic muscarinic receptors are found at the ________ in the ANS.

Answer:  parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

39) The ________ is the major source of parasympathetic output.

Answer:  vagus nerve

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

40) ________ are swellings that contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitter.

Answer:  Varicosities

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

41) Autonomic neurotransmitters are synthesized in the ________.

Answer:  axon

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) The two varieties of adrenergic receptors are ________ and ________.

Answer:  alpha, beta

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

43) The signal molecule ________ elicits the stronger response from alpha receptors.

Answer:  norepinephrine

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

44) The signal molecule ________ elicits the stronger response from beta2 receptors.

Answer:  epinephrine

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

45) ________ postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete ________ onto their target cells.

  1. A) All, norepinephrine
  2. B) Most, norepinephrine
  3. C) All, acetylcholine
  4. D) Most, acetylcholine

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

46) Epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time than the same substances released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?

  1. A) The adrenal gland releases larger amounts of the neurotransmitters than the neurons.
  2. B) The hormones released from the adrenal glands bind to different receptors than those released from neurons.
  3. C) There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and very little in peripheral tissues.
  4. D) The effectors are less sensitive to epinephrine and norepinephrine released by the adrenal glands.
  5. E) The epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal glands are released by sympathetic neurons, whereas parasympathetic neurons release these substances at the effector organs.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

47) If humans administered a physiological dose of ufo-epi responded to the chemical, which of the following would indicate ufo-epi is an epinephrine agonist?

  1. A) constriction of respiratory tubes
  2. B) hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)
  3. C) increase in fatty acids in the blood
  4. D) localized sweating
  5. E) decreased heart rate

Answer:  C

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

48) If the results of ufo-epi treatment of humans included pupil dilation, localized sweating, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose, which conclusion would be indicated?

  1. A) It acts on AMPA receptors.
  2. B) It acts at the neuromuscular junction.
  3. C) It acts on muscarinic receptors.
  4. D) It acts on alpha adrenergic receptors.
  5. E) It acts on beta adrenergic receptors.

Answer:  D

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

49) The drug Chantix®, which treats nicotine addiction, is an ________ for the nicotine receptor.

  1. A) agonist
  2. B) antagonist

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

50) A child is rushed to the hospital after taking one of his grandmother’s blood pressure medications. He has a low blood pressure and is also having trouble breathing, with audible wheezing upon exhalation. Which class of drugs did the child most likely take?

  1. A) ACE inhibitor
  2. B) beta blocker
  3. C) calcium channel blocker
  4. D) diuretic

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

Match the response with the type of chemical.

 

  1. sympathetic agonist
  2. parasympathetic agonist

 

51) pupil dilation

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

52) salivation

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

53) decreased activity in digestive tract

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

54) fat breakdown

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

Match the response with the type of chemical.

 

  1. sympathetic antagonist
  2. parasympathetic antagonist

 

55) blocks secretion of pancreatic enzymes

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

56) blocks secretion of adrenal catecholamines

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

57) blocks urination

Answer:  B

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

58) blocks sweating

Answer:  A

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

59) Explain what is meant by antagonistic control.

Answer:  For fine-tuned control over the body’s internal state, one autonomic branch may have an excitatory effect on a particular organ while the other branch is inhibitory.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

60) Map the divisions of the autonomic nervous system down to their receptors.

Answer:  See Figure 11.9 in the chapter.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

61) Describe the different types of adrenergic receptors in the autonomic nervous system. Which neurotransmitter binds to each type? For those that bind more than one neurotransmitter, how does the response to the neurotransmitters compare?

Answer:  Alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 receptors are described in Table 11.2 in the chapter. Most of these receptors are more sensitive to norepinephrine than to epinephrine, but they will all respond to either neurotransmitter. These neurotransmitters are nearly identical structurally, and the response of the target tissue to the binding of either is the same.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

62) Describe the different types of cholinergic receptors in the nervous system. Which neurotransmitter binds to each type?

Answer:  Cholinergic receptors are either nicotinic or muscarinic; they are distinguishable by the binding of either nicotine or muscarine to the same receptors. Both receptors bind to acetylcholine.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

63) Which tissues contain both cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, and how does this relate to their autonomic control?

