Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson-  Test Bank
 
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 1: Introduction

 

 

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction Multiple Choice 1,3,6 4,8 2,5,7
Fill-In 1,2    
Essay 1    
Understanding Human Consciousness:

A Physiological Approach

Multiple Choice 14,15,17,19,22,25,

26,30,33,34

9-13,16,21,23,32 18,20,24,27-29,31
Fill-In 5 3,4  
Essay   2,3,4  
The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience Multiple Choice 35,36,39,42-46,

51-53,56,58,65,

67-69

47,41,44,47,48-50,

54-57,59,60-64

 

38,40
Fill-In 6,8,9,10 7,11  
Essay   5,6,7  
Natural Selection and Evolution Multiple Choice 76,77,79,80,84-88 70-76,78,83 81,82
Fill-In 12-16    
Essay   8-10  
Ethical Issues in Research with Animals Multiple Choice 89,90,92,93 94 91
Fill-In      
Essay      
Careers in Neuroscience Multiple Choice 95-97    
Fill-In 20 19  
Essay   11  

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1.1-1.   The key deficit suffered by Miss S. in the chapter vignette was ________ brought on by a stroke involving her ________.

  1. partial blindness; optic nerve
  2. unilateral neglect; right hemisphere
  3. bilateral neglect; cerebellum
  4. unilateral neglect; left hemisphere
  5. blindness; parietal cortex

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-1

Page Ref: 2

Topic: Opening Vignette

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. unilateral neglect; right hemisphere

Rationale:  Damage to the right hemisphere can result in unilateral neglect in which a person ignores the left side of their body or the left visual field.

 

1.1-2.   Which of the following would be an example of unilateral neglect?

  1. a person who cannot sense stimuli on the left side of their body
  2. a man who only shaves the left side of his face
  3. a person who cannot sense stimuli on the right side of their body
  4. a man who ignores the food on the right of his lunch plate
  5. a woman who only applies makeup to the right side of her face

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-2

Page Ref: 2

Topic: Opening Vignette

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. a man who only shaves the left side of his face

Rationale:  Damage to the right hemisphere can result in unilateral neglect in which a person ignores the left side of their body or the left visual field.

 

1.1-3.   ________ is the belief that movement of natural phenomena such as winds and tides are caused by spirits.

  1. Animism
  2. Dualism
  3. Monism
  4. Spiritualism
  5. Interactionism

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-3

Page Ref: 2

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Animism

Rationale:  Animism is the belief that spirits within objects cause them to move.

 

1.1-4. The notion that animal movement can be explained by spirits is termed

  1. anarchy.
  2. dualism.
  3. animism.
  4. theological evolution.
  5. symbolic representation.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-4

Page Ref: 2

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. animism.

Rationale:  Animism is the belief that spirits within objects cause them to move.

 

1.1-5. A scientist who holds a monistic philosophy would be comfortable with which of the following statements?

  1. The universe is a mental construction.
  2. The left hemisphere of the brain is the location of the mind.
  3. The mind is not composed of matter.
  4. Everything is made of matter and energy.
  5. The body is physical whereas the mind is spiritual.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-5

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Everything is made of matter and energy.

Rationale:  The monist view of the mind-body question holds that the mind is a property of the operations of the nervous system.

 

1.1-6. ________ is the belief that the mind and body are separate entities.

  1. Contralateral neglect
  2. Monism
  3. Blindsight
  4. Dualism
  5. Animism

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-6

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Dualism

Rationale:  The dualist view of the mind-body question holds that the body, but not the mind, is physical.

 

1.1-7. Which of the following statements is consistent with the monistic view of the mind-body question?

  1. Mind and body are separate.
  2. The body can influence the mind through the actions of the pineal gland.
  3. The mind is spiritual, while the body is made from matter.
  4. The mind can exist apart from the body.
  5. The mind is generated through the physical actions of the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-7

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. The mind is generated through the physical actions of the brain.

Rationale:  The monist view of the mind-body question holds that the world consists only of matter and energy and that the mind is a property of the operations of the nervous system.

 

1.1-8. The mind-body question

  1. asks about the nature of the mind and the body.
  2. was originally posed by neuroscientists.
  3. has been solved.
  4. usually involves choosing a dualistic view.
  5. is no longer relevant to behavioral neuroscience.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-8

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. asks about the nature of the mind and the body.

Rationale:  The mind-body question seeks to determine the nature of mind — is it mental and hidden or is it a physical property of the body?

 

1.1-9. Which of the following is consistent with the meaning of “consciousness”?

  1. being dead drunk
  2. the inability to detect stimuli from the outside world
  3. the ability to sense the thoughts of others
  4. d. the ability to communicate our thoughts and feelings to others
  5. the inability to learn new information

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-9

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:   the ability to communicate our thoughts and feelings to others

Rationale:  Consciousness can refer to being awake, to self-awareness, and to the ability to communicate via language with other persons.

 

1.1-10. Which of the following is consistent with the proposition that consciousness is a physiological function?

  1. Consumption of food changes our ability to communicate.
  2. Damage to the brain can alter our self-awareness.
  3. Inhalation of oxygen renders us unaware of the environment.
  4. Our awareness levels change when we meditate.
  5. Increased mental effort results in reduced demand for oxygen by the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-10

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Damage to the brain can alter our self-awareness.

Rationale:  The fact that brain damage can alter our self-awareness suggests that consciousness is a physiological function.

 

1.1-11. The text author suggests that a key aspect of human self-awareness is related to

  1. our ability to communicate with others using language.
  2. our ability to sleep at night.
  3. our ability to use tools.
  4. our ability to sense color.
  5. the fact that humans have a sense of humor.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-11

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. our ability to communicate with others using language.

Rationale:  A key aspect of consciousness involves the ability to communicate via language with other persons.

 

1.1-12.  The phenomenon of “blindsight” suggests that

  1. only one visual system exists in the human brain.
  2. our behavior can be guided by unconscious stimuli.
  3. dualism is the correct solution to the mind-body problem.
  4. brain damage can alter somatic awareness.
  5. the presence of one visual system in primate brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-12

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. our behavior can be guided by unconscious stimuli.

Rationale:  Humans possess a primitive visual system (which does not have access to language) and a complex visual system, which can communicate via language.  Damage to the primary visual cortex spares the primitive visual system, which can guide movements of the hands in spite of the visual stimulation remaining unconscious.

 

1.1-13. Natalie J.’s grandfather became blind after a stroke.  His ability to touch the end of a cane held by his doctor

  1. was made possible because his color visual system was intact.
  2. was possible because his corpus callosum was intact.
  3. was made possible because his primitive visual system was intact.
  4. was due to chance.
  5. occurred because the stroke did not involve the right hemisphere.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1- 13

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. was made possible because his primitive visual system was intact.

Rationale:  Humans possess a primitive visual system (which does not have access to language) and a complex visual system, which can communicate via language.  Damage to the primary visual cortex spares the primitive visual system, which can guide movements of the hands in spite of the lack of visual stimulation.

 

1.1.14.   The ________ visual system allows for the ability to perceive the world around us.

  1. primitive
  2. fish/frog
  3. mammalian

d.unconscious

  1. reptilian

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-14

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. mammalian

Rationale:  Humans have several visual systems. Damage to the primary visual cortex spares the primitive visual system, which can guide movements of the hands in spite of the visual stimulation remaining unconscious.

 

1.1-15.  Blindsight suggests that some parts of the brain may play a special role in

  1. tactile sensation.
  2. eye movements.
  3. sleep-wake cycles.
  4. reproductive behavior.
  5. consciousness.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-15

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. consciousness.

Rationale:  Humans possess several visual systems – the primitive system does not have access to language while the complex visual system can communicate via language.  Damage to the primary visual cortex spares the primitive visual system, which can guide movements of the hands in spite of the visual stimulation remaining unconscious.

 

1.1-16.  Which of the following is true of blindsight?

  1. The primitive visual system is key for consciousness.
  2. Reaching is only guided by the conscious visual system.
  3. People are acutely aware of their blind spots.
  4. Humans appear to have dual visual systems.
  5. The right hemisphere is important for language function.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-16

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Humans appear to have dual visual systems.

Rationale:  Humans possess a primitive visual system (which does not have access to language) and a complex visual system, which can communicate via language.  Damage to the primary visual cortex spares the primitive visual system, which can guide movements of the hands in spite of the visual stimulation remaining unconscious.

 

1.1-17.  Transection of the ________ may be useful for reducing the symptoms of ________.

  1. corpus callosum; epilepsy
  2. visual cortex; blindsight
  3. stria terminalis; amnesia
  4. left parietal cortex; unilateral neglect
  5. corpus callosum; anxiety

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-17

Page Ref: 5 Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. corpus callosum; epilepsy

Rationale:  Seizures can spread to the opposite hemisphere via the corpus callosum, which interconnects the dual brain hemispheres.

 

1.1-18.  Epilepsy can be controlled by

  1. damaging portions of the parietal cortex.
  2. damaging portions of the pineal gland.
  3. drugs that stimulate the firing of neurons.
  4. electrical stimulation of certain brain regions.
  5. cutting the corpus callosum.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-18

Page Ref: 5

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. cutting the corpus callosum.

Rationale:  Transection of the corpus callosum can diminish the intensity of severe epileptic seizures by minimizing the spread of seizure activity from one side to the other.

 

1.1-19.  The excessive overactivity of nerve cells in the brain is known as

  1. hemorrhagic stroke.
  2. hydrocephalus.
  3. hematoma.
  4. epilepsy.
  5. myasthenia gravis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-19

Page Ref: 5

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. epilepsy

Rationale:  Epilepsy involves excessive uncontrollable activity of brain neurons.

 

1.1-20.  A person whose corpus callosum has been sectioned would most likely show which of the following?

  1. increased frequency of epileptic seizures
  2. coordinated control of his right and left hands
  3. reading an interesting book held in his right hand
  4. making obscene gestures with his left hand
  5. improved neural communication between the left and right hemispheres

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-20

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. making obscene gestures with his left hand

Rationale:  The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and visa-versa.  Because only the left hemisphere (which controls the right hand) can speak about its conscious experience, cutting the corpus callosum can result in mismatches in the motor behavior of the two hands – the left hand does the bidding of the right hemisphere (which cannot speak).

 

1.1-21.  An important function of the corpus callosum is to

  1. channel sensory information to the thalamic relay centers.
  2. control the movement of the hands and feet.
  3. interconnect the cerebral hemispheres.
  4. modulate the release of neurohormones from the pituitary.
  5. dampen neural firing in the cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-21

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. interconnect the cerebral hemispheres.

Rationale:  The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and visa-versa.  The corpus callosum allows the two hemispheres to communicate with each other resulting in a unified consciousness.

 

1.1-22.  Surgical sectioning of the corpus callosum is intended to

  1. reduce swelling of the brain in hydroencephalus patients.
  2. minimize long-term memories of traumatic events.
  3. promote the development of the memory systems
  4. reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
  5. reduce the amount of drugs required to control epilepsy.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-22

Page Ref: 5

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.

Rationale:  The corpus callosum interconnects the dual brain hemispheres. Transection of the corpus callosum can prevent seizure spread from one side to the other, thus reducing the intensity of severe epileptic seizures.

 

1.1-23.  In most persons, a key function of the left hemisphere

  1. is to control the left side of the body.
  2. is the control of language.
  3. relates to spatial perception.
  4. is to integrate the tactile information from the left side of the body.
  5. is to receive olfactory information from the right nostril.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-23

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. is the control of language.

Rationale:  A key function of the left hemisphere is the control of language.  Broca reported that a man with damage to the left front cortex was unable to speak.

 

1.1-24.  Imagine that your corpus callosum has been sectioned to minimize your epileptic seizures. Suppose that your left nostril is plugged with cotton and that a fresh rose has been placed near your right nostril. Under these conditions, the rose would

  1. generate a sensory message in your left hemisphere.
  2. generate a sensory message in both hemispheres.
  3. lead you to report the smell of a flower.
  4. not generate a verbal report of this experience.
  5. be identified as a flower.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-24

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. not generate a verbal report of this experience.

Rationale: In this situation, the olfactory information travels to the right hemisphere, which cannot speak.

 

1.1-25.  A key function of the right hemisphere relates to the

  1. motor control of the left side of the body.
  2. processing of olfactory signals from the left nostril.
  3. processing of tactile signals from the right side of the body.
  4. motor control of the right side of the body.
  5. capacity to control feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-25

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. motor control of the left side of the body.

Rationale:  The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and visa-versa.

 

1.1-26.  Which of the following is true of the cerebral hemispheres?

