Sample Chapter



Nursing Theories And Nursing Practice 4th Edition By Smith Parker – Test Bank 


Chapter 1: Nursing Theory and the Discipline of Nursing




Multiple Choice




  1. The purpose of theory is to:
  2. Explain experience.
  3. Describe relationships.
  4. Project outcomes.
  5. All of the above






  1. Members of a community of scholars share a commitment to all of the following except:
  2. Values.
  3. Knowledge.
  4. Geographic location.
  5. Processes.






  1. ____________________ and ____________________ structures are essential to any discipline and are inherent in nursing theories.
  2. Paradigm and metaparadigm
  3. Syntactical and conceptual
  4. Middle and grand
  5. Language and symbol






  1. Books and periodicals are examples of:
  2. Communication networks.
  3. Heritage of literature.
  4. Nursing organizations.
  5. Nursing discipline.






  1. The basic building blocks of theories are:
  2. Concepts and their definitions.
  3. Statements of relationships.
  4. Concepts and statements of relationships.
  5. Empirical indicators.






  1. Nursing theories:
  2. Are discovered in nature.
  3. Serve as exact representations of reality.
  4. Are invented by humans.
  5. Cannot be modified.






  1. A paradigm is defined as a:
  2. Worldview.
  3. General framework.
  4. Set of shared perspectives held by members of a discipline.
  5. All of the above






  1. The dependence of nursing theory development on human imagination is an attribute of nursing as a(n):
  2. Occupation.
  3. Discipline.
  4. Vocation.
  5. Profession.






  1. The primary purpose of nursing theory is to:
  2. Structure nursing knowledge.
  3. Demonstrate creativity in nursing.
  4. Guide the thinking about, being, and doing of nursing.
  5. Organize nursing curricula.






  1. The first nursing theorist who identified the importance of theory in nursing was:
  2. Virginia Henderson.
  3. Hildegard Peplau.
  4. Lydia Hall.
  5. Florence Nightingale.






  1. The most abstract level of knowledge is the:
  2. Paradigm.
  3. Metaparadigm.
  4. Theory.
  5. Concept.






  1. Statements of enduring values or beliefs are considered:
  2. Conceptual models.
  3. Philosophies.
  4. Grand theories.
  5. Practice theories.






  1. Theories that include specific concepts, are broad enough to be useful in complex situations, and can be empirically tested are called:
  2. Grand theories.
  3. Middle-range theories.
  4. Practice-level theories.
  5. Nursing theories.






  1. Theories that have the most limited scope and level of abstraction that are useful in within a specific range of nursing situations are called:
  2. Grand theories.
  3. Middle-range theories.
  4. Practice-level theories.
  5. Nursing theories.






  1. The name for the boundaries or focus of a discipline is:
  2. Imagination.
  3. Domain.
  4. Tradition.
  5. Value.










  1. Every discipline has a unique focus that directs inquiry and distinguishes it from other fields of study.






  1. Theories are not discovered in nature but are human inventions






  1. Science generally evolves as a smooth, regular, continuing path of knowledge development over time.






  1. Early nursing theorists relied on definitions of theory from nursing practice to guide the development of theories within nursing.






  1. The best test of any nursing theory is its usefulness in professional practice.



Chapter 2: A Guide for the Study of Theories for Practice


Multiple Choice




  1. The scope of nursing practice is:
  2. Known and static.
  3. Continually being expanded.
  4. Determined only by individual researchers.
  5. Important only to nurses with advanced degrees.






  1. The question “What does the nurse attend to when practicing nursing?” relates to which of the following areas of the theory guide?
  2. How nursing is conceptualized
  3. The context of theory development
  4. Authoritative sources
  5. Overall theory significance






  1. Nursing theorists and nurses in practice:
  2. Are interested in related but different phenomena.
  3. Do not see nursing in the same context.
  4. Think and work with the same phenomena.
  5. Require the same knowledge and skills.






  1. The study of nursing theory:
  2. Is a simple, short-term endeavor.
  3. Can be easily undertaken.
  4. Requires a continuing commitment.
  5. Is not essential for expert nursing practice.






  1. The question “What nursing society’s share and support work of the theory?” relates to which of the following areas of the theory guide?
  2. How nursing is conceptualized
  3. The context of theory development
  4. Authoritative sources
  5. Overall theory significance






  1. The question “Is the theory used to guide programs of nursing education?” relates to which of the following areas of the theory guide?
  2. How nursing is conceptualized
  3. The context of theory development
  4. Authoritative sources
  5. Overall theory significance










  1. The guide for the selection of nursing theory presented in your text is a set of questions that facilitate reflection and exploration in the study of nursing theory that can lead to the selection of a nursing theory for use in your practice.






  1. One criterion for hospitals seeking magnet hospital status is selection of a theoretical model for nursing practice.






  1. It is not necessary or desirable for the study and use of nursing theory to have roots in the everyday practice of nursing.






  1. Key ways to study nursing include analysis and evaluation.



Chapter 3: Choosing, Evaluating and Implementing Nursing Theories for Practice



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. The primary purpose of nursing theory is to:
  2. Improve nursing practice.
  3. Control health care costs.
  4. Justify nursing costs.
  5. Establish nursing as a discipline.






  1. Nursing practice is essential for all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Developing nursing theory.
  3. Testing nursing theory.
  4. Refining nursing theory.
  5. Discovering nursing theory.






  1. Nurses working together as colleagues often realize that:
  2. Their views of nursing are not compatible.
  3. They share the same values and beliefs.
  4. The study of nursing theory does not enhance their work.
  5. None of the above






  1. Responses to guiding questions about theory in practice can be found in the following resources:
  2. Nursing literature
  3. Audiovisual sources
  4. Electronic sources
  5. All of the above






  1. How we come to know the science of nursing and other disciplines that are used in nursing practice is described as:
  2. Empirical knowing.
  3. Personal knowing.
  4. Emancipatory knowing.
  5. Aesthetic knowing.






  1. How we come to know the moral component affecting choices within the complexity of health care that guide day-to-day actions in nursing practice is described as:
  2. Empirical knowing.
  3. Personal knowing.
  4. Ethical knowing.
  5. Emancipatory knowing.






  1. Striving to know the self and to actualize authentic relationships between the nurse and the one nursed is defined as:
  2. Empirical knowing.
  3. Personal knowing.
  4. Ethical knowing.
  5. Aesthetic knowing.






  1. Cultivating awareness about how social, political and economic forces shape assumptions and opinions about knowledge and truth is defined as:
  2. Personal knowing.
  3. Ethical knowing.
  4. Emancipatory knowing.
  5. Aesthetic knowing.









  1. One of the most urgent issues facing the discipline of nursing is the artificial separation of theory and practice.






  1. Theories of any professional discipline are useless if they do not have an impact on practice.






  1. Historically, nursing has always been distinctly separate from the medical model.



Chapter 4: Florence Nightingale



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. Nightingale proposed nursing as:
  2. An extension of the environment.
  3. An art and a science.
  4. Empirical science.
  5. Physician’s handmaiden.






  1. Nightingale defined a nurse as any woman who had “charge of the personal health of somebody” whether well, as in caring for babies and children, or sick, as an “invalid” (Nightingale, 1860/1969). It was assumed that:
  2. All women, at one time or another in their lives, would nurse.
  3. All women needed to know the laws of health.
  4. Nursing proper, or “sick” nursing, was both an art and a science and required organized, formal education to care for those suffering from disease.
  5. All of the above






  1. The goal of nursing as described by Nightingale is to:
  2. Work collaboratively with the physician to implement the medical orders.
  3. Take care of the patient’s environment by cooking, cleaning, and scrubbing the floors.
  4. Assist the patient in his or her retention of “vital powers” by meeting his or her needs, thus putting the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon.
  5. Give the patient medicine when the medicine is due.






  1. Nightingale isolated five environmental components essential to an individual’s health. Select the correct grouping from the following:
  2. Calming colors, quiet, comfortable temperature, clean air, pure water
  3. Clean air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness, light
  4. Light, color, sound, smell, temperature
  5. Pure food, clean water, cleanliness, quiet, calming color






  1. In Nightingale’s mind, the specific “scientific” activity of nursing that was the central element in health care, without which medicine and surgery would be ineffective, is which of the following:
  2. Preparing nutritious meals
  3. Maintaining an aesthetic environment
  4. Maintaining hygiene
  5. Sustaining a quiet environment






  1. In the mid-19th century, there were two competing theories regarding the nature and origin of disease. These competing thoeries were:
  2. Localization and specificity.
  3. Contagionism and quarantine.
  4. Vectorism and pollution.
  5. Atmosphere and environment.






  1. According to Nightingale, a nurse is defined as:
  2. The handmaiden of the physician.
  3. A member of the moral majority.
  4. Any woman who had charge of the personal health of somebody, whether well or sick.
  5. An individual who felt a calling to take charge of the sick.





  1. The patient is at the center of the Nightingale model and incorporates:
  2. A holistic view of the person.
  3. Psychological, intellectual, and spiritual components.
  4. A unique individual filled with chattering hopes and advice.
  5. A & B
  6. All of the above.






  1. According to Nightingale, health is viewed as:
  2. An additive process.
  3. The result of environmental, physical, and psychological factors.
  4. The absence of illness.
  5. A & B
  6. All of the above






  1. Cultural feminism is defined as:
  2. The idea that women are a product of the culture.
  3. A belief in inherent gender differences.
  4. The emancipation of women as a cultural fad.
  5. The corruption of women by masculine politics.



Chapter 5: Wiedenbach, Henderson, Hall



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. Wiedenbach explains her prescriptive theory in her book, Meeting the Realities in Clinical Teaching (1969). Select the answer that represents the BEST explanation of her perspective theory.
  2. Nursing process allows the nurse to employ a standard process in selecting appropriate interventions.
  3. Account must be taken of the motivating factors that influence the nurse not only in doing what she does but also in doing it the way she does it with the realities that exist in the situation in which she is functioning.
  4. This theory proposes 14 functional components of basic nursing care.
  5. Nursing entails the diagnosis and treatment of illness.






  1. Wiedenbach proposes that there are three ingredients essential to the prescriptive theory. Select the ONE answer that is NOT one of these essential ingredients.
  2. The nurse’s central purpose in nursing is the nurse’s professional commitment.
  3. The prescription indicates the broad general action that the nurse deems appropriate to fulfillment of her central purpose.
  4. The reality of nursing is that the charge of the nurse is to implement the orders prescribed by the physician.
  5. The realities are the aspects of the immediate nursing situation that influence the results the nurse achieves through what she does.






  1. Which of the following theorists coined the term “basic nursing care”?
  2. Wiedenbach
  3. Henderson
  4. Hall
  5. None of the above.






  1. Which of the following theorists founded the Loeb Center?
  2. Wiedenbach
  3. Henderson
  4. Hall
  5. None of the above.






  1. Based on the assumption that nursing has a unique function, Henderson believed which of the following?
  2. Nursing functions to follow and implement the prescribed regimen of the physician.
  3. Nursing independently initiates and controls activities related to basic nursing care.
  4. It is not necessary to limit nursing activities to nursing care because nurses should be responsive to all patient needs.
  5. All of the above






  1. Henderson identified 14 components of basic nursing care that reflect needs pertaining to personal hygiene and healthful living. These components of basic nursing care include all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Move and maintain desirable postures.
  3. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
  4. Do not involve the patient in decisions of care so that the patient may get better rest.
  5. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.






  1. In 1990 the Sigma Theta Tau (International Honor Society of Nursing) library was named in honor of which of the following nursing theorists?
  2. Nightingale
  3. Wiedenbach
  4. Orlando
  5. Henderson






  1. Wiedenbach, Henderson, and Hall made a significant impact on nursing theory in the 20th Century because they each:
  2. Examined nursing practice and explored nurse–patient interactions.
  3. Used nursing practice as the basis for their theory development.
  4. Defined ways nursing is thought about, practiced, and research.
  5. A & C
  6. All of the above






  1. Lydia Hall drew on her expertise of which of the following practice areas in developing her Care, Cure, and Core Model?
  2. Critical care
  3. Pediatrics
  4. Rehabilitation
  5. Gerontology









  1. A significant value of the contributions of Wiedenbach, Henderson, and Hall is that each of them was concerned with the unique aspects of nursing’s supportive role to physician medical practice.






  1. 2. Lydia Hall believed CARE was the sole function of nurses, whereas CORE and CURE were shared with other members of the health team.



Chapter 6: Nurse-Patient Relationship Theories: Peplau, Travelbee and Orlando



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. Peplau’s 1952 publication, Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, presented her framework for the practice of psychiatric nursing. The publication:
  2. Resulted in a paradigm shift in this field of nursing.
  3. Presented revolutionary ideas.
  4. Was not well received when it was first published.
  5. All of the above






  1. All of the following were identified as components of the nurse–patient relationship by Peplau EXCEPT:
  2. Professional expertise.
  3. Socialization skills.
  4. Patient need.
  5. Individuals (nurse & patient).






  1. Peplau viewed nursing interventions as those that:
  2. Supported the implementation of physician medical orders.
  3. Reflected the wants and desires of the patient.
  4. Are soundly based on biomedical knowledge.
  5. Assisted patients in gaining interpersonal and intellectual competencies evolved through the nurse–patient relationship.






  1. Forchuk’s research of Peplau’s nurse–patient relationship was focused on which phase of the nurse–patient relationship?
  2. Orientation Phase
  3. Working Phase
  4. Resolution Phase
  5. Revolution Phase






  1. Which of the following statements best describes Peplau’s Working Phase?
  2. Establishment of trust between the nurse and the patient
  3. Continual movement from dependence to independence
  4. Balance between dependence and independence
  5. Development of future sources of support






  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Travelbee’s stages of nursing care?
  2. Observation
  3. Implementation
  4. Interpretation
  5. Appraisal






  1. What factors are involved in the implementation of the human-to-human relationship model according to Travelbee?
  2. Establishing
  3. Maintaining
  4. Terminating
  5. All of the above






  1. According to Travelbee, dehumanization occurs when:
  2. The ill person is left alone to find meaning to his illness experience.
  3. The term patient is used to label or categorize a person.
  4. One treats the ill person with an emotional detachment.
  5. All of the above






  1. The nursing tasks of hope and motivation are key assumptions to which of the following theorists?
  2. Peplau
  3. Orlando
  4. Travelbee
  5. Forchuk






  1. One of the most important contributions of Orlando’s work is:
  2. The values of the human transaction.
  3. The enormous research based on her theory.
  4. The phases of the nurse–patient relationship.
  5. The instillation of hope and motivation.










  1. Peplau required her students to engage in unflinching self-scrutiny, examining their own verbal and nonverbal communication and its effect on the nurse–patient relationship.






  1. Travelbee’s model uses the word “patient” to describe the individual in need of nursing care.






  1. According to Orlando, professional nurses function in an independent role from physicians and other health care providers.



Chapter 7: Dorothy Johnson



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Johnson integrated a complex knowledge set in the development of her Behavior System Model. Johnson has noted that her theory evolved from:
  2. Philosophical ideas.
  3. Theory and research.
  4. Her clinical background.
  5. All of the above





  1. A number of existing theories were integrated into Johnson’s development of the Behavior System Model. The PRIMARY theoretical foundation(s) for the model are:
  2. Transpersonal theory.
  3. Florence Nightingale’s theory of nursing.
  4. Existential theory.
  5. Systems theory and developmental theory.






  1. Johnson proposed five core principals of systems thinking. These core principals include which set of answers?
  2. Person, environment, health, nursing, nursing therapeutics
  3. Being, becoming, angst, choice, actualization
  4. Wholeness and order, stabilization, reorganization, hierarchic interaction, and dialectical contradiction
  5. Peace, harmony, balance, stability, perpetuation






  1. Johnson proposes that each subsystem is composed of at least four structural components that interact in a specific pattern. These parts are:
  2. Person, environment, health, nursing
  3. Goal, set, choice, and action
  4. Preparation, readiness, action, review
  5. Approach. disorganization, orientation, engagement






  1. Johnson viewed health as efficient and effective functioning of the system, and as behavioral system balance and stability. Behavioral system balance and stability are demonstrated by observed behavior that is:
  2. Chaotic, random, and unpredictable.
  3. Permeable, malleable, and flexible.
  4. Purposeful, orderly, and predictable.
  5. Predetermined, fixed, sequential, and static.






  1. From a behavioral system perspective, homeorhesis is a more important stabilizing process than homeostasis. In homeorhesis the system stabilizes around:
  2. A trajectory rather than a set point.
  3. Self-righting tendencies that can occur over time.
  4. Development or adaptation of the behavioral system.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above






  1. Johnson conceptualized a nursing client as:
  2. An interpersonal–integrative system.
  3. Independent of the environment.
  4. A behavioral system.
  5. Being comprised of mind–body–spirit.






  1. According to Johnson, individuals are said to achieve efficient and effective behavioral functioning in all of the following, EXCEPT:
  2. Their behavior is commensurate with social demands.
  3. They are able to fit within the mainstream of society and follow the orders of the physician in order to regain their health.
  4. They are able to modify their behavior in ways that support biologic imperatives.
  5. They are able to benefit to the fullest extent during illness from the physician’s knowledge and skill.








  1. The overall representation of Johnson’s model can be viewed as a behavioral system within an environment.






  1. Two components of each subsystem include choice and action. Johnson refers to choice as the individual’s repertoire of alternative behaviors in a situation that will best meet the goal and attain the desired outcome.





Chapter 8: Dorothea Orem’s SCDNT



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. Orem views nursing as a:
  2. Helpful activity.
  3. Human health service.
  4. Helping service.
  5. All of the above.






  1. According to Orem, clarifying why individuals need and can be helped through nursing is the beginning of nursing:
  2. Practice.
  3. Science.
  4. Concept construction.
  5. Paradigm building.