Answer:  A list is provided in Figure 11.5 in the chapter. For most target organs listed, acetylcholine and (nor)epinephrine have opposite effects on the target organ.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

64) Describe the major anatomical differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

Answer:  Sympathetic pathways exit the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar regions whereas parasympathetic pathways exit through the cranial and sacral regions. Also, sympathetic ganglia are located near the spinal cord; and therefore, sympathetic pathways typically have short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers. In contrast, parasympathetic ganglia are located on or near their target tissue; and therefore, parasympathetic pathways have long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic fibers.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

65) Describe the general rules for the identity of neurotransmitters secreted by pre- and postganglionic neurons in the autonomic division. Be sure to specify the types of receptors, where relevant, and describe the exceptions.

Answer:  Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons secrete acetylcholine onto nicotinic receptors within the autonomic ganglion. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete norepinephrine onto adrenergic receptors. Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons secrete acetylcholine onto muscarinic receptors. Exceptions include sympathetic postganglionic neurons that secrete acetylcholine, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurons that secrete substance P, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine, nitric oxide, or ATP.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

66) Diagram the events that occur at the neuromuscular junction. Be sure to include the somatic motor neuron, axon terminal, synaptic cleft, synaptic vesicles, motor end plate, and appropriate neurotransmitter(s), ion channel(s), and membrane receptor(s).

Answer:  Variable. See Figure 11.10 in the chapter.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

67) What steps are necessary to terminate neurotransmitter action? What would happen if these steps failed?

Answer:  Neurotransmitter molecules are either enzymatically degraded or are taken back into the presynaptic terminal (reuptake). Calcium ions are removed from the axon terminal. Failure of these steps prolongs the action of the neurotransmitter. Consequences vary according to the identity of the effector organ. In a skeletal muscle, for example, this can lead to spastic paralysis.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

68) Explain the use of the terms fight and flight in describing sympathetic motor responses. How does sympathetic activity explain your increased “jumpiness” when you are home alone at night, watching a horror movie on TV?

Answer:  When presented with a real or imaginary threat, the sympathetic motor system produces changes that prepare the body to oppose the threat (“fight”) or run away from the threat (“flight”). Responses include an increase in heart and respiratory rate, and increased blood flow to cardiac and skeletal muscle. Reading or watching scenes that are threatening to others, even if you could not possibly be at risk, can produce the same sympathetic response in you as if you were actually present in the scene. If the phone rings or there is a knock at the door, you are likely to react to that very quickly, because you are primed for action.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

 

69) Anne Frank wrote a diary about the years she and a few others spent in hiding from the Nazis during World War II. These people lived in the upstairs rooms of a shop, accessible only by a hidden stairway; Anne called these quarters the Secret Annex. One day Nazis raided the shop below, but were unsuccessful in locating the hideaways or finding proof of their presence during this particular raid. Clearly hearing what was occurring downstairs, Anne and her cohorts cowered in silence, for they feared being transported to “death camps.” Later, Anne wrote that most of the residents of the Secret Annex experienced diarrhea shortly after this close call. Explain this response by their digestive systems.

Answer:  Assuming there is no pathogenic or dietary cause, diarrhea probably resulted from the fight-or-flight reaction of the sympathetic nervous system. Digestive tract secretion and motility are inhibited during a sympathetic response. When the threat had passed and the sympathetic nervous system released the digestive targets from inhibition, there may have been a rebound effect in which the parasympathetic division overstimulated the motility of the tract. Increased motility with decreased time for reabsorption of water can result in diarrhea. It is also thought that the sympathetic response actually stimulates the lower gastrointestinal tract though it inhibits the upper tract. This could also account for the effects. Students may need to consult other sources to answer this question correctly.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

70) Both alpha-bungarotoxin and curare bind to the same neurotransmitter receptor, but only curare binds reversibly. Which receptor is involved? List some locations for this receptor. Would either toxin be appropriate to use as a paralytic during surgery? Explain your answer. Are all such receptors necessarily affected by a given toxin in the same way? Explain the significance of your answer.