  1. The left hemisphere is 40% larger than the right hemisphere.
  2. The cerebral hemispheres act in isolation in the normal brain.
  3. The cerebral hemispheres consist of two symmetrical parts.
  4. The corpus callosum interconnects structures within one hemisphere but not between hemispheres.
  5. Language is a function of the right hemisphere.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-26

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. The cerebral hemispheres consist of two symmetrical parts.

Rationale:  The two hemispheres appear to form symmetrical parts.

 

1.1.27.  Imagine that a person who has undergone a split-brain surgery is seated at a computer terminal that can display images as well as play sounds from the left and right side of the display. If the image of a key was displayed for a brief time period on the left side of the computer monitor, which of the following statements would be true of this person?

  1. The person would reach for the key with his left hand.
  2. The person would be able to reach for the key with his right hand.
  3. The person could describe the key in great detail.
  4. The person would be unable to carry out this task.
  5. The neural representation of the key would reach the left occipital cortex.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-27

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. The person would reach for the key with his left hand.

Rationale: this sensory information would reach the right hemisphere, which controls the function of the left hand.

 

1.1-28.  Imagine that your corpus callosum has been sectioned to minimize your epileptic seizures. Suppose that your left nostril is plugged with cotton and that a fresh rose has been placed near your right nostril. Under these conditions, you would be most likely to

  1. experience a sensory message in your left hemisphere.
  2. use your right hand to choose a hidden plastic flower.
  3. report that you smell a flower.
  4. use your left hand to select a hidden plastic flower.
  5. use your right hand to select a pine tree.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-28

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. use your left hand to select a hidden plastic flower.

Rationale:  The olfactory signal would reach the right hemisphere, which controls the left hand.

 

1.1-29. Which sensory system below transmits information from the left side of the body to the left hemisphere?

  1. olfaction
  2. vision
  3. touch
  4. pain
  5. audition

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-29

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Applied

Answer: a: olfaction

Rationale:  Olfactory information does not cross the sides of the brain; information from the right nostril is transmitted to the right hemisphere.

 

1.1-30.  Unilateral neglect involves

  1. the inability to notice objects placed to the right side of a person.
  2. damage to the left hemisphere of the brain.
  3. the inability to notice objects placed to the left side of a person.
  4. damage to the amygdala and hippocampus.
  5. impaired speech production.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-30

Page Ref: 6-7

Topic: Unilateral Neglect

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the inability to notice objects placed to the left side of a person.

Rationale:  Damage to the right hemisphere can result in unilateral neglect in which a person ignores the left side of their body or the left visual field.

 

1.1-31.  A person who sustains damage within her right parietal cortex would be expected to

  1. show impaired perception of tactile stimuli on the left side of the body.
  2. experience altered emotional expression.
  3. be better at planning motor actions involving her hands.
  4. experience unilateral neglect.
  5. experience impaired speech production.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-31

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Unilateral Neglect

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. experience unilateral neglect.

Rationale:  Unilateral neglect occurs via damage to the right hemisphere and results in a situation in which a person ignores the left side of their body or the left visual field.

 

1.1-32.  A person suffering from unilateral neglect would be unable to

  1. attend to the right half of a stimulus.
  2. state whether the right half of a stimulus is the same as the left middle of the stimulus.
  3. accurately label the hours on a clock drawing.
  4. recognize both hands as their own.
  5. describe parts of a well-known landmark.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-32

Page Ref: 7

Topic: Unilateral Neglect

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. accurately label the hours on a clock drawing.

Rationale:  Damage to the right hemisphere can result in unilateral neglect in which a person ignores the left side of their body or the left visual field.

 

1.1-33.  The “rubber hand” illusion occurs only when sensory stimulation of a person’s hand leads to

  1. inhibition of the corpus callosum.
  2. activation of the premotor cortex.
  3. activation of the parietal lobe.
  4. inhibition of the primary motor cortex.
  5. inhibition of the premotor cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-33

Page Ref: 8

Topic: Perception of Self

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. activation of the premotor cortex.

Rationale:  Imaging studies report that the experience of the “rubber hand” illusion (i.e., the belief that a rubber hand belongs to the person under study) is accompanied by activation of the premotor cortex.

 

1.1-34.  The urge to move your arm in response to a threatening stimulus depends on activation of the

  1. parietal cortex.
  2. corpus callosum.
  3. supplemental motor area.
  4. posterior cingulated cortex.
  5. the primary visual cortex

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-34

Page Ref: 8

Topic: Perception of Self

Skill: Factual

Answer: c:  supplemental motor area

Rationale:  Imaging studies report that the urge to move your arm in response to a threatening stimulus depends on activation of the supplemental motor area.

 

1.1-35.  The author of the first psychology text was ________ and the text was entitled ________.

  1. Rene Descartes; A Primer of Psychology
  2. Sigmund Freud; Dream Interpretation After Cocaine Ingestion
  3. Neil Carlson; Foundations of Physiological Psychology
  4. Luigi Galvani; Frog Legs and Psychologic Function
  5. Wilhelm Wundt; Principles of Physiological Psychology

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-35

Page Ref: 9

Topic: The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. Wilhelm Wundt; Principles of Physiological Psychology

Rationale:  Wilhelm Wundt wrote the first text, entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology.

 

1.1-36.  Your textbook author asserts that the primary function of the brain is to

  1. allow us to appreciate art and music.
  2. allow for the experience of emotions.
  3. control movement.
  4. create memories of our experiences.
  5. interpret our sensory experiences.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-36

Page Ref: 9

Topic: The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. control movement.

Rationale:  The key function of the brain is to control movement – which is the basis for our behaviors.

 

1.1-37.  ________ represent explanations used by all scientists.

  1. Generalizations
  2. Falsifications
  3. Hallucinations
  4. Syllogisms
  5. Rationalizations

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-37

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Generalizations

Rationale:  Generalization is a type of scientific explanation involving a general conclusion based on observation of many similar phenomena.

 

1.1-38.  Imagine that you now experience such an overly strong fear of dogs that you refuse to leave your house for fear of encountering a dog.  A learning theorist would suggest that the roots of your fear can be attributed to past classical conditioning, in which you associated the sight and sound of a dog with some aversive experience. This type of explanation would involve the process of

  1. rationalization.
  2. pseudoscience.
  3. reductionism.
  4. generalization.
  5. dualism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-38

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. generalization.

Rationale: Generalization is a type of scientific explanation involving a general conclusion based on observation of many similar phenomena.  Prior studies have suggested that pairing a neutral stimulus with an aversive stimulus can produce fear.

 

1.1-39.  A scientific explanation of a complex phenomenon that is cast in terms of a simpler one involves the process of

  1. rationalization.
  2. falsification.
  3. generalization.
  4. deduction.
  5. reduction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-39

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research Skill: Factual

Answer: e. reduction.

Rationale:  Reduction is a type of scientific explanation involving breaking a complex situation into simpler processes.

 

1.1-40.  You notice that your roommate has difficulty sleeping after consuming heavily caffeinated drinks. You know from your courses that caffeine can stimulate brain neurons that produce arousal (and that such arousal disturbs sleep function). If you suggest to your roommate that his/her insomnia reflects the action of caffeine on brain function, your explanation would involve the process of

  1. reduction.
  2. superordinate causality.
  3. generalization.
  4. induction.
  5. falsification.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-40

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research Skill: Applied

Answer: a. reduction.

Rationale:  Reduction is a type of scientific explanation involving breaking a complex situation into simpler processes. Prior studies have determined that caffeine can activate the brain.

 

1.1-41.  Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. Reduction uses complicated processes to explain simple ones.
  2. The goal of religion is to predict a phenomenon under study.
  3. Generalization and reduction are important tools in science.
  4. Scientists only use reductionistic explanations.
  5. Most scientific studies use on-human experimental subjects.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-41

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Generalization and reduction are important tools in science.

Rationale:  Scientists attempt to explain phenomena both in terms of reduction as well as generalization.

 

1.1-42.  Ancient Greek culture before Hippocrates considered the ________ to be the seat of thought and emotion.

  1. gut
  2. heart
  3. brain
  4. pineal gland
  5. stomach

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-42

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. heart

Rationale:  Many ancient cultures viewed the heart as the seat of thought and emotion, in part because of the prominent role of the heart for life and the observation that strong emotional states increase the heartbeat.

 

1.1-43.  The philosopher ________ attributed thought and emotion to the brain, whereas ________ considered the function of the brain as important for cooling the heart.

  1. Aristotle; Hippocrates
  2. Galen; Aristotle
  3. Hippocrates; Aristotle
  4. Plato; Galen
  5. Hippocrates; Plato

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-43

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Hippocrates; Aristotle

Many ancient cultures viewed the heart as the seat of thought and emotion, in part because of the prominent role of the heart for life and the observation that strong emotional states increase the heartbeat.  Hippocrates rejected this view, believing that the brain is the seat of thought.

 

1.1-44.  Which of the following comments on brain function would be most likely to be made by Aristotle?

  1. The mind acts through the pineal body to control the body.
  2. The brain serves to cool the passions of the heart.
  3. The brain is the seat of emotion, but not thought.
  4. The brain routes sensory information to the heart
  5. Injury to the brain alters emotion and thought.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-44

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. The brain serves to cool the passions of the heart.

Rationale: Many ancient cultures viewed the heart as the seat of thought and emotion, in part because of the prominent role of the heart for life and the observation that strong emotional states increase the heartbeat.  Hippocrates rejected this view, believing that the brain is the seat of thought. Aristotle believed that the brain functioned to cool the passions of the heart.

 

1.1-45.  René Descartes asserted that

  1. humans cannot understand the nature of the real world.
  2. the heart is the seat of thought and emotion.
  3. the brain acts to cool the passions of the heart.
  4. animals are mechanical creatures controlled by environmental stimuli.
  5. the mind is an emergent property of the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-45

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. animals are mechanical creatures controlled by environmental stimuli.

Rationale:  Descartes believed that the world – including animals and humans – was based on machinery set in motion by a divine God.  Descartes viewed the brain as an important component of the human machine.

 

1.1-46.  ________ is considered the father of modern philosophy.

  1. Sigmund Freud
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Aristotle
  4. René Descartes
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-46

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. René Descartes

Rationale:  Rene Descartes is considered to be the father of modern philosophy.

 

1.1-47.  René Descartes would be considered to hold a ________ view of the mind-body problem.

  1. monist
  2. reductionist
  3. pluralist
  4. dualist
  5. animist

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-47

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. dualist

Rationale:  The mind-body problem seeks to determine the nature of mind — is it mental and hidden or is it a physical property of the body?

 

1.1-48.  A reflex is considered to be a(n) ________ movement elicited by a(n) ________ .

  1. involuntary; external stimulus
  2. voluntary; internal stimulus
  3. conscious; external stimulus
  4. unconscious; internal stimulus
  5. mental; psychological stimulus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-48

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. involuntary; external stimulus

Rationale:  Descartes viewed the human body as a machine.  Machines are capable of automatic and involuntary reaction.  Humans showed reflexive withdrawal responses to pain stimuli, which appear to automatic and involuntary reactions.

 

1.1-49.  Descartes’s view of the mind-body was unique in that he argued that

  1. the heart is the organ that controls emotions.
  2. the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals.
  3. unlike animals, human bodies do not show reflexes.
  4. a reflex is a process controlled by the mind.
  5. the mind controls the movements of the body.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-49

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. the mind controls the movements of the body.

Rationale:  The mind-body question seeks to determine the nature of mind — is it mental and hidden or is it a physical property of the body?  For Descartes, the mind controlled the human body through the pineal body.

 

1.1-50.  Descartes argued that

  1. the heart is the organ that controls emotions.
  2. the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals.
  3. unlike animals, human bodies do not show reflexes.
  4. nerves produce bodily movements by inflating muscles with fluid.
  5. the mind is not linked to the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-50

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. nerves produce bodily movements by inflating muscles with fluid.

Rationale:  Descartes viewed the human body as a machine. The brain contains fluid-filled chambers (ventricles) under pressure that are connected to the muscles via nerves.  Direction of the fluid to the muscles would cause body motion.

 

1.1-51.  According to Descartes, the ________ was the point of interaction in the brain where the mind controlled the physical body.

  1. hypothalamus
  2. corpus callosum
  3. amygdala
  4. hippocampus
  5. pineal body

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-51

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. pineal body

Rationale: For Descartes, the pineal body was the site of the brain through which the mind could control the body machinery.

 

1.1-52.  A(n) ________ is a simple system that works on known principles that can be used to explain a complex system.

  1. model
  2. assumption
  3. hypothesis
  4. prototype
  5. syllogism

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-52

Page Ref: 12

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. model

Rationale:  A model is a simple system that works on known principles that can be used to explain a complex system. Descartes used hydraulics as a model to explain muscle movement.

 

1.1-53.  In a simple experiment, Galvani disproved the hydraulic nerve-muscle model proposed by Descartes. Galvani removed a nerve and its attached muscle fibers from a frog and showed that ________ of the nerve caused ________ of the muscle.

  1. electrical stimulation; relaxation
  2. electrical stimulation; contraction
  3. chemical stimulation; contraction
  4. pressurization; relaxation
  5. chemical stimulation; relaxation

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-53

Page Ref: 12

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. electrical stimulation; contraction

Rationale:  Descartes viewed the human body as a machine. The brain contains fluid-filled chambers (ventricles) under pressure that are connected to the muscles via nerves.  Direction of the fluid to the muscles would cause body motion. Galvani showed that a dissected frog muscle (not connected to any nerves) could contract upon electrical stimulation – thus disproving Descartes’s theory.

 

1.1-54.  Galvani’s experiment involving a frog leg proved that

  1. the heart is the organ that controls emotions.
  2. the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals.
  3. unlike animals, human bodies do not possess reflexes.
  4. a reflex is a process controlled by the mind.
  5. the pinal gland pushes fluid through nerves into the muscles.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-54

Page Ref: 12

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals.

Rationale:  According to Descartes, the brain contains fluid-filled chambers (ventricles) under pressure that are connected to the muscles via nerves.  Direction of the fluid to the muscles would cause body motion. Galvani showed that a dissected frog muscle (not connected to any nerves) could contract upon electrical stimulation – thus disproving Descartes’s theory.

 

1.1-55.  Which of the following statements is consistent with Descartes’s explanation of the mind-body question?

  1. The brain contains air-filled chambers.
  2. Nerves are filled with air and are under minimal pressure.
  3. Muscle activation requires no input from the brain.
  4. Electrical stimulation of a nerve evokes contraction of a detached muscle.
  5. The pineal body controls the body muscles.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-55

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. The pineal body controls the body muscles.

Rationale:  The mind-body question seeks to determine the nature of mind — is it mental and hidden or is it a physical property of the body?  Descartes believed that the mind controlled the body through its interaction with the pineal body of the brain.

 

1.1-56.  ________ was a physiologist who proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies.

  1. Johannes Müller
  2. Paul Broca
  3. Rene Descartes
  4. Ivan Pavlov
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-56

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Johannes Müller

Rationale:  Johannes Müller was a physiologist who proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies.

 

1.1-57. Which of the following is consistent with the doctrine of specific nerve energies?

  1. Electrical stimulation of a sensory nerve can evoke a specific sensation.
  2. All nerves carry dissimilar electrical messages.
  3. Exerting pressure on the eyeball can evoke the sensation of sound.
  4. Nerves can be activated by psychological stimuli.
  5. The height of the action potential depends on which sensory system has been activated.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-57

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Electrical stimulation of a sensory nerve can evoke a specific sensation.

Rationale:  The doctrine of specific nerve energies proposes that all nerves carry the same signal but that different nerves serve different sensory modalities — activation of the optic nerve evokes a visual reaction while activation of other nerves do not evoke a visual reaction.

 

1.1-58.  Which scientist was among the first to advocate the use of experimental techniques in the study of physiology?

  1. John Watson
  2. Rene Descartes
  3. Aristotle
  4. Johannes Müller
  5. Charles Darwin

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-58

Page Ref: 12

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Johannes Müller

Rationale: Johannes Müller was among the first scientists to advocate the use of experimental techniques in the study of physiology.

 

1.1-59.  Johannes Müller proposed

  1. an important role for natural selection in the evolution of behavior.
  2. that language is a function of the right hemisphere.
  3. that the brain is divided into different functional areas with each receiving signals from a different set of nerves.
  4. that the pineal body allows the brain to control the mind.
  5. that the heart is the seat of thought and emotion.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-59

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. that the brain is divided into different functional areas with each receiving signals from a different set of nerves.

Rationale: Johannes Müller proposed that the brain is divided into different functional areas with each receiving signals from a different set of nerves. This idea was consistent with the proposed doctrine of specific nerve energies.

 

1.1-60.  Pierre Flourens is known

  1. for his use of the experimental ablation technique to examine brain function.
  2. as the father of modern philosophy.
  3. for proposing the theory of evolution.
  4. for his study of language abilities in stroke victims.
  5. as a dualist philosopher.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-60

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. for his use of the experimental ablation technique to examine brain function.

Rationale: Pierre Flourens was a 19th-century physiologist who removed portions of animal’s brains to observe the resulting effects.  This method came to be known as ablation.

 

1.1-61.  The technique of experimental ablation involves

  1. comparing the relative size of brains across different species.
  2. measurements of conduction velocity rates in damaged and intact nerves.
  3. chronic chemical stimulation of the brain.
  4. low-level electrical stimulation of the brain.
  5. assessment of behavioral changes after the intentional damage to a portion of the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-61

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. assessment of behavioral changes after the intentional damage to a portion of the brain,

Rationale:  Ablation involves removal of brain tissue and the observation of the resulting effects.

 

1.1-62. The doctrine of specific nerve energies was proposed by

  1. Rene Descartes
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. Pierre Flourens
  4. Johannes Müller
  5. Paul Broca

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-62

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Johannes Müller

Rationale: The doctrine of specific nerve energies proposed by Johannes Müller asserts that all nerves carry the same signal but that different nerves serve different sensory modalities — activation of the optic nerve evokes visual reaction while activation of other nerves do not evoke a visual reaction.

 

1.1-63.  Paul Broca performed an autopsy of the brain of a patient who had been unable to speak after suffering a stroke. Broca concluded that

  1. the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere.
  2. the pineal body controls speech production.
  3. damage to the right hemisphere impairs speech.
  4. muscle atrophy after a stroke is the result of a fluid pressure drop in the ventricles.
  5. the corpus callosum is critical for speech production.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-63

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere.

Rationale:  Paul Broca cared for a patient who was unable to speak.  An autopsy done by Broca of the man’s brain showed damage to the left frontal lobe. Broca concluded that this region is key for language.

 

1.1-64.  In 1870, Fritsch and Hitzig reported that electrical stimulation of the ________ in dogs resulted in muscle contractions of ________.

  1. pineal gland; the facial muscles
  2. parietal cortex; the opposite side of the body
  3. corpus callosum; both hind legs.
  4. primary motor cortex; the opposite side of the body
  5. globus pallidus; the same side of the body

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-64

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. primary motor cortex; the opposite side of the body

Rationale: Fritsch and Hitzig reported that electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex in dogs resulted in muscle contractions of the opposite side of their body.

 

1.1-65.  Hermann von Helmholtz is known for

  1. his contributions to the study of philosophy.
  2. his contributions to the study of learning and memory.
  3. his invention of the electroencephalograph. .
  4. measuring the speed of light.
  5. his measurements of nerve cell conduction velocity.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-65

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. his measurements of nerve cell conduction velocity.

Rationale: Hermann von Helmholtz invented the opthalmoscope, devised a theory of color vision, studied audition, and measured the speed of conduction of nerves.

 

1.1-66.  In his studies of nerve conduction velocity, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that

  1. electrical signal speeds differ from nerve to nerve.
  2. nerve conduction velocity is at the speed of light.
  3. nerves conduct signals faster than do electrical wires.
  4. the velocity of nerve conduction is slower in nerves than in wires.
  5. different sensory systems use different conduction speeds.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-66

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. the velocity of nerve conduction is slower in nerves than in wires.

Rationale:  Hermann von Helmholtz was the first scientist to devise a way to measure the speed of the action potential along a nerve.  His results of 90 m/sec were far slower than others had imagined using electricity as their model of nerve conduction.

 

1.1-67.  Which is the correct match between scientist and idea?

  1. Paul Broca; doctrine of specific nerve energies
  2. Pierre Flourens; use of ablation to study brain-behavior relations

c, Fritsch and Hitzig; language is localized within the left hemisphere

  1. Rene Descartes; doctrine of specific nerve energies
  2. Sigmund Freud; use of ablation to study brain-behavior relations

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-67

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: b.  Pierre Flourens; use of ablation to study brain-behavior relations

Rationale:  Pierre Flourens used ablation to study brain-behavior relationships; Broca linked the left frontal cortex to language; Fritsch and Hitzig used electrical stimulation of cortex to evoke motor reactions on the opposite body side; Descartes proposed a dualistic mind-body view.

 

1.1-68.  Hermann von Helmholtz estimated that nerve conduction velocity is about

  1. 9 feet/second.
  2. 90 feet/second.
  3. 900 feet/second.
  4. 9000 feet/second.
  5. 90,000 feet/second.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-68

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. 90 feet/second.

Rationale:  Hermann von Helmholtz estimated that the speed of the action potential along a nerve was 90 m/sec – a value that was far slower than others had imagined using electricity as their model of nerve conduction.

 

1.1-69.  Charles Darwin proposed the principle of

  1. specific nerve energy.
  2. primary motor cortex.
  3. experimental ablation.
  4. natural selection.
  5. functionalism.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-69

Page Ref: 14

Topic: Natural Selection and Evolution

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. natural selection.

Rationale:  Charles Darwin proposed the principle of natural selection –  the view that inherited traits that confer a selective advantage are more likely to increase in a population.

 

1.1-70.  The belief that the natural characteristics of an organism exert useful effects is termed

  1. reductionism.
  2. positivism.
  3. functionalism.
  4. consolidation.
  5. adaptation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-70

Page Ref: 15

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. functionalism.

Rationale:  Functionalism is the belief that the natural characteristics of an organism exert useful effects.

 

1.1-71.  The physiological mechanisms of an organism that give rise to certain behaviors

  1. can be said to have purpose.
  2. can be understood in terms of whether the behaviors produce useful functions.
  3. are thought to be different from species to species.
  4. are not subject to evolutionary principles.
  5. are present at birth and do not require environmental stimulation for complete expression.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-71

Page Ref: 15

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. can be understood in terms of whether the behaviors produce useful functions.

Rationale:  The physiological mechanisms of an organism that give rise to certain behaviors can be understood in terms of whether the behaviors produce useful functions.

 

1.1-72.  The principle of natural selection proposes that certain characteristics that ________ will become more prevalent in a species.

  1. are associated with multiple genetic mutations
  2. inhibit reproductive behaviors
  3. increase reproductive success
  4. impair adaption to the local environment
  5. reduce reproductive success

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-72

Page Ref: 15

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. increase reproductive success

Rationale:  Charles Darwin proposed the principle of natural selection –  the view that inherited traits that confer a selective advantage are more likely to increase in a population.

 

1.1-73.  Which of the following is consistent with Blest’s study of the impact of background pattern on consumption of worms by birds?

  1. Background pattern made no difference in this study.
  2. Birds avoided backgrounds that resembled the bark of a tree.
  3. Worms were most likely to be eaten when placed on a background that contained an eyespot pattern.
  4. Birds rapidly approached backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns.
  5. Backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns were avoided by the birds.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-73

Page Ref: 15

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. Backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns were avoided by the birds.

Rationale:  Certain moths and butterflies have large spots on their wings that resemble the eyes of the owl, which is a predator that feeds on birds that feed on moths and butterflies.  Blest tested the idea that these wing spots are a deterrent to birds by placing mealworms onto backgrounds that contained spots or not – the birds tended to avoid backgrounds that contained these eye spots.

 

1.1-74.  Mutations involve

  1. adverse neural development caused by drug ingestion in adulthood.
  2. accidental changes in the genetic information of the chromosomes.
  3. poor adaptation to the environment.
  4. improved reproductive success.
  5. only beneficial changes in the characteristics of an organism.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-74

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. accidental changes in the genetic information of the chromosomes.

Rationale:  Mutations involve accidental changes in the genetic information of the chromosomes that can be passed on to offspring.  Mutations can be harmful or confer a benefit.

 

1.1-75.  Genetic mutations

  1. have mostly beneficial effects.
  2. usually increase the survivability of offspring.
  3. rarely result in problems for the offspring.
  4. are usually deleterious.
  5. always confer selective advantages to the offspring.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-75

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. are usually deleterious.

Rationale:  Mutations are accidental changes in the genetic information of the chromosomes that can be passed onto offspring and are usually harmful.

 

1.1-76.  The key benefit of genetic diversity for a species is that

  1. diversity allows the species to adapt to different environments.
  2. mutations are kept to a minimum.
  3. diversity promotes neural development.
  4. diversity reduces reproductive success.
  5. harmful mutations are increased in the species.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-76

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. diversity allows the species to adapt to different environments.

Rationale:  Greater genetic diversity of a species increases the likelihood that members will be able to adapt to new environments.

 

1.1-77.  Traits that can be altered via genetic mutations

  1. are beneficial.
  2. are unobservable.
  3. are physical.
  4. exert direct actions on behavior.
  5. mostly involve psychological function.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-77

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. are physical.

Rationale:  Physical traits are altered by genetic mutations.

 

1.1-78.  The process of evolution

  1. does not involve genetic mutations.
  2. can occur in the absence of natural selection.
  3. rests on the doctrine of specific nerve energies.
  4. refers to a gradual change in the structure and function of a species.
  5. was proven correct by experimental ablation experiments.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-78

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d.  refers to a gradual change in the structure and function of a species.

Rationale:  Charles Darwin proposed the notion that traits change over time due to a gradual change in the structure and function of a species.

 

1.1-79.  Which of the following is true of reptiles?

  1. Reptiles lay their eggs in water.
  2. Reptiles lack vertebrae.
  3. Reptiles must inhabit environments close to the sea.
  4. Reptiles bury their eggs to protect them from predators.
  5. Frogs are an early example of a reptile.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-79

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer:  d. Reptiles bury their eggs to protect them from predators.

Rationale:  Reptiles bury their eggs on land to protect them from predators.

 

1.1-80.  The earliest mammals

  1. were active during the day.
  2. were large organisms.
  3. dined on insects.
  4. had a poor sense of hearing.
  5. has superb visual systems.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-80

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. dined on insects.

Rationale:  The earliest mammals were small, nocturnal organisms with a keen sense of hearing and who dined on insects.

 

1.1-81.  Most scientists believe that the ________ allowed certain mammals to survive the mass extinction produced by dust clouds some 65 million years ago.

  1. ability to see well during the day
  2. capacity to maintain their body temperature
  3. ability to eat plants as well as meat
  4. capacity to breed during the night
  5. ability of their tear ducts to clear dust from their eyes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-81

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. capacity to maintain their body temperature

Rationale:  Certain mammals survived the mass extinction produced by dust clouds some 65 million years ago because these mammals had fur that allowed them to retain their body heat.

 

1.1-82.  ________ is thought to be an advantage associated with the development of color vision in primates.

  1. The ability to breed at night
  2. The ability to move in the forest at night
  3. The capacity to discriminate ripe from unripe fruit
  4. The capacity to communicate using symbols
  5. Rapid nerve conduction

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-82

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The capacity to discriminate ripe from unripe fruit

Rationale:  The capacity to discriminate ripe from unripe fruit is thought to be an advantage associated with the development of color vision in primates.

 

1.1-83. Which of the following was the key characteristic of early humans that allowed them to effectively out-compete other species?

  1. Color vision allowed for the detection of ripe fruit and game.
  2. Mastery of fire allowed for provision of warmth in shelters.
  3. Agile hands allowed for the creation and use of tools.
  4. Mastery of fire allowed food to be cooked.
  5. A larger brain allowed for more complicated behavior.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-83

Page Ref: 18

Topic: Evolution of Large Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: e.  A larger brain allowed for more complicated behavior.

Rationale:  Early humans showed traits that allowed them to out compete other species – these traits were a function of the larger brains developed by early humans.

 

1.1-84.  With regard to the surviving members of the primate family tree,

  1. members of the family tree share 78.8% of their DNA.
  2. members of the family tree share 98.8% of their DNA.
  3. chimpanzees and gorillas share 50% of their genes.
  4. humans share only 1.2% of their genes with other members of the family tree.
  5. there is little genetic similarity between primate groups.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-84

Page Ref: 18-19

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. members of the family tree share 98.8% of their DNA.

Rationale:  Current members of the hominid family tree share 98.8% of their DNA.

 

1.1-85.  Which of the following is true of the hominid species?

  1. Homo sapiens left Africa around 1.7 million years ago.
  2. Homo erectus made tools from stone.
  3. Homo sapiens eventually killed off Homo neanderthalis through armed conflicts.
  4. Modern humans are known as Homo sapiens.
  5. Homo sapiens evolved directly from Homo neanderthalis.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.1-85

Page Ref: 18

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Modern humans are known as Homo sapiens.

Rationale:  Modern humans are known as Homo sapiens.

 

1.1-86.  Which of the following is correct with regard to the relation between brain size and body size?

  1. Human brains are larger than other species when expressed relative to total body weight.
  2. Human brains are larger than elephant brains in terms of absolute size.
  3. The human brain is more than 5% of total body weight.
  4. The elephant brain is larger than the human brain in terms of percent of body weight.
  5. Larger brains require smaller bodies.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-86

Page Ref: 20-21

Topic: Evolution of Large Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Human brains are larger than other species when expressed relative to total body weight.

Rationale: Human brains are larger than other species when expressed relative to total body weight as well as by the number of neurons per gram brain weight.

 

1.1-87.  ________ refers to the concept that human brain maturation takes a long time relative to that of other species.

  1. Adaptation
  2. Mutational drift
  3. Schizotemy
  4. Neoteny
  5. Maladaptation

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-87

Page Ref: 20

Topic: Evolution of Large Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Neoteny

Rationale:  Neoteny refers to the concept that human brain maturation takes a long time relative to that of other species.

 

1.1-88.  An adult human brain undergoes a ______-fold increase in weight relative to that of the newborn brain.

  1. two
  2. four
  3. six
  4. eight
  5. ten

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-88

Page Ref: 20

Topic: Evolution of Large Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. four

Rationale:  An adult human brain undergoes a four-fold increase in weight relative to that of the newborn brain.

 

1.1-89.  Which of the following is an argument made by the text author regarding the use of animals by humans?

  1. Owning a pet requires permission from a veterinarian.
  2. Pet homes are regularly inspected by the government.
  3. More suffering occurs with pet owning than with research.
  4. More animals die in research projects than when used as pets.
  5. No animal research has been useful for understanding and treating human disease.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-89

Page Ref: 22

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. More suffering occurs with pet owning than with research.

Rationale:  Scientific research involving animals requires humane treatment and the alleviation of pain.  More suffering occurs with pet owning than with research.

 

1.1-90.  Nicholl and Russell’s research indicates that animal rights activists are most concerned with the

  1. issue of hunting and trapping of animals.
  2. eating of animals as food.
  3. use of animals as companions to humans
  4. use of animals as a source of fur for human clothing.
  5. use of animals as subjects for research

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-90

Page Ref: 23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. use of animals as subjects for research

Rationale:  Animal rights activists are most concerned with the use of animals for research.

 

1.1-91. Which of the following statements would least likely be made by an animal rights activist?

  1. Animal research is unethical.
  2. Animals have the same degree of rights as do humans.
  3. The use of animals in research can be justified by the benefits of such research.
  4. Animal research must be supervised by veterinarians.
  5. There should be limits to the types of studies that are done using animals.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-91

Page Ref: 23

Page Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The use of animals in research can be justified by the benefits of such research.

Rationale:  An animal rights activist would disagree with the assertion that the use of animals in research can be justified by the benefits of such research.  They would agree that animal research is unethical and that animals have the same rights as humans.

 

1.1-92.  Your textbook author views ________ as an indispensable use of animals.

  1. research for the treatment of human disease
  2. use as a source of food
  3. use as companions to humans
  4. use as a source of fur
  5. value as entertainment

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-92

Page Ref: 23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. research for the treatment of human disease

Rationale:  An indispensable use of animals is for research on the treatment of human disease.

 

1.1-93.  A stroke induces brain damage because of

  1. compression of glial cells.
  2. reduced blood flow to a region of the brain.
  3. increased cranial pressure.
  4. increased nutrient flow to brain tissue.
  5. increased blood flow to a region of the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-93

Page Ref: 23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: b.  reduced blood flow to a region of the brain.

Rationale:  A stroke can induce brain damage by reduced blood flow to a region of the brain.

 

1.1-94.  Research in which insulin is extracted from animals is currently the most effective means to study and treat which of the following human diseases?

  1. drug addiction
  2. stroke
  3. schizophrenia
  4. obesity
  5. diabetes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-94

Page Ref: 23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. diabetes.

Rationale:  The hormone insulin was extracted from animals and used to lower blood sugar.

 

1.1-95.  ________ is the original name for the field that involves the study of the physiology of behavior.

  1. Behavioral neuroscience
  2. Biopsychology
  3. Psychobiology
  4. Physiological psychology
  5. Biological pseudoscience

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-95

Page Ref: 24

Topic: Careers in Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Physiological psychology

Rationale:  Physiological psychology is the original name for the field that involves the study of the physiology of behavior.

 

1.1-96.  ________ is the common name used today for the area that involves the study the physiology of behavior.

  1. Behavioral neuroscience
  2. Biopsychology
  3. Psychobiology
  4. Physiological psychology
  5. Biological pseudoscience

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.1-96

Page Ref: 24

Topic: Careers in Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Behavioral neuroscience

Rationale: Behavioral neuroscience is the common name used today for the area that involves the study the physiology of behavior.

 

1.1-97.  ________ are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat central nervous system diseases.

  1. Psychologists
  2. Neurologists
  3. Anatomists
  4. Behavioral neuroscientists
  5. Experimental neuropsychologists

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.1-97

Page Ref: 24

Topic: Careers in Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Neurologists

Rationale:  Neurologists are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat central nervous system diseases.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1.2-1. The notion that natural phenomena such as the wind are controlled by spirits is known as ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.2-1

Page Ref: 2

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: animism

 

1.2-2. ________ is the belief that mind and body are separate entities.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-2

Page Ref: 3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: Dualism

 

1.2-3. A person who has sustained damage to the primary visual cortex reports being blind.  The ability of such a person to reach out and grasp a nearby object is known as ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.2-3

Page Ref: 4

Topic: Blindsight

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: blindsight

 

1.2-4. Transection of the corpus callosum is useful in reducing the symptoms of ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-4

Page Ref: 5

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: epilepsy

 

1.2-5. Unilateral neglect is produced by damage to the  ________ parietal cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-5

Page Ref: 6

Topic: Unilateral Neglect Skill: Factual

Answer: right

 

1.2-6.  The first textbook of physiological psychology was written by ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-6

Page Ref: 9

Topic: The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: Wilhelm Wundt

 

1.2-7. ________ involves the use of simple processes to explain a more complex phenomenon.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-6

Page Ref: 10

Topic: The Goals of Research

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Reduction

 

1.2-8. __________ argued that the function of the brain was to cool the passions of the heart.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-7

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: Aristotle

 

1.2-9. ________ is considered to be the father of modern philosophy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-8

Page Ref: 11

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: René Descartes

 

1.2-10. Stimulation of ________ cortex results in muscle contraction on the opposite side of the body.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-10

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: primary motor

 

1.2-11. ________ involves the measurement of changes in behavior following damage to portions of the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-9

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Behavioral Neuroscience

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Experimental ablation

 

1.2-12. ________ proposed the principles of evolution and natural selection.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 1.2-12

Page Ref: 14

Topic: Natural Selection and Evolution

Skill: Factual

Answer: Charles Darwin

 

1.2-13. ________ are accidental changes in the chromosomal structure of sperm or eggs.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-13

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Factual

Answer: Mutations

 

1.2-14.  Modern humans are known as ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-14

Page Ref: 18

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer: Homo sapiens

 

1.2-15. The surviving members of the ________ family include humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.2-15

Page Ref: 17

Topic: Evolution of the Human Species

Skill: Factual

Answer: hominid

 

1.2-16.   The prolongation of brain maturation in the young human is known as ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-16

Page Ref: 20

Topic: Evolution of Large Brains

Skill: Factual

Answer: neoteny

 

1.2-17. ________ results in more animal suffering than does research.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-17

Page Ref: 22

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: Pet owning

 

1.2-18. The neurological disorder involving bleeding in the brain is known as a ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.2-18

Page Ref: 23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Factual

Answer: stroke

 

1.2- 19. ________ is the original name for the field of study now known as behavioral neuroscience.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.2-19

Page Ref: 24

Topic: Careers in Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: Physiological psychology

 

1.2-20. __________ are physicians trained to diagnose and treat central nervous system diseases.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.2-20

Page Ref: 24

Topic: Careers in Neuroscience

Skill: Factual

Answer: Neurologists

 

 

Essay Questions

 

1.3-1. Contrast the philosophical positions of animism, dualism, and monism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-1

Page Ref: 2-3

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: Animism is the view that objects have spirits that move them. Dualism is the philosophical view that mind and brain are separate but interacting. Monism is the view that mind is a property of the brain.

 

1.3-2. Discuss evidence that suggests consciousness is a physiological function.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.3-2

Page Ref: 3-8

Topic: Understanding Human Consciousness: A Psychological Approach

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Consciousness appears to be localized to discrete circuits and allows us to more readily adapt to new environments. Brain damage can alter consciousness, as in the case of the split-brain syndrome. Drugs can also alter consciousness.

 

1.3-3. What do the behaviors of individuals who have had the “split-brain” operation tell us about brain function?

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.3-3

Page Ref: 5-6

Topic: Split Brains

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The split-brain procedure is used to treat severe epilepsy.  Persons who undergo this procedure suffer from failure of the two hemispheres to communicate through the corpus callosum. Different psychological functions are localized in the two hemispheres.

 

1.3-4. Describe the phenomenon known as unilateral neglect and describe at least one research study that suggests that such persons are not simply blind.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-4

Page Ref: 6-8

Topic: Unilateral Neglect

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Damage to the right parietal lobe results in a person who ignores objects on his left side and is unaware of the left side of an object located anywhere. These persons are not simply blind, because they can make judgments about objects on their left side.

 

1.3-5. Describe the technique of ablation and identify the researcher who was responsible for its development.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-5

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Ablation involves the physical manipulation of the brain and allows for an assessment of a change in function after the manipulation. Experimental ablation was developed by Pierre Flourens.

 

1.3-6. Identify two early key contributors to the development of physiology and discuss the implications that their work had for the science of neurophysiology.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-6

Page Ref: 11-14

Topic: Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Two of the following should be discussed.  Galvani used electrical current to study muscle contraction in the frog. Muller argued for the use of experimental methods to study physiology. Helmholtz developed methods and techniques to study the physiology of vision and audition. Flourens developed the technique of experimental ablation, which can provide insight into the functions of brain regions.

 

1.3-7. Describe the implications of Galvani’s research for Descartes’s view of how nerves control muscle activity.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-7

Page Ref: 13

Topic: Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Galvani was able to contract the frog muscle via electrical stimulation when the muscle was detached from the body — thus it was not pressure exerted from the brain that caused muscle contraction.

 

1.3-8. Give examples of structural and behavioral characteristics that might confer selective advantages to an organism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 1.3-8

Page Ref: 15-16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Natural selection suggests that certain characteristics of an organism offer an advantage that allows the organism to reproduce and to pass on that characteristic to its offspring. The coloring of an organism may allow it to blend into the background, thus escaping detection by predators. The capacity to remain still (i.e., freeze) may similarly allow an organism to avoid predation.

 

1.3-9.  Discuss a role that mutations play in the process of natural selection.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.3-9

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Mutations increase the range of features or behaviors seen in the organism. Most of the time, this is harmful to the organism or to its reproductive fitness. Very rarely, the mutation results in a feature or behavior that increases the fitness of an organism; in these cases, the mutation is likely to become part of the preferred genetic makeup of the species.

 

1.3-10.  Explain the typical significance of a genetic mutation for an organism.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.3-11

Page Ref: 16

Topic: Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Skill: Factual

Answer: A mutation is an accidental change in the chromosomes of sperms or eggs that join together. Most mutations are deleterious, and only a few confer a selective advantage to the offspring.

 

1.3-11.  Discuss the use of animals in research and the ethical issues associated with such use. Make an argument a) FOR and b) AGAINST their use.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 1.3-11

Page Ref: 21-23

Topic: Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A relatively small percentage of animals are used in neuroscience research, and their use must be justified by the gain in knowledge produced by the research. An argument FOR might focus on the fact that such research may produce benefits that are real and that cannot be realized in any other way. An argument AGAINST might suggest that humans and animals are so different that results from animals are not useful for understanding humans.

 

 

Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System

 

 

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction Multiple Choice

 

1    
Fill-In      
Essay      
Basic Features of the Nervous System Multiple Choice

 

 

 

2-9,16,19-22,24-27,30 10,12-15,17,18,23,28,29,31 11
Fill-In 1-8    
Essay 1,3 2  
The Central Nervous System Multiple Choice

 

 

 

32-36,38,39,41,42,44,46,47,49-52,54,56,58,60,61,63,69,70,72,77,80,85,89,90 37,40,43,45,48,53,55,57,62,67,71,73,74,76,74,81,83,84,86,88,91,92 59,64,65,66,68,75,78,82,87
Fill-In      
Essay 5-10 4  
The Peripheral Nervous System Multiple Choice

 

 

 

93,95,97-99,101-103,105 96,100,104,106 94
Fill-In 20,21    
Essay 11    

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

3.1-1.  In the opening vignette, Ryan B. undergoes neurosurgery to remove a portion of his _______ in order to treat his worsening epilepsy.

  1. cerebellum
  2. limbic system
  3. medial temporal lobe
  4. amygdala
  5. parietal lobe

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-1

Page Ref: 67

Topic: Opening Vignette

Skill: Factual

Answer: c: medial temporal lobe

Rationale: Epilepsy can be diminished by neurosurgery in which a seizure focus is removed from the brain.

 

3.1-2.  Early anatomists named observable brain features

  1. for the similarity of the structure to everyday objects.
  2. using a formal naming system.
  3. in honor of their parents.
  4. in honor of the early gods.
  5. using Greek numerals.

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   3.1-2

Page Ref:        67-68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. for the similarity of the structure to everyday objects.

Rationale: Early anatomists name brain structures for their resemblance to everyday objects.

 

3.1-3.  The term “neuraxis” refers to

  1. the cross-sectional diameter of the spinal cord.
  2. a plane that divides the two hemispheres into right and left halves.
  3. an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain.
  4. a plane that divides the brain into top and bottom halves.
  5. the frontal portions of the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-3

Page Ref: 68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain.

Rationale: The term “neuraxis” refers to an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain.

 

3.1-4.  The term “rostral” means

  1. toward the tail.
  2. superior.
  3. toward the beak or snout.
  4. away from the midline.
  5. toward the midline.

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   3.1-4

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. toward the beak or snout.

Rationale: The term “rostral”  means toward the front or beak.

 

3.1-5.  The term “dorsum” means _______, while the term “ventrum” means _______.

  1. back; belly
  2. belly; back
  3. front; rear
  4. rear; front
  5. top; down

Difficulty: 1

Question ID:   3.1-5

Page Ref: 68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. back; belly

Rationale:  The term “dorsum” means toward the back while the term “ventrum” refers to the belly.

 

3.1-6.  Another term for “caudal” is

  1. ventral.
  2. dorsal
  3. anterior.
  4. lateral.
  5. posterior.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-6

Page Ref: 68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. posterior.

Rationale: “Posterior” is another term for “caudal.”

 

3.1-7.  The term _______ refers to structures that are found on the same side of the body.

  1. contralateral
  2. contramedial
  3. ipsilateral
  4. bilateral
  5. parasagittal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-7

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. ipsilateral

Rationale: “Ipsilateral” refers to structures that are found on the same side of the body.

 

3.1-8. Which of the following terms means “above” when referring to the human brain?

  1. superior
  2. lateral
  3. medial
  4. contralateral
  5. inferior

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-8

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. superior

Rationale:  The term “superior” means “above” when referring to the human brain.

 

3.1-9.  Which term below refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body?

  1. contralateral
  2. transverse
  3. ipsilateral
  4. bilateral
  5. parasagittal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-9

Page Ref: 69

Topic: Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. contralateral

Rationale: The term “contralateral” refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body.

 

3.1-10.  A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to, say, the thalamus, could also be described as _______ and _______ to the thalamus.

  1. caudal; inferior
  2. lateral; medial
  3. ipsilateral; contralateral
  4. rostral; superior
  5. None of the above are correct.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-10

Page Ref: 68-69

Topic: Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. rostral; superior

Rationale: A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to, say the thalamus, could also be described as rostral and superior to the thalamus.

 

3.1-11.   Assume that electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body.  In this instance, we would describe this as a(an) _______ organization of motor cortex and the muscles of the body.

  1. contralateral
  2. contramedial
  3. ipsilateral
  4. bilateral
  5. contrasagittal

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-11

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. contralateral

Rationale: The term “contralateral” refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body.

 

3.1-12.  Cross sections that resemble those of a salami and are perpendicular to the neuraxis are produced by a _______ section of the human brain.

  1. transverse
  2. horizontal
  3. sagittal
  4. midsagittal
  5. parasagittal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-12

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a: transverse

Rationale: Transverse sections of the human brain resemble those of a salami and are perpendicular to the neuraxis.

 

3.1-13.  In which view of the brain would one be able to note the presence of a specific structure in both hemispheres?

  1. cross-medial
  2. frontal
  3. sagittal
  4. parasagittal
  5. ipsilateral

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-13

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. frontal

Rationale:  In the frontal view, a specific brain structure would be evident in both hemispheres.

 

3.1-14.  A  _______ section is made through the human brain and is parallel to the ground, and a _______ section through the spinal cord is parallel to the ground.

  1. transverse; horizontal
  2. horizontal; transverse
  3. sagittal; midsagittal
  4. frontal; coronal
  5. parasagittal; midsagittal

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   3.1-14

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. horizontal; transverse

Rationale: A horizontal brain section is made parallel to the ground while a tranverse section through the spinal cord is made parallel to the ground.

 

3.1-15.  A  _______section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves.

  1. parasagittal
  2. horizontal
  3. midsagittal
  4. frontal
  5. transverse

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-15

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. midsagittal

Rationale:  A midsagittal section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves.

 

3.1-16.  The _______ is formed by the cranial nerves and spinal nerves plus the peripheral ganglia.

  1. enteric nervous system
  2. automatic nervous system
  3. peripheral nervous system
  4. somatic nervous system
  5. central nervous system

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-16

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. peripheral nervous system

Rationale: The peripheral nervous system is formed by the cranial nerves and spinal nerves plus the peripheral ganglia.

 

3.1-17.  Which of the following is true of fuel used by the brain?

  1. Brain cells are able to use several fuels other than glucose.
  2. The brain is always the last in line for new fuel.
  3. The flow of blood to the brain can be suspended for at least 5 minutes.
  4. Interruption of blood flow for even a few seconds impairs brain function.
  5. The body can modulate blood flow to meet the energy needs of the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-17

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  An Overview

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Interruption of blood flow for even a few seconds impairs brain function.

Rationale: Interruption of blood flow for even a few seconds impairs brain function.

 

3.1-18.  The brain and spinal cord form the

  1. enteric nervous system.
  2. automatic nervous system.
  3. peripheral nervous system.
  4. somatic nervous system.
  5. central nervous system.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-18

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  An Overview

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. central nervous system.

Rationale:  The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system.

 

3.1-19.  The _______ is a tough protective sheath that covers the brain and that lies closest to the skull.

  1. dura mater
  2. pia mater
  3. dorsa mater
  4. subarachnoid membrane
  5. midsagittal sinus

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   3.1-19

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Meninges

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. dura mater

Rationale:  The dura mater forms a tough sheath that protects the outer surface of the brain.

 

3.1-20.  The _______  is the middle layer of the brain meninges.

  1. dura mater
  2. pia mater
  3. dorsa mater
  4. arachnoid membrane
  5. midsagittal sinus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-20

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  Meninges

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. arachnoid membrane

Rationale: The arachnoid membrane forms the middle layer of the brain meninges.

 

3.1-21.  In the peripheral nervous system, the _______ and the _______ fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia.

  1. dura mater; pia mater
  2. arachnoid layer; dura mater
  3. astrocytes; choroid plexus mater
  4. arachnoid membrane; pia mater
  5. glia; astrocytes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-21

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  Meninges

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. dura mater; pia mater

Rationale: The peripheral nervous system, the dura mater, and the pia mater fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia.

 

3.1-22.  The brain floats within _______ fluid, which is contained within the _______.

  1. intracellular; pia mater
  2. cerebrospinal; subarachnoid space
  3. cerebrospinal; blood vessels
  4. interstitial; subarachnoid space
  5. extracellular; dura mater

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-22

Page Ref: 71-72

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. cerebrospinal; subarachnoid space

Rationale: The brain floats within cerebrospinal fluid, which is contained within the subarachnoid space.

 

3.1-23.  The four hollow and interconnected spaces within the brain form the

  1. choroid plexi.
  2. supra-arachnoid spaces.
  3. ventricles.
  4. meninges.
  5. spinal aqueducts.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-23

Page Ref: 72

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. ventricles.

Rationale: The ventricles consist of four hollow spaces within the brain.

 

3.1-24.  Which of the following is true of CSF?

  1. CSF is produced within the venous sinuses.
  2. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle.
  3. CSF is produced in the fourth ventricle and flows toward the fifth ventricle.
  4. CSF is a by-product of nerve cell activity.
  5. CSF production is sped up during a seizure.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-24

Page Ref: 72-73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle.

Rationale: CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle.

 

3.1-25.  Brain CSF is secreted by the

  1. choroid plexus.
  2. subarachnoid villi.
  3. neurons of the hypothalamus.
  4. meninges.
  5. spinal aqueducts.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-25

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. choroid plexus.

Rationale: The choroid plexus secretes CSF.

 

3.1-26.  CSF flows from third ventricle to the fourth ventricle via the

  1. choroid plexi.
  2. subarachnoid spaces.
  3. massa intermedia.
  4. arachnoid granulations.
  5. cerebral aqueduct.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-26

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. cerebral aqueduct.

Rationale: CSF flows from third ventricle to the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct.

 

3.1-27.  CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply via the

  1. arachnoid granulations.
  2. choroid plexus.
  3. foramen of Magendie.
  4. nodes of Ranvier.
  5. dura mater.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-27

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. arachnoid granulations.

Rationale: CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply via the arachnoid granulations.

 

3.1-28.  Which of the following is correct regarding CSF?

  1. CSF is produced by the arachnoid granulations.
  2. The total brain volume of CSF is about 1250 ml.
  3. CSFcarries nutrients to neurons.
  4. More than 12 hours is required to replace half of the CSF volume in a human brain.
  5. Drainage of CSF would result in compression of brain tissue onto the ventral skull. surface.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-28

Page Ref: 73-74

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e.  Drainage of CSF would result in compression of brain tissue onto the ventral skull surface.

Rationale:  Drainage of CSF would result in compression of brain tissue onto the ventral skull surface.

 

3.1-29.  CSF is produced within the   and reabsorbed into the blood by the _______.

  1. subarachnoid villi; choroid plexus
  2. blood-brain barrier; choroid plexus
  3. gut; ventricles
  4. ventricles; arachnoid granulations
  5. arachnoid granulations; lateral ventricles

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-29

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. ventricles; arachnoid granulations

Rationale:  CSF is produced within the ventricles and reabsorbed into the blood by the arachnoid granulations.

 

3.1-30.  Interruption of the flow of CSF through the brain ventricles results in

  1. anencephalus.
  2. ischemic stroke.
  3. Parkinson’s disease.
  4. myasthenia gravis
  5. hydrocephalus.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-30

Page Ref: 73-74

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. hydrocephalus.

Rationale: Hydrocephalus results from blockage of CSF flow through the ventricles.

 

3.1-31.  Hydrocephalus is treated by

  1. stimulant drugs.
  2. anti-serotonin drugs.
  3. blocking the flow of CSF through the ventricles.
  4. removing the choroid plexus.
  5. draining CSF from the ventricles using a shunt.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-31

Page Ref: 73-74

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. draining CSF from the ventricles using a shunt.

Rationale: A key treatment of hydrocephalus involves draining CSF from the ventricles using a shunt.

 

3.1-32.  The rostral end of the neural tube at 28 days will eventually form 3 interconnected channels known as the

  1. telencephalon.
  2. cerebral cortex.
  3. mesencephalon.
  4. myelencephalon.
  5. ventricles.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-32

Page Ref: 75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. ventricles.

Rationale: The rostral end of the neural tube forms three interconnected channels known as the ventricles.

 

3.1-33.  Which of the terms below means “endbrain”?

  1. telencephalon
  2. diencephalon
  3. mesencephalon
  4. myelencephalon
  5. metencephalon

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-33

Page Ref: 75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. telencephalon

Rationale:  The term “telencephalon” means “endbrain.”

 

3.1-34.  The _______ consists of the pons and cerebellum.

  1. telencephalon
  2. diencephalon
  3. mesencephalon
  4. myelencephalon
  5. metencephalon

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-34

Page Ref: 76

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. metencephalon

Rationale:  The metencephalon is comprised of the pons and cerebellum.

 

3.1-35.  Which of the following is true of the human cerebral cortex?

  1. The term “cortex” means “limb.”
  2. The thickness of human cortex is about 0.3 mm.
  3. The human cortex is about 3 mm in thickness.
  4. The migration time of cells in all layers of the cortex is about the same.
  5. The human cortex is composed of nine layers.

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   3.1-35

Page Ref:        75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. The human cortex is about 3 mm in thickness.

Rationale: The human cortex is about 3 mm in thickness.

 

3.1-36.  On the 28th day of embryonic development, the human brain resembles a

  1. hollow tube.
  2. shallow plate.
  3. series of ridges.
  4. series of increasingly larger rectangles.
  5. round balloon.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-36

Page Ref: 75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. hollow tube.

Rationale:  On the 28th day of embryonic development, the human brain resembles a hollow tube.

 

3.1-37.  Which of the following is true of embryonic neuron formation?

  1. New neurons are formed near the pia mater.
  2. A progenitor cell forms four founder cells during symmetrical division.
  3. A progenitor cell forms a neuron and another founder cell during asymmetrical division.
  4. Progenitor cells produce new glial cells.
  5. The cerebral cortex develops from the outside in.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-37

Page Ref: 77

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c.  A progenitor cell forms a neuron and another progenitor cell during asymmetrical division.

Rationale: A progenitor cell forms a neuron and another progenitor cell during asymmetrical division.

 

3.1-38.  The _______  is the origin of the cells that form the central nervous system.

  1. basal plate
  2. ventricular zone
  3. cerebral cortex
  4. mesoderm
  5. arachnoid layer

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-38

Page Ref: 76

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ventricular zone

Rationale:  The cells that form the cortex arise from the ventricular zone

 

3.1-39. The _______ extend from the ventricular zone to the pia mater.

  1. dura mater cells
  2. progenitor cells
  3. radial glia
  4. astrocytes
  5. stem cells

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-39

Page Ref: 77

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. radial glia

Rationale:  The radial glia extend from the ventricular zone to the pia mater.

 

3.1-40.  A key function of apoptosis is to

  1. form new neurons.
  2. guide new neurons to their final position in the brain.
  3. spur the growth of dendritic branches.
  4. terminate the formation of new neurons within the developing brain.
  5. mold an adult nerve cell.

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   3.1-40

Page Ref:        78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. terminate the formation of new neurons within the developing brain.

Rationale:  A key function of apoptosis is to terminate the formation of new neurons within the developing brain.

 

3.1-41.  Neurons that are formed during embryonic development are likely to die if they do not

  1. undergo apoptosis.
  2. form synaptic contacts with other neurons.
  3. form synaptic contacts with radial glial cells.
  4. receive synaptic inputs from visual sensory neurons.
  5. undergo further cell division.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-41

Page Ref: 79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. form synaptic contacts with other neurons.

Rationale:  Neurons that are formed during embryonic development are likely to die if they do not form synaptic contacts with other neurons.

 

3.1-42.  Radial glial cells involved in new neuron formation eventually are transformed into

  1. progenitor cells.
  2. oligodendroglia.
  3. microglial cells.
  4. visual sensory neurons.
  5. astrocytes.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-42

Page Ref: 78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. astrocyes.

Rationale:  Radial glial cells involved in new neuron formation eventually are transformed into astrocyes.

 

3.1-43.  Which of the following supports the notion that brain development can be modified by experiences?

  1. The motor cortex of a blind person is enlarged relative to that of a sighted person.
  2. The somatosensory cortex in the cortical regions devoted to control of the fingers is smaller in expert guitar players relative to novice players.
  3. The visual cortex is larger in blind persons.
  4. Apoptosis trims the number of dendritic branches in the brain.
  5. The development of the neural circuits for depth perception require input from both eyes during a critical period.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-43

Page Ref: 79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. The development of the neural circuits for depth perception require input from both eyes during a critical period.

Rationale:  The development of the neural circuits for depth perception require input from both eyes during a critical period.

 

3.1-44.  Human brains are about three times larger than chimpanzee brains when corrected for

  1. birth order.
  2. age.
  3. body size.
  4. number of nerve cells.
  5. gender.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-44

Page Ref: 78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. body size.

Rationale: Human brains are about three times larger than chimpanzee brains when corrected for body size.

 

3.1-45.  Which of the following is true of the evolution of the human brain?

  1. The human brain is smaller than that of any other primate.
  2. Comparisons of brain size within the primate family require an adjustment for body size.
  3. The size of primate brains have shrunk over the course of evolutionary history.
  4. Primate brain size increases depended on the elimination of duplicate master genes.
  5. Inactivation of the ghrelin gene likely makes chimpanzee brains larger than human brains.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-45

Page Ref: 78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Comparisons of brain size within the primate family require an adjustment for body size.

Rationale: Comparisons of brain size within the primate family require an adjustment for body size.

 

3.1-46.  The process of  _______ refers to the production of new neurons.

  1. apoptosis
  2. neurogenesis
  3. mitogenesis
  4. mutagenesis
  5. killer gene activation.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-46

Page Ref: 79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. neurogenesis

Rationale: The process of neurogenesis refers to the production of new neurons.

 

3.1-47.  Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is stimulated by

  1. the experience of behavioral depression.
  2. a learning experience.
  3. the experience of prolonged stress.
  4. ingestion of drugs that induce stress.
  5. blockade of glutamate receptors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-47

Page Ref: 79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. a learning experience.

Rationale: Learning induced the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus.

 

3.1-48.  Which of the following is offered in the textbook as an explanation of the difference in brain size between humans and chimpanzees?

  1. The asymmetrical period of neuron formation is longer in the chimpanzee brain.
  2. Chimpanzee brains have fewer founder cells.
  3. The symmetrical and asymmetrical periods of division are longer in the human brain.
  4. Chimpanzee brains show more apoptosis activity.
  5. Chimpanzee brains have more dendritic branches than do human brains.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-48

Page Ref: 78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The symmetrical and asymmetrical periods of division are longer in the human brain.

Rationale: The difference in brain size between humans and chimpanzees may be due to the longer periods of symmetrical and asymmetrical division in the human brain.

 

3.1-49.  A  _______ is a large groove found in the surface of the human cortex.

  1. fissure
  2. gyrus
  3. cerebral aqueduct
  4. ventricle
  5. sulcus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-49

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. fissure

Rationale: A fissure is a large groove found in the surface of the human cortex.

 

3.1-50.  A _______ refers to a bulge of tissue located between the adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex.

  1. fissure
  2. gyrus
  3. foramen
  4. ventricle
  5. sulcus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-49

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. gyrus

Rationale: A gyrus refers to a bulge of tissue located between the adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex.

 

3.1-51.  A  _______ refers to a small groove on the surface of the human cortex.

  1. fissure
  2. gyrus
  3. foramen
  4. ventricle
  5. sulcus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID:   3.1-51

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Factual

Answer: e. sulcus

Rationale: A sulcus is a small groove on the surface of the human cortex.

 

3.1-52.  A  _______refers to a large bulge located between adjacent grooves on the surface of the human cortex.

  1. fissure
  2. gyrus
  3. foramen
  4. ventricle
  5. sulcus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-52

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b.  gyrus

Rationale: A gyrus refers to a large bulge located between adjacent grooves on the surface of the human cortex.

 

3.1-53.  The cerebral cortex has a grayish-tan appearance because

  1. the cortex contains many axons.
  2. of the large amount of myelin contained in the cortex.
  3. nerve membrane is uniformly gray in appearance.
  4. many Schwann cells are located in the cortex.
  5. the cortex contains many cell bodies.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-53

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. the cortex contains many cell bodies.

Rationale:  The grayish-tan appearance of the cortex is due to the cell bodies located in the surface of the cortex.

 

3.1-54.  The surface of human cortex

  1. is smooth isn a human brain.
  2. is convoluted by grooves and bulges.
  3. contains cell bodies that give rise to a whitish appearance.
  4. is about 250 square feet in area.
  5. is about 30 mm in thickness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-54

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b.  is convoluted by grooves and bulges.

Rationale: The surface of human brain is convoluted by grooves and bulges.

 

 

3.1-55.  Which of the following is a subcortical structure?

  1. spinal cord
  2. lateral fissure
  3. limbic system
  4. dura mater
  5. parietal cortex

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-55

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Limbic system

Rationale: The limbic system is an example of a subcortical structure.

 

3.1-56.  The  _______ senses send information to primary sensory cortex on the contralateral side of the brain.

  1. vision, audition, somatosensory
  2. temperature and taste
  3. vision and olfactory
  4. pain and olfactory
  5. vision, pain, and taste

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-56

Page Ref: 80-81

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. vision, audition, somatosensory

Rationale: Visual, auditory and somatosensory systems send information to primary sensory cortex on the contralateral side of the brain.

 

3.1-57.  Which of the following do NOT belong together?

  1. occipital lobe; visual function
  2. frontal lobe; motor function
  3. frontal lobe; auditory function
  4. insular cortex; taste function
  5. temporal lobe; auditory function

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-57

Page Ref: 81-83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. frontal lobe; auditory function

Rationale:  The primary auditory cortex is located on the lower surface of a deep fissure in the side of the brain — the lateral fissure.

 

3.1-58.  The _______ lobe of the cortex contains primary auditory cortex.

  1. occipital
  2. frontal
  3. temporal
  4. insular
  5. parietal

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-59

Page Ref: 81-83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. temporal

Rationale: The temporal lobe of the cortex contains primary auditory cortex.

 

3.1-59.  Which of the following would be expected following damage to the cortex that lies just in front of the central sulcus?

  1. intense hypersexuality
  2. visual hallucinations
  3. inability to discriminate tones as low intensities
  4. difficulty in reading and writing
  5. difficulty in controlling the muscles of the body

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-59

Page Ref: 81-83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. difficulty in controlling the muscles of the body

Rationale: Damage to the cortex that lies just in front of the central sulcus would be expected to produce difficulty in controlling the muscles of the body.

 

3.1-60.  Which cortical lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex?

  1. occipital
  2. frontal
  3. temporal
  4. insular
  5. parietal

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-60

Page Ref: 81-83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. parietal

Rationale:  The parietal cortex contains the primary somatosensory cortex.

 

3.1-61.  Regions of the cortex that are NOT primarily concerned with sensation or movement are termed the  _______ cortex.

  1. projection
  2. association
  3. nonspecific
  4. homuncular
  5. undifferentiated

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-61

Page Ref: 81

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. association

Rationale:  Regions of the cortex that are NOT primarily concerned with sensation or movement are termed association cortex.

 

3.1-62.  In which sensory system does sensory information from the left side of the body travel to the left hemisphere?

  1. vision
  2. audition
  3. pain
  4. olfaction
  5. somatosensation

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-62

Page Ref: 80-81

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. olfaction

Rationale: In the olfactory system, sensory information from the left side of the body (nostril) travels to the left hemisphere and information from the right nostril travels to the right hemisphere.

 

3.1-63.  The _______ region of cortex lies buried within a fissure between the _______ and the _______ lobes.

  1. calcarine; temporal; frontal
  2. insular; parietal; frontal
  3. calcarine; insular; occipital
  4. insular; frontal; temporal
  5. parietal; frontal; calcarine

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-63

Page Ref: 81-83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. insular; frontal; temporal

Rationale: Insular cortex lies in a fissure between the frontal and temporal lobes.

 

3.1-64.  Which of the following would be expected as a result of damage to the somatosensory association cortex?

  1. an inability to recognize a familiar odor
  2. difficulty in playing a tune on a guitar
  3. difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see)
  4. problems in naming a song the person knew before sustaining brain damage
  5. problems in recognizing an object by sight

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-64

Page Ref: 82

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see)

Rationale: Damage to the somatosensory association cortex would be expected to produce   difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see).

 

3.1-65.  Damage to the visual association cortex would be expected to produce

  1. problems in recognizing an object by sight.
  2. difficulty in playing a tune on a piano.
  3. difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see).
  4. problems in naming a song the person knew before sustaining brain damage.
  5. an inability to recognize a familiar odor.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-65

Page Ref: 82

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. problems in recognizing an object by sight.

Rationale: Problems in recognizing an object by sight would be expected after damage to the visual association cortex.

 

3.1-66.  The most likely consequence of damage positioned at the junction of the visual, auditory, and somatosensory association cortexes would be

  1. problems in recognizing an object by sight.
  2. an inability to recognize a familiar odor.
  3. difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see).
  4. problems in reading or writing.
  5. difficulty in playing a tune on a piano.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-66

Page Ref: 82

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. problems in reading or writing.

Rationale: Damage positioned at the junction of the visual, auditory, and somatosensory association cortexes would be expected to produce problems in reading or writing.

 

3.1-67.  “Autotopagnosia” involves _______ and is produced by damage to the _______.

  1. problems in naming one’s own body parts; left parietal lobe
  2. a problem in remembering the names of body parts; right frontal lobe
  3. an inability to pronounce the names of major body parts; right occipital lobe
  4. a problem in speech perception; right parietal lobe
  5. problems in naming one’s own body parts; right parietal lobe

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   3.1-67

Page Ref:        83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. problems in naming one’s own body parts; left parietal lobe

Rationale: “Autotopagnosia” involves problems in naming one’s own body parts and is produced by damage to the left parietal lobe.

 

3.1-68.  Damage to left parietal lobe would be expected to produce a persistent difficulty in

  1. controlling the left arm and leg.
  2. producing speech.
  3. repeating words.
  4. understanding speech.
  5. knowing the position of the person’s body parts.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-68

Page Ref: 83

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. knowing the position of the person’s body parts.

Rationale: Damage to left parietal lobe would be expected to produce a persistent difficulty in knowing the position of the person’s body parts.

 

3.1-69.  The planning and execution of movements is a function performed by the association cortex within the _______ cortical lobe.

  1. occipital
  2. frontal
  3. parietal
  4. insular
  5. temporal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-69

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. frontal

Rationale: The frontal lobe is involved in the planning and execution of movements.

 

3.1-70.  The motor association cortex is located

  1. just caudal to visual association cortex.
  2. just rostral to primary motor cortex.
  3. just below the auditory association cortex.
  4. within a fissure between the two hemispheres.
  5. caudal to primary somatosensory cortex.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-70

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. just rostral to primary motor cortex.

Rationale: The motor association cortex is located just rostral to primary motor cortex.

 

3.1-71.  Which of the following is true regarding the functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?

  1. The left hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information.
  2. The right hemisphere is adept at the serial analysis of information.
  3. The right hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information.
  4. The left hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information.
  5. The two hemispheres perform identical functions

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-71

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The left hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information.

Rationale:  The left hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information; this is an example of laterality of the hemispheres.

 

3.1-72.  The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via axons that travel within the

  1. stria terminalis.
  2. cingulate projections.
  3. corpus callosum.
  4. medial commissure.
  5. fornix.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-72

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. corpus callosum.

Rationale: The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via axons that travel within the corpus callosum.

 

3.1-73.  Which of the following most accurately describes the general functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?

  1. The left hemisphere is adept at the synthesis of information.
  2. The right hemisphere is adept at the serial analysis of information.
  3. The right hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information.
  4. The right hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information.
  5. The two hemispheres perform identical functions.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-73

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. The right hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information.

Rationale:  In contrast to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information.

 

3.1-74.  Damage to the ______ would be expected to produce memory disorder.

  1. limbic cortex
  2. hippocampus
  3. caudate nucleus
  4. amygdala
  5. mammillary bodies

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-74

Page Ref: 85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b.  hippocampus

Rationale: Hippocampal damage produces memory disorder.

 

3.1-75.  Damage to the amygdala would be expected to alter

  1. emotion.
  2. language acquisition.
  3. long-term memory.
  4. planning of motor behavior.
  5. hearing of loud sounds.

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   3.1-75

Page Ref:        85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Applied

Answer:  a. emotion.

Rationale: Emotion would be altered after damage to the amygdala.

 

3.1-76.  Which of the following terms and shapes are not a correct match?

  1. limbic cortex; border
  2. fornix; “breast-shaped”
  3. “sea horse”; hippocampus
  4. amygdala; “almond”
  5. thalamus; “inner chamber”

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-76

Page Ref: 85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. fornix; “breast-shaped”

Rationale: The fornix is not shaped like a breast.

 

3.1-77.  Axons that travel within the _______ connect the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies.

  1. corpus callosum
  2. cingulate callosum
  3. posterior commissure
  4. stria terminalis
  5. fornix

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-77

Page Ref: 85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. fornix

Rationale: The hippocampus is connected to the mamillary bodies via the fornix.

 

3.1-78.  Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in

  1. recognizing emotion in the facial expressions of other people.
  2. naming the parts of one’s own body.
  3. understanding social rules.
  4. motor movements.
  5. forming emotional memories.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-78

Page Ref: 86

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. motor movements.

Rationale: Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in motor behavior.

 

3.1-79.  The _______ is the key structure of the basal ganglia.

  1. hippocampus
  2. cerebellum
  3. caudate nucleus
  4. amygdala
  5. hypothalamus

Difficulty:  1

Question ID: 3.1-79

Page Ref: 86

Topic: The Forebrain

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: c:  caudate nucleus

Rationale: The caudate nucleus is a key structure of the basal ganglia.

 

3.1-80. Which of the following represents the correct pairing of a thalamic nucleus with its projection to the cortex?

  1. medial geniculate nucleus; projects to primary visual cortex
  2. ventrolateral nucleus; projects to primary visual cortex
  3. lateral geniculate nucleus; projects to primary visual cortex
  4. ventrolateral nucleus; projects to primary somatosensory cortex
  5. lateral geniculate nucleus; projects to primary motor cortex

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-80

Page Ref: 86-87

Topic: The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. lateral geniculate nucleus; projects to primary visual cortex

Rationale: The lateral geniculate thalamic nucleus projects to the primary visual cortex.

 

3.1-81. _______  is controlled, at least in part, by the hypothalamus.

  1. pain reactivity
  2. drug addiction
  3. feeding
  4. memory
  5. language

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 3.1-81

Page Ref:  87

Topic: The Forebrain

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer:  feeding

Rationale:  Feeding is controlled by the hypothalamus.

 

3.1-82.  Damage to the hypothalamus would be expected to produce

  1. difficulty in the planning of motor movements.
  2. changes in eating.
  3. difficulties in understanding speech.
  4. Parkinson-like motor symptoms.
  5. problems in the recognition of emotion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-82

Page Ref: 87

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. changes in eating.

Rationale:  Changes in eating would be expected after damage to the hypothalamus.

 

3.1-83.  Which of the following belong together?

  1. vasopressin; induction of uterine contractions during childbirth
  2. oxytocin; regulation of urine output
  3. vasopressin; release of ACTH from the posterior pituitary
  4. oxytocin; stimulation of milk ejection from the breast
  5. vasopressin; overeating

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-83

Page Ref:  88

Topic: The Forebrain

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: d. oxytocin; stimulation of milk ejection from the breast

Rationale: The hormone oxytocin is involved in stimulation of milk ejection from the breast.

 

3.1-84.  The _______ is considered to be the body’s “master gland.”

  1. pineal gland
  2. amygdala
  3. posterior hypothalamus
  4. anterior pituitary
  5. hippocampus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-84

Page Ref: 88

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. anterior pituitary

Rationale: The anterior pituitary is considered to be the body’s “master gland.”

 

3.1-85.  The midbrain is comprised of the

  1. thalamus and hypothalamus.
  2. tectum and tegmentum.
  3. pons and medulla.
  4. dorsal horn and ventral horn.
  5. superior colliculus and inferior colliculus.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-85

Page Ref: 88-89

Topic:  The Midbrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. tectum and tegmentum.

Rationale: The tectum and the tegmentum comprise the midbrain.

 

 

3.1-86.  Which of the following terms belong together?

 

  1. substantia nigra; sensory processing
  2. hypothalamus; sleep and arousal
  3. periaqueductal gray matter; pain reactivity
  4. red nucleus; Parkinson’s disease
  5. reticular formation; language

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   3.1-86

Page Ref:        89

Topic:  The Midbrain

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. periaqueductal gray matter; pain reactivity

Rationale: The periaqueductal gray matter is involved in the control of pain reactivity

 

3.1-87.  Damage to the substantia nigra would be expected to produce

  1. difficulty in color perception.
  2. changes in appetite leading to anorexia.
  3. difficulties in visual tasks.
  4. Parkinson-like motor symptoms.
  5. problems in speech perception.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-87

Page Ref: 89

Topic:  The Midbrain

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Parkinson-like motor symptoms.

Rationale: Parkinson-like motor symptoms would be expected after damage to the substantia nigra.

 

3.1-88.  A function attributed to the cerebellum is the

  1. capacity to reason.
  2. facilitation of verbal learning.
  3. coordination of motor movements.
  4. ability to read and write.
  5. expression of emotion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-88

Page Ref: 89-90

Topic:  The Hindbrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. coordination of motor movements.

Rationale: A function attributed to the cerebellum is the coordination of motor movements.

 

 

3.1-89.  The metencephalon is comprised of the

  1. thalamus and hypothalamus.
  2. tectum and tegmentum.
  3. superior colliculus and inferior colliculus.
  4. dorsal horn and ventral horn.
  5. pons and cerebellum.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-89

Page Ref: 89

Topic:  The Hindbrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. pons and cerebellum.

Rationale: The metencephalon is comprised of the. pons and the cerebellum.

 

3.1-90.  The pons is located

  1. immediately ventral to the cerebellum.
  2. beneath the hypothalamus.
  3. caudal to the medulla.
  4. rostral to the frontal cortex.
  5. rostral to the hypothalamus.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-90

Page Ref: 90

Topic:  The Hindbrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. immediately ventral to the cerebellum.

Rationale: The pons is located immediately ventral to the cerebellum.

 

3.1-91.  The _______ is the most caudal portion of the brain stem.

  1. spinal cord
  2. pons
  3. cerebellum
  4. medulla oblongata
  5. metencephalon

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-91

Page Ref: 91

Topic:  The Hindbrain

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. medulla oblongata

Rationale: The medulla oblongata is the most caudal portion of the brain stem.

 

3.1-92.  Cessation of respiration would be expected following damage to the

  1. superior colliculi.
  2. cerebellum.
  3. reticular formation.
  4. medulla oblongata.
  5. caudate nucleus.

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   3.1-92

Page Ref:        91

Topic:  The Hindbrain

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. medulla oblongata.

Rationale: Cessation of respiration would be expected following damage to the medulla.

 

3.1-93.  The spinal cord is contained within an aperture of the vertebrae called the

  1. spinal root.
  2. cauda equina.
  3. spinal foramens.
  4. cerebral aqueduct.
  5. spinal aqueduct.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-93

Page Ref: 91

Topic:  The Spinal Cord

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. spinal foramens.

Rationale: The spinal cord is contained within an aperture of the vertebrae called the spinal foramens.

 

3.1-94.  An anesthetic drug injected adjacent to the dura sac surrounding axons of the cauda equina would be expected to deaden pain sensation in the

  1. tongue.
  2. fingers.
  3. pelvic region.
  4. forehead.
  5. neck and upper chest.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-94

Page Ref: 91

Topic:  The Spinal Cord

Skill: Applied

Answer: c.  pelvic region.

Rationale: An anesthetic drug injected adjacent to the dura sac surrounding axons of the cauda equina would be expected to deaden pain sensation in the pelvic region.

 

3.1-95.  The white matter in the spinal cord is located _______, whereas that of the brain is located _______.

  1. outside the dura mater; inside the dura mater
  2. outside the gray matter; inside the gray matter
  3. ventrally; dorsally
  4. inside the gray matter; outside the gray matter
  5. medially; laterally

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-95

Page Ref: 92

Topic:  The Spinal Cord

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. outside the gray matter; inside the gray matter

Rationale: The white matter in the spinal cord is located outside the gray matter, whereas that of the brain is located  inside the gray matter.

 

3.1-96.  The _______ system is the only sensory system for which the cell bodies of the incoming axons are located inside the CNS.

  1. visual
  2. auditory
  3. pain
  4. kinesthestic
  5. taste

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-96

Page Ref: 92

Topic:  Spinal Nerves

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. visual

Rationale: The visual system is the only sensory system for which the cell bodies of the incoming axons are located inside the CNS.

 

3.1-97.  Which of the following is true of the spinal nerves?

  1. The cell bodies of efferent axons lie in the spinal cord gray matter.
  2. Incoming sensory signals arrive via the ventral roots of the spinal cord.
  3. Outgoing motor signals travel via the dorsal roots of the spinal cord.
  4. The cell bodies of efferent axons lie in the spinal cord white matter.
  5. The cell bodies of outgoing motor neurons reside in the dorsal root ganglia.

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   3.1-97

Page Ref:        93

Topic:  Spinal Nerves

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. The cell bodies of efferent axons lie in the spinal cord gray matter.

Rationale: The spinal cord gray matter contains the cell bodies of efferent axons.

 

3.1-98. _______ axons conduct sensory information toward the brain.

  1. Afferent
  2. Efferent
  3. Projection
  4. Somatic
  5. Callosal

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-98

Page Ref: 92

Topic:  Spinal Nerves

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Afferent

Rationale: Sensory information is carried toward the brain by afferent axons.

 

3.1-99. _______ axons “bear away from” the brain.

  1. Afferent
  2. Efferent
  3. Projection
  4. Somatic
  5. Dorsal root

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-99

Page Ref: 93

Topic:  Spinal Cord

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Efferent

Rationale: Efferent axons “bear away from” the brain.

 

3.1-100.  The _______ nerve is named for its wandering course in the thoracic and abdominal body cavities.

  1. trigeminal
  2. facial
  3. trochlear
  4. vagus
  5. hypoglossal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-100

Page Ref: 94

Topic:  Cranial Nerves

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. vagus

Rationale: The vagus nerve is named for its wandering course in the thoracic and abdominal body cavities.

 

3.1-101.  The _______ branch of the nervous system is under voluntary, conscious control.

  1. central
  2. autonomic
  3. vagal
  4. sensory-motor
  5. somatic

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-101

Page Ref: 94

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. somatic

Rationale: The somatic branch of the nervous system is under voluntary, conscious control.

 

3.1-102.  A key function of the autonomic nervous system includes the control of

  1. the striatal muscle.
  2. the pituitary gland.
  3. the primary visual cortex.
  4. “vegetative” processes.
  5. emotion and motor planning.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-102

Page Ref: 95

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer:  d. “vegetative” processes.

Rationale: The autonomic nervous system is key for the control of “vegetative” processes.

 

3.1-103.  The _______ comprise the autonomic nervous system.

  1. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  2. dorsal and ventral divisions
  3. ventral and dorsal spinal roots
  4. hypoglossal and cranial nerves
  5. tectum and tegmentum

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-103

Page Ref: 95

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

Rationale: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions comprise the autonomic nervous system.

 

3.1-104.  The motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system project from the _______ to the _______.

  1. gray matter of the sacral spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia
  2. gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia
  3. gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; final target organ
  4. 10th cranial nerve; muscles of the face
  5. cervical regions of the spinal cord; final target organs

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-104

Page Ref: 95-96

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia

Rationale: The motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system project from the gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord to the sympathetic ganglia.

 

3.1-105.  The transmitter _______ is secreted by the terminal buttons of preganglionic sympathetic fibers, whereas most postganglionic sympathetic fibers secrete _______.

  1. norepinephrine; acetylcholine
  2. glutamate; acetylcholine
  3. serotonin; norepinephrine
  4. acetylcholine; acetylcholine
  5. acetylcholine; norepinephrine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-105

Page Ref: 96

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: e. acetylcholine; norepinephrine

Rationale: The transmitter acetylcholine is secreted by the terminal buttons of preganglionic sympathetic fibers, whereas most postganglionic sympathetic fibers secrete norepinephrine.

 

3.1-106.  The key function(s) of the parasympathetic division of the ANS relate to

  1. the control of the somatic nervous system.
  2. the inhibition of digestive function during a fight.
  3. activities that increase stored energy within the body.
  4. acceleration of heart rate and increased blood flow to the muscles.
  5. inhibition of sweating and salivation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-106

Page Ref: 96

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. activities that increase stored energy within the body.

Rationale: The parasympathetic division of the ANS functions in activities that increase stored energy within the body.

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

3.2-1.  The  _______ is named for its resemblance to a seahorse.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-1

Page Ref: 68

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: hippocampus

 

3.2-2.  The term _______ refers to structures that are found on the same side of the body.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-2

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: ipsilateral

 

3.2-3.  In the _______view of the brain, the brain is sliced like a salami.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.2-3

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: frontal and or transverse

 

3.2- 4.  The _______ comprise three layers that encase the central nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-4

Page Ref: 70

Topic: Meninges

Skill: Factual

Answer: meninges

 

3.2-5.  The brain and spinal cord comprise the  ______ nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-5

Page Ref 70

Topic:  An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: central

 

3.2-6.  In the _______            nervous system, the dura mater and pia mater fuse together to form a

single sheath.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-6

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  Meninges

Skill: Factual

Answer: peripheral

 

3.2-7.  CSF is secreted by the _______ of the cerebral ventricles.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-7

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: choroid plexus

 

3.2-8.  CSF flows from third ventricle to the fourth ventricle via the _______.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-8

Page Ref: 73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill:    Factual Answer: cerebral aqueduct

 

3.2-9.  The term _______ means “afterbrain.”

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.2-9

Page Ref: 75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: metencephalon

 

3.2-10. The adult human brain weighs about _______ grams.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.2-10

Page Ref: 75

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: 1400

 

3.2-11. _______ involves genetically-programmed cell death.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-11

Page Ref: 78

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: Apoptosis

 

3.2-12.  The process of  _______ refers to the production of new neurons.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-12

Page Ref: 79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: neurogenesis

 

3.2-13.  A  _______ refers to a bulge of tissue located between the adjacent grooves in the

surface of the human cortex.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-13

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill:    Factual

Answer: gyrus

 

3.2- 14.  The _______ cortex receives primary inputs regarding taste.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-14

Page Ref: 80

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: insular

 

3.2- 15.  Persons who have damage to their _______ association cortex would have difficulty in recognizing objects by sight.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-15

Page Ref: 82

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: visual

 

3.2-16.  The _______ system is comprised of the amygdale, hippocampus, and anterior thalamus.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-16

Page Ref: 85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: limbic system

 

3.2-17.  The two halves of the cerebral cortex are interconnected by the _______.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.2-17

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: corpus callosum.

 

3.2- 18. _______ axons bear toward the brain.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-18

Page Ref: 92

Topic:  The Peripheral Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: Afferent

 

 

3.2-19.  A collection of similarly shaped neurons within the central nervous system is termed a _______.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.2-19

Page Ref: 86

Topic:  The Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual Answer: nucleus

 

3.2-20.  The _______ nervous system is responsible for voluntary control over the body muscles.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-20

Page Ref: 94

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: somatic

 

3.2-21. _______ is the transmitter secreted from both preganglionic and postganglionic axons

of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.2-22

Page Ref: 96

Topic:  The Peripheral Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: Acetylcholine

 

 

Essay Questions

 

3.3-1.  Define the three major sections of the human brain.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.3-1

Page Ref: 69

Topic:  Basic Features of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: The frontal section divides the brain like a salami; the horizontal section is parallel to the ground; and the sagittal section is perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis.

 

3.3-2.  Describe two features that function to protect the brain from external injury.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:   3.3-2

Page Ref: 70

Topic:  An Overview

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The brain is encased in a layer of bone (the skull). Several layers of meninges form a

solid sheath around the brain. The brain floats within a pool of CSF, which cushions the brain against rapid acceleration/deceleration.

 

3.3-3.  Describe the production, circulation, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-3

Page Ref: 71-73

Topic:  The Ventricular System and Production of CSF

Skill: Factual

Answer: CSF is produced within the choroid plexus that lines the ventricles. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles through the third ventricle and through the fourth ventricle. CSF is eventually

reabsorbed into the blood.

 

3.3-4.  Describe the processes that produce cortical neurons during embryonic development.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-4

Page Ref: 75-79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Two major processes are involved in brain embryonic development. During

symmetrical division, founder cells divide into two cells. During asymmetric division, the founder cells divide into another founder cell and a new neuron.  Longer periods of division can produce a larger brain.

 

3.3-5.  Explain the significance of the process of apoptosis for brain development.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-5

Page Ref: 78-79

Topic:  Development of the Central Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: The brain overproduces neurons. Apoptosis serves to eliminate neurons that cannot make appropriate synaptic contacts.

 

3.3-6.  Explain the distinction between primary motor cortex, sensory cortex, and association cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-6

Page Ref: 80-82

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: Sensory fibers arrive at the primary cortex, and damage to these regions greatly impairs

sensory function. The primary motor cortex is most directly involved in motor control. The association cortex serves to integrate signals from various senses.

 

3.3-7.  Describe the primary functions performed by the left and right hemispheres and give an example of each function.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-7

Page Ref: 84

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: The left hemisphere is specialized for the serial analysis of information while the right hemisphere is adept at the synthesis of information. Reading and writing would be an example of

serial analysis, whereas reading a map would be an example of synthesis.

 

3.3-8.  Describe the structures that comprise the limbic system and briefly discuss the function of this system.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-8

Page Ref: 85

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: The system includes limbic cortex, the amygdala, hippocampus, and the mammillary

bodies. Emotional experience and memory are the primary functions of the limbic system.

 

3.3-9.  Describe the structures that comprise the basal ganglia and explain the significance of this system for motor function.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-9

Page Ref: 86

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: The basal ganglia include the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus.

Damage to this system results in motor movement problems (e.g., Parkinson’s disease).  Motor symptoms include weakness, tremors, difficulty in starting a movement and limb rigidity.  Much of this reflects loss of input from the substantia migra.

 

3.3-10.  Describe the general functions attributed to the hypothalamus.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:   3.3-10

Page Ref: 87-88

Topic:  The Forebrain

Skill: Factual

Answer: The hypothalamus is involved in the control of the pituitary, the sympathetic division of the ANS, and motivated behaviors including feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating. Cells of the hypothalamus also act to initiate hormone secretion from the anterior and posterior parts of the pituitary.

 

3.3-11.  Compare and contrast the anatomy and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.3-11

Page Ref: 95-98

Topic:  The Autonomic Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: The divisions emerge from different levels of the spinal cord (thoracic and lumbar versus cervical/sacral), the sympathetic fibers terminate in ganglia just outside the spinal cord, use different transmitters (ACh for parasympathetic, ACh and norepinephrine for sympathetic), and show differing functions (parasympathetic is involved in increasing energy stores,

sympathetic is involved in energy expenditure).