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Marine Biology 8th Edition By Peter Castro – Test Bank 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The Challenger expedition made collections of marine organisms:

Around the world

In the Pacific Ocean only

 

In the Atlantic Ocean only

 

In the Mediterranean Sea only

 

In the North Sea only

 

The first marine laboratory in the world was established in:

Russia

 

England

 

France

Italy

 

Japan

 

The first marine laboratory established in the U.S. was:

Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory in Washington

 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California

 

Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts

 

Smithsonian Institution in Washington

 

Hopkins Marine Station in California

 

Charles Darwin, who proposed the theory of evolution, was actually a marine biologist who specialized in:

Whales

Fishes

 

Marine birds

 

Barnacles

 

Oysters

 

A technological development that was a direct development of World War II:

Scuba

 

Research vessels

 

Nets

Marine laboratories

 

Sonar

 

The scientific method can be best described as:

Undertaking of experiments in laboratories

 

Use of induction and deduction

 

Collecting data in the field

 

Procedures used to learn about our world

 

Steps used to obtain observations

 

The factors that might affect observations are called:

Controls

 

Variables

Experiments

 

Hypotheses

 

Inductive observations

 

A control can be best defined as:

A variable that is kept constant in an experiment

An experiment where the final results are known ahead of time

 

A hypothesis that regulates the results of an experiment

 

An experiment that is undertaken both in the field and in the laboratory

 

A variable that changes during the course of an experiment

 

A marine biologist observes that mako sharks, sardines, and salmon leap out of the water. An example of induction from these observations is:

Only some fishes can leap out of the water

 

All fishes leap out of the water

Fishes leap out of the water to escape from predators

 

Flatfishes can leap out of the water since they live on the bottom

 

Leaping out of the water is often used in feeding

 

From the general statement “All fishes lay eggs,” the following results from deduction:

Since tuna are fish, tuna lay eggs

 

Since tuna are fish, tuna swim

 

Egg laying is beneficial to fishes

 

Tuna must lay their eggs in deep water

Since fishes are marine, tuna lay eggs

 

An example of a hypothesis that is not a valid scientific hypothesis because it cannot be proven false:

The earth is flat

The sun revolves around the earth

 

Organisms similar to deep-water marine worms live in the center of the earth

 

The deepest spot on the ocean is off the coast of a volcanic island

 

Whales listen to sound

 

An experiment can be best described as:

A set of observations that become a hypothesis

 

Obtaining data from the field

 

An artificially created situation to test a hypothesis

Controlling a particular factor in the field

 

Making observations from naturally occurring events

 

Science is limited since it cannot:

Predict the future

 

Make judgments about ethics, values, and morality

 

Arrive at fundamental truths

 

Provide information that can be applied to real life

 

Provide exceptions for negative evidence

 

One of the following is outside the realm of science:

Observations made using extrasensory perception (ESP)

 

Data collected from an experiment

Data collected from the field

 

Anything that can be obtained by our senses

 

Observations made by satellites

 

Scientific knowledge is ultimately traced to:

Hypotheses

 

Inductions

 

Deductions

 

Theories

Observations

 

How much of the Earth’s oxygen is generated by marine organisms?

25%

50%

 

75%

 

90%

 

95%

 

What is the estimated annual value of the ocean’s living systems?

$ 2 million

 

$ 2 billion

 

$ 20 billion

$ 2 trillion

 

$20 trillion

 

Which of the following statements about Charles Darwin is not true?

Darwin proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection

 

Darwin was the first to use a chronometer timepiece

 

Darwin served as a naturalist on the HMS Beagle

 

Darwin explained the formation of atolls

 

Darwin used nets to capture plankton

 

Who is the first scientist credited with documenting that sea floor life varies with depth?

Charles Darwin

 

James Cook

Leif Eriksson

 

Edward Forbes

 

Charles Wyville Thompson

 

Jacques Cousteau is best known for helping to perfect which marine technology?

Sonar

 

Remote sensing

 

Scuba

 

Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)

 

When can a hypothesis be accepted as absolutely true?

After one experiment or observation

After ten experiments or observations

 

After numerous experiments or observations over many years

 

Never

 

In experiments, scientists create artificial situations to test hypotheses because:

They cannot make the necessary observations under natural conditions.

 

It is always easier to study organisms in the lab

 

Hypotheses cannot be accepted unless they have been studied under these conditions

 

The scientific method requires it

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

One of the following is not one of the world’s major ocean basins:

Atlantic Ocean

Arctic Ocean

 

Indian Ocean

 

Antarctic Ocean

 

Pacific Ocean

 

The world’s smallest and shallowest ocean:

Atlantic Ocean

 

Arctic Ocean

 

Indian Ocean

Antarctic Ocean

 

Pacific Ocean

 

The world’s largest and deepest ocean:

Atlantic Ocean

 

Arctic Ocean

 

Indian Ocean

 

Antarctic Ocean

 

Pacific Ocean

 

Oceanographers often use the name “Southern Ocean” to refer to the body of water:

Around Antarctica

 

In the South Pacific

South of the North Sea

 

South of Florida

 

Around the southern tip of Africa

 

Density is:

The mass of a substance per unit volume

 

A measure of weight

 

The mass of a substance multiplied by its percentage volume of water

 

A measure of volume

The volume occupied by a particular substance in relation to that of water

 

There is evidence that the earth and the rest of the solar system formed about:

5 million years ago

1 billion years ago

 

5 billion years ago

 

5 billion years ago

 

10 million years ago

 

The solid layer of the earth found below the crust is called the:

Inner core

 

Mantle

 

Inner crust

Outer core

 

Oceanic crust

 

The earth’s magnetic field is thought to be caused by movements of liquid metal in which of the earth’s layers?

Inner core

 

Outer core

 

Oceanic crust

 

Mantle

 

Continental crust

 

The thinnest layer of the earth is the:

Inner core

 

Outer core

Crust

 

Mantle

 

Which of the following is not true of oceanic crust?

It is thinner than continental crust

 

It is denser than continental crust

 

It is geologically younger than continental crust

 

It lies below sea level

 

It consists mostly of granite

 

Which of the following is not true of mid-ocean ridges?

Earthquakes and volcanoes are associated with them

 

The sediments get thinner as one moves away from them

The rock on the sea floor is older as one moves away from them

 

Sea floor spreading is associated with them

 

All are interconnected

 

Lithospheric plates:

Only contain continental crust

 

Only contain oceanic crust

 

Collide with one another at the mid-ocean ridge

 

Float on the upper mantle

Are directly connected with the inner core of the earth

 

Trenches are formed where:

A plate is lifted by another

A plate moves above another

 

A plate splits and opens up

 

Sea floor spreading takes place

 

A plate sinks beneath another

 

The process by which a lithospheric plate descends into the mantle is called:

Continental drift

 

Induction

 

Sea floor spreading

Subduction

 

Faulting

 

The friction zone along the shear boundary between two lithospheric plates is called a:

Fault

 

Rift

 

Trench

 

Mid-ocean ridge

 

Sea

 

An example of an island arch along a trench:

Aleutian Islands

Hawaiian Islands

 

Australia

 

Galápagos Islands

 

Bermuda

 

Which in not a type of lithospheric plate boundary?

Shear boundary

 

Continental margin

 

Trench

Mid-ocean ridge

 

The vast single ocean present about 200 million years ago is called:

Sinus Borealis

Pangaea

 

Tethys

 

Panthalassa

 

Gondwana

 

Lithogenous sediments are those that come from:

Plants

 

Living organisms in general

 

Deep-water volcanoes

Erosion of land

 

Corals

 

The outer edge of the continental margin is the:

Shelf break

 

Continental slope

 

Continental rise

 

Edge of the abyssal plain

 

Continental edge

 

The steepest part of the continental margin is known as the:

Shelf break

 

Continental slope

Continental rise

 

Edge of the abyssal plain

 

Continental edge

 

The shallow part of the continental margin that is closer to land is known as:

Shelf break

 

Continental slope

 

Continental rise

 

Edge of the abyssal plain

Continental shelf

 

The west coast of South America is an active margin. As such, it is characterized by all of the following except:

Earthquakes

 

Volcanoes

 

Wide continental shelf

 

Steep and rocky shorelines

 

Steep continental slope

 

The east coast of the United States is a passive margin characterized by:

Mountains along the coast

Steep and rocky shorelines

 

Narrow continental shelf

 

Offshore trench

 

Gentle continental slope

 

Black smokers form as a result of the accumulation of:

Deep-water animals

 

Lava

 

Biogenous sediments

Minerals

 

Material released from the formation of trenches

 

How much of the Earth’s surface is covered by the world ocean?

53%

 

65%

 

71%

 

78%

 

80%

 

The largest percentage of the world ocean is found in the:

Northern hemisphere

 

Southern hemisphere

Eastern hemisphere

 

Western hemisphere

 

The ocean is evenly distributed

 

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

Oceanic crust is made of a mineral called basalt

 

Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust

 

Oceanic crust is thinner than continental crust

 

Oceanic crust is older than continental crust

Chemical differences are seem between oceanic and continental crust

 

Evidence of plate techtonics is provided by:

Magnetic anomalies

Sea floor spreading

 

Mid ocean ridge

 

All of the above

 

B and C only

 

The type of plate boundary where plates move past each other is called:

Island arc

 

Subduction zone

 

Trench

Convection zone

 

Shear boundary

 

Sea level naturally fluctuates through geologic time. What is occurring now with regards to sea level?

Sea level is falling

 

Sea level is rising

 

Sea level is stable

 

Scientists are not sure

 

Sea level varies by location

 

The most biologically rich part of the ocean is the:

Shelf break

Continental shelf

 

Continental slope

 

Continental rise

 

Deep-sea floor

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Hydrogen bonds in water molecules are formed between:

Hydrogen atoms of adjacent molecules

Oxygen atoms of adjacent molecules

 

Hydrogen and oxygen atoms of adjacent molecules

 

Two hydrogen atoms of the same molecule

 

Two oxygen atoms of the same molecule

 

When water cools, the molecules move ______________ and take up ______________ space.

Faster, less

 

Slower, more

 

Faster, more

Slower, less

 

Up, less

 

Which of the following are not elements?

Sodium chloride

 

Nitrogen

 

Hydrogen

 

Oxygen

 

Magnesium

 

A temperature of 4°C indicates:

Boiling point of water

 

Maximum density of water

Freezing point of water

 

Sublimation point of water

 

Condensation point of water

 

Hydrogen bonds:

Lower the heat capacity of water

 

Cause ice to melt at a lower temperature

 

Make ice less dense than water

 

Lower the boiling point of water

Do not affect the heat capacity of water at all

 

Which ions comprise about 85% of the solutes in seawater?

Magnesium and sulfate

Sodium and chloride

 

Calcium and carbonate

 

Potassium and chloride

 

Calcium and sulfate

 

The salinity of water is generally expressed in:

Percentage per thousand liters of water

 

Total weight per pound

 

Percentage per liter

Parts per thousand

 

Percentage per thousand

 

The rule of constant proportions expresses that:

Salinity varies with geographical location

The percentage of sodium varies with depth

 

The percentage of chlorine varies with geographical location

 

Salinity varies depending on the season

 

The relative concentration of ions does not change

 

Salinity of seawater increases:

With an increase in rain

 

Near the mouth of rivers

 

Around ice as it melts in spring

With a decrease in depth

 

As evaporation increases

 

The heat capacity of water is ______________ compared with other naturally occurring substances.

High

 

Low

 

Equal

 

Fluctuates by location

 

None of the above

 

The secchi disk is used to indirectly estimate:

The type of light that is absorbed by water

 

How much light penetrates through the water column

How salinity varies with depth

 

The relationship between temperature and salinity

 

The amount of oxygen in the water

 

Water is unusual because it is less dense as a solid than a liquid. This is important for marine organisms because:

A layer of ice insulates organisms beneath it

 

If ice was more dense, the oceans would freeze from the bottom and leave no available space

 

Cold water holds less oxygen than warm water

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

Pressure increases with depth by adding one atmosphere of pressure for every:

10 meters of depth

 

50 meters of depth

 

100 meters of depth

 

500 meters of depth

 

None of the choices are correct, pressure depends on the temperature of the water

 

The Coreolis effect is the direct result of one of the following:

Temperature

 

Gravitational pull of the sun

Ocean currents

 

Rotation of the earth

 

Wind

 

The factor that most affects wind patterns in the atmosphere of the earth:

Depth of the sea

 

Clouds

 

Temperature

 

Volcanoes

Gravitational pull of sun and moon

 

Trade winds:

Are unaffected by the Coreolis effect

Approach the Equator at a 90 degrees angle

 

Develop between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south

 

Move north in the Northern Hemisphere

 

Change direction depending on ocean currents

 

Gyres are:

Large circular systems of surface currents

 

Affected by the Coreolis effect only in the Northern Hemisphere

 

Extend along the Equator

Extend over Antarctica

 

Are found only in the Pacific Ocean

 

The major surface currents of the oceans rotate counterclockwise in the:

Northern Hemisphere only

 

Southern Hemisphere only

 

In both hemispheres

 

In the Atlantic Ocean only

 

In the Pacific Ocean only

 

A cold current flows almost into the Equator along the:

Atlantic coast of North America

 

Atlantic coast of South America

Pacific coast of Australia

 

Pacific coast of Asia

 

Pacific coast of South America

 

The highest part of a wave is called the:

Trough

 

Period

 

Fetch

 

Wavelength

Crest

 

Wave size is affected by the amount of open water, or ______________, that winds blow over.:

 

Trough

Period

 

Fetch

 

Wavelength

 

Crest

 

Spring tides are caused by:

Gravitational attraction of the moon

 

Gravitational attraction of the sun

 

Gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun when in line

Gravitational attraction of moon and the sun when at right angles to each other

 

Ocean currents

 

A full tidal cycle lasts:

12 hours

 

12 hours, 50 minutes

 

24 hours

 

24 hours, 50 minutes

 

48 hours

 

Mixed semidiurnal tides are characterized by:

Two daily high tides, one higher than the other

One daily high tide

 

Two daily high tides, both of the same approximate height

 

One daily high tide that is always higher than the high tide of the previous day

 

Two daily high and three daily low tides

 

The main thermocline is located at the zone:

Right above the mixed layer

 

Between the warm and cold layers

 

Along the bottom

Below the intermediate layer

 

Right at the surface in warm tropical water

 

How does the oxygen content of the ocean compare to the air that humans breathe?