Answer:  Both of these toxins bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This type of receptor is located on skeletal muscle and in autonomic ganglia. For a paralytic during surgery, curare would be appropriate but bungarotoxin would not, because the irreversibility of bungarotoxin binding results in permanent paralysis of skeletal muscles. Bungarotoxin binds to the receptors in skeletal muscle but not to those in autonomic ganglia, illustrating a structural difference in the receptors in these two sites.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3, 11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

 

71) Compare and contrast the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels introduced in Chapter 8, with the acetylcholine receptor/channel. What may be confusing to the beginning physiology student trying to understand the ion specificity of the acetylcholine receptor? What type of change in the cell is produced by ion movement through each type of channel?

Answer:  The voltage-gated sodium channel opens in response to threshold voltage and allows sodium to enter the cell, thereby depolarizing the membrane potential. The potassium channel is also opened by threshold voltage and allows potassium to exit the cell, repolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane potential. The acetylcholine receptor is a neurotransmitter receptor as well as an ion channel. Because the channel is opened by binding of a chemical, it is a chemically gated channel. This channel is permeable to both sodium and potassium; when the channel opens, sodium diffuses into the cell and potassium diffuses out. The inward positive charge is sufficient to depolarize the skeletal muscle to threshold. Students are often confused by the fact that more than one type of ion moves through the acetylcholine receptor channel, and that the muscle cell is able to depolarize to threshold despite the exit of potassium.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

 

72) To perform surgery with a minimum of pain for the patient and hassle for the surgeon, a patient may be administered a general anesthetic to prevent sensation and consciousness, as well as a paralytic to prevent reflexive muscle spasms. From what you have learned of motor control, suggest mechanisms by which a paralytic can prevent muscle contraction. With paralytics, what extra measure must be taken to keep the patient alive? Name such a paralytic agent.

Answer:  From Chapter 9, students should remember that somatic motor control involves the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the basal nuclei, as well as the cerebellum. A drug that affects activity selectively in those areas could act as a paralytic; however, it is difficult to imagine the nature of the selectivity that would be required, given the use of similar neurotransmitters and receptors throughout the brain. These motor control areas of the brain act upon the spinal motor neurons, which release acetylcholine onto skeletal muscle fibers. These fibers have a type of receptor not found on autonomic targets: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The neuromuscular junction is the single point of control of a skeletal muscle by its motor neuron. A drug that interferes with synaptic transmission at this junction could be a paralytic. Because the respiratory muscles are also controlled by nicotinic neuromuscular junctions, artificial respiration must be provided by the surgical team until the paralytic is cleared from the system. Curare is a drug that works this way—curare binds to the nicotinic ACh receptor, preventing the muscles from being activated by ACh.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

 

73) At the molecular level, what are the effects of nicotine on the nervous system? How are these effects exerted? How are these effects similar to or different from those of curare? How do these effects explain some of the physiological consequences of smoking?

Answer:  Nicotine binds to a type of acetylcholine receptor known as the nicotinic receptor; nicotine does not bind to the other type of acetylcholine receptor, the muscarinic receptor. Like acetylcholine, nicotine activates the receptor and produces a postsynaptic response. Nicotinic receptors are located on skeletal muscles and on the postganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous divisions. Curare also binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, but it does not activate the receptor; therefore the effect of curare is paralysis of skeletal muscles. Overall, nicotine is a CNS stimulant, suggesting greater stimulation of the sympathetic division than of the parasympathetic division.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3, 11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

74) In a laboratory experiment, adding curare, which binds to acetylcholine receptors, to the solution around a muscle decreases the size of the end-plate potential. Adding prostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase blocker, increases the size of the end-plate potential. Explain why.

Answer:  By binding to acetylcholine receptors, curare prevents the binding of acetylcholine. Curare does not open the receptor channels. An end-plate potential results from the opening of several ACh receptor channels. Thus, if the receptor is blocked, any end-plate potential that is produced would be smaller. Prostigmine blocks the enzyme that stops ACh action by degrading the neurotransmitter. Interfering with this enzyme prolongs the action of ACh, thus more receptor channels open and the end-plate potential is larger.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

75) Phenelzine is a common MAO inhibitor that has been used to treat depression. It is not, however, prescribed as often as other antidepressants due to its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Describe several side effects that may result from taking phenelzine and explain why they might occur.