  1. As a component of Orem’s Theory of Self-Care Deficit, basic conditioning factors are viewed as:
  2. Patient components.
  3. Patient characteristics.
  4. Patient diagnosis.
  5. All of the above






  1. Persons who deliberate about and engage in self-care are demonstrating:
  2. Caring agency.
  3. Therapeutic agency.
  4. Dependent care agency.
  5. Self-care agency.






  1. In the ____________________, Orem’s describes internal and external conditions arising from or associated with heath states of individuals that may bring about action limitations to engage in care of self.
  2. Self-care theory
  3. Self-care limitation theory
  4. Self-care agency theory
  5. Self-care deficit theory






  1. For Orem, the clear specification that the nurse uses in the nursing role is the power of nurses to:
  2. Initiate caring for others.
  3. Coordinate the work of all health providers.
  4. Design and produce nursing care for others.
  5. Maintain an objective stance toward others.






  1. From Orem’s perspective, the ____________________ legitimizes the interpersonal relationships of nurses and persons seeking nursing.
  2. A. Societal–contractual system
  3. Interpersonal system
  4. Societal system
  5. Professional–technical system








  1. Orem believes there are two types of human beings. Those are those who need nursing care and those who produce it.






  1. Orem conceptualizes therapeutic self-care demands as static.






  1. Orem describes a nursing system as an “action system” or a sequence of actions performed for the purpose of promoting life, health, and well-being.



Chapter 9: Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment



Multiple-Choice Questions



  1. According to King, a concept is:
  2. A fixed idea.
  3. An organization of reference points.
  4. A group of ideas relating to the same subject.
  5. A plan for treatment.






  1. King’s Transaction Process Model is (among other things):
  2. A human interaction process.
  3. A way of organizing medical procedures.
  4. An exchange of theoretical concepts.
  5. A theory-building model.






  1. King says nurses should document their interactions with patients:
  2. In their diaries.
  3. On a special form.
  4. On the patients’ charts.
  5. With the nursing supervisor.






  1. According to King, the goal of nursing practice is to:
  2. Assist the patient in building a transaction process model.
  3. Collaborate in setting patient goals.
  4. Research the health care literature for insights into systems operation.
  5. Help individuals maintain or regain health.






  1. An advantage of King’s documentation system is that:
  2. The nurse knows if the patient achieved the goal or not.
  3. It includes the patient in the goal-setting process.
  4. It includes the doctor in the goal-setting process.
  5. It provides a path for recovery of health.






  1. King suggests that the central idea in the nature of nursing is:
  2. The nature of humanity.
  3. Clinical proficiency.
  4. Ability to interact well with patients.
  5. Achieving goals.






  1. A conceptual system, according to King, provides:
  2. A basis for communication.
  3. Reasonable limits for goal setting.
  4. Boundaries for communication.
  5. Structure of a discipline.






  1. King tells us that if the patient and nurse agree on goals, the goals will be attained:
  2. 99% of the time.
  3. 90% of the time.
  4. 76% of the time.
  5. 50% of the time.




  1. What is a transaction, according to King?
  2. An interaction between members of a system
  3. A sharing of information between nurse and patient
  4. Exchanging information and setting a goal with the patient
  5. Dispensing medications






  1. If a patient does not achieve a goal, according to King the nurse should:
  2. Report the failure to the doctor.
  3. Report the failure to a family member.
  4. Ask the patient why.
  5. Start the process over.




Chapter 10: Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model



Multiple-Choice Questions


1.The following assumptions have been adapted to Roy’s Model for the 21st Century. Choose all that apply:

  1. Philosophical
  2. Cosmic
  3. Scientific
  4. Cultural
  5. Integral





  1. Scientific assumptions of the Roy Adaptation Model are based on:
  2. General systems theory and developmental theory.
  3. Adaptation-level theory and developmental theory.
  4. General systems theory and adaptation-level theory.
  5. Adaptation-level theory and cosmic theory.






  1. Concept analysis, synthesis, and derivation of proposition statements have been used by Roy for:
  2. Instrument development.
  3. Theory development.
  4. Research studies.
  5. All of the above






  1. Self-consistency falls under which of Roy’s following adaptive modes?
  2. Physiological–physical
  3. Role function
  4. Interdependence
  5. Self-concept—group identity






  1. Hearing loss in the elderly was conceptualized by Roy as loss of a:
  2. Contextual stimuli.
  3. Focal stimuli.
  4. Coping effort.
  5. All of the above






  1. All of the following are major concepts in Roy’s Adaptation Model EXCEPT:
  2. Environment.
  3. Health.
  4. Unity.
  5. Goal of nursing.






  1. According to Roy, the coping process of self-awareness
  2. Signals the need for adaptive efforts.
  3. Interrupts ongoing behavior patterns.
  4. Restores sense of self.
  5. All of the above






  1. According to Roy, the coping process of self-analysis and emotions
  2. Signals the need for adaptive efforts.
  3. Interrupts ongoing behavior patterns.
  4. Restores sense of self.
  5. All of the above






  1. According to Roy, the coping process of self-consciousness and self-analysis
  2. Signals the need for adaptive efforts.
  3. Interrupts ongoing behavior patterns.
  4. Restores sense of self.
  5. All of the above






  1. The principle that people and Earth have common patterns and integral relationships is defined by Roy as:
  2. Veritivity.
  3. Cosmic unity.
  4. Unitary being.
  5. Cosmic principle.




Chapter 11: Betty Neuman’s Systems Model



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Neuman’s theory includes an accordion-like mechanism that protects the normal line of defense. This mechanism is called:
  2. The accordion line of defense
  3. The defense line buffer
  4. The flexible line of defense
  5. The stressor defense line






  1. Neuman defines the client’s usual state of wellness as:
  2. The flexible line of defense
  3. The normal line of defense
  4. The stressor defense line
  5. The accordion defense line






  1. Neuman’s system suggests that __________________ is/are activated after the normal line of defense is penetrated by stressors.
  2. The flexible line of defense
  3. The accordion line of defense
  4. Client resistance factors
  5. Lines of resistance






  1. Neuman identifies ___________ client variables.
  2. Three
  3. Six
  4. Five
  5. Nine






  1. Neuman calls the process whereby energy moves toward evolution as a system absorbs energy to increase its organization, complexity, and development when it moves toward a steady or wellness state:
  2. Negentropy.
  3. Hypertrophy.
  4. Entropy.
  5. Dynatrophy.






  1. Neuman calls the process whereby energy moves toward extinction by gradual disorganization, increasing randomness, and energy dissipation:
  2. Negentropy.
  3. Hypertrophy.
  4. Entropy.
  5. Dynatrophy.






  1. Neuman states that the _________ variable is on a continuum of development that penetrates all other client system variables and supports the client’s optimal wellness.
  2. Physiological
  3. Psychological
  4. Developmental
  5. Spiritual






  1. Neuman defined ________ broadly as “all internal and external factors or influences surrounding the identified client or client system.
  2. Ecosystem
  3. Environment
  4. Wellness
  5. Nursing






  1. _______________ penetrate(s) the lines of defense to cause illness.
  2. Stressors
  3. Lines of Resistance
  4. Negentropy
  5. Pathogens






  1. The ______________________ offers a protective coping shield that helps the client to function and stimulate the client’s health.
  2. Created environment
  3. Spiritual variable
  4. Extrapersonal environment
  5. Physiological variable




Chapter 12: Erickson, Tomlin and Swain’s Theory of Modeling and Role Modeling


Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. According to MRM Theory, general markers that help us evaluate the efficacy of nursing interventions are called ______________.
  2. Intervention aims
  3. Intervention goals
  4. Intervention actions
  5. Nursing interventions






  1. The intent of nursing inventions is referred to by Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain as __________.
  2. Aims
  3. Goals
  4. Actions
  5. Interactions






  1. According to Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain, the ______ process involves an assessment of a client’s situation.
  2. Nursing
  3. Modeling
  4. Remodeling
  5. Building






  1. Analyzing and interpreting data using the theoretical propositions of the MRM Theory is considered by Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain to be part of the ________ process.
  2. Nursing
  3. Modeling
  4. Remodeling
  5. Building






  1. The extant constructs of the nursing metapardigm are:
  2. Nursing, health, disease, and person.
  3. Person, health, environment, and caring.
  4. Person, environment, disease, and nursing.
  5. Person, environment, health, and nursing.






  1. According to Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain, _______ refers to our instinctual knowledge about our own personhood and our mind–body–spirit linkages.
  2. Self-care knowledge
  3. Tacit knowledge
  4. Explicit knowledge
  5. Common knowledge







  1. Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain call _______ the need to perceive ourselves as unique and individuated .
  2. Self-preservation
  3. Affiliation
  4. Affiliated-individuation
  5. Personal individuation






  1. Our ability to mobilize resources at any moment in time is identified by Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain as:
  2. Adaptive potential.
  3. Adaptive stimuli.
  4. Coping response.
  5. Resource potential.






  1. Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain classify human needs as:
  2. Basic, psychological, social.
  3. Basic, social, growth.
  4. Social, growth, drive.
  5. Social, growth, emerging.






  1. Which MRM practice strategy entails the use of centering, focusing and opening?
  2. Creating a nurturing Space
  3. Establishing a mind-Set
  4. Establishing the story-line
  5. Facilitating the story






  1. You are the nurse caring for Helen, who informs you she did not sleep a wink last night with all the noise in the hallway and everyone repeatedly coming in to take her vital signs. She states she is simply exhausted and all she needs is a few hours rest. Understanding Helen’s need for rest, you inform her that you will place a note on the door for a do not disturb for the next few hours so she can rest. Should she need anything you provide her with your Spectralink number and inform the rest of the staff of the situation. This would be considered what type of MRM practice strategy:
  2. Initiating the relationship
  3. Establishing the mind-set
  4. Creating a nurturing space
  5. Facilitating the story






  1. During this phase of understanding the data the nurse seeks to interpret data from multiple sources:
  2. Data aggregation
  3. Data interpretation
  4. Data gathering
  5. Data analysis









  1. In the Modeling and Role Modeling (MRM) Theory, both intervention aims and intervention goals involve nursing actions.



Chapter 13: Barbara Dossey’s Theory of Integral Nursing


Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Dossey considers her Theory of Integral Nursing to be at which of the following levels of theory development?
  2. Philosophy
  3. Grand
  4. Middle
  5. Practice






  1. The following content component is NOT included in Dossey’s Integral Nursing Theory:
  2. Holism
  3. Patterns of knowing
  4. Quadrants
  5. Healing






  1. For Dossey, an ________ examines values, beliefs, assumptions, meaning, purpose, and judgment related to how individuals perceive reality and relationships from interior and exterior individual as well as interior and exterior collective perspectives.
  2. Integral nurse
  3. Integral process
  4. Integral worldview
  5. Integral nursing practice






  1. ________ is recognized as the first nurse theorist and integralist.
  2. Barbara Dossey
  3. Florence Nightingale
  4. Lillian Wald
  5. Ken Wilber






  1. Clean air, food, and water are examples of:
  2. Social expectations.
  3. Environmental determinants.
  4. Sacred necessities.
  5. None of the above






  1. The fusion of the deepest spiritual knowledge and radical action in the world is defined as __________ by Dossey.
  2. Radical social activism
  3. Devine activism
  4. Scared activism
  5. Integral activism






  1. Dossey asserts _________ includes knowing, doing, and being and is a lifelong journey.
  2. Nursing
  3. Knowing
  4. Healing
  5. Growing






  1. Dossey claims that __________ is a key concept in the Theory of Integral Nursing:
  2. Multidimensionality
  3. Symbolism
  4. Meaning
  5. Caring relationship






  1. A(n) _______ is defined as a integral nurse.
  2. Holistic nurse
  3. 21st-Century Nightingale
  4. Independent nurse
  5. All of the above






  1. The capacity to use healing presence, to be open to the moment with no preconceived answers or goals, reflects which of the following patterns of knowing?
  2. Personal knowing
  3. Ethical knowing
  4. Esthetic knowing
  5. Not knowing




Chapter 14: Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Roger’s unique worldview focuses on the root of nursing science as:
  2. Uni-dimensional.
  3. Multidimensional.
  4. Pandimensional.
  5. Ultradimensional.






  1. Rogers described pattern as:
  2. A reducible connected string of events.
  3. Changing continuously while giving identity to each unique human–environmental field process.
  4. A way to frame an individual’s historical context.
  5. A back-and-forth flow.






  1. Rogers hypothesized that hyperactive children provide a good example of speeded-up rhythms relative to other children. They would be expected to show all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Indications of faster rhythms.
  3. Increased motion.
  4. Behaviors indicative of this shift.
  5. A tendency toward isolative and focused activity.






  1. Rogers described three principles of homeodynamics to describe the nature of change in the human-environmental field process:
  2. Mind, body, spirit
  3. Intra, inter, and extra dimensions of reality
  4. Resonancy, helicy, and integrality
  5. Unitary, revolutionary, congruency






  1. Grasping meaning entails which of the following:
  2. Using sensitivity and active listening
  3. Conveying unconditional acceptance
  4. Remaining fully open to the rhythm, movement, intensity, and configuration of pattern manifestations
  5. A and B
  6. All of the above





  1. When addressing nursing practice, Rogers proposed that:
  2. Nurses play a central role in health care rather than medical care.
  3. Nurses utilize the nursing process to organize their practice.
  4. Nursing diagnosis is the cornerstone of informed nursing practice.
  5. That the utilization of the classification systems, NIC/NOC/NANDA, would finally give the profession of nursing legitimacy within the medical world.






  1. Within an energy field perspective, nurses in mutual process assist clients in:
  2. Negotiating their plan of care.
  3. Actualizing their field potentials by enhancing their ability to participate knowingly in change.
  4. Being supported until the client can perform self-care.
  5. Client-centered cooperative decision-making.






  1. The goal of voluntary mutual patterning is to facilitate each client’s ability to:
  2. Participate knowingly in change.
  3. Harmonize person–environment integrality.
  4. Promote healing potentialities, lifestyle changes, and well-being in the client’s desired direction of change without attachment to predetermined outcomes.
  5. B and C
  6. All of the above





  1. Roger’s identified four fundamental postulates that form the basis of reality and described this postulate as ‘the fundamental unit of the living and the non-living’:
  2. Openness
  3. Pattern
  4. Pandimensionality
  5. Energy fields






  1. There have been a number of theories derived from Roger’s SUHB. Choose all that apply:
  2. Theory of accelerating change
  3. Theory of self-efficacy
  4. Theory of paranormal phenomena
  5. Manifestations of field patterning
  6. Theory of uncertainty in illness





  1. A rich description of each participant’s experiences, perception, and expressions created through a process of creative pattern synthesis is which essential aspects of Butcher’s (2005) Unitary Field Pattern Portrait?
  2. Initial engagement
  3. Unitary field pattern portrait
  4. Unitary field pattern profile
  5. Initial engagement








  1. Rogers, in her Theory of Accelerating Evolution, proposed that higher frequency field patterns that manifest growing diversity open the door to wider ranges of experiences and behaviors, calling into question the very idea of “norms” as guidelines.






  1. From a Unitary Science perspective, nursing diagnoses are considered particularistic and reductionistic labels describing cause and effect (i.e., “related to”) relationships inconsistent with a “nonlinear domain without spatial or temporal attributes.






  1. Rogers identified the unique focus of nursing as the irreducible human being and its environment, both identified as energy fields.



Chapter 15: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Humanbecoming School of Thought



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The assumptions of the humanbecoming school of thought are written on the ___________ level of discourse:
  2. Ontological
  3. Epistemological
  4. Philosophical
  5. Theoretical






  1. In the Humanbecoming school of thought, paradoxes are:
  2. Opposites of the same concept.
  3. Problems to be solved.
  4. Roadblocks to becoming.
  5. How humans live their chosen meanings.






  1. The goal of nursing from the humanbecoming perspective is:
  2. Patient wellness.
  3. Quality of life.
  4. Overcoming disease.
  5. Patient-centered care.






  1. According to Parse, true presence is a _____________ connection
  2. Human–universe
  3. Medical–spiritual
  4. Nurse–patient
  5. Patient–wellness






  1. From a humanbecoming perspective, data are extracted from nurse–person dialogs by using:
  2. Empirical induction.
  3. Dialectical Construction.
  4. Conversational structuring.
  5. Heuristic Interpretation.






  1. The assumptions, values, and meanings expressed and shared in the language patterns of a group of people are defined by Parse as:
  2. A culture of care.
  3. Humanbecoming nursing.
  4. Interactive dialoging.
  5. Heuristic interpretation.






  1. In Parse’s view, nurses should focus on:
  2. Patient health.
  3. Medical process.
  4. Special knowing.
  5. Knowing participation.






  1. According to Parse, a basic human science that has co-created human experiences as its central focus is called:
  2. Humanbecoming.
  3. Being and becoming.
  4. Human co-creation.
  5. None of the above.






  1. Parse’s school of thought leads to which of the following three major themes?
  2. Imaging, Revealing-concealing and Transforming
  3. Meaning, Rhythmicity, and Transcendence
  4. Languaging, Connecting–separating, and Powering
  5. Valuing, Enabling-limiting and Originating






  1. The Parse research method extracts information from:
  2. Participant’s medical records.
  3. A participant’s health journal.
  4. Participants’ dialogues.
  5. Hospital records.






  1. In this paradigm, nursing practice is more closely aligned with a medical model of care:
  2. Simultaneity paradigm.
  3. Totality paradigm.
  4. Structured paradigm.
  5. Humanbecoming paradigm.



Chapter 16: Margaret Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness




Multiple-Choice Questions




  1. Newman’s basic philosophy is ______________________ rather than ___________________ the patient.
  2. Being with, doing for
  3. Hearing, calling
  4. Being with, ignoring
  5. Healing, doing for






  1. Newman’s focus is on:
  2. Healing the patient.
  3. Doing research.
  4. Partnering with the patient.
  5. Partnering with the doctor to fix the patient.






  1. For Newman, ________________ describes information that depicts the whole of a person’s relationship with the environment and gives an understanding of the meaning of the relationships all at once.
  2. Holistic
  3. Pattern
  4. Process
  5. Mutuality






  1. Patients faced with life-threatening events or terminal illness often reflect on their lives and find ways to change their priorities. This process is termed by Newman as:
  2. Insight.
  3. Retrenching.
  4. Lifestyle change.
  5. Self-healing.






  1. The nurse, through attention and partnership, should try to facilitate:
  2. Healing.
  3. Medical procedures.
  4. Patient transformation.
  5. Patient relaxation.






  1. In Newman’s system, the decisions a patient makes as his or her consciousness expands are made at:
  2. Turning points.
  3. The point of no return.
  4. Price points.
  5. Choice points.






  1. The information that provides the patient’s system the capacity to interact with the environment is called:
  2. Consciousness.
  3. Subconsciousness.
  4. Caution.
  5. Intuition.






  1. To understand the patient better, Newman suggests the nurse should use a series of:
  2. Biometric tests.
  3. Clarifying questions
  4. Surveys.
  5. None of the above






  1. In Newman’s view, health is composed of:
  2. Mental well-being.
  3. Both disease and wellness.
  4. Medical cure of disease.
  5. A positive mental attitude.






  1. According to Newman, being in the present with a family and not being chained by linear time is an example of:
  2. Resonating with the whole.
  3. Attention to pattern and meaning.
  4. Process of expanding consciousness.
  5. Choice points for action potential.










  1. According to Newman, during illness, both the patient and the caregiver encounter alterations in movement, space, time, and consciousness.



Chapter 17: Madeline Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Leininger suggests nursing information be derived from individuals within the group being treated. This information is called:
  2. Ethnic.
  3. Emic.
  4. Ethic.
  5. Etic.






  1. The research method used to discover largely covert, complex, and generally hidden care knowledge in cultures or subcultures is called:
  2. Ethical nursing.
  3. Econursing.
  4. Ethnonursing.
  5. Emic nursing.






  1. When conducting interviews using Leininger’s theory as a guide, researchers listen to ______________ to understand an informant’s views, beliefs, and practices.
  2. Informed sources
  3. Key informants
  4. General informants
  5. Subject informants






  1. When working with clients using the Leininger model, the nurse is careful not to impose her or his own _________________views that may not be culturally sensitive or client-centered.
  2. Congruent
  3. Emic
  4. Etic
  5. Human






  1. Observers conducting research via the ethnonursing method should interact with the interviewee as:
  2. Active observers.
  3. Theory authorities.
  4. Expert interviewers.
  5. Data collection experts.






  1. To create culturally sensitive nursing actions and decisions, nurses should gather knowledge and information about:
  2. The patient’s height, weight, and vital signs.
  3. The patient’s past medical treatments.
  4. The patient’s primary physician.
  5. The patient’s personal health values and beliefs.






  1. Leininger calls the ability to work with people of diverse cultures by being willing to provide different ways of care for different cultures ________________ Nursing.
  2. Transcultural
  3. Pancultural
  4. Cultural
  5. Holistic






  1. To better understand the methodology for developing transcultural nursing practice, Leininger studied:
  2. Archaeology.
  3. Anthropology.
  4. Paleontology.
  5. Holistic medicine.






  1. The goal of Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality is to provide _____________________ care to people of diverse cultures
  2. Holistic
  3. Medically appropriate
  4. Culture-specific and congruent
  5. Cross-cultural and sensitive






  1. Anticipating the need for discovery of qualitative knowledge in her theory, Leininger created what types of definitions?
  2. Conceptual
  3. Operational
  4. Orientational
  5. Cultural



Chapter 18: Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The major conceptual elements of Watson’s caring theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Transpersonal caring relationship.
  3. 10 carative factors.
  4. Behavioral systems perspective of nurse–patient interaction.
  5. Caring moment/caring occasion.






  1. According to Watson, consciousness:
  2. Is contained.
  3. Is interconnected.
  4. Is communicated to the one being cared for.
  5. Exists through and transcends time and space.
  6. All of the above





  1. Watson’s original 10 carative factors include all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Formation of a humanistic–altruistic system of values.
  3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others
  4. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings
  5. Systematic use of a problem-solving skills to implement the nursing process.
  6. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment.






  1. The terms transpersonal and a transpersonal caring relationship are foundational to Watson’s

work. “Transpersonal” conveys a concern for:

  1. The inner life world and subjective meaning of another who is fully embodied.
  2. Going beyond the ego self and beyond the given moment.
  3. Reaching to the deeper connections to spirit and with the broader universe and societal and

spiritual environment.

  1. A & C
  2. All of the above





  1. The caring–healing modalities within the context of transpersonal caring/caritas consciousness potentiate harmony, wholeness, and unity of being by releasing:
  2. Neuromuscular tension.
  3. Old childhood memories.
  4. Some of the disharmony, the blocked energy that interferes with the natural healing processes.
  5. A & B






  1. A caring occasion occurs whenever:
  2. The nurse has a feeling of compassion toward the patient.
  3. The nurse and the patient know and like one another.
  4. The nurse and another come together with their unique life histories and phenomenal fields in a human-to-human transaction.
  5. The nurse has advanced intuitive skills.






  1. The dynamic of transpersonal caring (healing) within a caring moment is manifest in:
  2. A full intention.
  3. A field of consciousness.
  4. A field of dreams.
  5. An interpersonal transaction.






  1. In her discussion of the application of Watson’s theory, Woodward proposes that collaboration and co-creation are key elements in the endeavors to translate Caring Theory into practice. She suggests that they:
  2. Reveal the nonlinear process and relational aspect of caring praxis.
  3. Demonstrate the power of a team approach.
  4. Provide a creative element to the endeavor.
  5. Reveal the true nature of those involved in the enterprise.






  1. When a nurse and another come together with their unique life histories in a human-to-human transaction, this is considered a:
  2. Caring occasion.
  3. Caring moment.
  4. Caring consciousness.
  5. Caring relationship.






  1. The action and choice by the nurse and other to be in the moment is considered a:


  1. Caring moment.
  2. Caring consciousness.
  3. Caring relationship.
  4. Caring occasion.










  1. Watson proposes that: The nurse’s moral commitment, intentionality, and caritas consciousness is to protect, enhance, promote, and potentiate human dignity, wholeness, and healing, wherein a person creates or co-creates his or her own meaning for existence, healing, wholeness, and living and dying.






  1. Woodward suggests there is a new emphasis on a change of consciousness, a focused intentionality toward caring and healing relationships and modalities, a shift toward a spiritualization of health as opposed to a limited medicalized view.



Chapter 19: Anne Boykin and Savina Schoenhofer’s Nursing as Caring Theory



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Boykin and Schoenhofer assume that all persons are caring by virtue of their:
  2. Living caring.
  3. Humanness.
  4. Dignity.
  5. Social class.






  1. In the theory of nursing as caring, caring in nursing is believed to be
  2. Expected.
  3. Intentional.
  4. Assigned.
  5. Mandated.






  1. The general intention of the theory of nursing as caring is nurturing:
  2. Persons living caring and growing in caring.
  3. The wholeness of others through caring.
  4. Being and becoming through caring.
  5. Hopes and dreams of others.






  1. In the theory of nursing as caring, the universal human call is:
  2. Safety.
  3. Personhood.
  4. Pain management.
  5. All of the above






  1. The theory of nursing as caring directs nurses to respond to calls for nursing with:
  2. The intention of following a predetermined plan of care.
  3. Acknowledgment of patient needs.
  4. Authentic presence.
  5. All of the above






  1. In practicing from the perspective of nursing as caring, nurses are concerned primarily with:
  2. Health.
  3. Human living.
  4. Safety.
  5. Environment.






  1. This foundational body of work was considered the precursor or historical antecedent to the nursing as caring theory is:
  2. Roach’s The Human Act of Caring.
  3. Paterson and Zderad’s theory of humanistic nursing.
  4. Mayeroff’s work On Caring.
  5. Florida Atlantic University’s curriculum development.






  1. The shared lived experience in which caring between nurse and nursed enhances personhood is known as:
  2. Direct invitation.
  3. Calls for nursing.
  4. Nursing response.
  5. Nursing situation.






  1. Caring as the intentional and authentic presence of the nurse with another who is recognized as living caring and growing in caring is defined by Boykin and Schoenhofer as:
  2. Nursing situation.
  3. Nursing response.
  4. Call for nursing.
  5. “Caring Between.”






  1. All of the following are one of the Roach’s (1992) C’s EXCEPT:
  2. Compassion.
  3. Conscience.
  4. Concern.
  5. Confidence.








  1. Nursing situations and medical case presentations are synonymous.






  1. Calls for nursing in the theory of nursing as caring are calls for nurturance of personhood through personal expressions of caring.






  1. Boykin and Schoenhofer describe caring as the means and instrument of nursing.






  1. Boykin and Shoenhofer assert that the nursing ethic of caring supersedes all other values held by the nurse.



Chapter 20: Afaf Meleis – Transitions Theory



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Choose the paradigm that gave rise to Meleis’s framework for intervention called “role supplementation”?
  2. The lived experience
  3. Feminist post-colonialism
  4. Interactionist
  5. Particulate-deterministic






  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a concept of transition?
  2. Time
  3. Inertia
  4. Process
  5. Perception






  1. An example of a situational change trigger is:
  2. A man learning he is a father.
  3. A woman diagnosed with cancer.
  4. A nurse learning to use a new computerized charting system.
  5. A nursing manager promoted to assistant chief nursing officer.






  1. Properties of transition include which of the following (choose all that apply):
  2. Awareness
  3. Engaging
  4. Mastery
  5. Disconnectedness
  6. Acquiring





  1. An outcome pattern of response includes:
  2. Mastery.
  3. Engaging.
  4. Locating.
  5. Acquiring confidence.






  1. While talking with a patient who was just recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the nurse asks the patient how she is coping with her responsibilities of being a wife, a mother, and now a cancer patient. The nurse is attempting to determine the patient’s pattern of response to the change trigger by assessing the patient’s:
  2. Engagement.
  3. Level of confidence.
  4. Location.
  5. Mastery.






  1. The nurse is talking with a daughter who arrived at the clinic complaining of a severe headache. After talking with the patient, the nurse learns the woman is caring for her parents who both have advanced Alzheimer’s. The woman currently has no assistance and is going through a divorce with two small children at home. The nurse provides the woman with a list of agencies and organizations that can assist her with the care of her parents. This is an example of what type of intervention?
  2. Identifying milestones
  3. Debriefing
  4. Mobilizing support
  5. Clarifying roles






  1. A patient who has been in recovery for substance abuse has a relapse and begins using again. The nurse recognizes this as a:
  2. Turning point.
  3. Milestone.
  4. Critical point.
  5. All of the above






  1. According to Meleis, the ability of nurse’s to identify milestones and turning points is essential to:
  2. Identifying biomedical driven goals.
  3. Mobilizing partnerships and supportive groups.
  4. Facilitating and managing transitions.
  5. Clarifying roles and meanings.






  1. Observing and interviewing significant family members aids the nurse in determining a patient’s level of engagement as well as his or her level of:
  2. Mastery.
  3. Perceived well-being.
  4. Confidence.
  5. Integrative identity.



Chapter 21: Katharine Kolcaba—Comfort Theory



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Which of the following theorists influenced Kolcaba’s development of comfort theory?
  2. Orlando, Nightingale, and Henderson
  3. Orlando, Orem, and Nightingale
  4. Orlando, Henderson, and Watson
  5. Orlando, Henderson, and Paterson and Zderad






  1. For Kolcaba, the outcome of comfort is the immediate experience of being strengthened when needs for ______, _______ and ______ are met.
  2. Relief, ease, and food
  3. Relief, ease, and transcendence
  4. Ease, transcendence, and rest
  5. Ease, rest, and relief






  1. Kolcaba created a __________ to present the nursing meaning of comfort as a patient outcome.
  2. Theory diagram
  3. Taxonomic structure
  4. Research study
  5. Umbrella picture






  1. Being complete, whole, sound, upright, appealing, ethical, and sincere are defined by Kolcaba as qualities of:
  2. Health-seeking institutions.
  3. Magnet institutions.
  4. Institutional integrity.
  5. The U.S. health care system.






  1. Kolcaba defines interventions that produce the best possible patient and family outcomes, based on empirical evidence, as:
  2. Best policies.
  3. Best practices.
  4. Best measures.
  5. Best interventions.






  1. Interventions specified by other disciplines or by nursing protocols that include medication, treatments, monitoring schedules, insertion of lines, etc. are defined as ______ interventions by Kolcaba.
  2. Technical
  3. Coaching
  4. Comfort food for the soul
  5. All of the above






  1. Those extra special, holistic, and more time-consuming nursing interventions such as back or hand message, guided imagery, or music or art therapy are defined as ______ interventions by Kolcaba.
  2. Technical
  3. Coaching
  4. Comfort food for the soul
  5. All of the above








  1. Kolcaba asserts comfort is experienced by patients in physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environmental contexts.






  1. The intuitive parts of Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory cannot be applied separately; they must be applied as a whole.






  1. Kolcaba believes nurses already know how to practice comforting care.



Chapter 22: Duffy’s Quality-Caring Model



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The core concept in Duffy’s quality-caring model is:
  2. Caring.
  3. Caring relationship.
  4. Quality.
  5. Cared for.






  1. Duffy asserts nurse caring requires specialized knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that is directed toward ________ and _________.
  2. Quality and caring
  3. Health and healing
  4. Self and relationship
  5. Core concept and caring relationships






  1. Duffy considers her quality-caring model __________.
  2. Middle range.
  3. Grand theory.
  4. Practice-level theory.
  5. Micro theory.






  1. The idea that humans are multidimensional beings with unique characteristics best supports Duffy’s concept of:
  2. Relationship-centered professional encounters.
  3. Humans in relationship.
  4. Self-caring.
  5. Feeling cared for.






  1. In the quality-caring model, relationship-centered professional encounters consist of:
  2. Independent relationship between the nurse and patient/family.
  3. Collaborative relationships that nurses establish with members of the health team.
  4. Collaborative relationships that patients establish with members of the health team.
  5. A & C






  1. In the quality-caring model, _______ is defined as a human phenomenon that is stimulated by caring relationships and a capacity that emerges over time by caring connections.
  2. Caring
  3. Human in relationship
  4. Self-caring
  5. Collaborative caring






  1. Caring relationships enhance ______ patient outcomes in the quality-caring model.
  2. Nursing-sensitive
  3. Caring
  4. Collaborative
  5. Professional






  1. Which of the following tools was developed by Duffy, Hoskins, and Seifert (2007) to capture patients’ perceptions of nursing caring?
  2. Patients’ Perceptions of Nurse Caring Tool (PPNCT)
  3. Caring Assessment Tool (CAT)
  4. Carative Factors Tool (CFT)
  5. Quality-Caring Model Assessment Tool (QCMAT)






  1. Duffy’s revised model includes all of the following components EXCEPT:
  2. Caring relationships.
  3. Caring factors.
  4. Concepts.
  5. Commonalities.










  1. Duffy believes caring relationships are often hidden in the daily work of nursing.






  1. In the quality-caring model, the concept of quality is defined as a dynamic, nonlinear characteristic that is influenced by caring relationships.



Chapter 23: Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The core concept of Reed’s theory is:
  2. Vulnerability.
  3. Well-being.
  4. Self-transcendence.
  5. Nursing processes.






  1. According to Reed, self-transcendence is a:
  2. One-time event.
  3. End-of-life event.
  4. Continual process.
  5. Terminal process.






  1. What distinguishes Reed’s theory as a nursing theory is its inclusion of:
  2. Nursing processes.
  3. Well-being of the whole person in the context of health experiences.
  4. Nurse theorist.
  5. Developmental considerations.






  1. The original thinking for the theory of self-transcendence is derived from:
  2. A life span developmental view of aging and mental health
  3. Roger’s theory of unitary human beings
  4. The Medical model
  5. Religious studies






  1. The inner potential humans have for healing, growth, and well-being throughout the lifespan is broadly defined by Reed as:
  2. Nursing processes.
  3. Self-organization.
  4. Developmental process.
  5. Well-being processes.






  1. In the Theory of self-transcendence, _______ refers to a pattern in living systems of increasing complexity and organization over time.
  2. Nursing.
  3. Self-organization.
  4. Organization.
  5. Well-being.






  1. Acknowledging an inner potential for well-being can be a source of ______ in illness and end of life.
  2. Vulnerability
  3. Hope
  4. Innovation
  5. Unpredictability






  1. According to Reed, a person’s __________ influences how she or he perceives the world and imagines the mysteries beyond this world.
  2. Pluralistic view
  3. Relative present
  4. Self-boundary
  5. Health state






  1. The three major concepts of Reed’s theory of self-transcendence are:
  2. Well-being, self-transcendence, environment
  3. Self-transcendence, health, vulnerability
  4. Nursing, self-transcendence, vulnerability
  5. Self-transcendence, vulnerability, well-being






  1. Reed’s Theory of self-transcendence was significantly influenced by which of the following theorists?
  2. Florence Nightingale
  3. Jean Watson
  4. Martha Rogers
  5. Dorothea Orem










  1. Reed’s theory and scale allow us to catalog all instances of human self-transcendence.






  1. According to Reed, what promotes human development is assumed to also facilitate a sense of well-being.






  1. In the theory of self-transcendence, the nursing perspective emphasizes a potential for healing independent of biophysical health and medical cure.




Chapter 24: Mary Jane Smith and Pat Liehr’s Story Theory



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Liehr and Smith assert that our linear-thinking culture often places more value on physiological bodily responses than on:
  2. Emotional responses.
  3. Stories.
  4. Social responses.
  5. Technologies.






  1. Physicians have recently emphasized ______as a way of learning clinical practice essentials and as a way of approaching patients.
  2. Story medicine
  3. Story-telling
  4. Story-sharing
  5. Narrative medicine






  1. The assumptions of story theory are consistent with a ________ worldview.
  2. Unitary–transformative
  3. Metaparadigm
  4. Totality
  5. Simultaneity






  1. The central activity between nurse and person that brings story to life in story theory is:
  2. Connecting with self-in-relation.
  3. Intentional dialogue.
  4. Creating ease.
  5. Story-sharing.






  1. In story theory, reflective awareness of self occurs through:
  2. Connecting with self-in-relation.
  3. Intentional dialogue.
  4. Creating ease.
  5. Story-sharing.






  1. Smith and Liehr define _________ as remembering a disjointed story moment to experience flow in the midst of anchoring.
  2. Connecting with self-in-relation
  3. Intentional dialogue
  4. Creating ease
  5. Story-sharing






  1. In the exemplar involving Elizabeth’s story her arduous struggle to resume normal ‘independent living’ is an example of which of the following?
  2. Health challenge
  3. High point
  4. Turing point
  5. Story plot






  1. Composing a reconstructed story is what phase of inquiry in Story Theory?
  2. Phase 1
  3. Phase 2
  4. Phase 3
  5. Phase 4






  1. Martha is a 16-year-old woman who presented to the hospital complaining of severe abdominal pain and believing she may be pregnant. It is determined that Martha is pregnant and her health challenge is telling her parents. The nurse inquires about Martha’s past relationship with her parents, her current relationship, and the relationship she would like to have with her parents. This active process by the nurse is referred to as:
  2. Intentional dialogue about a complicating health challenge.
  3. Creating ease while moving toward resolving.
  4. Connecting with self-in-relation through developing story plot.
  5. Reflecting on awareness of other through dialogue.










  1. According to Liehr and Smith, practice stories are seldom heard and chronicled.






  1. Story, story-telling, and story-sharing are new to the practice of nursing.






  1. Story path is the only approach to gathering story in a nursing practice setting.




Chapter 25: Parker and Barry’s Community Nursing Practice Model



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. What is the main difference between transcendent and actualizing values according to Parker and Barry?
  2. Transcendent values refer to intermittent values found in nursing situations, whereas actualizing values refer to continuous values used to guide practice in nursing situations.
  3. Transcendent values are used to guide certain nursing situations, whereas actualizing values are always present in nursing situations.
  4. Transcendent values are those expressed by the community, whereas actualizing values are those that mutually evolve between the community and the nurse.
  5. Transcendent values are always present in nursing situations, whereas actualizing values guide practice in certain situations.






  1. A family with a daughter who becomes diagnosed with a brain tumor needs to find a pediatric oncologist and facility who can care for their child. Nursing practice focused on providing these services is described as what type of care?
  2. Primary care
  3. Enhancing care
  4. Transitional care
  5. Tertiary care






  1. Core services as defined by Parker and Barry include which of the following categories of care?
  2. Design and coordinate care
  3. Health screening
  4. Health education
  5. All of the above






  1. Providing an in-service for breast self-examination for teachers at a local school would fall within which Circle?
  2. First
  3. Second
  4. Third
  5. Core






  1. Volunteering to serve on a church committee organized to improve the health outcomes of local elementary school children would fall within which Circle?
  2. First
  3. Second
  4. Third
  5. Core






  1. The connection of core to the concentric circles of services illustrates the _____________ of the practice within the CNPM.
  2. Simplicity
  3. Interconnectedness
  4. Complexity
  5. Conjoining






  1. The actualizing values described by Parker and Barry are principles of primary health care established by which organization?
  2. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  3. World Health Organization (WHO)
  4. American Nurses Association (ANA)
  5. Centers for Disease (CDC)






  1. The concepts and relationships of the community nursing practice model (CNPM) are the guiding forces for:
  2. Participatory-action research
  3. Social work practice
  4. Community practice
  5. Organization-based action research






  1. Community within Parker and Barry’s community nurse practice model is defined in terms of:
  2. Locale
  3. Geographic position
  4. Self-defined groups who share common interests
  5. Like-minded individuals living in a specific area






  1. Environment as defined within the community nurse practice model refers to:
  2. External conditions or surroundings
  3. The whole environment
  4. Encirclement
  5. Conditions that surround the nurse



Chapter 26: Locsin’s Theory of Technological Competence



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The practice of knowing persons as whole with the use of varying technologies is called:
  2. Authentic intention.
  3. Technological competency as caring in nursing.
  4. Nursing technologies.
  5. Machine technologies.






  1. Entering the world of the other requires:
  2. Rapport.
  3. Trust.
  4. Commitment.
  5. All of the above






  1. The idealization of persons as complete human beings “in the moment” is expressed by Locsin as:
  2. Vulnerability.
  3. Substantiation.
  4. Wholeness.
  5. All of the above






  1. A shared lived experience between the nurse and nursed is called a:
  2. Nursing situation.
  3. Call for nursing.
  4. Nursing response.
  5. Nursing relationship.






  1. The primary nursing process in the theory of technological competency as caring in nursing is:
  2. Designing participation in caring.
  3. Knowing.
  4. Implementation.
  5. Evaluation.






  1. Illuminations of the person’s hopes, dreams, and aspirations are referred to by Locsin as:
  2. Technological competency.
  3. Nursing responses.
  4. Nursing process.
  5. Calls for nursing.






  1. A process that regards human beings as “stuff” to care about rather than knowledgeable participants of care is:
  2. Continuous knowing.
  3. Objectification.
  4. Substantiation.
  5. Participation.






  1. Mechanisms that persons use that allow the nurse to respond with the authentic intention to know them fully as persons in the moment are:
  2. Caring technologies
  3. Esthetic expressions
  4. Calls for nursing
  5. All of the above






  1. According to Locsin, coming to know a person deters:
  2. Subjectivity.
  3. Objectification.
  4. Compassion fatigue.
  5. Use of technology.






  1. The continuous, circular, and recursive process of knowing persons demonstrates the ever-changing, and the dynamic nature of fundamental ways of knowing in nursing describes Locsin’s process of _____________ in the theory of technological competence as caring in nursing?
  2. Knowing
  3. Participative engaging
  4. Furthering knowing
  5. Designing






  1. A simultaneous practice of conjoined activities that are crucial to knowing persons is known as:
  2. Designing.
  3. Participative engaging.
  4. Knowing.
  5. Further knowing.






  1. The process of technological knowing in nursing involves a circuitous and recursive process of engagement which includes all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Furthering knowing of persons.
  3. Appreciating the person’s humanness.
  4. Gathering views of person.
  5. Engaging in mutual knowing.









  1. Nursing technological expertise is often perceived as noncaring.






  1. Locsin argues that technological competency can and should displace the perception of caring in nursing.






  1. The nurse can know the person fully only in the moment.






  1. Continuous knowing deters objectification of persons.






  1. Locsin asserts the entirety of nursing is to direct, focus, attain, sustain, and maintain the person.



Chapter 27: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The theory of bureaucratic caring was originally developed as a:
  2. Holographic theory.
  3. Grounded theory.
  4. Grand theory.
  5. Derived theory.





  1. Illuminating the nature and creativity of science itself is defined by Ray as:
  2. Holographic theory.
  3. Complexity theory.
  4. Nursing theory.
  5. Caring theory.






  1. A crisis in nursing and health care organizations occurred as a result of a conflict between health care as a business and:
  2. Caring as a human need.
  3. The needs of nurses.
  4. Accreditation standards.
  5. All of the above






  1. Ray describes _______ as the unifying focus of nursing.
  2. Technological competence
  3. Caring
  4. Nursing research
  5. Interconnectedness






  1. The theory of bureaucratic caring has it roots in which of the following nursing paradigms?
  2. Totality
  3. Simultaneity
  4. Unitary–transformative
  5. All of the above






  1. Although the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring model shows the caring dimensions as equal, research revealed ________ as the dominant dimension.
  2. Caring as humanistic
  3. Caring as economic
  4. Caring as process
  5. Caring as experiential






  1. The synthesis that shows that everything is interconnected—humanistic and spiritual caring and the organizational system—is consistent with viewing the theory of bureaucratic caring as a:
  2. Grand theory
  3. Middle-range theory
  4. Chaos theory
  5. Holographic theory











  1. Theories in nursing have collectively focused on the good of nursing—what nursing is and what it should do.






  1. The traditional work of nurses is defined as economic work.






  1. The theory of bureaucratic caring synthesizes caring and the organizational context.



Chapter 28

Multiple-Choice Questions




  1. _______________________ describe(s) the use of conscious awareness and choice as an adaptive response to cumulative physiological and physical losses with subsequent functional deficits occurring because of aging.
  2. Intrapychic factors
  3. Personal control
  4. Functional performance mechanisms
  5. Gerotrancendence






  1. ______________________ describe(s) the innate and enduring character features that may enhance or impair an individual’s ability to adapt to change and to problem-solving (
  2. Intrapychic factors
  3. Personal control
  4. Functional performance mechanisms
  5. Gerotrancendence






  1. What role does spiritual connectedness play in developing an older person’s spiritual perspective according to Troutman-Jordan’s Theory of successful aging?
  2. Empower one to control or influence outcomes.
  3. Enables and motivates one to find meaning and purpose in life.
  4. Enable one to increase positive affectivity and creativity.
  5. Empower one to develop a new outlook and understanding of life.






  1. __________________________ occur(s) when there is a major shift in the person’s worldview, where a person examines their place within the world and in relation to others
  2. Intrapychic factors
  3. Personal control
  4. Functional performance mechanisms
  5. Gerotrancendence






  1. All of the following are considered indicators of functional performance mechanisms EXCEPT:
  2. Health promotion
  3. Physical health
  4. Psychosocial health
  5. Physical mobility






  1. Which dimension of age related changes is believed to lessen one’s concern or fear of death?
  2. Personal dimension
  3. Self dimension
  4. Cosmic dimension
  5. Social dimension.










  1. The three measureable outputs for the coping processes consist of the cognitive, behavioral and affective responses
  2. True
  3. False






  1. Creativity, positive and negative affect and personal control are all output responses indicative of gerotranscendence.
  2. True
  3. False






  1. Gerotranscendence is believed to cause a new understanding of fundamental questions regarding one’s existence and a change in the way one perceives one’s self and the world.
  2. True
  3. False






Multiple Response




  1. Which of the following is considered an age related change that occurs with gerotranscendence. Select all that apply.
  2. Self dimension
  3. Personal dimension
  4. Cosmic dimension
  5. Spirituality
  6. Creative dimension.



Chapter 29

Multiple-Choice Questions




  1. Which of the following types of power is identified by Barrett from an acausal worldview?
  2. Power-as-control
  3. Power-as-knowing
  4. Power-as being
  5. Power-as-freedom






  1. __________________________ is a power enhancement therapy that guides people to use their power-as-freedom to participate knowingly in creating the changes they want to make in their lives.
  2. Voluntary patterning.
  3. Mutual patterning.
  4. Health patterning.
  5. Power patterning.






  1. The conceptual framework for Barrett’s power theory is woven from which theory?
  2. Madeleine Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality.
  3. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Humanbecoming School of Thought.
  4. Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model.
  5. Martha Roger’s Science of Unitary Human Beings.






  1. What does Barrett use the Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool to create?
  2. Personal profile.
  3. Power profile.
  4. Social profile.
  5. Patterning profile.






Multiple Response




  1. Which of the following are considered dimensions of power according to Barrett? Select all that apply.
  2. Control
  3. Awareness
  4. Creating change
  5. Transcendence
  6. Choices




  1. Which of the following concepts are consistent with Barrett’s acausal worldview when discussing voluntary mutual patterning? Select all that apply
  2. Intentions.
  3. Setting goals.
  4. Aims
  5. Outcomes
  6. Results



  1. Examples of health patterning modalities include: Select all that apply.
  2. Exercise.
  3. Therapeutic touch.
  4. Imagery.
  5. Spirituality.
  6. Dream reading.









  1. Barrett defines power as the capacity to participate knowingly in change.
  2. True
  3. False






  1. To benefit from health patterning and health patterning modalities a person must adopt an acausal worldview.
  2. True
  3. False






  1. According to Barrett there are two types of power one adopted from a causal worldview and the other from an acausal worldview.
  2. True
  3. False



Chapter 30: Smith’s Unitary Caring



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Smith’s unitary theory of caring was influenced by which of the following theorists?
  2. Jean Watson
  3. Martha Rogers
  4. Margaret Newman
  5. All the above






  1. Smith describes her theory at which of the following levels of theory development?
  2. Grand
  3. Middle
  4. Micro
  5. Macro






  1. Through a unitary lens the question was framed as: What is the quality of being in _______________ that is called “caring” within other theoretical contexts?
  2. Mutual process
  3. Pandimensionality
  4. Manifesting intentions
  5. Human-field patterning






4._________ is a quality of participating knowingly in human-environment field patterning.

  1. Appreciating pattern
  2. Manifesting intentions
  3. Experiencing the infinite
  4. Caring






  1. Nurses enter a caring relationship with ________, through preparing to become the __________ environment that potentates healing.
  2. Patterning, inviting
  3. Intention, energetic
  4. Presence, human
  5. Intention, pleasant






  1. In Smith’s Unitary Theory of Caring, nurses approach knowing their patients through using ________ and _________abilities to grasp _______.
  2. Problem-solving, nursing diagnosis, outcome
  3. Sensory, extrasensory, wholeness
  4. Sensory, extrasensory, patterning
  5. Creative emergence, appreciating pattern, concept synthesis






  1. Which concept of Smith’s Unitary Theory of Caring is lived in nursing practice through sensing the readiness to begin to talk about sensitive issues or take on a major life change of the patient?
  2. Manifesting intentions
  3. Appreciating pattern
  4. Attuning to dynamic flow
  5. Experiencing the infinite






  1. All of the following propositions are used to explicate attuning to dynamic flow EXCEPT:
  2. Synchronizing rhythms of self with other
  3. Attending to subtleties of meaning
  4. Connecting to a pandimensional universe
  5. Being truly present in the flow of relating










  1. Caring is flowing with the co-created rhythms of relating in the moment






  1. Smith’s Unitary Theory of Caring provides a constellation of concepts from a unitary perspective.



  1. According to Smith, manifesting intentions could be studied by such activities as centering, setting an intention, affirmations, meditations, prayers, values-based decision-making, and mantras.




Chapter 31: Swanson’s Theory or Caring



Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. Swanson emphasizes that her program of research has specifically studied which of the following?
  2. Nursing interventions and health outcomes
  3. Human responses to a specific health problem in a framework that assumed from the start that a clinical therapeutic had to be defined
  4. Physiological causes of miscarriage
  5. Diagnosis and treatment of illness






  1. Swanson states that her original research focus for her dissertation was to study what it was like for women to experience miscarriage. However, she changed her area of focus when:
  2. After hearing a lecture by a physician, she became interested in medical causes of miscarriage.
  3. Her work in an NICU with premature neonates stimulated an interest in premature labor and miscarriage.
  4. Her dissertation chair, Dr. Jean Watson, suggested the need to examine caring within the context of miscarriage.
  5. She became interested in the topic after learning that there is a one-in-six chance that a pregnant woman will miscarry.






  1. Swanson proposed that caring consists of which five basic processes:
  2. Respect, regard, reaction, respite, and reflection
  3. Knowing, being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining belief
  4. Compassion, concern, creativity, collaboration, and cooperation
  5. Other above self, sacrifice, giving, taking care of, and setting clear priorities






  1. Swanson’s work offers an example of which of the following?
  2. A theoretical model based on a thorough review of the literature
  3. A theoretical model that integrates knowledge gained from the integration of theory, research, and practice
  4. A theoretical model that demonstrates the evolving nature of knowledge development
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above






  1. Swanson’s Theory of Caring was developed:
  2. From the result of her dissertation research.
  3. From a thorough review of the literature.
  4. Through a methodical process that integrated multiple research studies, extensive review of the literature, and the application of theory development processes.
  5. Through a synthesis of other theorists’ works.






  1. Swanson describes “enabling” as facilitating the “other’s” passage through life transitions and unfamiliar events. It involves:
  2. Focusing on the event.
  3. Informing, explaining, supporting, allowing, and validating feelings.
  4. Generating alternatives, thinking things through, and giving feedback.
  5. B & C
  6. All of the above




  1. Swanson defines caring as:
  2. An approach to patient care in which respect and dignity are central.
  3. A nurturing way of relating to a valued “other,” toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility.
  4. An emotional state that helps to facilitate the art of nursing.
  5. A particular type of nursing that is not appropriate for all types of nursing practice.






  1. In her meta-analysis of 18 quantitative studies of caring actions, Swanson demonstrated that the top caring behaviors of the nurse valued by patients included all the following EXCEPT:
  2. Helps the patient to feel confident that adequate care was provided.
  3. Knows how to give shots and manage equipment.
  4. Gets to know the patient as a person.
  5. Treats the patient with respect.
  6. Allows the open expression of feelings.




  1. In her meta-analysis of 18 quantitative studies of caring actions, Swanson demonstrated that the top five caring behaviors valued by nurses included all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Listens to the patient.
  3. Allows expression of feelings.
  4. Touches when comforting is needed.
  5. Knows how to give shots and manage equipment.
  6. Realizes the patient knows him- or herself best.










  1. Swanson proposes that it is essential that nurse investigators frame nursing interventions under the framework of caring in order to tie together the essential contributions of the profession to the health of society.