Higher oxygen content

 

Lower oxygen content

 

No significant difference exists

 

Depends of the salinity of the water

 

Depends on the depth of the water

 

The Eckman spiral occurs as a result of:

Salinity

 

Transparency

Pressure

 

Dissolved gases

 

Wind

 

Which of the following is true about tropical organisms like corals?

They survive at higher latitudes on the eastern sides of oceans

 

They survive at higher latitudes of the western sides of oceans

 

They survive at higher latitudes on northern sides of oceans

 

There is no difference

A and B only

 

Forces that cause water movements lead to mixing of the ocean once every ______________ years

 

2000

3000

 

4000

 

5000

 

6000

 

 

 

CHAPTER  4

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

All of the following are characteristics of living things except one:

Grow

Produce diseases

 

Reproduce

 

Metabolize

 

React to the external environment

 

Which is not an organic compound?

Water

 

Sugars

 

Proteins

Lipids

 

Nucleic acids

 

The function of enzymes is to:

Provide structure

 

Store energy

 

Hold genetic information

 

Speed up chemical reactions

 

Provide buoyancy

 

One important function of carbohydrates is that they:

Form enzymes

 

Are structural molecules

Repel water

 

Store energy

 

Hold genetic information

 

Which of the following organic molecules store energy, provide insulation, and assist in buoyancy?

Proteins

 

Carbohydrates

 

Lipids

 

Nucleic acids

Amino acids

 

What type of molecule store and transmit genetic information?

Amino acids

Carbohydrates

 

Proteins

 

Lipids

 

Nucleic acids

 

One of the by-products of photosynthesis is:

Water

 

Energy released into the surrounding environment

 

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

 

Energy contained in the water molecules

 

During the process of cellular respiration:

Solar energy trapped in photosynthesis is released

Carbon dioxide and water form sugars

 

Solar energy is transformed into chemical energy

 

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are produced

 

Sunlight is used to create energy

 

In primary production:

Oxygen utilized by animals is less than the oxygen produced by plants

 

Carbon dioxide is released into the water

 

Oxygen is utilized by plants

Organic matter is produced in excess of organic matter broken down by respiration

 

Proteins are manufactured by animals

 

The most important nutrients for plant growth in the ocean are:

Sodium and chloride

 

Nitrogen and oxygen

 

Carbon dioxide and oxygen

 

Oxygen and vitamins

 

Nitrogen and phosphorus

 

Which of the following is not true of a cell?

It is the basic structural unit of life

 

Mitochondria are found in both plant and animal cells

The cell membrane allows all substances to pass in and out of the cell

 

All organisms are made of one or more cells

 

The membrane-bound structures with most cells are called organelles

 

Prokaryotes:

Are more organized and complex than eukaryotes

 

Include bacteria

 

Have many organelles in their cells

 

All carry out photosynthesis

Have a nucleus in their cells

 

All of the following are organelles except:

Endoplasmic reticulum

DNA

 

Nucleus

 

Mitochondria

 

Chloroplasts

 

Which of the following shows the correct level of organization in order of increasing complexity?

Molecule, cell, organelle, individual, community

 

Organelle, tissue, organ, community, population

 

Ecosystem, individual, organ, cell

Molecule, atom, cell, organ system, ecosystem

 

Atom, molecule, organ, population, ecosystem

 

A group of organisms living together on a rocky beach is an example of a(an):

Population

 

Community

 

Individual

 

Ecosystem

 

Colony of individuals

 

The ecosystem best encompasses one of the following:

All living organisms living in one area

Populations in one area but not the physical environment

 

The community or communities but not the physical environment

 

The community or communities and the physical environment

 

Populations and communities living in one area

 

Which of the following is NOT true regarding photosynthesis?

Atmospheric oxygen is a result of this process

 

Organic molecules are made directly through this process

 

ATP is made directly by this process

Carbon dioxide is a raw material for this process

 

Carbohydrates are made directly by this process

 

The cell membrane is said to be “selectively permeable” because it:

Allows only some substances to move through

 

Allows all substances to enter the cell

 

Allows all substances to leave the cell

 

Allows only the smallest molecules to enter the cell

 

Allows only water and salts to enter the cell

 

Marine organisms whose internal salt concentration varies with that of their environment are examples of:

Osmoregulators

Fresh-water organisms

 

Ion-concentrators

 

Osmoconformers

 

Urea-concentrators

 

Typical marine fishes:

Tend to gain water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is higher than that of seawater

 

Tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is lower than that of seawater

 

Do not drink seawater since they need to conserve as much water as possible

Produce a large volume of urine since they need to conserve as much water as possible

 

Drink seawater and as a result produce large amounts of urine

 

The term “endotherms” is applied to those organisms:

Commonly known as “warm blooded”

 

Where the internal temperature is more or less kept constant

 

That retain some of its metabolic heat

 

Commonly known as “heat-producers”

 

Where the internal salt concentration as well as their temperature is kept constant

 

All of the following are examples of asexual reproduction except:

Fission

 

Fertilization

Plants sending out “runners”

 

Budding

 

Cell division

 

Male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (eggs):

Contain a diploid (2n) number of chromosomes

 

Are produced by mitosis

 

Fuse during fertilization

 

Are typically the largest cells in an organism

Are involved in producing identical clones of an organism

 

Which of the following shows the correct taxonomic level?

Kingdom, phylum, order, species, genus

Kingdom, phylum, family, genus, species

 

Kingdom, family, order, phylum, genus

 

Kingdom, order, phylum, genus, species

 

Order, family, phylum, genus, species

 

Which of the following are not correctly paired?

Kingdom Plantae-mangroves

 

Kingdom Fungi-mushrooms

 

Kingdom Animalia-dolphins

Prokaryotes-sponges

 

Eukaryotes-bacteria

 

Which of the following statements regarding bacteria is NOT true?

Bacteria are prokaryotic

 

Bacteria are eukaryotic

 

Bacteria lack a nucleus

 

Bacteria can be photosynthetic

 

Bacteria have cell walls

 

Cellular respiration occurs in:

Mitochindria

 

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi complex

 

Nucleus

 

Centrioles

 

The end product of cellular respiration is:

Oxygen

 

Nitrogen

 

ATP

 

Amino acids

Glucose

 

Which of the following is found only in DNA?

Adenine

Thymine

 

Guanine

 

Cytosine

 

Uracil

 

What is the role of ATP in organisms?

Serves as an energy storage molecule

 

Serves as a structural molecule

 

Serves as a genetic storage molecule

Serves as a genetic transfer molecule

 

Speeds up chemical reactions

 

 

 

CHAPTER  5

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

One of the following statements about marine viruses is not true:

Are involved in the release of DOM (dissolved organic matter) into the water

Bridge the gap between the non-living and the living

 

Their genetic material is in the form of DNA or RNA

 

Cause diseases in many types of organisms

 

Consist of minute cells sometimes attached into chains

 

Bacteriophages are:

Archea

 

Bacteria

 

Protozoa

Algae

 

Viruses

 

Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in regards to:

Shape of DNA molecules

 

Size of ribosomes

 

Presence of nucleus

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

Which of the following is not true of decay bacteria?

Break down waste products and dead organic matter

 

Carry out photosynthesis

Are heterotrophs

 

Are particularly abundant in bottom sediments

 

Ensure the recycling of essential nutrients

 

Bacteria that make their own organic compounds by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from light are known as:

Heterotrophic

 

Decay

 

Photosynthetic

Protists

 

Chemosynthetic

 

Cyanobacteria are characterized by being:

Decomposers

 

Found only in the plankton

 

Having a glass-like skeleton

 

Protists

 

Photosynthetic

 

Which of the following are classified as autotrophs?

Cyanobacteria

 

Lysogenic viruses

Bacteriophages

 

All of the above

 

B and C only

 

Endophytes are primary producers that live:

On the surface of planktonic organisms

Inside primary producers

 

Inside animals

 

On the surface of animals

 

Within decay organisms

 

Archaea are characterized by being:

Prokaryotic

 

Autotrophs only

 

Heterotrophs only

Found only in extreme environments

 

Eukaryotic

 

Archaea are now being detected in many environments by identifying one of the following chemicals characteristic of the group:

Pigments

 

Chlorophyll

 

Nucleic acids

 

Proteins

Carbohydrates

 

Organisms having a shell made of silica (SiO2):

Foraminiferans

Stromatolites

 

Cyanobacteria

 

Diatoms

 

Ciliates

 

Diatoms are mostly:

Heterotrophs

 

Planktonic

 

Multicellular

Red in color

 

Prokaryotic

 

Which of the following can be dangerous to human health?

Diatoms

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Radiolarians

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

Red tides are caused mostly by:

Diatoms

 

Foraminiferans

Dinoflagellates

 

Red seaweeds

 

Radiolarians

 

Dinoflagellates that live in association with reef-building corals and other animals are known as:

Zooxanthellae

 

Zooplankton

 

Silicoflagellates

 

Bioluminescent dinoflagellates

Cryptomonads

 

Generally the dominant group of planktonic primary producers in cold water:

Foraminiferans

Silicoflagellates

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Photosynthetic bacteria

 

Diatoms

 

Marine fungi:

Are mostly photosynthetic

 

Are parts of lichens that live on rocky shores

 

Secrete calcareous skeletons

Produce red tides

 

None of the choices are correct: there are no marine fungi

 

Which of the following does not apply to protozoans?

Multicellular

 

Their name derives from “first animals”

 

Some are heterotrophs

 

Are included among the Protista

 

Some are autotrophs

 

Radiolarians are characterized by:

Being mostly planktonic

 

Having a calcareous skeleton

Being autotrophs

 

Having two flagella

 

Causing red tides

 

Which of the following are not protozoans?

Radiolarians

 

Foraminiferans

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Ciliates

Unicellular, planktonic organisms whose sediments form huge limestone deposits on land

 

Which of the following are not protists?

Dinoflagellates

Cyanobacteria

 

Diatoms

 

Foraminiferans

 

Ciliates

 

What is the purpose of the spines seen on the frustules of diatoms?

Floatation

 

Hunting

 

Photosynthesis

Reproduction

 

Restore normal size

 

What is the function of an auxospore?

Floatation

 

Hunting

 

Photosynthesis

 

Reproduction

 

Restore normal size

 

An algal bloom is defined as:

Mass reproduction of algal cells

Mass death of algal cells

 

Mass feeding on algal cells by zooplankton

 

Mass vertical migrations of algal cells

 

Mass horizontal migrations of algal cells

 

Bioluminescence is observed in:

Diatoms

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Radiolarians

Foraminiferans

 

Lichens

 

Zooxanthellae, which live symbiotically with many species, are classified as:

Diatoms

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Radiolarians

 

Foraminiferans

 

Lichens

 

What feature do all protozoa share?

Reproductive strategies

 

Habitats

Feeding strategy

 

Structure

 

Unicellularity

 

A survival advantage of __________________ is the ability to withstand exposure to air for long periods of time.

Diatoms

 

Dinoflagellates

 

Radiolarians

Foraminiferans

 

Lichens

 

 

 

CHAPTER  6

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Seaweeds are included among the Protista. Some biologists, however, place them instead in the:

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Fungi

 

Kingdom Plantae

 

Prokaryotes

 

Seagrasses

 

Seaweeds and many bacteria are primary producers. In contrast to most of the bacteria that are primary producers, however, all seaweeds:

Are photosynthetic

 

Are heterotrophic

Are prokaryotic

 

Have true leaves and roots

 

Are unicellular

 

Seaweeds can be best differentiated from the other algae because seaweeds:

Are eukaryotic

 

Are photosynthetic

 

Have true roots

 

Are mostly multicellular

Have true leaves

 

Seaweeds can be best differentiated from true plants because seaweeds:

Are photosynthetic

Are prokaryotic

 

Have no true roots, leaves, or stems

 

Have no chlorophyll

 

Are mostly unicellular

 

The root-like, anchoring structure of many seaweeds is called the:

Blade

 

Pneumatocyst

 

Thallus

Holdfast

 

Stipe

 

The thallus of a seaweed refers to its:

Anchoring structure

 

Gas-filled bladders

 

Stem-like part of the body

 

Complete body

 

Leaf-like structures, or blades

 

The stem-like structure of seaweeds such as kelp is called the:

Blade

 

Pneumatocyst

Stipe

 

Holdfast

 

Thallus

 

One of these groups of algae is found mostly in fresh water and on land, that is, only a small number is actually marine:

Green algae

 

Brown algae

 

Kelps

 

Red algae

 

Coralline red algae

 

Green algae are characterized by:

Being mostly unicellular

 

Being mostly marine

Having chlorophyll plus red pigments

 

Having true roots

 

Having pigments similar to land plants

 

The most complex and largest of all the seaweeds is included among one of these groups:

Green algae

 

Brown algae

 

Coralline red algae

 

Calcareous green algae

Red algae

 

The Sargasso Sea is found in the:

Pacific Ocean

Black Sea

 

Indian Ocean

 

Atlantic Ocean

 

Arctic Ocean

 

Coralline red algae receive this name due to their ability to:

Emit light

 

Accumulate calcium carbonate

 

Be responsible for red tides

Live together with corals in coral reefs

 

Be parasites of other algae

 

The group of seaweeds with the largest number of species is the:

Green algae

 

Brown algae

 

Kelps

 

Red algae

 

Coralline algae

 

Encrusting algae are commonly found living:

In the plankton

 

On rocks

As parasites

 

As endophytes

 

On the water surface

 

Algin is a natural product extracted from seaweeds. It is used as:

An emulsifier in processed foods

 

A paper substitute

 

An insecticide

 

An explosive

An antibiotic

 

Reproduction in seaweeds can be very complex. It generally includes:

Only sexual reproduction

Only asexual reproduction

 

Both sexual and asexual reproduction

 

Only mitosis

 

Only meiosis

 

Marine flowering plants include all of the following except:

Mangroves

 

Kelps

 

Seagrasses

Cord grass

 

Surf grass

 

Marine flowering plants can be best differentiated from seaweeds by the fact that the marine flowering plants:

Have smaller flowers

 

Must be covered by water at all times

 

Must reproduce in the water

 

Can only live along rivers near the coast

Reproduce by seeds

 

Salt-tolerant plants such as salt-marsh plants are called:

Mangroves

Angiosperms

 

Gametophytes

 

Halophytes

 

Sporophytes

 

Mangroves live in coastal waters that:

Are well protected from strong wave action

 

Have high salinity

 

Are located in temperate regions

Have high amounts of nutrients

 

Are rocky

 

 

 

CHAPTER  7

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Animals, members of the kingdom Animalia, are characterized by all of the following except one:

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic

Mostly multicellular

 

Some are autotrophs

 

Lack a backbone

 

Eukaryotic and unicellular

 

Which of the following type of cells and structures of a sponge does not match the function?

Collar cells — calcareous structures for support

 

Osculum — opening through which water leaves

 

Pore cells — opening through which water enters

Spongin — fibers for support

 

Gametes — reproduction

 

All sponges share one of these features:

Marine

 

Reproduce by asexual reproduction only

 

Relatively simple but sophisticated nervous system

 

Nematocysts

 

Multicellular

 

Sponges and all filter feeders use the following as a food source:

Plankton only

 

All particulate matter suspended in water

Particulate matter that deposits on the bottom

 

Dead plankton only

 

Vegetable matter in the water

 

A larva is best defined as:

Immature stage that is able to reproduce

 

Early colony of cells of fresh-water sponges

 

Early stage of development of an organism, typically part of the plankton

 

Sperm cell that lives free in the water

Egg that has been fertilized by more that one sperm

 

All cnidarians share all of these features except one:

Nematocysts

Multicellular

 

Radial symmetry

 

Complete digestive tract with mouth and anus

 

Marine and fresh-water

 

An example of an anthozoan:

Portuguese-Man-of War

 

Colonial hydroid

 

Sea nettle jellyfish

Sea wasp

 

Reef coral

 

Most cnidarians are specialized as:

Filter feeders

Parasites

 

Carnivores

 

Plant-feeders

 

Feeders of organic matter on the bottom

 

Statocysts are structures used in:

Sensing balance

 

Capturing prey

 

Reproduction

Swimming movements

 

Digesting food

 

Comb jellies are:

Bilaterally symmetrical

 

Similar to a cnidarian polyp

 

Distinguished by eight bands of cilia

 

Colonial animals

 

Carnivores that use nematocysts to capture prey

 

In a bilaterally symmetrical animal, which of the following is not correctly paired?

Dorsal-upper surface

 

Anterior-head

Posterior-rear end

 

Ventral-brain

 

The development of bilateral symmetry in invertebrates has particularly influenced the evolution of a more complex:

Digestive system

 

Reproductive system

 

Skeleton

 

Mouth

Nervous system

 

Flatworms are characterized by having:

Radial symmetry

A central nervous system

 

Tentacles used for filter feeding

 

Nematocysts

 

A complete digestive tract

 

One group of parasites of fishes, seabirds, and other marine animals:

Flukes

 

Turbellarians

 

Comb jellies

Ribbon worms

 

Segmented worms

 

The most distinctive feature of ribbon worms:

Long proboscis

 

Segmented body

 

Absence of a digestive tract

 

Long bands of cilia used in locomotion

 

Radial symmetry

 

Which of the following is not correctly paired?

Phylum Ctenophora-comb jellies

Phylum Nematoda-round worms

 

Phylum Nemertea-ribbon worms

 

Phylum Platyhelminthes-beard worms

 

Phylum Porifera-sponges

 

The trocophore is a:

Defensive structure

 

Larva

 

Planktonic cnidarian

Feeding structure

 

Filter-feeding worm

 

Deposit-feeding animals feed on:

Blood and living tissues

 

Particulate matter in the water

 

Plankton from the water that passively enters the digestive system

 

Live prey

 

Organic matter that settles on the bottom

 

Polychaete worms show:

A body covered with a mantle

 

Segmentation

Radial symmetry

 

Incomplete digestive tract

 

U-shaped gut

 

Beard worms are unique because they lack:

Symmetry

 

A skin

 

A digestive tract

 

Cells or tissues

A reproductive system

 

Arrow worms feed on:

Organic matter that deposits on the bottom

Plant matter

 

Nutrients dissolved in the water

 

Live prey

 

Organic matter filtered from the water

 

The basic characteristics of lophophorates include all of the following except:

U-shaped gut

 

Bilateral symmetry

 

Presence of nematocysts

Absence of segmentation

 

Presence of an anus

 

All molluscs:

Have a soft body often covered by a shell made of silica

 

Have a soft body covered by a mantle

 

Have an externally segmented body

 

Lack a larval stage

 

Lack a circulatory system

 

Which of the following are not correctly paired?

Class Gastropoda-mussels

Class Bivalvia-oysters

 

Class Polyplacophora-chitons

 

Class Cephalopoda-octopus

 

The radula and crystalline style of molluscs are part of the:

Reproductive system

 

Defensive mechanisms

 

Excretory system

 

Nervous system

Digestive system

 

Nudibranchs are members of which group of molluscs?

Cephalopods

Chitons

 

Bivalves

 

Gastropods

 

Tusk shells

 

One distinctive feature of arthropods:

Lack of a digestive system

 

Jointed legs

 

Gills in a mantle cavity

Proboscis used to capture prey

 

Lack of a brain

 

One of the following is not a crustacean:

Horseshoe crab

 

Copepods

 

Barnacles

 

Shrimps

 

Beach hoppers

 

One distinctive feature of all echinoderms:

Jointed legs

 

Gill slits

Endoskeleton

 

Water vascular system

 

Bilateral symmetry

 

Which of the following are not correctly paired?

Class Asteroidea-sea stars

 

Class Holothuroidea-sea cucumbers

 

Class Ophiuroidea-brittle stars

 

Class Echinoidea-feather stars

 

 

 

CHAPTER  8

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The Challenger expedition made collections of marine organisms:

Around the world

In the Pacific Ocean only

 

In the Atlantic Ocean only

 

In the Mediterranean Sea only

 

In the North Sea only

 

The first marine laboratory in the world was established in:

Russia

 

England

 

France

Italy

 

Japan

 

The first marine laboratory established in the U.S. was:

Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory in Washington

 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California

 

Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts

 

Smithsonian Institution in Washington

 

Hopkins Marine Station in California

 

Charles Darwin, who proposed the theory of evolution, was actually a marine biologist who specialized in:

Whales

Fishes

 

Marine birds

 

Barnacles

 

Oysters

 

A technological development that was a direct development of World War II:

Scuba

 

Research vessels

 

Nets

Marine laboratories

 

Sonar

 

The scientific method can be best described as:

Undertaking of experiments in laboratories

 

Use of induction and deduction

 

Collecting data in the field

 

Procedures used to learn about our world

 

Steps used to obtain observations

 

The factors that might affect observations are called:

Controls

 

Variables

Experiments

 

Hypotheses

 

Inductive observations

 

A control can be best defined as:

A variable that is kept constant in an experiment

An experiment where the final results are known ahead of time

 

A hypothesis that regulates the results of an experiment

 

An experiment that is undertaken both in the field and in the laboratory

 

A variable that changes during the course of an experiment

 

A marine biologist observes that mako sharks, sardines, and salmon leap out of the water. An example of induction from these observations is:

Only some fishes can leap out of the water

 

All fishes leap out of the water

Fishes leap out of the water to escape from predators

 

Flatfishes can leap out of the water since they live on the bottom

 

Leaping out of the water is often used in feeding

 

From the general statement “All fishes lay eggs,” the following results from deduction:

Since tuna are fish, tuna lay eggs

 

Since tuna are fish, tuna swim

 

Egg laying is beneficial to fishes

 

Tuna must lay their eggs in deep water

Since fishes are marine, tuna lay eggs

 

An example of a hypothesis that is not a valid scientific hypothesis because it cannot be proven false:

The earth is flat

The sun revolves around the earth

 

Organisms similar to deep-water marine worms live in the center of the earth

 

The deepest spot on the ocean is off the coast of a volcanic island

 

Whales listen to sound

 

An experiment can be best described as:

A set of observations that become a hypothesis

 

Obtaining data from the field

 

An artificially created situation to test a hypothesis

Controlling a particular factor in the field

 

Making observations from naturally occurring events

 

Science is limited since it cannot:

Predict the future

 

Make judgments about ethics, values, and morality

 

Arrive at fundamental truths

 

Provide information that can be applied to real life

 

Provide exceptions for negative evidence

 

One of the following is outside the realm of science:

Observations made using extrasensory perception (ESP)

 

Data collected from an experiment

Data collected from the field

 

Anything that can be obtained by our senses

 

Observations made by satellites

 

Scientific knowledge is ultimately traced to:

Hypotheses

 

Inductions

 

Deductions

 

Theories

Observations

 

How much of the Earth’s oxygen is generated by marine organisms?

25%

50%

 

75%

 

90%

 

95%

 

What is the estimated annual value of the ocean’s living systems?

$ 2 million

 

$ 2 billion

 

$ 20 billion

$ 2 trillion

 

$20 trillion

 

Which of the following statements about Charles Darwin is not true?

Darwin proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection

 

Darwin was the first to use a chronometer timepiece

 

Darwin served as a naturalist on the HMS Beagle

 

Darwin explained the formation of atolls

 

Darwin used nets to capture plankton

 

Who is the first scientist credited with documenting that sea floor life varies with depth?

Charles Darwin

 

James Cook

Leif Eriksson

 

Edward Forbes

 

Charles Wyville Thompson

 

Jacques Cousteau is best known for helping to perfect which marine technology?

Sonar

 

Remote sensing

 

Scuba

 

Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)

 

When can a hypothesis be accepted as absolutely true?

After one experiment or observation

After ten experiments or observations

 

After numerous experiments or observations over many years

 

Never

 

In experiments, scientists create artificial situations to test hypotheses because:

They cannot make the necessary observations under natural conditions.

 

It is always easier to study organisms in the lab

 

Hypotheses cannot be accepted unless they have been studied under these conditions

 

The scientific method requires it

 

 

 

CHAPTER  9

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Marine amphibians:

Do not exist at all

Are gill-breathers

 

Are fish-like

 

Include only tropical species

 

Are oviparous

 

All tetrapods are:

Endotherms

 

Inhabitants of land

 

Air-breathers

Live-bearers

 

Vertebrates except groups such as sea squirts

 

Which of the following is NOT seen in marine reptiles?