Answer:  MAO inhibitors prevent the enzymatic breakdown of catecholamines such as norepinephrine. As a result, a higher concentration of norepinephrine remains in the synapse and therefore is able to elicit a longer / stronger response on its target tissues. Consequently, norepinephrine can prolong its activity through sympathetic pathways to increase heart rate and blood pressure, decrease gastric motility causing constipation as well as prevent penile ejaculation leading to sexual dysfunction. This is discussed in “The Autonomic Division” section of the chapter.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

 

76) Though you are an attentive parent, you lost track of your inquisitive toddler for a few minutes, just long enough for him to wander into the garage and open a package of insecticide that you use to control insects in your garden. You have no idea if any of the poison has been ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through his skin. You take the package away from your child and read under the “caution” section that it is an anticholinesterase. Given that this poison was made for insects, not humans, should you be worried? Explain your answer. What would happen to the child if he has indeed been affected? Explain which type of synapses could be affected. Propose an antidote (it’s OK if you don’t remember a specific compound, just describe what type of effect may reverse the effects of the insecticide).

Answer:  Insects have acetycholine receptors that are similar enough to ours so that yes, you should be worried. Anticholinesterases block the degradation of acetylcholine, thereby prolonging its effects in both muscarinic and nicotinic synapses. If the dose is high enough, spastic paralysis could result, in which muscles contract uncontrollably. If this happens with the respiratory muscles, the victim may die of suffocation. Autonomic effects would also be expected, including sweating and nausea. A chemical such as atropine, which blocks muscarinic receptors, will alleviate some of the symptoms. Oximes (not mentioned in text) block nicotinic receptors and can be administered to counteract nicotinic effects of the poison.

Section:  The Autonomic Division

Learning Outcome:  11.3, 11.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

 

You and your fellow deep-sea scientists have discovered a new form of marine invertebrate, and are anxious to determine the similarities and differences to animals already characterized. Chemical analysis reveals the following concentrations of permeable cations:

 

Ion [in] mM [out] mM
Na+ 50 450
K+ 420 20
Mg++ 10 60
Cl- 50 550

 

Nernst equation: Eion = 61/z × log [ion]out/[ion]in

 

77) Control of the neuromuscular junction in this new invertebrate is found to involve dual innervation, where one motor neuron secretes an excitatory neurotransmitter and another secretes an inhibitory neurotransmitter onto the muscle. How does this compare to the human neuromuscular junction? Propose three different types of inhibitory receptors/channels that would produce inhibition of the invertebrate muscle, specifying ion and direction of ion flow. For each ion, calculate the equilibrium potential. What similarity do you notice in the equilibrium potentials of the ions involved, and how is that significant? How may inhibition be accomplished in human muscle?

Answer:  The human neuromuscular junction is innervated by only an excitatory neuron. The inhibitory motor neuron in the invertebrate may open a channel to potassium, to chloride, or to both, resulting in hyperpolarization as potassium exits and/or chloride enters.

EK+ = 61 × log 20/420 = -81 mV. ECl- = -61 × log 550/50 = -64 mV.

Both of these equilibrium potentials are negative, indicating that these ions can be useful for inhibition. In humans, inhibition of muscle activity occurs within the CNS, rather than at the muscle.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

 

78) Your studies of the neuromuscular junction reveal that the excitatory neurotransmitter opens a channel permeable to all three cations. Calculate the equilibrium potential for each cation. In which direction will each cation move when the channel is open? Does movement of ions promote muscle depolarization? Explain your answer.

Answer:  ENa+ = 61 × log 450/50 = 58 mV. EK+ = 61 × log 20/420 = -81 mV.

EMg++ = 61 × log 60/10 = 47 mV.

Sodium and magnesium will enter the cell, potassium will exit. Exit of potassium opposes depolarization, but presumably there will be a net gain in intracellular positive charge sufficient to depolarize the cell.

Section:  The Somatic Motor Division

Learning Outcome:  11.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation