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An Introduction To Brain And Behavior 5 Th Ed By Kolb – Test Bank 

 

CHAPTE 1

Name: __________________________  Date: _____________

 

 

1. Brain abnormalities can be related to:
A) 500 disorders.
B) 1000 disorders.
C) 1500 disorders.
D) more than 2,000 disorders.

 

 

2. All the nerve processes radiating out beyond the brain and spinal cord as well as all the neurons outside the brain and spinal cord constitute the:
A) nervous system.
B) central nervous system.
C) peripheral nervous system.
D) external nervous system.

 

 

3. Which is NOT part of the peripheral nervous system?
A) sensory receptors in the skin
B) connections to motor neurons
C) sensory and motor connections to internal organs (e.g., the stomach)
D) the spinal cord

 

 

4. The set of brain structures responsible for most of our unconscious behaviors is called:
A) the cerebral hemisphere.
B) the brainstem.
C) the cerebrum.
D) the cerebellum.

 

 

5. The postulation that we make subliminal movements of our larynx and muscles when we imagine was expounded by:
A) D. O. Hebb.
B) Edmond Jacobson.
C) Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt.
D) Fred Linge.

 

 

6. “Behavior consists of patterns in time” is a definition of behavior expounded by:
A) D. O. Hebb.
B) Edmond Jacobson.
C) Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt.
D) Fred Linge.

 

 

7. Patterns in time can be made up of:
A) movements.
B) thinking.
C) both movements and thinking.
D) neither movements nor thinking.

 

 

8. Animals with smaller brains and simpler nervous systems have mostly _____ behaviors, whereas animals with larger brains and more complex nervous systems have mostly _____ behaviors.
A) learned; inherited
B) inherited; learned
C) innate; inherited
D) learned; innate

 

 

9. Crossbill birds have a beak that is designed to eat pine cones. If we trim the beak, the behavior disappears. This example illustrates:
A) fixed behavior.
B) flexible behavior.
C) learned behavior.
D) adaptive behavior.

 

 

10. The sucking response observed in newborn human infants is an example of a(n):
A) learned response.
B) inherited response.
C) flexible response.
D) adaptive response

 

 

11. Which statement is the MOST accurate?
A) Nonhuman animals have mostly inherited behavior and are little influenced by learning.
B) Humans share many inherited behaviors but are mostly influenced by learning.
C) Unlike nonhuman animals, humans share very few inherited behaviors and are mostly influenced by learning.
D) Unlike nonhuman animals, humans’ behavior is totally learned.

 

 

12. The hypothesis that the psyche is responsible for behavior was expounded by:
A) Charles Darwin.
B) René Descartes.
C) Aristotle.
D) Socrates.

 

 

13. Mentalism is:
A) the study of the mind.
B) mental imagery.
C) the notion that the mind is responsible for behavior.
D) another word for mindfulness.

 

 

14. The _____ is a nonmaterial entity that is responsible for intelligence, attention, awareness, and consciousness.
A) brain
B) heart
C) mind
D) conscience

 

 

15. The notion that the mind resides in the pineal body comes from:
A) Charles Darwin.
B) René Descartes.
C) Aristotle.
D) Socrates.

 

 

16. According to the philosophy of dualism:
A) the body influences the mind.
B) the pineal body is the mind.
C) the pineal body influences the body by directing fluids from the ventricles to the muscles.
D) the pineal body is the mind and influences the body by directing fluids from the ventricles to the muscles.

 

 

17. Subsequent research indicated that the pineal body was responsible for _____ rather than controlling human behavior.
A) vision
B) problem solving
C) movement
D) biological rhythms

 

 

18. The difficulty in explaining how a nonmaterial mind can influence a material body is called:
A) the mind problem.
B) the mind-body problem.
C) the brain problem.
D) the psyche problem

 

 

19. Descartes’s followers would argue that:
A) the mind and the body are separate at birth.
B) humans and very few other animals have minds.
C) young children do not have minds.
D) the mentally ill have minds.

 

 

20. The notion that all behavior can be explained by the workings of the brain is commonly referred to as:
A) psychology.
B) experimentalism.
C) materialism.
D) dualism.

 

 

21. The notion that all living things are related was put forward by:
A) Charles Darwin.
B) Alfred Russel Wallace.
C) neither Charles Darwin nor Alfred Russel Wallace.
D) both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

 

 

22. The notion that differential success in the reproduction of characteristics results from interactions between organisms and their environment is known as:
A) natural selection.
B) genetic theory.
C) biological theory.
D) innate behavior.

 

 

23. Images of blood flow in the brain in monkeys have demonstrated that:
A) humans and monkeys use different brain areas for language.
B) humans and monkeys use the same brain areas for language.
C) monkeys show no brain activation for language because they cannot understand language.
D) None of the answers is correct.

 

 

24. Individual variation in plants and animals was first explained by:
A) Charles Darwin.
B) Gregor Mendel .
C) neither Charles Darwin nor Gregor Mendel.
D) both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel.

 

 

25. The study of how genetic expression is related to the environment and experience is known as:
A) genotyping.
B) phenotyping.
C) epigenetics.
D) environmental genetics.

 

 

26. Neuroscientists study the nervous systems of other animals such as slugs, snails, fruit flies, rats and monkeys because:
A) if all animals are related then all nervous systems are related and we can learn about the human brain by studying other animals.
B) all animals’ nervous systems are different, which means that we need to study each animal separately in order to understand how their specific nervous system works.
C) the mind and the body are separate which means that we need to study a variety of different animals to see how their minds work.
D) None of the answers is correct.

 

 

27. Inherited behavior:
A) is demonstrated only by animal instincts.
B) includes emotional expressions in humans.
C) cannot include emotional expressions in humans because the behavior is learned.
D) includes emotional expression in animals but not in humans.

 

 

28. Of the 100,000 people in the United States who may become comatose in a given year, how many recover consciousness?
A) 5 percent
B) 20 percent
C) 30 percent
D) 50 percent

 

 

29. A person who can display some rudimentary behaviors such as smiling or blinking but is otherwise not conscious is described as being:
A) in a coma.
B) in a persistent vegetative state.
C) in a minimally conscious state.
D) brain dead.

 

 

30. In a study with a patient in a minimally conscious state, Schiff and colleagues found that _____ led to dramatic improvements in the patient’s behavior.
A) deep brain stimulation
B) reading to the patient
C) music therapy
D) gene therapy

 

 

31. The first humanlike brain evolved:
A) 700 million years ago.
B) 250 million years ago.
C) 6 million years ago.
D) 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.

 

 

32. The first brain evolved approximately:
A) 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
B) 3 million to 4 million years ago.
C) 250 million years ago.
D) 700 million years ago.

 

 

33. Humans are of the order ____ and the family_____.
A) mammals; primates
B) primates; mammals
C) primates; great apes
D) great apes; primates

 

 

34. Which sequences is correct?
A) phylum, order, class, family, genus, species
B) phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
C) phylum, class, family, order, genus, species
D) phylum, family, class, order, genus, species

 

 

35. The branch of biology that is concerned with naming and classifying species is:
A) genetics.
B) embryology.
C) taxonomy.
D) evolutionary biology.

 

 

36. Humans, monkeys, Neanderthals, and chimpanzees—all belong to the same:
A) species.
B) genus.
C) family.
D) order.

 

 

37. Humans, tigers, dogs, and monkeys are all part of the same:
A) species.
B) class.
C) genus.
D) family.

 

 

38. Insects have:
A) only nerve nets.
B) only a few ganglia.
C) enough ganglia to be called a brain.
D) the same brain organization as a chordate.

 

 

39. The correct order of organisms from the least complex to the most complex nervous system is:
A) flatworm, frog, squid, sea anemone.
B) sea anemone, frog, flatworm, squid.
C) sea anemone, flatworm, squid, frog.
D) frog, sea anemone, squid, flatworm.

 

 

40. Animals with both a brain and a spinal cord are called:
A) mammals.
B) eukaryotic.
C) primates.
D) chordates.

 

 

41. Humans are unique in that they have the:
A) largest brain of any animal species.
B) most complex spinal cord of any animal species.
C) largest brain to body size ratio of any living animal.
D) most advanced nervous system of any living animal.

 

 

42. More advanced nervous systems often have similar structures on the left and right sides (e.g., the left and right hemispheres of the brain). This concept is known as:
A) mirroring.
B) bilateral symmetry.
C) bilateral structures.
D) mirror symmetry.

 

 

43. A notochord is a:
A) spinal cord and a brain.
B) longitudinal flexible rod in the back.
C) segmented spine.
D) segmented spine and spinal cord.

 

 

44. Chordates are any organisms that have:
A) a brain.
B) a spinal cord.
C) a peripheral nervous system.
D) a brain and a spinal cord.

 

 

45. The correct order of the evolution of nervous systems from simple to complex is:
A) nerve net, segmentation, ganglia, spinal cord, brain.
B) spinal cord, nerve net, brain, ganglia, segmentation.
C) brain, spinal cord, nerve net, segmentation, ganglia.
D) ganglia, nerve net, segmentation, brain, spinal cord.

 

 

46. Other than humans, which chordate has the largest forebrain?
A) reptiles
B) amphibians
C) birds
D) bony fish

 

 

47. Increased brain size and increased folding are most prominent in which chordate species?
A) dolphins
B) primates
C) neither primates nor dolphins
D) both primates and dolphins

 

 

48. The primate order contains approximately:
A) 275 species.
B) 375 species.
C) 475 species.
D) 575 species.

 

 

49. Humans and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor approximately:
A) 2–4 million years ago.
B) 3–6 million years ago.
C) 5–10 million years ago.
D) 10-15 million years ago.

 

 

50. Humans are most closely related to:
A) gibbons.
B) orangutans.
C) chimpanzees.
D) gorillas.