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Philosophy A Text with Readings 11th Edition By Manuel Velasquez – 

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Chapter 3—Reality and Being

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Who was also known as the Lokyata?
a. The Buddhists
b. The Hindus
c. The Charvakas
d. The Augustinians

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that
a. Only matter is real
b. Only spirit is real
c. The world is composed of both matter and spirit
d. The world cannot be known

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that whatever I perceive is merely one of my perceptions or a collection of them is known as
a. Subjective idealism
b. Objective idealism
c. Subjective materialism
d. Objective materialism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which pragmatist was concerned with the logical implications of ideas?
a. John Dewey
b. C. S. Pierce
c. William James
d. Elmer Sprague

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A. J. Ayer believed that there were only two kinds of meaningful statements:
a. Relations of ideas and statements of fact
b. Relations of ideas and tautologies
c. Empirical hypotheses and statements of fact
d. Relations of fact and statements of ideas

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which view is the heir of pragmatism and idealism?
a. Materialism
b. Irrealism
c. Antirealism
d. Immaterialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Heidegger was influenced by which view?
a. James’ pragmatism
b. Ayer’s positivism
c. Husserl’s phenomenology
d. Descartes’ skepticism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who is best known for writing of our own human being in the world, our Dasein?
a. James
b. Husserl
c. Heidegger
d. Plato

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Sartre endorses
a. Libertarianism
b. Determinism
c. LaPlacianism
d. Psychologism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Thomas Hobbes endorses
a. Libertarianism
b. Compatibilism
c. Determinism
d. Existentialism

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. For what philosopher(s) does reality contain every possible kind of being, from the “lowest” kind of inert matter to the “highest” kind of spirit?
a. Thomas Hobbes
b. Karl Marx
c. Saint Augustine
d. Charvaka Philosophers of India

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher argued that reality can be explained in terms of the smallest pieces of matter he called atoms?
a. Aristotle
b. Plato
c. Saint Augustine
d. Democritus

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher, in his book Man a Machine, argued that humans are nothing more than complex machines?
a. Karl Marx
b. Democritus
c. Julien Offray de La Mettrie
d. Vasubandhu

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An unusual aspect of consciousness is that the objects of which one is conscious need not exist. This feature of consciousness is called
a. subjectivity.
b. intensionality.
c. spatiality.
d. awareness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What contemporary Canadian philosopher argues that all the things in the universe are thoughts in the mind of God?
a. John Leslie
b. John Rawls
c. Josiah Royce
d. F. H. Bradley

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The attribution of human thoughts and emotions onto the nonhuman universe is the fallacy of
a. equivocation
b. composition
c. anthropomorphism
d. wishful thinking

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical view that interprets an idea in terms of its practical consequences and asks what difference it would make if it were true is called
a. materialism.
b. idealism.
c. pragmatism.
d. logical positivism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The statement, “All bachelors are unmarried.” is a(n)
a. analytical statement.
b. synthetic statement.
c. meaningless statement.
d. empirical statement.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote the following: “Now many linguistic utterances are analogous to laughing in that they have only an expressive function, no representative function.”?
a. William James
b. Thomas Hobbes
c. Rudolf Carnap
d. Jacques Derrida

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical view that a real world exists independently of our language, our thoughts, our perceptions, and our beliefs is called
a. antirealism.
b. realism.
c. pragmatism.
d. postmodernism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that there are many realities and that realities are constructed by the many languages of the cultures and subcultures is called
a. pragmatism.
b. existentialism.
c. postmodernism.
d. realism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote, “The aim of phenomenology is described as the study of experiences with a view to bringing out their ‘essences,’ their underlying reason.”?
a. Hilary Putnam
b. Jean Grimshaw
c. Maurice Merleau-Ponty
d. Edmund Husserl

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that there are no absolute truth but that all truth is relative to groups or persons, acculturation or personal bias is called
a. phenomenology.
b. relativism.
c. pragmatism.
d. realism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical position that holds that people have control over what they do and are free to choose to act other than the way they do is called
a. determinism.
b. existentialism.
c. libertarianism.
d. phenomenology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What French philosopher argues that the scientist’s objective time is just a conceptual abstraction, a construct of the mind?
a. Henri Bergson
b. Edmund Husserl
c. Immanual Kant
d. J. J. C. Smart

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. St. Augustine found it difficult to believe that spirits were real.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Charvaka philosophers were spiritualists.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that there was more to the Universe than measureable mater.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that our mental states are states of our brain.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The neutrino has no mass, no electric charge, and no magnetic field.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Vasubandhu claimed that we directly perceive the objects in the world around us.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Dewey believed that philosophy arose out of people’s struggles to deal with social and political problems.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Charles S. Pierce was concerned with the psychological effects of ideas.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Husserl believed that Europe had inherited rational certainty from the Greeks.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Newton believed that all material bodies in the universe were governed by universal laws of nature.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ____________________ is the view that matter is the ultimate constituent of reality.

 

ANS:  Materialism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ ____________________ is generalizing about what we observe.

 

ANS:  Inductive reasoning

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ ____________________ appeals to general statements to reach its logical conclusions.

 

ANS:  Deductive reasoning

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the belief that reality is essentially composed of minds and their ideas.

 

ANS:  Idealism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The City of God was written by ____________________.

 

ANS:  Augustine

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ idealism contains elements of both objective and subjective idealism.

 

ANS:  Berkeley’s

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Objective idealism accounts for the ____________________ of our experiences.

 

ANS:

regularity

steadiness

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. According to James, pragmatism looks towards ____________________ things.

 

ANS:  last

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the view that reality is only one kind of thing.

 

ANS:  Monism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical school that contends that ____________________ is the underlying reality that appears to our consciousness is phenomenology.

 

ANS:  being

 

PTS:   1

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Imagine that you are placed into a machine that stimulates your brain, making you think that your life is going wonderfully well, while all the time you are simply attached to an “Experience Machine” in a basement. Given that you could not tell that your life was illusory, would you choose to enter this machine, or not? Would it make a difference to you in answering this question if you learned that Berkeley’s idealism was correct? Why, or why not?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. If everything is comprised of matter, and if all matter is governed by causal laws, it is possible that humans are free in the sense required for moral responsibility? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Do you believe that pragmatism is a tenable middle ground between materialism and idealism? If not, why not? If so, why do you think this? How do your answers to these questions illustrate your own views on the value and role of metaphysics in understanding the world around you?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. In what way might our language be said to create our world? Drawing on your answer to this question, what practical implications do you think it could have¾if any¾for social change? If you believe that your answer has no such implications, explain why.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Do you think that our consciousness is effective in leading us to act? Do we make decisions, or do our decisions merely flow through us? Are these empirical questions, or metaphysical ones? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1