Migrations

 

Internal fertilization

 

External fertilization

 

Arribadas

 

Multiple paternity

 

One of these is not a characteristic of sea turtles:

Oviparous

 

Leave the water to reproduce

Have a shell that is free from the backbone

 

Are tetrapods

 

Are “cold-blooded”

 

Sea snakes feed mostly on:

Large fishes

 

Seaweeds and other marine autotrophs

 

Polyps of live coral

 

Worms and other small, bottom invertebrates

Small fishes

 

Penguins:

Live on polar regions of the Northern and Southern hemispheres

Can be found as far north as the Equator

 

Are ectotherms

 

Time their reproduction so that eggs hatch during the winter

 

Are able to fly when disturbed

 

Seals, sea lions, and the walrus are classified as belonging to the order:

Carnivora

 

Sirenia

 

Pinnipedia

Cetacea

 

Protochordata

 

Sea lions can be readily distinguished from the seals because in contrast to seals they have:

A short neck

Uses the posterior flippers in swimming

 

Anterior flippers cannot be rotated backward

 

Posterior flippers cannot be rotated backward

 

External ears

 

The walrus feeds mostly on:

Clams

 

Squid

 

Salmon and other fish

Kelp and other large seaweeds

 

Dead animals

 

We can tell that cetaceans are mammals because they:

Have hair

 

Are cold-blooded

 

Are ovoviviparous

 

Must reproduce in the water

 

Migrate

 

Only one of these is a toothed whale:

Sperm

 

Right

Gray

 

Fin

 

Blue

 

Porpoises can be distinguished from dolphins by comparing their:

Flippers

 

Fluke

 

Reproduction

 

Teeth

Blowhole

 

Blubber is found in all of these marine mammals except:

Killer whale

Seals

 

Sea otter

 

Sea lions

 

Manatee (sea cow)

 

Which of these is NOT a function of blubber:

Insulation

 

Circulation

 

Buoyancy

Food reserve

 

Protection

 

The gray whale feeds mostly on:

Small plankton

 

Small fishes

 

Squid

 

Largest plankton

 

Bottom crustaceans

 

Baleen plates are:

Rigid and have small hairs on one side only

Soft and have hairs all around their surface

 

Rigid and have hairs all around their surface

 

Rigid without any hairs

 

Soft without any hairs

 

Baleen whales lack:

Flukes

 

Teeth

 

Dorsal fin

A blowhole

 

Ear opening

 

An example of a whale known as a rorqual:

Killer

 

Gray

 

Common porpoise

 

Blue

 

Sperm

 

Ambergris, used in the manufacture of perfumes, comes from what part of whales?

Sperm oil

 

Baleen

Skin

 

Melon

 

Undigested food

 

Dolphins and other whales are adapted for deep diving by:

Closing their ear openings

 

Emitting sound to clear their ears

 

Taking as much air as possible

 

Increasing blood circulation to the skin

Collapsing their lungs

 

One of the following is not an adaptation for deep diving in cetaceans:

Having more red blood cells to store more oxygen

Having more hemoglobin to store more oxygen

 

Slowing down of heart rate

 

Lower tolerance to lactic acid

 

Having a lot of myoglobin in muscles to store more oxygen

 

In apneustic breathing, which is practiced by most marine mammals:

A small amount of air is kept in the lungs before diving

 

A large amount of air is kept in the mouth before diving

 

Normal breathing is maintained before diving

Several deep breaths are taken before exhaling and diving

 

No actual breathing takes place before diving

 

Echolocation is a sense that relies on:

Vibrations

 

Sound

 

Smell

 

Vision

 

Electromagnetic waves

 

Echolocation is present in:

All baleen whales

Some baleen whales

 

All toothed whales

 

Some toothed whales

 

Only in dolphins and porpoises

 

The spermaceti organ of sperm whales is thought to regulate buoyancy and:

Storage of food

 

Production of sound

 

Assist in oxygen storage

Collect undigested food

 

Focus and direct sound waves

 

Breaching refers to whales:

Jumping above the surface

 

Getting stranded on shore

 

Singing

 

Emitting sound for navigation

 

Diving deep to feed

 

The humpback and other baleen whales migrate every year to:

Feed in Antarctica during winter

 

Reproduce in Antarctica during summer

Reproduce in the tropics during winter

 

Feed in the tropics during winter

 

Feed in the tropics during summer

 

In order to reduce drag, the penis of cetaceans is:

Small

 

Located just before the tail

 

Located just before the head

 

Internal until just before copulation

Absent

 

Delayed implantation of the embryo allows pinnipeds to:

Nurse a pup while pregnant

Time birth with arrival to breeding area

 

Delay courtship for a year

 

Establish harems

 

Ovulate after copulation

 

The longest migrations of any mammal is seen in the:

Bottlenose dolphin

 

Sperm whale

 

Blue whale

Gray whale

 

Humpback whale

 

One of the following alternatives does not apply to the typical cetacean calf:

Born tail first

 

Establishes a long and strong bond with its mother

 

Feeds on very rich milk that is squirted directly into its mouth

 

Is born with a developed blubber

 

Must swim to the surface immediately after birth

 

Temperature dependent sex determination is seen in:

sea turtles

dolphins

 

sea lions

 

sea otter

 

penguins

 

Which of the following is NOT true regarding Emperor penguins?

Pairs mate for life

 

Lay a single egg during winter

 

Live in the Arctic

Male tends egg during development

 

Eggs develop in about 64 days

 

The distinctive tusks of the walrus are used for:

Defense

 

To hold onto ice

 

To dig up food

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

The smallest marine mammal is a:

Seal

 

Fur seal

Sea lion

 

Sea otter

 

dugong

 

Convergent evolution means that:

Organisms possess similar structures because they have a similar lifestyle

 

Organisms possess similar structures because they descended from a common ancestor

 

Closely related organisms have evolved and do not resemble one another anymore

 

Closely related organisms have different structures for same purpose

None of the above

 

An example of convergent evolution is:

Dolphins and whales

Manatees and dugongs

 

Dolphins and fish

 

Seals and fur seals

 

Dolphins and sea otters

 

 

 

CHAPTER  10

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

All of the following are examples of abiotic factors except one:

Salinity

Predation

 

Substrate

 

Temperature

 

Light

 

An example of a community is:

One giant kelp individual

 

A kelp forest plus all of the physical factors affecting it

 

All physical factors affecting a kelp forest

A kelp forest plus all organisms living in it

 

Several giant kelp individuals living in one particular area

 

Exponential growth in a population may be slowed as a result of:

Reduction in light

 

Reduction of nutrients

 

Reduction of predators

 

A and B only

 

B and C only

 

The type of interaction that results when a resource is in short supply and one organism uses the resource at the expense of the other is called:

Population explosion

Predation

 

Resource partitioning

 

Self-regulation

 

Competition

 

Competitive exclusion can be best defined as:

When one species overcompetes and eliminates another

 

The creation of a separate ecological niche by a new species

 

The division of resources

When one species shares limiting resources with another

 

When competition results in the elimination of particular limiting resources

 

The ecological niche of a species refers to:

Habitat

 

Position of the organism in the food web

 

Role in the community

 

Mode of reproduction and food habits

 

Behavior in relation to other species in the community

 

Predation can be best defined as:

A plant taking in nutrients

 

An animal eating another animal

An animal eating a plant

 

An animal eating any other organism

 

A plant carrying out photosynthesis

 

One of these is an example of coevolution:

A seaweed evolving better ways to capture sunlight energy

A seaweed evolving a mechanism allowing it to take in a particular nutrient

 

A limpet getting adapted to live along coasts exposed to heavier wave action

 

A limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator

 

A seastar becoming adapted to move higher up along rocky shores during low tides

 

Zooxanthellae live within the tissues of corals and both organisms benefit from the association. This is known as:

Mutualism

 

Predation

Commensalism

 

Parasitism

 

Cleaning symbiosis

 

Cleaning symbiosis is an example of symbiosis because the partners involved in the association:

Are not harmed

 

Are both harmed if we closely study their association

 

Both have coevolved into a close association

 

One is harmed while the other is not

One species benefits while the other is unaffected

 

The following is a synonym of autotrophs:

Consumer

Primary producer

 

Heterotroph

 

Animal

 

Predator

 

The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs:

Consist of only one trophic level

 

Include primary producers as well as consumers

 

Do not take into account predators

Only outline feeding relationships among consumers

 

Are more complex

 

The next level in a food web beyond the producers would be the:

Top predators

 

Secondary consumers

 

Carnivores

 

Primary consumers

 

Parasites

 

Which of the following could be a tertiary consumer?

A seaweed

 

A grazer

A carnivore

 

An autotroph

 

A herbivore

 

On the average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?

1%

 

2%

 

5%

10%

 

15%

 

The pyramid of biomass shows the:

Transfer of energy between each trophic level

Energy in each trophic level

 

Weight of organisms in an trophic level

 

Weight of organisms in entire food web

 

Number of individuals in each trophic level

 

The detritus in the water includes:

Dead organic matter

 

Waste products dissolved in water

 

All of the plankton

Smallest plankton-feeding fishes

 

Smallest algae

 

A fundamental role of decomposers:

Releasing nutrients to be used by autotrophs

 

Causing diseases

 

Providing food for carnivores

 

Releasing oxygen

 

Providing energy for autotrophs

 

Net primary productivity is best defined as:

The total amount of biomass created by producers

 

The total amount of biomass created by producers after energy loss to metabolism is factored

The total biomass of producers in the water in a given habitat

 

The total biomass of producers in the ocean

 

None of the above

 

In the dark-light bottle experiment, one of the following is measured in the dark bottle:

Photosynthesis

 

Respiration

 

Decomposition

 

Photosynthesis plus respiration

Chlorophyll concentration

 

The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of:

Primary production

Respiration

 

Standing stock of phytoplankton

 

Oxygen utilization

 

Release of nutrients

 

In the carbon cycle, seaweeds and plants play a fundamental role by:

Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of decomposition

 

Decreasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration

 

Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of photosynthesis

Decreasing the amount of detritus

 

E.Both increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, and decreasing it as a result of photosynthesis

 

Nitrogen fixation is performed at sea by:

Seaweeds

 

Cyanobacteria

 

Phytoplankton

 

Zooplankton

All of the above choices are correct

 

Sessile organisms are part of the:

Benthos

Nekton

 

Plankton

 

Pelagic type of organisms

 

Zooplankton only

 

The subtidal zone is the area:

Between low and high tide

 

Beyond the continental shelf

 

Between the intertidal zone and the edge of the continental shelf

Where pelagic organisms live

 

Above the highest tide

 

Competive exclusion may be affected by:

Abundance of a resource

 

Disturbances to habitat

 

Temperature changes

 

All of the above

 

B and C only

 

Self-regulating of population numbers acts only when the population is:

Large

 

Small

Stable

 

Threatened

 

Declining

 

Which of the following is an example of intraspecific competition?

Two species of barnacles competing for space on a rocky shoreline

 

Two species of dolphins feeding on the same population of fish

 

Two individuals in a population of clownfish attempt to use the same anemone as habitat

 

Two species of fish attempt to use the same rocky ledge as habitat

Two species of seals fight over space on a beach to rear their young

 

A population’s carrying capacity is:

Affected by the growth rate of the population

The number of individuals a habitat can support with available resources

 

A constant that has been predetermined for all habitats

 

The number of individuals in a habitat

 

Determined by comparing birth rate and death rate in a population

 

In competitive exclusion, which of the following is true?

Two species cannot coexist in a habitat

 

One species is a better competitor for resources

 

Leads to intraspecific competition

Results from intraspecific completion

 

Leads to population growth for both competitors

 

A disadvantage of resource partitioning is:

Size of competing populations increase exponentially and consume all resources

 

Size of competing populations may decrease

 

Resources become more plentiful

 

Competing populations coexist without affecting each other

 

No disadvantages exist

 

In a salt marsh, a fish eats decaying material from around the base of Spartina grass plants. A snail scrapes algae from the stalks of the Spartina These species can coexist because they have:

The same niche, but different habitat

 

The same habitat and the same niche

 

The same habitat, but different niche

 

Different habitats and different niches

 

None of the above

 

The term trophic refers to:

Competition

 

Feeding

Symbiosis

 

Reproduction

 

Habitat

 

A chiton increases the abundance of its prey, a corraline algae, by feeding on the algae which stimulates growth of that algae. This is an example of:

Directional selection

 

Stabilizing selection

 

Competitive exclusion

Trophic cascade

 

Indirect interaction

 

An algae begins to produce chemical defenses after it has been grazed upon by a herbivore. This is an example of:

inducible defense

 

Dependent defense

 

Reactive defense

 

deliberate defense

Designed defense

 

Organisms that are classified as benthic would most likely be found in the:

Neritic zone

Pelagic zone

 

Oceanic zone

 

Hadal zone

 

Epipelagic zone

 

 

 

CHAPTER  11

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The lower limit of the intertidal zone is the:

Average high tide

Average middle tide

 

Lowest tide

 

Lowest edge of the rocky substrate

 

None of the above choices are correct: it varies according to type of substrate

 

The particular characteristic most widely used in classifying intertidal communities:

Type of tides

 

Relative exposure to air

 

Type of substrate

Type of seaweeds

 

Relative immersion by water

 

Regarding the origin of rocky coasts, it is known that this type of shore is present along:

Geologically young coasts

 

Coasts with high accumulation of sediments

 

Coasts along the mouth of large rivers

 

Geologically old coasts being covered by sediments

 

Coasts being affected by ice sheets

 

The sessile epifauna consists of:

Attached seaweeds

 

Pelagic organisms

Burrowing animals

 

Animals that crawl over bottom

 

Attached animals

 

Which of the following strategies is not used to avoid dessication in the intertidal?

Closing shells

 

Crowding in areas that are always moist

 

Burrowing into substrate

 

Mucus

Moving out of tide pools

 

A rocky shoreline would be most likely to be found in:

California

Massachusetts

 

Florida

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

Most sessile animals living on rocky shores are:

Deposit feeders

 

Carnivores

 

Detritus feeders

Filter feeders

 

Grazers

 

One of these organisms is expected to be relatively rare on a rocky shore:

Filter feeder

Carnivore

 

Primary producer

 

Grazer

 

Deposit feeder

 

If a rocky shore highly exposed to wave action is compared to a similar rocky shore that is a lot less exposed to wave action, we should expect that barnacles living on the more exposed shore show a:

Wider vertical distribution

 

Narrower tolerance to salinity

Narrower tolerance to temperature

 

Narrower vertical distribution

 

Higher resistance to predators

 

Problems associated with emersion include:

Stable temperatures

 

Restricted feeding

 

Stable salinity

 

All of the above

A and C only

 

Byssal threads are used by mussels to cope with:

Dessication

Wave shock

 

Restricted feeding

 

Salinity changes

 

Temperature changes

 

One of these is more important than the others as a limiting resource in intertidal communities:

Space

 

Food

 

Nutrients

Light

 

Salinity

 

Vertical zonation on rocky shores is mostly the result of differences in tolerance to:

Wave action

 

Exposure

 

Predation

 

Light

 

Salinity

 

The upper limit of rocky intertidal communities is typically determined by:

Mostly biological factors

 

Mostly physical factors

Both biological and physical factors

 

Neither physical or biological factors

 

One organism typical of the upper intertidal on rocky shores:

Mussels

 

Barnacles

 

Sponges

 

Sea anemones

 

Periwinkles

 

The middle intertidal is characterized by:

Constant wetting by splash and spray

Long exposure to air

 

Steady immersion

 

Exposure and immersion on a regular basis

 

Splashing during high tide and complete exposure at low tide

 

Intertidal organisms from exposed areas sometimes have thicker shells than their counterparts from less exposed areas. This is thought to be an adaptation to:

Dessication

 

Restricted feeding

Wave shock

 

Salinity changes

 

Temperature changes

 

Predation by sea stars on rocky shores ultimately results in:

Fewer species

 

Less wave action

 

Decrease in the number of seaweeds

 

Increase in the number of mussels

More species

 

Ecological succession ultimately results in:

A climax community

An upper-limit stage

 

Competitive exclusion

 

Keystone predation

 

Vertical zonation

 

Which of the following is generally considered to be the greatest limiting resource in the rocky intertidal?

 

Salinity

Space

Prey

 

Availability of mates

 

Light availability

 

One of these organisms is typically a very rare component of soft-bottom intertidal communities:

Burrowing organisms

 

Detritus feeders

 

Seaweeds

 

Infauna

Deposit feeders

 

Most animals living on sandy beaches are included among the:

Infauna

Deposit feeders

 

Epifauna

 

Producers

 

Grazers

 

Fine sediments are characteristic of:

Shores exposed to wave action

 

Rocky shores

 

Areas with wide temperature fluctuations

Calm, less exposed shores

 

Areas that experience considerable water flow

 

In terms of oxygen, the interstitial water in muddy bottoms:

Has plenty of it since temperature is much higher than in the water column

Accumulates it as a result of photosynthesis by inhabitants of the sediment

 

Recirculates very frequently so it is high

 

Is deficient in it

 

Is deficient in it but only during the day

 

The main source of food in muddy-bottom intertidal communities:

Seaweeds

 

Detritus

 

Plankton

Large prey

 

Epifauna

 

Which of the following would not be considered epifauna?

Organisms living on the surface on another organism

 

Organisms living on the surface of sand

 

Organisms living in sand

 

Organisms living on mud

 

Organisms living on rocky shore

 

On Atlantic shores, the dog whelk (Nucella lapillus) has two color forms, white-shelled and brown-shelled. Survival of one form over the other form in a region appears to be related to:

temperature

Salinity

 

Substrate type

 

Prey availability

 

Predators

 

Attachment of one organism to another in the intertidal is most likely a result of limited:

Food

 

Space

 

Light

Nutrients

 

Mates

 

What organism would be most likely to be found in the upper intertidal zone of a rocky shoreline?

Mussels

 

Sea weed

 

Encrusting algae

 

Barnacles

 

Irish moss

 

Which of these organisms usually dominates in the middle intertidal zone of a rocky shoreline?

Limpets

 

Sea weed

Encrusting algae

 

Barnacles

 

Irish moss

 

The number of species in a given community can be increased by:

Disturbance

 

Predation

 

Competitive exclusion

 

All of the above

A and B only

 

In soft-bottomed intertidal communities, locations with strong waves and currents are most likely to have which type of bottom?

Gravel

 

Sand

 

Silt

 

Clay

 

Mud

 

In a soft-bottomed intertidal community, oxygen would be most plentiful for meiofauna in which type of bottom?

Gravel

Sand

 

Silt

 

Clay

 

Mud

 

Meiofauna live:

On rocky shores

 

On sandy bottoms

 

Between grains of sediment

In burrows

 

In the water column

 

 

 

CHAPTER  12

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Coastal plain estuaries were formed when:

Sand bars formed along the coast as the result of an accumulation of sediment

The ocean invaded lowlands and river mouths

 

Retreating glaciers cut a valley along the coast

 

Sea level fell during glaciation

 

Land subsided along the coast

 

Good examples of bar-built estuaries are found here:

Coast of Norway

 

Pacific coast of the United States

 

Atlantic coast of the United States

Chesapeake Bay

 

Lawrence River

 

Fjords are formed as a result of the:

Subsidence of land

 

Lowering of sea level

 

Formation of sand bars and barrier islands

 

The coast is cut by a river

 

Raising of sea level

 

In an estuary, salinity of the water increases as;

One moves inland

 

Depth decreases

Evaporation decreases

 

Freshwater flow from a river increases

 

Depth increases

 

The salt wedge of an estuary:

Moves inland as tide moves in

 

Is found in shallower water as one moves inland

 

Decreases the average salinity of the estuary

 

Decreases the distribution of marine organisms along the bottom of the estuary

Spreads further into the estuary as the flow of freshwater increases

 

Well-formed estuaries are least likely to be formed by:

Sea level rise

Retreating glaciers

 

Active margins

 

Passive margins

 

Accumulation of sediments

 

The most common type of substrate in estuaries:

Mud

 

Rock

 

Coarse sand

Fine sand

 

None of the above choices are correct: it depends on the salinity

 

The amount of hydrogen sulfide in the sediment increases as the following factors increase except one:

Oxygen

 

Decrease in the space between sediment particles

 

Decrease in the size of sediment particles

 

Amount of organic matter

 

Amount of detritus

 

Euryhaline species:

Are less common in estuaries than stenohaline species

 

Need less oxygen to survive

Tolerate only a narrow range of salinities

 

Can survive changes in salinity

 

Only tolerate small temperature changes

 

Osmoconformers survive changes in salinity by:

Maintaining the salinity of their body fluids constantly

 

Moving up and down the water column in order to spend most of the day in the salt wedge

 

Pumping water in as salinity decreases

 

Allowing the salinity of their body fluids to vary with that of the surrounding water

 

Increasing the amounts of salts in their body fluids no matter what the salinity of the surrounding water is

 

A newly discovered estuary is classified as a negative estuary. Which of these best describes a negative estuary?

Salinity less than 10 parts per thousand

 

Salinity between 10 and 20 parts per thousand

 

Salinity between 20 and 30 parts per thousand

 

Salinity between 30 and 40 parts per thousand

Salinity over 40 parts per thousand

 

The most important difference between muddy intertidal shores and the mud flats of estuaries:

Type of substrate

Variation in salinity

 

Amount of light

 

Exposure to wave action

 

Size of sediment particles

 

Most of the primary production on mud flats is due to:

Diatoms

 

Green algae

 

Brown algae

Red algae

 

Sulfur bacteria

 

Large organisms of the mudflats are more likely to be:

Infauna

 

Endofauna

 

Epifauna

 

Meiofauna

 

Midfauna

 

Interstitial organisms are also classified as:

Infauna

 

Endofauna

SeaweedsEpifauna

 

Infauna Meiofauna

 

Filter feeders Midfauna

 

Succulents are plants that:

Excrete salts by way of salt glands

Lose water and salts

 

Accumulate water in their tissues

 

Take in salts to compensate for the loss of water

 

Do not have any roots to minimize water loss

 

The infauna of mud flats feeds mostly on:

Epifauna

 

Sulfur bacteria

 

Filter feeders

Plankton

 

Detritus

 

Blood rich in hemoglobin is an adaptation to:

Fluctuating salinities

 

Wide variations in temperature

 

Soft sediments

 

Feeding in detritus

 

Low oxygen concentrations

 

Zonation in an estuary is made evident by:

Large number of worms in the mud

 

Presence of different species along different horizontal levels in relation to tides

Tide pools along the mud flats

 

Absence of life in black sediments

 

High concentration of plants in salt marshes

 

The zonation of plants in salt marshes is determined mostly by:

Temperature fluctuations

 

Geographical location

 

Height of the tide

 

Amount of oxygen in sediments

Detritus in the water

 

The food web in salt-marsh communities is characterized by high primary production. Most of this production is made available to other communities in the form of:

Plant tissue eaten by grazers

 

Plankton eaten by filter feeders

 

Detritus

 

Plants eaten by herbivores

 

Plants eaten by zooplankton

 

The world-wide distribution of mangrove forests is mostly determined by:

Salinity

 

Type of sediment

Temperature

 

Wave action

 

Height of tide

 

Mangroves belong to one of the following groups:

Green algae

 

Brown algae

 

Seagrasses

 

Flowering plants

Kelps

 

Outwelling in estuaries is most important since it:

Maintains high primary production

Provides living space to many species

 

Releases much oxygen

 

Provides food and nutrients to other communities

 

Allows plants to survive despite wide fluctuations in salinity

 

The loss of estuaries and mangrove forests is particularly serious since these ecosystems:

Provide nesting or resting areas to many seabirds

 

Are among the most productive of all marine ecosystems

 

Provide habitats to many species

Directly or indirectly provide food to many species

 

All of the choices are true

 

A stenohaline species would be most likely to be found in what area(s) of an estuary?

Upper area of estuary

 

Lower area of estuary

 

Middle area of estuary

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

The area of salt marsh just above the mean low tide is most likely to be dominated by:

Cordgrass

 

Salt marsh hay

Pickleweed

 

Rushes

 

Salt grass

 

The most extensive mangrove forests can be found in:

Caribbean

 

Mediterranean

 

Atlantic

 

Indo-West Pacific

Eastern Pacific

 

Pneumatophores are used for:

Excretion of excess salts

Horizontal growth

 

Aeration of plant tissues

 

Reproduction

 

Downward growth

 

Which of these resources is most likely to be in short supply in the open water of an estuary?

Nutrients

 

Substrate

 

Oxygen

Space

 

Prey

 

 

 

CHAPTER  13

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The part of the continental shelf that is never exposed at low tide is called the:

Littoral zone

Subtidal zone

 

Intertidal zone

 

Pelagic zone

 

Abyssal zone

 

The concentration of nutrients in the waters over the continental shelf is typically:

Higher than in the open ocean

 

Lower than in the open ocean

 

About the same

No generalizations can be made: the amount of nutrients depends on the type of substrate

 

No generalizations can be made: the amount of nutrients depends on having or not having kelp

 

One of the following statements best describes the temperature and salinity of the deep water over the continental shelf:

It is typically very different from that of the surface as a result of light affecting only the surface

 

It is usually about the same along the entire water column as a result of the type of sediment

 

It is usually about the same along the entire water column as a result of currents and wave action

 

It is typically very different from that of the surface as a result of differences in nutrients

It is typically very different from that of the surface as a result of the higher density of surface water

 

Most of the sediment over the continental shelf consists of:

Siliceous ooze

Calcareous ooze

 

Lithogenous

 

Biogenous

 

A mixture of siliceous and calcareous ooze

 

What type of animals are typically absent in soft-bottom subtidal communities:

Epifauna

 

Benthic

 

Infauna

Sessile

 

Deposit feeders

 

The distribution of the infauna of soft-bottom subtidal communities is often closely related to:

Temperature

 

Particle size of sediment

 

Salinity

 

Distribution of seaweeds

 

Light

 

The pattern of spatial distribution most often seen in soft-bottom subtidal communities:

Regular

 

Irregular

Random

 

Clumped

 

Patchy

 

Animals that inhabit the water column are said to live in what zone?

Neritic zone

Shelf break

 

Benthic zone

 

Abyssal zone

 

Hadal zone

 

Settlement and metamorphosis in the planktonic larvae of many subtidal animals is determined or influenced by:

Biological factors such as presence of adults

 

Physical factors such as the type of bottom

Both biological and physical factors

 

None of the above choices are correct: larvae settle by chance

 

The most important food source in unvegetated soft-bottom subtidal communities:

Plankton

 

Drift seaweeds

 

Nekton

 

Benthic prey

 

Detritus

 

Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on the global distribution of organisms on the continental shelf?

Stratification of water

Oxygen

 

Nutrients

 

Temperature

 

Turbulence

 

The higher the water turbulence such as wave action, the higher the relative number of:

Planktonic species

 

Deposit feeders

 

Nektonic species

Filter feeders

 

Primary producers

 

As turbulence decreases:

The amount of oxygen in the sediment decreases

 

The amount of detritus in the sediment decreases

 

The size of sediment particles increases

 

The relative number of suspension feeders increases

 

The relative number of seaweed species increases

 

Deposit feeders would be most likely to be found on which substrate?

Sandy bottoms

 

Muddy bottoms

Gravel bottoms

 

Rocky shores

 

None of the above

 

Which of the following is not a positive effect of bioturbators?

Oxygenate sediments

 

Bury infauna

 

Expose deeper sediments

 

All of the above

A and C only

 

Most of the biomass produced by seagrasses find their way into the food chain by way of:

Small herbivores that eat the plants

Detritus

 

Epiphytes that live on the surface of leaves and also feed on the plants

 

Plankton that thrive on nutrients released by the plants

 

Large herbivores such as manatees and sea turtles that feed on the plants

 

Typically, the dominant inhabitants of rocky subtidal bottoms in shallow water are:

Limpets

 

Sea urchins

 

Seaweeds

Seagrasses

 

Sessile worms

 

One of the following will be relatively uncommon components of rocky subtidal communities:

Producers

 

Grazers

 

Predators

 

Infauna

 

Epifauna

 

By definition, kelp forests develop when:

Kelp fronds float on the surface

 

The kelp is large enough to rise above the bottom

The kelp lives in warm water

 

Kelp fronds have leaves

 

The kelp holdfast is large enough to be called a true root system

 

The life cycle of the giant kelp involves:

One growth form

 

Two growth forms

 

Two growth forms, both very large

 

Two or three growth forms, depending on temperature

One growth form, which can be large or small depending on temperature

 

Kelps are characteristic of:

Soft bottoms

Arctic and Antarctic coasts

 

Hard bottoms in the tropics

 

Soft bottoms but only in the tropics

 

Temperate regions

 

The distribution of kelps is expected to be the widest on coasts along the:

Eastern side of oceans

 

Western side of oceans

 

Southern Hemisphere

Northern Hemisphere

 

Equator

 

The distribution of kelp species along a particular coast is known to be affected by all of the following factors except one:

Light

 

Wave action

 

Carnivorous fishes

 

Depth

Type of grazers

 

Sea otters are known to affect the development of giant kelp forests by:

Helping in the dispersion of spores

Removing competing seaweeds

 

Feeding on carnivorous fishes

 

Feeding on grazing sea urchins

 

Releasing nutrients present in feces and urine

 

Kelp communities are severely disturbed by all of the following except:

Grazing sea urchins

 

Grazing fishes

 

Pollution

Warm currents

 

El Niñ o

 

The region with the largest number of seagrass species is:

East Pacific

 

Atlantic

 

Indo-West Pacific

 

Caribbean

 

Mediterranean

 

Primary production on soft-bottomed subtidal communities is highest in:

Salt marshes

 

Mangrove forests

Seagrass beds

 

Oyster reefs

 

Coral reefs

 

Which of the following organisms is most likely to be an epiphyte?

Algae

 

Seagrass

 

Mangroves

 

Snails

Barnacles

 

Sea weed species with increased photosynthetic pigments for life in deeper waters are found in:

Red algae

Brown algae

 

Green algae

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

Which of the following types of organisms would be least likely to be found in a rocky-bottom subtidal community?

infauna

 

epifauna

Epiphyte

 

Sessile

 

Benthic

 

Which of the following strategies is not used by seaweeds to combat grazing?

Chemical defenses

 

Leathery consistency

 

Calcium carbonate

 

Bad taste

Slow growth

 

 

CHAPTER  14

 

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Reef-building corals are cnidarians that are characterized by:

Having both a polyp and medusa stage

Lacking nematocysts

 

Having mostly a medusa stage

 

Lacking a mouth

 

Having only a polyp stage

 

Reef-building corals are classified as:

Zooxanthellae

 

Metamorphic

 

Ametamorphic

Hermatypic

 

Ahermatypic

 

Planula is the name given to:

The coral polyp

 

Zooxanthellae

 

Corals that do not build reefs

 

Coral larvae

 

The coral skeleton

 

Zooxanthellae are essential to reef-building corals because they:

Provide the coral with carbon dioxide

 

Filter-out harmful solar radiation

Provide the coral with protection from predators

 

Release mucus

 

Help in the deposition of the skeleton

 

The mesenterial filaments of corals are important because they:

Secrete digestive enzymes

 

Help deposit the skeleton

 

Digest zooxanthellae

 

Produce mucus

Perform photosynthesis

 

Sources of food and other essential nutrients for corals include all of the following except:

Nutrients released by zooxanthellae

Calcium carbonate from shells

 

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the water

 

Zooplankton captured by the tentacles

 

Capture of food using mesenterial filaments

 

Besides reef-building corals, the most important organisms that help form coral reefs are:

Sponges

 

Molluscs

 

Bryozoans

Coralline algae

 

Forams

 

Which of the following is not used directly by corals for nutrition?

Zooxanthellae

Mesenterial filaments

 

Photosynthesis

 

Mucus

 

Tentacles

 

Reef-building corals grow only in shallow water because:

Salinity varies less in shallow water

 

Zooxanthellae need light for photosynthesis

 

Calcium carbonate is only available in shallow water

Nutrients concentrate in shallow water

 

Shallow water contains more dissolved organic matter (DOM)

 

The expulsion of zooxanthellae due to unfavorable conditions is called:

Exflagellation

 

Exudation

 

Bleaching

 

Decalcification

 

Denudation

 

Eutrophication is very detrimental to the development of coral since it increases:

The amount of nutrients in the water, hence incrasing stimulating the overgrowth of algae

 

The temperature of the water, which kills the corals

The temperature of the water, which kills the zooxanthellae

 

The salinity of the water, which kills the corals

 

The amount of pollutants in the water

 

The most common type of coral reefs around the world are:

Barrier

 

Atolls

 

Coral knolls

 

Oyster reefs

Fringing

 

In a typical fringing reef, most of the living coral is found on the:

Reef flat

Fore reef

 

Reef crest

 

Reef slope

 

Coral knolls

 

Fringing and barrier reefs develop:

In waters along estuaries

 

In the open ocean far from land

 

Along a coast

Around islands in temperate regions

 

Near atolls

 

Generally, an important distinction between barrier and fringing reefs is that barrier reefs:

Develop from atolls

 

Develop farther away from land

 

Are found only in the Pacific

 

Are found only in the Caribbean

 

Do not have a reef flat

 

Spur-and-groove formations, or buttresses, appear to be the result of:

Fish grazing

The death of coralline algae

 

Accumulation of sand

 

The death of coral after a series of very low tides

 

Wind and waves

 

Most atolls are found in the:

Indo-West Pacific region

 

Caribbean

 

Eastern Pacific along Central America

The eastern Atlantic

 

Western Pacific along the Australian coast

 

Atolls actually start as a:

Fringing reef

 

Barrier reef

 

Semi-circular or half-moon shaped atoll

 

Coral knoll

 

Reef flat

 

In addition to zooxanthellae, what is the other important primary producer in a coral reef?

Turf algae

 

Benthic diatoms

Kelps

 

Coralline algae

 

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

 

Primary production is very high in coral reefs but low in surrounding waters. One reason for this is that:

Coralline algae and other algae are very abundant

 

There is abundant carbon dioxide in coral reefs

 

Nutrients are efficiently recycled

Zooxanthellae increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water

 

Turf algae release nutrients

 

Reef corals compete with soft corals for space. One competitive advantage of soft corals is their:

Color

 

Toxic chemicals

 

Special stinging cells

 

Ability to destroy zooxanthellae of corals

 

Ability to dissolve the skeleton of corals

 

The recruitment of coral reef fishes seems to be the result of one of these phenomena:

Species tend to avoid competition

 

Each species has its own ecological niche but it is modified to avoid direct competition

Corals over compete other organisms as long as they keep their zooxanthellae

 

The outcome of competition is based mostly on chance

 

Species actually chose when to compete and when to move elsewhere

 

The sweeper tentacles of corals contain:

Zooxanthellae

 

Nematocysts

 

Specialized spicules

 

Bad-tasting chemicals

Harmful enzymes

 

Obligate symbionts are those organisms that:

Have a casual relationship with a host

Harm the host

 

Are found only in association with another species

 

Are parasites

 

Live only on a living host

 

Giant clams are very large in size because of they:

Utilize dissolved organic matter from the water

 

Filter a large volume of water

 

Are deposit as well as a suspension feeder

Are parasites when young

 

Have zooxanthellae

 

Which of the following organisms is least likely to be responsible for bioerosion?

Sea urchins

 

Polychaetes

 

Clams

 

Fish

 

Algae

 

What area of a fringing coral reef is most likely to be affected by sedimentation?

Reef crest

 

Reef slope

Reef flat

 

Reef rise

 

Reef knoll

 

What area of a fringing coral reef is most likely to see more pronounced coral growth?

Reef crest

 

Reef slope

 

Reef flat

 

Reef rise

Reef knoll

 

 

 

CHAPTER  15

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The epipelagic is divided into two components: the oceanic waters and the:

Photic zone

Neritic zone

 

Pelagic realm

 

Upper photic zone

 

Subtidal zone

 

Most of the primary production carried out in the open ocean is performed by:

Seaweeds

 

Kelps

 

Phytoplankton

Seagrasses

 

Zooxanthellae

 

External input of organic matter is not likely to be important in the:

Epipelagic zone

 

Hadal zone

 

Bathyal zone

 

Abyssal zone

 

Supralittoral zone

 

The net phytoplankton consists mostly of:

Copepods

 

Diatoms and dinoflagellates

Nanoplankton

 

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

 

Nanoplankton and diatoms

 

Most zooplankton feed on:

Strictly phytoplankton

 

Strictly zooplankton

 

Mostly nanoplankton

 

Mostly zooplankton

Mostly nanoplankton and phytoplankton

 

Typically the most abundant group in the zooplankton:

Larvaceans

Krill

 

Fish larvae

 

Nanoplankton

 

Copepods

 

Which of these is least likely to be seen in the epipelagic?

Suspension feeders

 

Deposit feeders

 

Primary production

First-level carnivores

 

Second-level carnivores

 

Viruses are classified as:

Femtoplankton

Picoplankton

 

Nanoplankton

 

Mesoplankton

 

Macroplankton

 

One of these groups builds a mucus “house”:

Copepods

 

Arrow worms

 

Larvaceans

Planktonic snails such as pteropods

 

Snail larvae

 

Only one of these is part of the meroplankton:

Copepods

 

Arrow worms

 

Larvaceans

 

Planktonic snails such as pteropods

 

Snail larvae

 

Which of the following accounts for about 50 percent of the primary production in epipelagic waters?

 

Diatoms

 

Cyanobacteria

Dinoflagellates

 

Coccolithophorids

 

Silicoflagellates

 

Which of these are not considered to be pelagic zooplankton?

Arrow worms

 

Comb jellies

 

Pteropods

 

Diatomse

Copepods

 

One of the following are an adaptation to the planktonic way of life except one:

Spines

Small size

 

Decrease in drag

 

Substitution of heavy ions by light ones

 

Gas-filled bladders

 

The storage of lipids within the body is an adaptation in plankton since lipids:

Make cells heavier

 

Increase body density

 

Contain air pockets so they help in buoyancy

Contain a larger amount of energy

 

Are less dense than water

 

The neuston consist of animals that:

Swim against currents

 

Sink to the bottom portion of the water column

 

Are top carnivores in the pelagic realm

 

Spend their entire lives in the plankton

 

Float on the surface

 

Countershading is a form of:

Shading with bioluminescence

Warning coloration

 

Structural coloration

 

Protective coloration

 

Cryptic coloration

 

The rete mirabile found in some fishes is involved in:

Increasing speed

 

Decreasing buoyancy

 

Digesting food

Increasing buoyancy

 

Conserving body heat

 

Zooplankton that migrate vertically:

Hibernate at night and feed during the day

 

Feed at the surface during the day, and migrate below the photic zone at night

 

Feed in the photic zone during the day, and migrate to the surface at night

 

Stay below the photic zone during the day, and feed at the surface at night

 

Migrate up and down but always stay below the photic zone

 

Most animals in the epipelagic are omnivores. This means that they eat:

Producers and consumers

 

Part of the neuston

Zooplankton

 

Detritus

 

Phytoplankton

 

What is the relationship between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria in the epipelagic?

 

Bacteria feed on the DOM, making it available to other animals in the food chain that feed on bacteria

 

Bacteria supply most of the DOM

 

Bacteria feed on DOM and thus it is unavailable to other animals

 

Bacteria cannot utilize DOM and thus feed on detritus, depleting it through most of the epipelagic

Bacteria cannot utilize DOM, making it available to animals

 

The most common limiting nutrient in the ocean is:

Silicon

Oxygen

 

Nitrogen

 

Carbonate

 

Phosphorus

 

Where is primary production the least?

Coasts

 

Upwelling along coasts

 

Gyres

Around Antarctica in the summer

 

Along the Equator

 

The fall bloom in temperate waters is caused when:

Primary production decreases as nutrients increase

 

Primary production decreases due to light limitation

 

Primary production decreases as nutrients decrease

 

Primary production increases as nutrients increase

 

Primary production increases as the number of zooplankton increases

 

Equatorial upwelling occurs as a result of:

Temperature changes at the Equator

The divergence of equatorial surface currents

 

The convergence of equatorial surface currents

 

Winds causing the Ekman transport of surface water offshore

 

El Ni–o conditions north and south of the Equator

 

The Southern Oscillation can be best described as:

Relative changes between two pressure systems

 

Variation in wind speed over the Pacific Ocean

 

Relationship between sea-surface and high-altitude pressures

Tidal differences between the Indian and Pacific Oceans

 

Wind-speed differences along the Equator

 

The long spines and projections seen in many epipelagic plankton are used for:

Feeding

 

Reproduction

 

Increase drag

 

Increase buoyancy

 

Gather nutrients

 

Which of the following mechanisms is not used to increase buoyancy?

Spines

 

Swim Bladders

Oil filled liver

 

Ion exchange

 

Blubber

 

Organisms that live at the water’s surface and project into the air are known as:

Phytoplankton

 

Nekton

 

Pleuston

 

Neuston

Zooplankton

 

Most epipelagic fish have a tail that is:

Short and wide

Short and narrow

 

Short and thin

 

High and wide

 

High and narrow

 

The largest source of dissolved organic material (DOM) in the epipelagic is:

Viruses

 

bacteria

 

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

 

Nekton

 

Which of the following adaptations is least likely to be seen in epipelagic fish?

Stiff fins

 

Smooth, scaleless body

 

Increased white muscle

 

Grove in body for fins

 

Eyes flush with body

 

 

CHAPTER  16

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

The mesopelagic zone refers to the ocean depths in which there is:

Enough light to support plant growth

No light at all

 

Dim light, but not enough for plant growth

 

Enough light for primary production by bacteria

 

Dim light, but enough to support only some hardy plants

 

In addition to food, deep-water animals depend on the surface for:

Light

 

Carbon dioxide

 

Chlorophyll

Oxygen

 

All of the above choices are correct

 

The mesopelagic zone extends from about 200 m to about:

300 m

 

500 m

 

1,000 m

 

2,000 m

 

4,000 m

 

The main thermocline is located:

In the mesopelagic

 

Above the mesopelagic

Below the mesopelagic

 

It varies since the thermocline disappears in the tropics

 

It varies since the thermocline moves up and down in the water column depending on the amount of oxygen

 

Photophores are:

Specialized eyes

 

Buoyancy-regulating organs

 

Specialized jaws

Light-sensitive organs that lack the lens of true eyes

 

Light-producing organs

 

Which of the following is least likely to be seen in a vertical non-migrating mesopelagic fish?

Weak bones

 

Swim bladder

 

Flabby muscles

 

Small size

 

Large eyes

 

Which of these groups of planktonic organisms would be least likely to be living in the mesopelagic?

Arrow worms

 

Ostracots

Copepods

 

Diatoms

 

Pteropods

 

Which of the following is not true regarding the deep-scattering layer (DSL)?

Position rises at night and moves down during the day

Comprise of fish, shrimp, squids and jellyfish

 

Found at depths of 300-500 meters

 

Discovered by sonar

 

Position is deeper on nights with a new moon

 

The tubular eyes of some mid-water animals are adapted for:

Increasing the field of vision

 

Producing light

 

Seeing in the complete absence of light

Sensing changes in depth

 

Sensing changes in salinity

 

The presence of bioluminescent organs on the underside of mid-water fishes is involved in:

Countershading

 

Enlargement of silhouette

 

Creating a transparency effect

 

Cryptic coloration

 

Counterillumination

 

Bioluminescence is used by mid-water animals in all of these except in:

Communication

 

Warning coloration

Attracting prey

 

Counterillumination

 

Escaping from predators

 

The water below the oxygen minimum layer has:

No oxygen at all

 

Only very small traces of oxygen

 

Some of the oxygen it had when it left the surface

 

Most of the oxygen it had when it left the surface

 

The deepest of ocean waters are classified as:

Bathypelagic

 

Hadal pelagic

Abyssopelagic

 

Mesopelagic

 

Lower epipelagic

 

The zone immediately below the bathyal zone is called the:

Abyssal

 

Hadal

 

Subtidal

 

Subbathyal

Mesopelagic

 

Deep-sea pelagic fishes are characterized by all of the following except:

Small eyes

Absent or reduced swim bladder

 

Color spotted with red

 

Flabby muscles

 

Large mouth and teeth

 

An important feeding adaptation among deep-sea fishes:

Migration to shallower water to feed

Feeding on males, hence the term “male parasitism”

 

Ability to eat prey bigger than themselves

 

Strong muscles that allow them to move fast to catch any available prey

 

Absence of a stomach

 

Pheromones are special chemicals that are used to:

Digest food

 

Attract mates

 

Catch prey

Transport oxygen

 

Produce bioluminescence

 

The deep-sea benthos consists mostly of:

Deposit feeders

 

Filter feeders

 

Herbivores

 

Omnivores

 

Carnivores

 

The deep-sea scavengers include animals that feed on:

Deep-sea plankton

 

Bottom meiofauna

Particulate organic matter

 

Dead animals

 

Bacteria

 

The “experimental lunch” that was left on the Alvin as it rested on the bottom revealed that deep-sea bacteria:

Do not exist at all

 

May cause diseases in humans exposed to them

 

Break down organic matter faster than in shallow water as a result of high pressure

Grow slower than shallow-water species

 

Are identical to those found in shallow water

 

The energy source for the bacteria that thrive around deep-sea hydrothermal vents is:

Hydrogen sulfide

 

Light

 

Heat from the hydrothermal vents

 

Detritus

 

Tube-worm tissues

 

Bacteria thriving around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are:

Photosynthethic

 

Symbiotic

Heterotrophic

 

Parasitic

 

Chemosynthetic

 

The giant deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm feeds on:

Plankton

 

Detritus

 

Small bottom animals such as brittle stars

 

Deep-sea bottom fishes

None of the above choices are correct: the worm does not have a mouth

 

The major advantage that deep-sea benthic animals have over pelagic ones is that their food:

Is easier to digest

Falls to the bottom and stays in one place, thus being available for a longer time

 

Gets to be eaten before it gets to pelagic animals

 

Gets less decayed by bacteria

 

Produces less detritus

 

A shrimp that occurs in large numbers around deep-sea hydrothermal vents does not have eyes. Light-sensitive cells on the top of the body, however, appear to be used to detect faint light from:

Bioluminescent predators

 

The surface

Faint glow around vents

 

Bioluminescent prey

 

Mates

 

The most common fish in the mesopelagic are:

Lanternfishes

 

Bristlemouths

 

Lancetfishes

 

Cutlassfishes

Hatchetfishes

 

Bioluminescence in mesopelagic organisms is produced by:

Photophores

Specialized cells

 

Secretions

 

All of the above

 

A and B only

 

The condition that creates the largest problem in the deep sea:

Salinity changes

 

Temperature changes

 

Pressure changes

Food availability

 

Hermaphroditism and male parasitism is most common in:

Fishes

Tube worms

 

Clams

 

Crabs

 

Shrimp

 

The most numerous organisms on the deep sea floor are:

Macrofauna

 

Epifauna

 

Endofauna

Meiofauna

 

Infauna

 

Deep sea gigantism is most common in:

Crustaceans

 

Polychaetes

 

Brittle stars

 

Sea stars

 

Sea spiders

 

The reason for deep sea gigantism is:

Predation

Related to reproduction

 

Competition for food

 

Competition for space

 

Not known

 

An unknown fish has been brought to you to examine. This fish is black, relatively small with small eyes and weak, flabby muscles. This fish is most likely from the:

Mesopelagic (vertical migratory)

 

Mesopelagic (vertical non-migrator)

Epipelagic

 

Deep pelagic

 

Deep-sea benthic

 

 

 

CHAPTER  17

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Finfish and shellfish provide approximately what percentage of animal protein consumed by humans around the world?

5%

 

1%

 

10%

 

20%

 

30%

 

Traditional fisheries are those that:

Catches are routinely recorded

 

Catch shellfish, not finfish

Do not use boats

 

Use relatively simple gear and methods

 

Catches are not sold to the general public

 

When did the world population reach 6 billion?

Not yet: it is expected to reach 6 billion by 2010

 

Not yet: it is expected to reach 6 billion by 2020

 

1985

 

1990

Late 1990s

 

One nation where annual catches have not significantly decreased since the late 1980s:

Japan

Russia

 

United States

 

China

 

Canada

 

Most marine food resources are taken from:

Coral reefs

 

The continental shelf

 

Open waters off the continental shelf

Estuaries

 

Mariculture ponds

 

The largest fish catches are those of:

Tunas

 

Herrings, sardines, and other clupeoid fishes

 

Cod, haddocks, related fishes

 

Salmon

 

Sharks, rays, and skates

 

By definition, demersal catches are those that are harvested from:

The open water

 

The bottom

Estuaries

 

Waters where primary production is increased by upwelling

 

The continental shelf

 

By definition, pelagic catches are those that are harvested from:

The open water

The bottom

 

Estuaries

 

Waters where primary production is increased by upwelling

 

The continental shelf

 

Clupeoid fishes are least likely to be consumed in what way?

In pet food

 

Fish flour

 

Fish meal

In products such as margarine

 

Direct consumption

 

The major fishing areas of the world are mostly located in waters:

Where coral reefs are common

 

Where equatorial upwelling takes place

 

In open waters far from coasts

 

Where coastal upwelling takes place

 

Around Antarctica and in the Arctic

 

The major fishing area in the world is in the:

Northwest Pacific

 

Waters around Antarctica

West Indian Ocean

 

Southwest Atlantic

 

Mediterranean

 

Trawls are nets that:

Surround and trap fish

 

Float on the surface

 

Are allowed to drift along the surface

 

Placed along the bottom to trap passing fishes

Dragged along the bottom or through the water column

 

Cods and related fishes are demersal. As a result, they are most likely to be caught commercially using which method?

Gill nets

 

Purse seine

 

Trawls

 

Long line

 

Hand line

 

An example of a marine non-renewable resource:

Shellfish

 

Finfish

Oil

 

Seaweeds

 

Whales

 

The maximum sustainable yield is best defined as the:

Highest catch that can be taken without overfishing

 

Maximum fishing effort allowed after overfishing is reached

 

Highest catch that will pay the minimum cost of the fishing effort

 

Minimum catch that will still allow the population to grow

The annual size of the catch that will balance natural death and predation

 

Continued catches above the maximum sustainable yield:

Can be increased to prevent overfishing

Will result in underutilization

 

Will result in a decrease of fishing effort

 

  • Must be decreased in order to decrease population size

 

  • Will result in overfishing

 

  • Fishing effort refers to all of the following except:
  • Number of fishing boats

 

  • Number of fishermen

 

  • Number and size of fishing nets
  • Amount of time spent at sea

 

  • Size of the catch

 

  • One of the following best describes commercial fisheries around the world:
  • Most have been affected by overfishing

 

  • About 20% have been affected by overfishing

 

  • All have been affected by overfishing

 

  • All have been affected by overfishing but none have been exhausted

 

  • None have been affected by overfishing in the Southern Hemisphere

 

  • Fisheries management involves all of the following except:
  • Determining the optimal catch of a fish population

 

  • Determining when female fish begin releasing eggs
  • Limiting the size and sex of the fish caught

 

  • Restricting the number of fishing boats

 

  • Determining the fishing gear that can be used

 

  • The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of a nation is defined as being equal to how many nautical miles:
  • 10

 

  • 20

 

  • 100
  • 200

 

  • 1,000

 

  • The farming of salmon includes all the following problems except:
  • Higher levels of contaminants in farmed fish tissue

 

  • Pollution released into environment

 

  • More expensive

 

  • Threatens genetic identity of wild salmon

 

  • Increased parasites

 

  • The “by-catch” is the name given to:
  • Junk species that are caught while fishing for more valuable species

 

  • Species caught for industrial purposes
  • Krill and other shellfish

 

  • Species raised in fish farms

 

  • Species caught as part of traditional fisheries

 

  • The type of mariculture that takes place under more or less natural conditions with little manipulation by humans is known as:
  • Traditional mariculture

 

  • Aquaculture

 

  • Closed intensive mariculture
  • Open mariculture

 

  • Industrial mariculture

 

  • Seeding in mariculture refers to:
  • Feeding fry with food raised in land farms
  • Enriching natural populations by releasing fish that have been farmed for a short time

 

  • Removing diseased fishes

 

  • The culture of shellfish on racks or baskets

 

  • The farming of fish in open mariculture

 

  • By the early 2000s, farmed fish accounted for approximately what percentage of the total world consumption?
  • 1%

 

  • 2%
  • 10%

 

  • 20%

 

  • 100%

 

  • Releasing farmed salmon fry to grow at sea and harvesting them when they return to the river where they were released is called:
  • Open mariculture

 

  • Closed mariculture

 

  • Salmon ranching
  • Traditional salmon runs

 

  • Intensive mariculture

 

  • Offshore oil is drilled mostly from:
  • Deep sea

 

  • Coral reefs

 

  • Abyssal plains

 

  • Continental shelf

 

  • Mid-oceanic ridge

 

  • Other than manganese, polymetallic nodules contain relatively large amounts of:
  • Nickel

 

  • Gold
  • Coal

 

  • Oil

 

  • Silver

 

  • Desalination plants:
  • Extract minerals for industrial use from seawater

 

  • Convert seawater into fresh water

 

  • Extract table salt from seawater

 

  • Convert seawater into brackish water for industrial uses
  • Extract oil from seawater

 

  • Potential sources of energy that can be obtained from the sea include all of the following except:
  • Tides
  • Waves

 

  • Currents

 

  • Differences in temperature between deep and shallow water

 

  • Polymetallic nodules

 

  • The massive decline of a particular fishery in New England waters caused the unemployment of numerous fishers and related workers in the United States and Canada in the 1980’s. To date, this fishery has not recovered. Which fishery is this?

 

  • Salmon
  • Clupeids

 

  • Sea bass

 

  • Cod

 

  • Sharks

 

  • In the North Altlantic, which fish stock appears to be experiencing growth due to conservation efforts?

 

  • Sharks
  • Tunas

 

  • Cod

 

  • Clupeids

 

  • Swordfish

 

  • A fishery is regarded as collapsed when catches fall below what percent of historic high catches?
  • 50%

 

  • 40%
  • 30%

 

  • 20%

 

  • 10%

 

  • In the United States, marine catches are managed by:
  • Limiting length of fishing season

 

  • Limiting number of boats or fishers permitted

 

  • Transplantation of artificially reared young

 

  • All of the above
  • A and B only

 

  • Which of the following seafood choices should eco-minded consumers avoid to help protect fragile fisheries?
  • Pacific flounder

 

  • Pacific cod

 

  • Striped bass

 

  • Grouper

 

  • Tilapia

 

  • Which of the following is a renewable resource from the marine environment?
  • Oil

 

  • Gas
  • Timber

 

  • Minerals

 

  • Successful pharmaceutical uses for marine organisms include all of the following except:
  • Red seaweed extract used as laxative

 

  • Sponge extract used as anti-inflammatory

 

  • Squaline from sharks used to treat cancer

 

  • Bryostating from bryozoans used to treat cancer

 

  • Horseshoe crab blood used to test vaccines from contamination

 

 

 

CHAPTER  18

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

  • An anthropogenic impact is one caused by:
  • Physical factors in the environment
  • Organisms that are part of marine communities

 

  • The destruction of primary producers

 

  • Organisms that live in neighboring marine communities

 

  • Human activities

 

  • Trawling is particularly destructive to:
  • Soft bottom communities

 

  • Coral reefs

 

  • Sandy beaches
  • Salt marshes

 

  • Abyssal plains

 

  • Pollution is best described as:
  • Adding substances or energy that harm the environment

 

  • Changing the population growth of species

 

  • The decrease in the quality of the environment as a result of natural events

 

  • Substances or materials that are toxic to humans decreasing the quality of the human environment

 

  • Can be broken down by bacteria

 

  • The problem of hypoxic, or “dead” zones, in the ocean is caused by:
  • Oil pollution

 

  • Lead pollution
  • Eutrophication

 

  • Thermal pollution

 

  • Pesticides

 

  • Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by:
  • Lead

 

  • DDT

 

  • Mercury

 

  • Nitrogen
  • PCB’s

 

  • People can contract hepatitis from eating raw shellfish because shellfish:
  • Are normal carriers of the hepatitis virus
  • Keep alive the viruses in the water kept within the shell

 

  • Filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water

 

  • Keep the virus alive in its nervous system

 

  • Are most likely spoiled

 

  • Sludge is best defined as:
  • Raw sewage

 

  • Semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment

 

  • Industrial sewage
  • Water removed during sewage treatment

 

  • Decay bacteria in sewage

 

  • Accumulation of sludge on the bottom of the ocean is responsible for:
  • Anoxic, or oxygen-lacking, conditions
  • Drastic changes in salinity

 

  • Deposit feeders being replaced by filter feeders

 

  • Drastic changes in temperature

 

  • Increase in the number of sharks and other predators

 

  • The two most persistent sources of oil pollution in the marine environment are:
  • Tanker and blowout accidents

 

  • Tar balls and tanker accidents

 

  • Natural seepage and urban runoff
  • Urban wastes and normal operation of tankers

 

  • Blowout accidents and urban wastes

 

  • The most harmful oil spills in terms of large-scale damage to the marine environment:
  • Blowout of offshore rigs

 

  • Discharge of oil during the unloading of tankers

 

  • Sinking or collision of tankers

 

  • Runoff from coastal cities

 

  • Natural seepage

 

  • A substance that is biodegradable:
  • Evaporates very slowly

 

  • Forms tar balls or other solid residues
  • Can be broken down only by special chemicals

 

  • Sinks to the bottom

 

  • Can be broken down by bacteria

 

  • After oil spills, what type of marine animals is most likely to die of exposure?
  • Migrating fishes like salmon

 

  • Cetaceans

 

  • Sea urchins

 

  • Filter-feeding fishes
  • Seabirds

 

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found most commonly in:
  • Fertilizers
  • Sewage

 

  • Oil

 

  • Aerosol containers

 

  • Pesticides

 

  • A persistent chemical is one that is:
  • Toxic

 

  • Non-biodegradable

 

  • A thermal pollutant
  • Insoluble in water

 

  • Resistant to detergents

 

  • Persistent chemicals are particularly harmful to the environment because they:
  • Are toxic to plants and other autotrophs

 

  • Are not soluble in seawater

 

  • Interfere with the oxygen intake of organisms

 

  • Are toxic since they are radioactive

 

  • Accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain

 

  • Which of the following is not a effect of oil spills on the marine environment?
  • Phytoplankton blooms
  • Increase susceptibility to disease in fish

 

  • Decreased ability to stay warm in birds

 

  • Interferes with normal reproduction

 

  • Which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentration of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in its tissues?
  • Filter-feeding fishes

 

  • Carnivorous fishes

 

  • Phytoplankton
  • Sea lions

 

  • Zooplankton

 

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons reach the marine environment by way of:
  • Fertilizers used in farms along the shore

 

  • Thermal pollution

 

  • Land-nesting seabirds

 

  • River runoff

 

  • Underwater volcanic eruptions

 

  • PCBs are characterized by being:
  • Persistent

 

  • Easily biodegradable
  • Radioactive

 

  • Responsible for global warming

 

  • Responsible for eutrophication

 

  • One of the following has been implicated in abnormal sexual behavior in seabirds:
  • Sewage pollution

 

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

 

  • Thermal pollution

 

  • Heavy metals
  • Eutrophication

 

  • Furans are pollutants that belong among the:
  • PCBs
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

 

  • Heavy metals

 

  • Thermal pollutants

 

  • Radioactive wastes

 

  • Heavy metals include all of the following except:
  • Lead

 

  • PCBs

 

  • Mercury
  • Cadmium

 

  • Copper

 

  • Mercury has been directly linked with one of the following health problems in humans:
  • Hepatitis

 

  • Cancer

 

  • Neurological disorders and paralysis

 

  • Digestive disorders

 

  • Respiratory problems

 

  • One of the following is known to be responsible for thermal pollution:
  • Radioactive fallout
  • Sewage

 

  • Excessive use of fertilizers

 

  • Solid waste

 

  • Power plants

 

  • A threatened species is one that is:
  • In immediate danger of extinction

 

  • At risk of extinction since its members are low in number

 

  • Not at risk even if its members are low in number
  • At great risk since it only exists in zoos or marine parks

 

  • Within a few years of disappearing forever

 

  • The Steller sea cow was brought to extinction by:
  • The destruction of kelp beds

 

  • The occupation of land by whalers

 

  • Whalers hunting for meat

 

  • The filling in of estuaries

 

  • Increase in sediments in the water brought about by the cutting of nearby forests

 

  • Introduced species are known to be transported into a new location by way of:
  • Ocean currents

 

  • Plankton brought in by currents
  • Transplanted oysters

 

  • Natural migration

 

  • Young individuals brought in by currents

 

  • Sustainable development refers to development that:
  • Remains stable year after year

 

  • Safeguards natural resources for future generations of people

 

  • Does not alter ocean currents, salinity or any other physical or chemical factors in the environment

 

  • Does not significantly affect the growth of wildlife
  • Changes depending on the importance given by future generations of the use of particular resources

 

  • Efforts to restore kelp forests include:
  • Transplantation of sea urchins
  • Cutting kelp just below the surface of the water

 

  • Transplanting young kelp

 

  • Seeding with fertilizers

 

  • Growing kelp along floating rafts

 

  • Artificial reefs are known to:
  • Improve fishing

 

  • Increase pollution

 

  • Increase beach erosion
  • Bring unwanted introduced species

 

  • Change weather patterns

 

  • Reduced light availability for zooxanthellae is most related to which of these human induced factors?
  • Increased sedimentation

 

  • Thermal pollution

 

  • Increased harvesting

 

  • Acidification

 

  • Pesticides

 

  • Which of the following is not true regarding coral bleaching?
  • Can be the result of increased temperatures
  • Bleaching events are increasing

 

  • Bleaching results in total loss of zooxanthellae

 

  • Bleached corals do not grow

 

  • Bleached corals are vulnerably to disintegration

 

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides would be likely to be found in the greatest concentrations in the tissues of:
  • Phytoplankton

 

  • Zooplankton
  • Plankton-eating fishes

 

  • Carnivorous fishes

 

  • Seals and sea lions

 

 

 

CHAPTER  19

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

 

  • The oceans are said to have served as barriers of culture due to:
  • Protection by most nations of their seaports
  • Banning of ocean-going commerce until the sixteenth century

 

  • Stiff import-export trade barriers

 

  • Belief in the western world that the earth was flat

 

  • Lack of maps

 

  • A group of people that are known to have completed long voyages of discovery across the ocean before the Europeans:
  • Polynesians

 

  • Native Americans
  • Inuit peoples native to polar regions

 

  • South American Indians

 

  • Native Californian tribes

 

  • In the fifteenth century, this nation pioneered the discovery of new lands by crossing the oceans:
  • Italy

 

  • China

 

  • Portugal

 

  • Russia
  • England

 

  • Which Europeans were the first to land in America?
  • Spaniards
  • Englishmen

 

  • Italians

 

  • Russians

 

  • Vikings

 

  • In terms of total volume, seaborne trade is dominated by:
  • Crude oil

 

  • Fruits and vegetables

 

  • Coffee
  • Sugar

 

  • Pharmaceuticals

 

  • In the native cultures of this region, salmon and killer whales provide a source of many legends and religious beliefs:
  • Australia

 

  • Northern Europe

 

  • South Africa

 

  • Caribbean
  • Pacific Northwest

 

  • Cultures that have evolved in close contact with the marine environment are known by anthropologists as:
  • Maritime

 

  • Oceanic

 

  • Seaborne

 

  • Marine

 

  • Neritic

 

  • A native culture that uses eelgrass as an important resource can be found in:
  • Polynesia
  • Gulf of California

 

  • Falkland Islands

 

  • Japan

 

  • India

 

  • The livelihood of the Hanseatic League of Northern Europe was based on what particular fishery?
  • Herring

 

  • Salmon

 

  • Freshwater eel
  • Cod

 

  • Tuna

 

  • Some unique cultures heavily influenced by the sea exist in isolated areas where the economy is still based on:
  • Tourism

 

  • Interocean transportation

 

  • Fishing

 

  • Handicrafts
  • International trade

 

  • Perhaps the most remarkable example of reclamation of land from the sea bottom is found in:
  • France
  • China

 

  • Italy

 

  • The Netherlands

 

  • Norway

 

  • Ecotourism combines travel and:
  • Business in the exploitation of fish resources

 

  • Visit to areas of natural interest

 

  • Visit to areas of artistic interest
  • Visit to areas of archeological interest

 

  • The aquarium trade

 

  • The United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea stipulates that control of transit through sea straits is guaranteed if:
  • The strait lies in the territorial sea of one nation

 

  • The strait lies in the territorial sea of more than one nation

 

  • The strait is open at both ends

 

  • The strait is closed at one end
  • The strait is controlled by nations belonging to the U.N. Security Council

 

  • The territorial sea of a nation is defined as the water between a nation’s coastline to a distance of how many nautical miles?
  • 1

 

  • 2

 

  • 3

 

  • 12

 

  • 100

 

  • The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) defines the interests that a nation may have over what type of activities?
  • Defense
  • Commerce

 

  • Tourism

 

  • Nuclear testing

 

  • Oil exploration

 

  • Which of the following duties may be performed by the Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage?
  • Construct intercontinental agreements to protect biodiversity

 

  • Develop clear sea travel routes

 

  • Monitor the effects of climate change on ocean life

 

  • Coordinate efforts related to handling of maritime archeology

 

  • Monitor and recommend changes to worldwide catches

 

  • “Nautical interest” is a phrase that describes a country’s privileges as related to:
  • Shipping routes

 

  • Natural resources of its coast
  • Protection of coastal boundaries

 

  • Affects of pollution