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Political Science An Introduction 13E by Michael G.Roskin – 
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Chapter 1- Politics and Political Science

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Which political science subfield studies the interface of politics and economics?

 

  1. A) Public administration
  2. B) Public policy
  3. C) Comparative politics
  4. D) Political theory

 

 

  1. __________ is a subfield of political science.

 

  1. A) Public administration
  2. B) Anthropology
  3. C) Biology
  4. D) Sociology

 

  1. The subfield __________studies major thinkers and attempts to define the good polity.

 

  1. A) public administration
  2. B) comparative politics
  3. C) public policy
  4. D) political theory

 

  1. Which of the following best describes voter turnout in the U.S. in 2008 compared to the past?

 

  1. A) It increased from previous years
  2. B) It was stable from previous years
  3. C) It decreased slightly from previous years
  4. D) It decreased dramatically from previous years

 

  1. Which are both true for most politicians?

 

  1. A) They think practically and are skeptical of power
  2. B) They seek popularity and hold firm views
  3. C) They offer single causes and think abstractly
  4. D) They seek accuracy and offer long term consequences

 

  1. Which are both true for most political scientists?

 

  1. A) They think practically and seek accuracy
  2. B) They seek popularity and are skeptical of power
  3. C) They offer single causes and think abstractly
  4. D) They are skeptical of power and offer long term consequences

 

 

  1. The notion that politicians think practically and political scientists think abstractly is indicative of which of the following?

 

  1. A) Political scientists often train politicians.
  2. B) Politicians often train political scientists.

C)Political scientists and politicians are different in that the former studies the latter.

  1. D) Political scientists and politicians are often indistinguishable.

 

  1. Foreign policy falls under the subfield of __________.

 

  1. A) U.S. Politics
  2. B) Comparative Politics
  3. C) Political theory
  4. D) International Relations

 

  1. Which of the following statements would best reflect the views of German Philosopher Hegel?

 

  1. A) Sometimes elections are impossible to predict.
  2. B) Politicians behave in an irrational manner.
  3. C) Political Science can be useful in explaining why people vote a certain way.
  4. D) Predicting political outcomes is usually random.

 

 

 

  1. The techniques for studying questions objectively is most associated with the term __________.

 

  1. A) hypotheses
  2. B) empirical
  3. C) methodology
  4. D) sovereignty
  5. The term, polis originated in __________.

 

  1. A) Italy
  2. B) The United States
  3. C) Great Britain
  4. D) Greece

 

  1. Seymour Martin Lipset is associated with the social science __________.

 

  1. A) psychology
  2. B) anthropology
  3. C) sociology
  4. D) economics

 

 

 

  1. Which best explains the differences between historians and political scientists?

 

  1. A) Historians look for generalizations, while political scientists are reluctant to generalize.
  2. B) Historians are reluctant to generalize, while political scientists look for generalizations.
  3. C) Historians are more likely to look for comparisons than political scientists.
  4. D) Historians tend to focus on nature-based explanations, while political scientists focus on nurture-based explanations.

 

  1. Politics could be referred to the “master science” because politics __________.

 

  1. A) predates the other social sciences
  2. B) is more rigorous compared to other social sciences
  3. C) is more difficult to study than other social sciences
  4. D) relates to other social sciences

 

 

 

  1. The notion that “red” states supported Mitt Romney, and “blue” states supported Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election related to which social science?

 

  1. A) History
  2. B) Sociology
  3. C) Human geography
  4. D) Anthropology

 

  1. Laswell’s question, “Who gets what?” applies best to the social science of __________.

 

  1. A) economics
  2. B) human geography
  3. C) psychology
  4. D) anthropology

 

  1. When we study France to compare it to other nations, we may draw from what field of social science?

 

  1. A) History
  2. B) Human Geography
  3. C) Economics
  4. D) Sociology

 

  1. Anthropology applies most to political science based on which example?

 

  1. A) People are born with predispositions towards conservative or liberal views.
  2. B) People join groups because they have innate desires to be with others.
  3. C) Many ruling families maintained power by passing down their authority from one generation to the next.
  4. D) Power typically ends up with those with the most resources.

 

 

  1. The fact that the United States has different tax rates for different levels of income relates to which phrase from the chapter?

 

  1. A) Politics is “the master science”
  2. B) The Constitution is the crown jewel of the Enlightenment
  3. C) “Man is by nature a political animal”
  4. D) Politics is the study of “who gets what”

 

 

  1. Which of the following did Machiavelli contribute to the study of politics?

 

  1. A) Social contract theory
  2. B) The role of power in politics
  3. C) The role of wealth in society
  4. D) The connection between race and politics

 

 

  1. The statement, “Man is by nature a political animal” is attributed to __________.

 

  1. A) Niccolo’ Machiavelli
  2. B) Seymour Martin Lipset
  3. C) Mao Zedong
  4. D) Aristotle

 

  1. The ability of A to get B to do what A wants is known as __________.

 

  1. A) influence
  2. B) control
  3. C) authority
  4. D) power

 

  1. Machiavelli is associated with the concept of __________.

 

  1. A) culture
  2. B) sovereignty
  3. C) rationality
  4. D) power

 

  1. Rationality is based on which of the following?
  2. A) Reason
  3. B) Myth
  4. C) Culture
  5. D) Biology

 

  1. The famous Milgram study that asked subjects to administer pretend electrical shocks is associated with what explanation of power?

 

  1. A) Biological
  2. B) Psychological
  3. C) Cultural
  4. D) Rational

 

  1. When people base their views on beliefs that may not be based in reality, they are behaving __________.

 

  1. A) irrationally
  2. B) rationally
  3. C) politically
  4. D) legitimately

 

  1. __________ often try to win elections by focusing on religious values, family, and self-reliance.

 

  1. A) Libertarians
  2. B) Democrats
  3. C) Republicans
  4. D) Socialists

 

 

 

  1. Aristotle’s view that humans live naturally in herds is most related to what explanation for political power?

 

  1. A) Biology
  2. B) Psychology
  3. C) Anthropology
  4. D) Economics

 

  1. Voting for someone who is charismatic but whose policies might not benefit you would be considered __________ behavior.

 

  1. A) irrational
  2. B) rational
  3. C) legitimate
  4. D) selfish

 

  1. Which of the following explanations of power might examine the tolerance of individuals?

 

  1. A) Rational
  2. B) Control
  3. C) Authority
  4. D) Culture

 

 

 

  1. The perceptions that Democrats will support education or Republicans will support defense relates to which philosopher?

 

  1. A) Immanuel Kant
  2. B) Aristotle
  3. C) Seymour Martin Lipset
  4. D) Hobbes

 

  1. The government of __________ lacked legitimacy following World War II.

 

  1. A) Great Britain
  2. B) France
  3. C) West Germany
  4. D) Belgium

 

  1. A political leaders’ ability to command respect and exercise power is known as __________.

 

  1. A) sovereignty
  2. B) corruption
  3. C) authority
  4. D) legitimacy

 

 

 

 

  1. __________ is the use of public office for private gain.
  2. A) Sovereignty
  3. B) Corruption
  4. C) Authority
  5. D) Legitimacy

 

  1. The notion that we acknowledge the rightful roles of our leaders or our laws is known as __________.

 

  1. A) sovereignty
  2. B) authority
  3. C) legitimacy
  4. D) monarchy

 

  1. Issues related to a border dispute between the United States and Canada would relate to __________.

 

  1. A) sovereignty
  2. B) authority
  3. C) legitimacy
  4. D) monarchy

 

 

  1. The notion that you respect the United States Congress, even though it is controlled by a party with which you do not agree, pertains to __________.

 

  1. A) sovereignty
  2. B) authority
  3. C) legitimacy
  4. D) monarchy
  5. Despite a disputed 2000 presidential election, once President George W. Bush took office, few people doubted his __________.

 

  1. A) charisma
  2. B) control
  3. C) legitimacy
  4. D) sovereignty

 

  1. Which of the following best exemplifies sovereignty?

 

  1. A) The United States negotiating a trade agreement with Canada
  2. B) The people of France acknowledging the authority of their president
  3. C) Israel asserting jurisdiction over the Gaza Strip
  4. D) President Obama have support of the people who elected him

 

 

 

  1. A theory that is tested in an attempt to prove or refute with evidence, is known as __________.

 

  1. A) scholarship
  2. B) corruption
  3. C) a methodology
  4. D) a hypothesis

 

  1. The term for measuring with numbers is __________.

 

  1. A) quantify
  2. B) hypothesis
  3. C) qualify
  4. D) empirical

 

  1. A(n) __________ is an initial theory a researcher starts with to be proved with evidence.

 

  1. A) quantify
  2. B) hypothesis
  3. C) qualify
  4. D) empirical

 

 

  1. __________ refers to something based on observable evidence.

 

  1. A) Quantify
  2. B) Hypothesis
  3. C) Qualify
  4. D) Empirical

 

  1. Political scientists __________ data which makes the discipline more like the natural sciences.

 

  1. A) balance
  2. B) reason
  3. C) rationalize
  4. D) quantify

 

  1. Reason, balance, and theory pertain to which of the following?

 

  1. A) Balance
  2. B) Power
  3. C) Scholarship
  4. D) Methodology

 

 

  1. When scholars consider various approaches to studying a given topic, they are most concerned with __________.

 

  1. A) reason
  2. B) balance
  3. C) theory
  4. D) rationality
  5. Relating concepts in a way that connects them in an empirical manner is the basis of __________ building.

 

  1. A) scholarship
  2. B) theory
  3. C) power
  4. D) culture
  5. Description of political phenomena often lacks __________.

 

  1. A) rationality
  2. B) reasoning
  3. C) theory
  4. D) balance
  5. Which of the following is the best example of theory?

 

  1. A) People join groups because of an innate desire to be with others who have similar views.
  2. B) Democratic governments last longer than non-Democratic governments.
  3. C) Republicans are older than Democrats.
  4. D) Corruption is rampant in government.

 

 

 

  1. Max Weber would most likely be concerned with which of the following issues?

 

  1. A) Utilizing theory when conducting research
  2. B) Limiting bias when conducting research
  3. C) Using quantitative rather than qualitative data
  4. D) Using qualitative data instead of quantitative data

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Generally speaking, political scientists are skeptical of power.

 

  1. Conflict and diplomacy are the primary areas of interest within the subfield of comparative politics.

 

  1. Politicians often see more causes for political phenomena than political scientists.

 

  1. Harold Lasswell argued that politics is the study of “who gets what.”

 

  1. Political science methodologies usually involve subjectivity.

 

 

  1. Human behavior that is inherited is referred to as culture.

 

  1. Biological explanations of political power focus on learned behaviors.

 

  1. If a political leader convinces the public to support legislation that is against their own interests, they are behaving irrationally.

 

 

  1. Corruption involves using public office for private gain.

 

  1. If Iraq and Iran argue over control of land area, this debate deals with sovereignty.

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

 

  1. Aristotle, the founder of the __________ , called politics “the master science.”

 

 

  1. Tom Paine’s __________ discussed why America should separate from Britain.

 

  1. Contrary to biological, psychological, or cultural schools of thought, some theorists suggest that people are __________ and are capable of reasoning.

 

 

  1. A __________ approach to power might examine whether people have a genetic predisposition to join with other people with similar views.

 

 

  1. A leader is said to have __________ when he or she can get others to obey them.

 

  1. __________ undermines legitimacy, such as when crooked officials are part of government.

 

  1. When __________ is low, police may be necessary to coerce the people into maintaining order.

 

 

  1. German sociologist, __________ warned that a researcher’s political views could bias their studies.

 

 

  1. In the 1950s, the American Political Science Association worried about the weakness of __________.

 

  1. Political Science is a(n) __________ discipline and utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. How are political scientists different from politicians?

 

 

 

  1. How might a political scientist use a study of 19th Century Britain in their research?

 

 

  1. How is politics seen as the struggle for power? How can this be problematic?

 

  1. How might corruption undermine legitimacy?

 

  1. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources of information.

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. How is political science an interdisciplinary major?

 

n ideal response will:

  1. Discuss how political science relates to history, human, geography, economics, sociology, anthropology, and psychology.
  2. Discuss how history, for example, allows for comparisons across nations and time periods. These can be compared to current political regimes.
  3. Discuss how human geography is relevant because it allows us to look at how people exist within territories.
  4. Discuss how economics and politics influence each other.
  5. Discuss how sociology is relevant because it allows us to examine political views of various groups based on religion, class, gender, age, etc.
  6. Discuss how anthropology is useful for its focus on culture.
  7. Discuss how psychology is relevant for its contributions on attitudes and motivations behind political behaviors.

 

 

 

  1. Why is culture important to political scientists?

 

n ideal response will:

  1. Include a discussion of the nature versus nurture debate. The answer should indicate that culture deals with what is learned.
  2. Indicate that communities are formed and maintained because of cultural values which are transmitted by parents, schools, churches, and the media.
  3. Discuss the relevance of political culture in elections. For example, people may vote based on their beliefs in equality, tolerance, or limited government.
  4. Discuss how culture may affect politics and economics.

 

 

 

  1. Is the public rational? How might the public utilize rationality today?

 

n ideal response will:

  1. Include an understanding that rationality assumes that people know what they want and act in a way to maximize their desires.
  2. Include an understanding that rationality assumes reason.
  3. Discuss whether or not people behave rationally. Do they vote based on their own interests? Is it worth the time and effort to follow politics?

 

  1. How are Legitimacy, Sovereignty, and Authority related?

 

n ideal response will:

  1. Include an understanding of legitimacy, sovereignty, and authority. Legitimacy is the mass feeling that the government’s rule is rightful and should be obeyed. Sovereignty deals with the national government having control over its own territory. Authority deals with political leaders having the ability to command respect to exercise power.
  2. Discuss how these often go together. Sovereignty may lead to legitimacy and authority, for example. Having one of these may increase the others.
  3. Discuss how lacking one of the three may lead to erosion in the others. For example, lacking legitimacy, make authority difficult without coercion.

 

 

  1. How can Politics be treated as a science?

 

n ideal response will:

  1. Include a discussion of how some political scientists have tried to become more like natural sciences.
  2. Discuss how political scientists attempt to quantify data, manipulate data statistically, and attempt to validate hypotheses.
  3. Discuss how political science is an empirical discipline.
  4. Discuss how political scientists build scholarship based on reason, balance, supporting evidence, and that much of this scholarship is based on theory.

 

 

Chapter 2 Theories

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. __________ wrote Republic.

 

  1. Aristotle
  2. Plato
  3. Hans J. Morgenthau
  4. Niccolo Machiavelli

 

 

  1. Plato and Aristotle were from __________.

 

  1. Great Britain
  2. Italy
  3. Greece
  4. Egypt

 

 

  1. Aristotle argued that the best political communities would be __________.

 

  1. dominated by wealthy citizens
  2. oligarchies
  3. formed by elites
  4. formed by citizens of the middle class

 

 

  1. Which of the following best characterizes Aristotle?
  2. He only explained what is.
  3. He only explained what ought to be.
  4. He explained both what is and what ought to be.
  5. He neither explained what is nor what ought to be.

 

 

  1. Which of the following would be consistent with Confucius’s vision of government?

 

  1. Immoral behavior by rulers
  2. Participation of the masses
  3. Moral behavior by rulers
  4. Limits on family ties

 

 

  1. What shape depicted in your text might best describe healthcare reform according to a liberal?

 

  1. A diamond
  2. An upside down triangle
  3. A triangle
  4. A vertical rectangle

 

 

  1. Which statement best reflects a descriptive statement?

 

  1. The United States has a higher infant mortality rate than Japan.
  2. The United States should do more to help the poor.
  3. The United States would benefit from lower taxes.
  4. The United States would benefit from building more prisons.

 

 

  1. Which statement best reflects a normative description?

 

  1. The United States has higher taxes than most European democracies.
  2. The United States has lower taxes than most European democracies.
  3. The United States has a federal income tax.
  4. The United States has tax rates that are too low.

 

 

  1. Which of the following pairs of terms are most incompatible with each other?

 

  1. Descriptive, realism
  2. Normative, realism
  3. Descriptive, realism
  4. Normative, zeitgeist

 

 

  1. Aristotle and John Locke might agree on which point?

 

  1. The importance of voting rights for all citizens
  2. The importance of property rights
  3. The importance of changing paradigms
  4. The importance of the scientific method

 

 

  1. What theory best explains a scenario where India develops similar political views to France, despite the fact that France was unaware of Indian political philosophies until recently?

 

  1. Modernization Theory
  2. Classical Theory
  3. Rational-Choice Theory
  4. Marxist Theory

 

 

  1. Thomas Hobbes wrote that “the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and __________.”

 

  1. endless
  2. tiring
  3. short
  4. depressing

 

 

  1. Which of the following is most consistent with the idea of a social contract?

 

  1. Government should be limited to ensure individual freedom.
  2. Individuals join and stay in civil society.
  3. Citizens prefer solitary lives to living in groups.
  4. Citizens are more concerned with their own social situation than the community.

 

  1. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau would likely agree on which of the following?

 

  1. Individuals join and stay in civil society
  2. Life is nasty and brutish
  3. Power resided with the proletariat
  4. The importance of empirical research

 

 

  1. Which of the following was of greatest concern to John Locke?

 

  1. Freedom of speech for all
  2. Power resided with the proletariat
  3. The right to property
  4. Voting rights

 

 

  1. Social contracts, the state of nature, and civil society are phrases that are best associated with __________.

 

  1. the contractualists
  2. Marxists
  3. behavioralism
  4. systems theory

 

 

  1. If __________ were alive, he might suggest that poor academic performance in schools could be attributed to a society that does not promote education and provides few resources devoted to schools.

 

  1. John Locke
  2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  3. Thomas Hobbes
  4. Machiavelli

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is most consistent with the concept of the “general will” according to Rousseau?

 

  1. Creating a park for the citizens to enjoy
  2. Using public dollars so that some citizens can attend private schools
  3. Offering tax breaks to one auto manufacturing plant
  4. Low turnout in elections

 

 

  1. Karl Marx used the term __________ to refer to everything built on top of the economy.

 

  1. the social contract
  2. institutions
  3. behavioralism
  4. superstructure

 

 

  1. __________ favor social and economic change to help the poor.

 

  1. Conservatives
  2. Leftists
  3. Bourgeoisie
  4. Zeitgeists

 

 

  1. The “spirit of the times” would do which of the following according to Hegel?

 

  1. Move history along
  2. Lead to disillusionment
  3. Prevent tyranny
  4. Provide a balance to politics

 

 

  1. Which of the following would most likely be supported by the bourgeoisie?

 

  1. Equality for all
  2. A revolt by the proletariat
  3. Minority rights
  4. Conflict for economic gain

 

 

  1. According to Karl Marx, what would likely replace capitalism?

 

  1. Communism
  2. Socialism
  3. Feudalism
  4. Conservatism

 

 

  1. Which of the following best undermines the Marxist argument?

 

  1. Capitalist society’s frequently collapse.
  2. Socialism is the natural replacement of capitalism.
  3. Capitalism has survived major stock market crashes.
  4. India has a democratic government.

 

 

  1. Which statement best supports Marxist Theories?

 

  1. The United States provides ample opportunities for all that work hard.
  2. Similarities exist between economies in both Europe and the United States.
  3. Tax breaks will often create jobs, benefiting the working class.
  4. Uneven benefits to corporations with few benefits for workers, led to the economic crises in the early 2000s.

 

 

  1. The term __________ might best explain why different periods throughout history have distinctive characteristics.

 

  1. bourgeoisie
  2. zeitgeist
  3. paradigm
  4. general will

 

 

  1. Assuming that we can study society scientifically is consistent with which of the following?

 

  1. Marxism
  2. Realism
  3. Positivism
  4. Systems theory

 

 

  1. The formal structures of government like the U.S. Congress are referred to as __________.

 

  1. institutions
  2. systems
  3. paradigms
  4. superstructures

 

 

 

  1. A thesis is best described as __________.

 

  1. a claim you are going to prove
  2. a finding based on research
  3. something that is not testable
  4. a research design

 

 

  1. Auguste Comte would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

 

  1. The natural sciences and social sciences are nothing alike.
  2. Social science methods can be applied to the natural sciences.
  3. Natural science methods can be applied to the social sciences.
  4. The proletariat will ultimately revolt.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of behavioralism?

 

  1. Behavioralism is not value-free.
  2. Behavioralism has never been used in the United States.
  3. Natural science methods cannot be applied to the social sciences.
  4. Behavioralism focuses too much on the big picture.

 

 

  1. Which of the following most undermines the potential benefits of the behavioral approach?

 

  1. Public opinion in Northern Canada
  2. European democratic governments
  3. Southwestern voting patterns in the United States
  4. The current conflicts in the Sudan

 

 

  1. Which of the following applies to the concept of New Institutionalism?

 

  1. A synthesis of traditional behavior and other techniques in the study of politics
  2. Feedback to members of Congress from their constituents that changes how they will vote
  3. The president is constrained because of limitation on powers granted in Article II of the Constitution
  4. Incentives that alter which candidates citizens support

 

 

  1. David Easton is most associated with which of the following?

 

  1. Behavioralism
  2. Marxism
  3. Systems Theory
  4. Modernization Theory

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a key component to systems theory?

 

  1. Feedback
  2. Modernization
  3. Positivism
  4. The superstructure

 

 

  1. A feedback loop is most likely associated with __________.

 

  1. Behavioralism
  2. Modernization Theory
  3. Rational-Choice Theory
  4. Systems Theory

 

 

  1. Which is a potential problem with a model?

 

  1. Oversimplification
  2. Undersimplification
  3. Irrationality
  4. Rationality

 

 

  1. Which best exemplifies systems theory?

 

  1. A person voting for the candidate that will best benefit that voter
  2. A school district adjusting a bilingual education program to accommodate a large influx of non-native Americans.
  3. Two nations creating similar programs because of industrialization
  4. Using scientific methods to study society.

 

 

  1. Which statement best undermines systems theory?

 

  1. The passage of healthcare reform despite opposition from the public.
  2. The passage of healthcare reform because of support from the public.
  3. The passage of healthcare reform because other democracies of a certain age have done such a thing.
  4. A dislike of government guaranteed healthcare in the United States.

 

 

  1. Hegel is most associated with which theory?

 

  1. Marxism
  2. Modernization
  3. Positivism
  4. Rational-Choice

 

 

  1. Seymour Martin Lipset wrote __________.

 

  1. The Prince
  2. Arthashastra
  3. Social Contract
  4. Political Man

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a likely characteristic of a democratic nation?

 

  1. Low levels of education
  2. They are led by a dictator
  3. Relatively high gross domestic product
  4. Turmoil and instability

 

 

  1. Gross Domestic Product is frequently used to assess __________.

 

  1. wealth
  2. health care
  3. education
  4. systems

 

 

  1. Seymour Martin Lipset would most likely agree with which statement?

 

  1. China will become more socialistic as it industrializes.
  2. China instigates conflicts because wars benefit the ruling class.
  3. As China becomes more democratic, its politics and economic situation will remain stable.
  4. As China becomes more democratic, it will undergo many economic and political changes.

 

 

  1. Rational-Choice Theory is most related to which of the following?

 

  1. Behavioralism
  2. Modernization Theory
  3. Game Theory
  4. Contractualism

 

 

 

  1. Rational-Choice theory became popular among political scientists during what time period?

 

  1. Prior to World War I
  2. Prior to World War II
  3. The 1950s
  4. The 1970s

 

 

  1. Game theory is most associated with __________.

 

  1. modernization theory
  2. behavioralism
  3. systems theory
  4. rational-choice theory

 

 

  1. The statement, “Germany is relatively wealthy and its citizens are well-educated, so it must be a democracy,” is consistent with __________.

 

  1. modernization theory
  2. classical theory
  3. rational-choice theory
  4. Marxist theory

 

 

  1. If we try to predict how South Korea will react to threats from North Korea, considering both the costs and benefits of a particular action, __________ will be most useful.

 

  1. modernization theory
  2. classical theory
  3. rational-choice theory
  4. Marxist theory

 

 

  1. Which of the following most weakens arguments from game theorists?

 

  1. Political actors are usually predictable.
  2. President Obama could not estimate the effect of pulling troops out of Iraq.
  3. Political scientists have been very accurate in collecting data.
  4. Like Europe, the United States will become more socialistic over the next 100 years.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Realists focus on the world as it should be.

 

 

  1. Political theory was limited to Europe until the 20th Century.

 

 

  1. John Locke’s theories were more pessimistic than Thomas Hobbes.

 

 

 

  1. Thomas Hobbes’s work might be useful in examining Rwandan genocides.

 

  1. Karl Marx called the ruling class the proletariat.

 

 

  1. Congress is a political institution.

 

 

  1. The “political systems” model was devised by David Easton.

 

 

  1. The idea that prior to reauthorization, adjustments might be made to an educational program based on demands from parents, teachers, and students is consistent with systems theory.

 

 

  1. India’s democracy appears to defy expectations based on Modernization theory.

 

 

 

  1. Rational-choice theorists argue that behavior cannot be predicted.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

 

  1. Niccolo Machiavelli’s __________ was about getting and using political __________.

 

 

  1. Hobbes imagined a __________ society.

 

 

  1. The concept of the __________ suggests that society’s interests might trump individual, selfish concerns.

 

 

 

  1. The German term __________ refers to the spirit of the times.

 

  1. Karl Marx argued that if a country went to war, it was likely to benefit the __________.

 

 

  1. Formal structures of government, like the presidency or the courts, are referred to as __________.

 

 

  1. A feedback loop is associated with __________ theory.

 

 

 

  1. __________ theory would likely predict that democracy might follow a nation once it becomes wealthy.

 

 

 

  1. A __________ is a model or way of doing research which is accepted by the discipline.

 

 

  1. Rational-Choice theorists might employ __________ theory to study how political actors might behave.

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. How are the terms “descriptive” and “normative” different from each other?

 

 

  1. What did Hobbes mean when he stated a “war of each against all?”

 

  1. Why are capitalists doomed, according to Marx?

 

 

 

  1. What often happens to poor nations trying to become democratic? Why?

 

 

  1. Why is rational-choice theory often referred to as game theory?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain Confucius’ vision for a good, stable government. Could this apply to the United States?

 

 

  1. Contrast the Contractualists’ state of nature and the consequences of each vision.

 

 

  1. What are the weaknesses in Marxist Theory?

 

 

  1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the behavioral approach to studying politics? Evaluate some problems with this approach.

 

 

  1. Evaluate the biological analogy at the heart of systems theory. Analyze the utility of this analogy.

 

=================================================================

Chapter 3 Political Ideologies

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Adam Smith is most associated with which concept?

 

  1. A) Socialism
  2. B) Modern liberalism
  3. C) Classic liberalism
  4. D) Communism

 

 

  1. Your text refers to __________ as cheap theories.

 

  1. A) ideologies
  2. B) pragmatists
  3. C) doctrines
  4. D) theses

 

  1. The American Civil War was largely fought for __________ reasons.

 

  1. A) ideological
  2. B) partisan
  3. C) spiritual
  4. D) agricultural

 

 

 

  1. The notion that art, music, and politics might go together, is consistent with the views of __________.

 

  1. A) Karl Marx
  2. B) Mao
  3. C) W.F. Hegel
  4. D) John Locke

 

 

 

  1. Which if the following is an example of a pragmatic solution to the problem of air pollution?

 

  1. A) Limiting pollution because it improves air quality according to environmental policy experts
  2. B) A liberal politician favoring regulation of manufacturers in the hopes that it will improve air quality
  3. C) A conservative politician favoring reducing regulations in hopes of improving the economy
  4. D) A belief that the market will protect air quality because of competition among manufacturers

 

 

  1. Which of the following best demonstrates the differences between political scientists and ideologues?

 

  1. A) Political scientists are theoretical, while ideologues are idealistic.
  2. B) Ideologues are theoretical, while political scientists are idealistic.
  3. C) Political scientists are driven by passion, while ideologues are not.
  4. D) Political scientists are concerned with what should be, while ideologues are theory driven.

 

 

  1. The Wealth of Nations was written by __________.

 

  1. A) Anthony Downs
  2. B) John Locke
  3. C) Adam Smith
  4. D) Edmund Burke

 

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the term laissez-faire?

 

  1. A) Intervening in the economy
  2. B) Leaving the economy alone
  3. C) Creating monopolies
  4. D) Disbanding monopolies

 

 

  1. The “unseen hand” is associated with the work of __________?

 

  1. A) Karl Marx
  2. B) Adam Smith
  3. C) W.F. Hegel
  4. D) John Locke

 

 

  1. Modern liberals might argue that markets are __________.

 

  1. A) self-correcting
  2. B) infallible
  3. C) in perfect competition
  4. D) rigged by manufacturers

 

 

  1. Which of the following propositions would likely be favored by modern liberals?

 

  1. A) Tax cuts for top income earners
  2. B) Regulation of the banking sector
  3. C) Little government involvement in economic matters
  4. D) Free markets

 

 

  1. Which of the following best describes classical liberalism and modern conservatism?

 

  1. A) Classical liberalism is the opposite of modern conservatism.
  2. B) Classical liberalism is similar to modern conservatism.
  3. C) Neither classical liberalism, nor modern conservatism continues to exist.
  4. D) Classical liberalism and modern conservatism were developed by Karl Marx.

 

 

  1. Which statement best applies to Adam Smith?

 

  1. A) His views began as conservative, but are now associated with modern liberalism.
  2. B) His views were once considered liberal, but are now promoted by conservative.
  3. C) His views have always been advocated by liberals.
  4. D) Marxists promoted his views because of concerns of the proletariat

 

 

  1. Thomas Hill Green might agree with which of the following?

 

  1. A) No one is forced to take a job they don’t like.
  2. B) Unions are necessary to protect workers against business owners.
  3. C) Taxes should benefit business owners because it allows them to hire more workers.
  4. D) Markets regulate themselves.

 

 

  1. Classic liberals have little in common with __________?

 

  1. A) modern conservatives
  2. B) classic conservatives
  3. C) modern liberals
  4. D) Adam Smith

 

 

  1. Edmund Burke is best associated with __________?

 

  1. A) socialism
  2. B) classic conservatism
  3. C) classic liberalism
  4. D) modern liberalism

 

 

  1. Milton Friedman is often associated with which ideology?

 

  1. A) Socialism
  2. B) Classic liberalism
  3. C) Modern conservatism
  4. D) Modern liberalism

 

 

  1. Edmund Burke and Adam Smith would likely agree on which of the following points?

 

  1. A) Free markets are best.
  2. B) Markets require regulation.
  3. C) Positive freedom is necessary.
  4. D) A progressive tax system is needed.

 

  1. Modern American conservatism would favor government involvement in what activity?

 

  1. A) Religious promotion
  2. B) Regulating markets
  3. C) Protecting organized labor
  4. D) A progressive tax system

 

 

  1. Modern conservatism adopts elements of which of the following?

 

  1. A) Economic views from Edmund Burke and social views from Adam Smith
  2. B) Economic and social views from Adam Smith
  3. C) Economic views from Adam Smith and social views from Thomas Hill Green
  4. D) Economic views from Adam Smith and social views from Edmund Burke

 

 

  1. Where do modern conservatives diverge from Adam Smith?

 

  1. A) Adam Smith was resolute in his belief that markets produced fair outcomes, whereas modern conservatives are not.
  2. B) Adam Smith believed government could help regulate market, but modern conservatives do not.
  3. C) Modern conservatives believe government can help regulate markets, but Adam Smith did not.
  4. D) Modern conservatives are resolute in their beliefs that markets are fair, but Adam Smith acknowledged that they could be unfair.

 

 

  1. The Communist Manifesto was written by __________.

 

  1. A) Edmund Burke
  2. B) John Locke
  3. C) Karl Marx
  4. D) H. Green

 

 

  1. Social Democrats would be best described as __________.

 

  1. A) an extreme form of socialism
  2. B) a mild form of socialism
  3. C) an extreme form of communism
  4. D) a mild form of communism

 

 

  1. Imperialism is best described as __________.

 

  1. A) amassing colonial empire
  2. B) unlawful declarations of war
  3. C) Marx’s view of socialism
  4. D) an extreme form of communism

 

 

  1. “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains,” is associated with which ideology?

 

  1. A) Liberalism
  2. B) Conservatism
  3. C) Socialism
  4. D) Feminism

 

 

  1. Which of the following was key to Lenin’s views on political parties?

 

  1. A) Political parties had to be open.
  2. B) Political parties had to be large.
  3. C) Political parties had to be well-funded.
  4. D) Political parties had to be organized.

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of economic systems of government (from first to last) according to Karl Marx?

 

  1. A) Socialism, communism, capitalism
  2. B) Capitalism, socialism, communism
  3. C) Communism, socialism, capitalism
  4. D) Communism, capitalism, socialism

 

 

  1. Social democracy is essentially a reformed version of __________.

 

  1. A) Communism
  2. B) Marxism
  3. C) Capitalism
  4. D) Libertarianism

 

 

  1. According to Marx, which of the following would be a utopia?

 

  1. A) Clearer class divisions
  2. B) Life where benefits are provided equally
  3. C) The triumph of capitalism
  4. D) Little power for the proletariat

 

 

  1. The current economic situation in China is analogous to which of the following?

 

  1. A) Fascism
  2. B) Libertarianism
  3. C) Modern conservatism
  4. D) Titoism

 

 

  1. __________ is an extreme form of nationalism.

 

  1. A) Liberalism
  2. B) Conservatism
  3. C) Socialism
  4. D) Fascism

 

 

 

  1. Fascism existed during the twentieth Century in what country?

 

  1. A) Ireland
  2. B) Italy
  3. C) Iceland
  4. D) France

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best applies to China?

 

  1. A) Communism is more important that nationalism.
  2. B) Nationalism is more important than communism.
  3. C) Democracy is more important than nationalism.
  4. D) Democracy is more important than communism.

 

 

  1. According to your chapter, what do Canada, Spain, China, and Britain have in common?

 

  1. A) They each have regional nationalism.
  2. B) They each have fascist governments.
  3. C) They each have military dictatorships.
  4. D) They each have representative democracies.

 

 

  1. The American media’s failure to question President Bush’s claims that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction can be explained by __________.

 

  1. A) liberalism
  2. B) nationalism
  3. C) Maoism
  4. D) fascism

 

 

  1. Which of the following assisted Germany and Italy in their war efforts?

 

  1. A) Disenchantment with socialism
  2. B) Appeals to the citizens based on extreme nationalistic views
  3. C) Unequal distribution of resources domestically and abroad
  4. D) A revolt against the dominant world powers

 

 

  1. Neoconservatism emerged in the United States in the __________.

 

  1. A) 1950s
  2. B) 1960s
  3. C) 1970s
  4. D) 1980s

 

 

  1. __________ prefer virtually no government involvement in anything.
  2. A) Liberals
  3. B) Conservatives
  4. C) Marxists
  5. D) Libertarians

 

  1. The fact that the Soviet Union ceased to exist by the end of 1991 is indicative of __________.

 

  1. A) the collapse of liberalism
  2. B) the collapse of conservatism
  3. C) the collapse of communism
  4. D) the collapse of neoconservatism

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with feminist views?

 

  1. A) Gender roles are learned.
  2. B) Gender roles are innate.
  3. C) The Equal Rights Amendment has helped women achieve equality.
  4. D) Women have been in an advantaged position for half a century.

 

 

 

  1. Which group is concerned with the fact that the United States accounts for about 4% of the World’s population yet consumes about a fourth of manufactured goods?

 

  1. A) Feminists
  2. B) Libertarians
  3. C) Environmentalists
  4. D) Conservatives

 

 

  1. Which of the following concepts is problematic to neoconservatives?

 

  1. A) Promoting war
  2. B) Promoting democracy
  3. C) Multiculturalism
  4. D) Free markets

 

 

  1. How do Libertarians compare to liberals and conservatives?

 

  1. A) Libertarians are more consistent in their views.
  2. B) Libertarians are less consistent in their views.
  3. C) Libertarians prefer intervention in economic matters only.
  4. D) Libertarians prefer intervention in social matters only.

 

 

  1. Which statement best depicts China?

 

  1. A) Since reforms, China has become less capitalistic.
  2. B) China has adopted state ownership of the economy, but has democratic political views.
  3. C) China has become more capitalistic economically, but has an authoritarian political structure.
  4. D) China has become democratic politically and more capitalistic.

 

 

 

  1. Which statement, if true, best supports the feminist view on the challenges women face?

 

  1. A) Women, if treated equally to men, would be subject to the draft.
  2. B) Gender roles are largely biologically defined.
  3. C) Women have difficulty moving up the corporate ladder because men are socialized into leadership roles.
  4. D) Women have achieved equality with the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.

 

 

  1. The idea of promoting the United States’ values abroad would most likely be supported by which of the following?

 

  1. A) Marxists
  2. B) Classic conservatives
  3. C) Modern liberals
  4. D) Neoconservative

 

 

  1. The “end of ideology” argument was proposed by __________.

 

  1. A) Mao
  2. B) Karl Marx
  3. C) Francis Fukuyama
  4. D) Daniel Bell

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best supports the works of Francis Fukuyama?

 

  1. A) War is necessary to promote American interests.
  2. B) Many people live in a free society.
  3. C) There are many ideological viewpoints in the world.
  4. D) Free market will likely be replaced with greater government ownership.

 

 

  1. On which point might Daniel Bell and Francis Fukuyama agree?

 

  1. A) There will always be significant competition among ideological perspectives.
  2. B) There are so many different ideological views today, that scholars have trouble evaluating them.
  3. C) Libertarianism has developed out of capitalism.
  4. D) Capitalism has few rivals in the modern era.

 

 

  1. Which statement, if true, best undermines Daniel Bell and Francis Fukuyama?

 

  1. A) Capitalism has triumphed over socialism.
  2. B) Socialism no longer exists in any first world countries.
  3. C) Many nations have varying forms of socialism, and others have varying forms of capitalism.
  4. D) Capitalism has few rivals in the modern era

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The origin of the left-right ideological spectrum dates back to 1789.

 

  1. Maoism is a form of conservatism.

 

 

 

  1. The term Laissez-faire generally indicates a desire for government intervention in economic matters.

 

 

  1. Liberalism is split into modern liberalism and socialism.

 

 

 

  1. Edmund Burke is responsible for modern views on communism.

 

 

  1. Bernstein was responsible for revising Marxism.

 

 

 

  1. Liberals are more likely to espouse nationalism views than conservative in the United States.

 

  1. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev would be considered a reformer.

 

 

  1. Those favoring Islamism would condemn American excesses like fancy cars or modern cellular phones.

 

 

  1. The fact that socialism exists in a number of countries supports the ideas of Francis Fukuyama.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

 

  1. A(n) __________ is a belief system that assumes that society can be improved by following certain doctrines.

 

 

  1. __________ is an ideology favoring government intervention that might address economic inequality.

 

 

  1. Social democracies have become __________ states.

 

  1. Marxism developed into __________, in part, due to the influences of Lenin.

 

 

  1. When __________ died, Yugoslavia’s combination of socialism and capitalism ended.

 

 

  1. __________ is the exaggerated belief in the greatness of one’s country.

 

 

  1. __________ is the U.S. ideology of former liberals turning to conservative causes and methods.

 

 

 

  1. China’s new ideological deployments might best be termed __________.

 

 

  1. Focusing on the role of the Environmental Protection Agency in regulating carbon emissions would fall under the ideology of __________.

 

 

  1. If capitalism has won out in the battle of ideologies it might support the arguments espoused by the “__________ of ideology” debate.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. How are political theory and ideology different?

 

 

 

  1. Compare modern conservatism to the Burkean view of conservatism.

 

 

  1. How does nationalism trump other ideologies? Provide an example of how this can be dangerous.

 

 

  1. How might Libertarians agree with both Liberals and Conservatives?

 

 

  1. What was Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform approach for the Soviet Union and how was it applied?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. How does modern liberalism vary from classical liberalism? In what ways is classical liberalism similar to conservatism today?

 

 

  1. Explain how socialism split into several varieties. Why did this occur?

 

 

  1. How can nationalism be dangerous, even in a country like the United States? Give an example.

 

 

  1. What is Islamism? Why is this ideology potentially problematic?

 

 

 

  1. Evaluate the “end of ideology” argument? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this argument?

 

=============================================================================

 

Chapter 4-    States

Chapter 4-       States

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is the term for the absence of government?

 

  1. A) Socialism
  2. B) Anarchy
  3. C) Statism
  4. D) Republic

 

 

  1. Hereditary rule by one person is known as __________.

 

  1. A) a monarchy
  2. B) a republic
  3. C) institutionalization
  4. D) a state

 

 

  1. A(n) __________ is a political system without a monarch.

 

  1. A) institution
  2. B) monarchy
  3. C) state
  4. D) republic

 

 

  1. To Aristotle, the corrupt form of monarchy is __________.

 

  1. A) democracy
  2. B) tyranny
  3. C) polity
  4. D) oligarchy

 

 

  1. To Aristotle, the legitimate form of government by the few is __________.

 

  1. A) monarchy
  2. B) tyranny
  3. C) aristocracy
  4. D) oligarchy

 

 

  1. Democracy is the ___________ form of government by ___________.

 

  1. A) corrupt; one
  2. B) corrupt; a few
  3. C) corrupt; many
  4. D) legitimate; many

 

 

 

  1. The aftermath of the resignation by President Nixon in the United States demonstrated which concept?

 

  1. A) The power of the states relative to the national government
  2. B) The resiliency of the institution of the presidency
  3. C) The limitations of the United States court system in punishing corrupt politicians
  4. D) The limitations of unitary systems of government

 

 

  1. What conclusion can we make about constitutions based on your text?

 

  1. A) Constitutions structure power so that it does not vary over time.
  2. B) Constitutions are designed to change with each election.
  3. C) Constitutions provide institutional powers, but individual leaders and time affect the exercise of power.
  4. D) Constitutions are nearly identical from one state to the next.

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, best undermines Aristotle’s views on government?

 

  1. A) Members of elected lawmaking bodies often pursue policies to help themselves get elected.
  2. B) Elected politicians are often interested in running for higher offices.
  3. C) Many democracies have become corrupt.
  4. D) Elected officials do make policies that benefit the majority of citizens.

 

 

  1. ___________ are incapable of even minimal governance.

 

  1. A) Strong states
  2. B) Weak States
  3. C) Failed States
  4. D) Effective States

 

 

  1. In ____________, laws are mostly obeyed, and government can control and tax its territory.

 

  1. A) effective states
  2. B) strong states
  3. C) failed states
  4. D) weak states

 

 

  1. ___________ are characterized by the penetration of crime into politics.

 

  1. A) Weak states
  2. B) Strong states
  3. C) Effective states
  4. D) Failed states

 

 

  1. Which of the following best describes a weak state?

 

  1. A) A state with essentially no national government
  2. B) A state where elections may be predetermined
  3. C) A state where the government taxes and controls its territory
  4. D) A state where there are no laws

 

 

  1. Pirates are present in Somalia because it is a __________.

 

  1. A) weak state
  2. B) failed state
  3. C) militant state
  4. D) effective state

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, might keep a failed state from disappearing?

 

  1. A) Increasing taxation power
  2. B) Revenue from natural resources being collected by leaders
  3. C) Expansion of territory
  4. D) Monetary aid from other nations

 

 

  1. The first-order civil divisions on the United States are called ___________.

 

  1. A) cantons
  2. B) states
  3. C) counties
  4. D) cities

 

 

  1. Prefectures are the first-order subdivisions in ___________.

 

  1. A) Canada
  2. B) Sweden
  3. C) France
  4. D) Japan

 

 

  1. In France, a prefect is a(n) __________.

 

  1. A) administrator
  2. B) state
  3. C) lawmaker
  4. D) judge

 

 

 

  1. Autonomias are regions in what nation?

 

  1. A) Canada
  2. B) France
  3. C) Brazil
  4. D) Spain

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following might lead you to believe Great Britain has a quasi-unitary system of government?

 

  1. A) Scotland has gained autonomy over some policy areas.
  2. B) Scotland remains under British control on all matters.
  3. C) Great Britain has a federal system of government.
  4. D) Great Britain has a confederal system of government.

 

 

  1. Which of the following descriptions best depicts a federal system of government?

 

  1. A) The central government maintains all the power.
  2. B) The first-order subdivisions maintain all the power.
  3. C) Federal systems exist where there are no governments.
  4. D) Federal systems have divided power between a central government and first-order governments.

 

 

  1. The idea that American states serve as “laboratories of democracy” is an advantage of __________ of government.

 

  1. A) unitary systems
  2. B) confederal systems
  3. C) federal systems
  4. D) proportional systems

 

 

  1. Canada’s federal system contains what issue of contention?

 

  1. A) Whether Ottawa should secede
  2. B) How much autonomy Quebec should have
  3. C) The first-order subdivisions maintain all the power
  4. D) How to deal with the United States

 

 

  1. Based on what you know, which of the following is likely the case for Swiss cantons?

 

  1. A) Cantons can be altered by the central government.
  2. B) Cantons are only found near the capital.
  3. C) Cantons have a significant amount of autonomy.
  4. D) Cantons only have those powers granted to them by the central government.

 

 

  1. Center-periphery tension might result from which of the following scenarios?

 

  1. A) The existence of a poor region that receives little from the nation
  2. B) A socialist nation with high levels of taxation
  3. C) A federal system where power is divided between the first-order divisions and the central government
  4. D) A single-member district with first past the post elections

 

 

  1. Which of the following do Spain and France have in common when it comes to the distribution of responsibilities in those nations?

 

  1. A) Both nations have consistently consolidated power over the past century.
  2. B) Both nations have decentralized governmental functions.
  3. C) Both nations have adopted confederal systems of government.
  4. D) Both nations have adopted mixed electoral systems.

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following might lead to the collapse of a confederation?

 

  1. A) Too much power from the central government
  2. B) Local governments lacking the ability to make decisions
  3. C) Ineffective regional governments
  4. D) The inability of the central government to defend regional government

 

 

  1. Center-periphery tensions are most likely to exist under what circumstance?

 

  1. A) In statist systems that are becoming more capitalistic
  2. B) In areas with regional cultural differences or economic inequality
  3. C) In unitary systems of government where the central government has most of the power
  4. D) In large confederal systems

 

 

  1. The fact that local governments are best suited for providing services like trash pick-up best supports which of the following form of government?

 

  1. A) Laissez-faire systems
  2. B) Federal systems
  3. C) Unitary systems
  4. D) Prefectures

 

 

  1. Which of the following demonstrates a weakness in the American federal system of government?

 

  1. A) Educational quality varies extensively across American states.
  2. B) No Child Left Behind was designed to improve education.
  3. C) Educational needs in Kansas may be very different from New York.
  4. D) Educational standards are comparable across states.

 

 

  1. Electoral systems that elect one person per district are known as ____________.

 

  1. A) multi-member districts
  2. B) majoritarian systems
  3. C) single-member districts
  4. D) proportional districts

 

 

  1. In __________, representatives are elected based on their party’s percentage of the vote.

 

  1. A) proportional representative systems
  2. B) majoritarian systems
  3. C) single-member districts
  4. D) multi-member districts

 

 

  1. Districts that are __________ often have bizarre shapes.

 

  1. A) compact
  2. B) majoritarian
  3. C) gerrymandered
  4. D) proportional

 

  1. In a single-member district election, the winner receives a minimum of __________.

 

  1. A) a plurality of the votes
  2. B) a majority of the votes
  3. C) two-thirds of the votes
  4. D) three-fourths of the votes

 

 

  1. Goldwater and McGovern demonstrated which of the following?

 

  1. A) The benefit of taking extreme positions in American politics
  2. B) The risks of not taking positions in American politics
  3. C) The risks of taking extreme positions in American politics
  4. D) The benefits of the electoral college in the American political system

 

 

  1. Gerrymandering is most likely a problem in what electoral system?

 

  1. A) Single-member systems
  2. B) Multi-member systems
  3. C) Proportional systems
  4. D) Mixed-member systems

 

 

  1. An advantage of a proportional representation system of government would be __________.

 

  1. A) a strong two-party system
  2. B) the ability to draw districts to favor the majority party
  3. C) representation of minor parties
  4. D) the ability of the central government to provide benefits to the populations

 

 

  1. If the Green Party receives 15 percent of the vote in a proportional system, which of the following is likely to happen?

 

  1. A) The Green Party would receive no seats.
  2. B) The Green Party would try to form a coalition with other parties.
  3. C) The Green Party would attempt to gerrymander districts to their advantage.
  4. D) The Green Party would demand a recount of the votes.

 

 

 

  1. Why are coalitions among parties seldom necessary in the United States?

 

  1. A) Because elections are held in multi-member districts
  2. B) Because elections usually produce more than two viable candidates
  3. C) Because elections are held in single-member districts with plurality winners
  4. D) Because of the multi-party system in the United States

 

 

  1. If the Social Democrats receive only five percent of the vote, they would be most successful under which of the following systems?

 

  1. A) Proportional representation
  2. B) Single-member districts
  3. C) Multi-member districts
  4. D) Mixed-member

 

 

  1. In a __________ system, the government owns little or no industry and redistributes little in welfare programs.

 

  1. A) majoritarian
  2. B) proportional
  3. C) socialist
  4. D) laissez-faire

 

 

  1. A __________ system practices both state ownership and extensive welfare benefits.

 

  1. A) socialist
  2. B) statist
  3. C) welfare
  4. D) laissez-faire

 

 

  1. Welfare states tend to have which of the following combinations of state ownership and welfare benefits?

 

  1. A) High levels of state ownership and high levels of welfare benefits
  2. B) High levels of state ownership but low levels of welfare benefits
  3. C) Low levels of state ownership and high levels of welfare benefits
  4. D) Low levels of state ownership and low levels of welfare benefits

 

 

  1. Which statement best reflects the United States compared to other nations when it comes to state power?

 

  1. A) The United States is comparable to most other nations when it comes to state power.
  2. B) In the United States, government plays a larger role than in other nations.
  3. C) In the United States, government plays a smaller role compared to other nations.
  4. D) The size of government in the United States is larger in some issue areas but not in others.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is most indicative of a laissez-faire system?

 

  1. A) Low levels of state ownership and high levels of welfare benefits
  2. B) Low levels of state ownership and low levels of welfare benefits
  3. C) High levels of state ownership and high levels of welfare benefits
  4. D) High levels of state ownership but low levels of welfare benefits

 

 

  1. Japan and France shared what in common when it came to modernization?

 

  1. A) Both modernized through an extensive welfare system.
  2. B) Both modernized through extensive involvement of the state in the economy.
  3. C) Both modernized through laissez-faire economics.
  4. D) Both modernized because of their weak state systems.

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, most undermines laissez-faire systems?

 

  1. A) Government intervention limits economic growth.
  2. B) Private enterprise makes the nation prosper.
  3. C) Markets do not always regulate themselves.
  4. D) Welfare systems create a culture of dependence.

 

 

  1. France, Mexico, Brazil, and China demonstrate which of the following points based on your chapter?

 

  1. A) The role of the government in the economy is usually stable.
  2. B) The role of the government in welfare provision is usually stable.
  3. C) Laissez-faire systems are always best.
  4. D) Nations often adopt different aspects of more than one economic system.

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, most undermines the French-type strong state argument?

 

  1. A) State-owned industries made France an economic power.
  2. B) Regionalism limits central government authority.
  3. C) Government intervention in the economy is necessary due to market failures.
  4. D) Other nations, like the United States modernized more quickly.

 

 

  1. Which statement best depicts the conclusions from the chapter on the role of government in economic situations?

 

  1. A) The answer depends on the nation in question and the particular circumstances.
  2. B) Government intervention limits economic growth in most circumstances.
  3. C) Markets usually do not always regulate themselves.
  4. D) State intervention in economic matters is never necessary.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Political institutions are the working structures of government.

 

 

  1. Republics are usually ruled by a monarch chosen by heredity.

 

 

 

  1. Weak states typically have no national government.

 

 

 

  1. In France, first-order civil divisions are known as departments.

 

 

 

  1. Decentralizing power involves concentrating power in the national government.

 

 

 

  1. The United States had a federal system of government under the Articles of Confederation.

 

 

 

  1. In the United States, power shifted from the national government to the states during the Reagan Presidency in a process known as devolution.

 

 

  1. Multi-party systems often have higher voter turnout than two party systems.

 

 

  1. Gerrymandering by the majority party in the state legislature can result in that party maintaining political control even when the opposing party receives more votes.

 

 

 

  1. Statist systems of government often provided generous welfare benefits.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

 

  1. _________ is the term for the absence of government.

 

 

  1. Great Britain’s ruling system is a __________, but the Queen is mostly a figurehead.

 

 

 

  1. __________ are characterized by the penetration of crime into politics.

 

 

  1. Warlords, militias, and other gun wielders often take the place of the national government in __________.

 

 

 

  1. __________ is where power is balanced between the nation’s capital and autonomous subdivisions.

 

 

  1. Japan’s first-order civil divisions are known as __________.

 

 

  1. Germany has a __________ of government because the local governments have only the autonomy granted to them by the national government.

 

 

  1. Single-member districts with plurality elections tend to produce __________ parties.

 

 

 

  1. The d’Hondt mathematical formula is often used to determine seats based on the percentage of votes in __________ systems.

 

 

 

  1. __________ has been replaced by more free market economies in Europe and Latin America.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. How are institutions bigger than individual leaders? Give an example.

 

 

 

  1. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources? What are potential drawbacks of some sources?

 

 

  1. What are some advantages of America’s federal system of government?

 

 

  1. What does gerrymandering do for democracy?

 

 

  1. How might modernization have been different had France had less involvement in the economy?

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Evaluate Aristotle’s six types of government. How might this classification be useful today?

 

 

  1. Distinguish between effective, weak, and failed states.

 

 

  1. Contrast unitary and federal systems of government. Identify a strength and weakness of each system.

 

  1. Explain the relationship between electoral systems and party systems.

 

 

  1. What are the ways that the state may relate to the economy?

 

 

 

Chapter 5-    Constitutions and Rights

Chapter 5-       Constitutions and Rights

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Muslims in the United States, who make up a relatively small percentage of the population, would be classified as __________.

 

  1. A) minorities
  2. B) majorities
  3. C) conservatives
  4. D) liberals

 

 

  1. A written document outlining the structure of a political system is a __________.

 

  1. A) statute
  2. B) constitution
  3. C) state duma
  4. D) basic law

 

 

  1. The Constitution of the United States is __________.

 

  1. A) relatively new
  2. B) relatively long
  3. C) relatively short
  4. D) absent of ambiguity

 

 

  1. Japan’s Constitution was drafted by the United States in __________.

 

  1. A) 1940
  2. B) 1946
  3. C) 1956
  4. D) 1960

 

 

  1. Which statement best depicts how Japan’s constitution varies from the Unites States’?

 

  1. A) Japan’s constitution is shorter.
  2. B) Japan’s constitution is more detailed but provides fewer rights to the people.
  3. C) Japan’s constitution is more detailed and provides more rights to the people.
  4. D) Japan’s constitution is older.

 

 

  1. Which of the following might be said about the Brazilian Constitution?

 

  1. A) It conferred too few rights to protect the people.
  2. B) It conferred too many rights for the government to guarantee.
  3. C) It is outdated.
  4. D) It is too new to evaluate.

 

 

  1. Which statement best describes Britain in terms of providing codified rights to the people?

 

  1. A) Britain has had codified rights dating back to the 10th century.
  2. B) Britain has had codified rights dating back to the 15th century.
  3. C) Britain has had codified rights dating back to the 1940s.
  4. D) Britain has had codified rights since 2000.

 

 

  1. Based on your text, which provision might be in Germany’s constitution?

 

  1. A) Guaranteed support for private schools
  2. B) Limitations on government involvement in economic matters
  3. C) Limitations on government involvement in social matters
  4. D) Provisions that provide support for the unemployed

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, would make implementing a constitution more difficult?

 

  1. A) A democratic system of government
  2. B) A multi-party system of government
  3. C) A dictatorial system of government
  4. D) A laissez-faire system of government

 

 

  1. Which of the following might you infer from a constitution that is relatively long and detailed?

 

  1. A) The constitution is probably relatively new.
  2. B) The constitution is probably relatively old.
  3. C) The constitution is probably relatively vague.
  4. D) The constitution is probably relatively restrictive on rights.

 

 

 

  1. The ability of courts to decide if laws are constitutional is referred to as __________.

 

  1. A) judicial review
  2. B) judicial activism
  3. C) judicial restraint
  4. D) basic law

 

 

  1. The concept of Basic Law originated in which country?

 

  1. A) Britain
  2. B) France
  3. C) Germany
  4. D) United States

 

 

  1. The State Duma is the legislature in what country?

 

  1. A) Ireland
  2. B) Sweden
  3. C) Russia
  4. D) Germany

 

  1. A constituent assembly is __________.

 

  1. A) a legislature convened to draft a new constitution
  2. B) a term for the legislative branch in most countries
  3. C) a judicial body
  4. D) a meeting of potential voters

 

 

  1. The Magna Carta did which of the following?

 

  1. A) Granted democracy to the citizens
  2. B) Limited the King’s power
  3. C) Extended the King’s power
  4. D) Eliminated the monarchy

 

 

 

  1. Japan and the United States have which of the following in common when it comes to amending their respective constitutions?

 

  1. A) Neither country has ever done it.
  2. B) Both countries do it frequently.
  3. C) It is difficult to do in both countries.
  4. D) The people of both countries must vote on constitutional amendments.

 

 

  1. The facts that the President of the United States is Commander in Chief of the Military and that the judicial branch interprets laws are indicative of __________.

 

  1. A) basic Laws
  2. B) judicial activism
  3. C) judicial restraint
  4. D) separation of powers

 

 

  1. Judicial activism refers to __________.

 

  1. A) liberal judges
  2. B) conservative judges
  3. C) judicial restraint by judges
  4. D) willingness to override legislatures

 

 

 

  1. Yugoslavia demonstrates what potential problem when it comes to constitutions?

 

  1. A) The danger of providing too many rights
  2. B) The danger of providing too few rights
  3. C) The danger of constitutional experimentation
  4. D) The danger of failing to update their constitution

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a potential problem with judicial review?

 

  1. A) Conservative or liberal judges may rule based on their beliefs.
  2. B) Constitutions are always clear.
  3. C) Lawmakers make laws that comply with constitutions.
  4. D) Judicial review is spelled out in all constitutions.

 

 

 

  1. What does the lawgiver, Hammurabi, contribute to our current discussion of constitutions?

 

  1. A) Statutes are meant to adjust to the times.
  2. B) Laws are not necessary because of people’s good will.
  3. C) Constitutions should be easy to revise.
  4. D) Codified laws are necessary, as is a clear supreme law of the land.

 

 

 

  1. What can we conclude from the phrase “ensure domestic tranquility” in the U.S. Constitution?

 

  1. A) Little, because the Preamble is vague and has questionable legal force
  2. B) That the government must provide a peaceful society
  3. C) That the government must provide for the general welfare
  4. D) A great deal because of the clarity of the language

 

 

  1. The Internment of Japanese Americans during World War II demonstrates which of the following?

 

  1. A) The dangers of communism
  2. B) The dangers of the red scare
  3. C) That even democracies can do away with civil liberties during war time
  4. D) That even ordinary people can be a threat to society

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, best explains why Constitutions are difficult to amend?

 

  1. A) Lawmakers may change their views relatively quickly.
  2. B) Constitutions often include a great deal of detail.
  3. C) Constitutions are often vague.
  4. D) Constitutions are often very long.

 

 

  1. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights includes the rights to __________.

 

  1. A) a job
  2. B) a car
  3. C) assembly
  4. D) declare war

 

 

  1. Proposition 227 in California dealt with which one of the following issues?

 

  1. A) Immigration
  2. B) Same-sex marriage
  3. C) Taxes
  4. D) Bilingual education

 

 

  1. The issue of what role government should take in preserving cultural uniqueness is the basis for __________.

 

  1. A) immigration
  2. B) multiculturalism
  3. C) cultural pluralism
  4. D) ethnicism

 

 

  1. In reaction to Nazi and Japanese actions during World War II, the UN General Assembly did which of the following?

 

  1. A) Revoked Germany and Japan’s charters
  2. B) Adopted the Universal Declaration on Human Rights
  3. C) Sent the UN armies into Germany and Japan
  4. D) Authorized a relocation program for refugees

 

 

 

  1. Which can be said of minority groups?

 

  1. A) They exist in most countries
  2. B) They generally have greater protections of civil liberties than majorities
  3. C) Few countries have significant minority populations
  4. D) Most minority groups live in the Northern hemisphere

 

  1. Algerians in France and Pakistanis in Great Britain have what in common?

 

  1. A) They have both been placed in internment camps.
  2. B) They generally have greater protections of civil liberties than majorities.
  3. C) They are pressured to conform with their dominant cultures.
  4. D) They speak the same native languages.

 

  1. How many votes are needed to overcome the filibuster in the U.S. Senate?

 

  1. A) 50
  2. B) 60
  3. C) 67
  4. D) 75

 

  1. The District of Columbia v. Heller case dealt with which one of the following issues?

 

  1. A) Immigration
  2. B) Bilingual education
  3. C) Taxes
  4. D) Gun rights

 

 

  1. The District of Columbia v. Heller case dealt with which one of the following U.S. Constitutional Amendments?

 

  1. A) First
  2. B) Second
  3. C) Fifth
  4. D) Tenth

 

 

 

  1. Some people view the right of having a job as a(n) __________ right.

 

  1. A) natural
  2. B) human
  3. C) economic
  4. D) civil

 

 

  1. The right to vote is usually viewed as a(n) __________ right.

 

  1. A) human
  2. B) civil
  3. C) economic
  4. D) natural

 

 

  1. Examples of __________ rights include life and liberty.

 

  1. A) constructed
  2. B) civil
  3. C) economic
  4. D) natural

 

  1. Which of the following might Jeremy Bentham have agreed with?

 

  1. A) Rights are natural in origin.
  2. B) Higher level rights should be protected.
  3. C) Rights are a social construction.
  4. D) Economic rights are natural rights.

 

 

 

  1. Which is an example of a socially constructed concept?

 

  1. A) Something that is God’s will according to early thinkers.
  2. B) The right to life shall not be deprived without good cause.
  3. C) The right to liberty shall not be deprived without good cause.
  4. D) The right to unemployment insurance is guaranteed by some governments.

 

 

  1. Which ordering places rights from most basic to highest?

 

  1. A) Natural, economic, civil
  2. B) Natural, civil, economic
  3. C) Economic, civil, natural
  4. D) Civil, economic, natural

 

 

  1. The “red scare” involved fear of __________.
  2. A) the Supreme Court
  3. B) judicial activism
  4. C) Socialism
  5. D) Communism

 

 

 

  1. Which U.S. Constitutional Amendment protects free speech rights?

 

  1. A) First
  2. B) Second
  3. C) Third
  4. D) Fourth

 

 

  1. __________ rights protect detainees from guilt without a trial.

 

  1. A) Economic
  2. B) Habeas corpus
  3. C) Sedition
  4. D) Imprisonment

 

 

  1. The Clear and Present danger doctrine deals with what issue?

 

  1. A) Sedition
  2. B) Gun rights
  3. C) Communism
  4. D) Economic rights

 

 

 

  1. How do American free speech rights compare to European nations?

 

  1. A) In America, free speech rights are more extensive than in Europe.
  2. B) In America, free speech rights are less extensive than in Europe.
  3. C) In America, free speech rights are about the same than in Europe.
  4. D) In America, free speech is prohibited unless it presents a “Clear and Present Danger.”

 

 

  1. Which of the following is generally the case for restrictions of free speech in America?

 

  1. A) Speech has never been restricted in America.
  2. B) Speech rights are usually restricted in America.
  3. C) Speech rights are more restricted during war times or when the nation is under threat.
  4. D) Speech rights are less restricted during war times or when the nation is under threat.

 

 

 

  1. The Pentagon Papers case would generally be seen as __________.

 

  1. A) a victory for those concerned with sedition against the government
  2. B) a victory for those concerned about the threat of communism
  3. C) a victory for those concerned with abuses by President Nixon’s opponents
  4. D) a victory for those concerned with rights of the press

 

 

  1. Gitlow v. New York and Scales v. the United States have which of the following in common?

 

  1. A) These cases demonstrated the limits of government in dealing with terrorism.
  2. B) These cases demonstrated the limits of governments in dealing with sedition.
  3. C) These cases demonstrated that civil liberties and rights are curtailed when the government is under threat.
  4. D) These cases established unrestricted freedom of speech rights for citizens.

 

 

  1. Which of the following, if true, best supports arguments in favor of comparing campaign contributions to speech rights?

 

  1. A) Corporations and Super-PACs express themselves through contributions.
  2. B) Corporations and Super PACs have extensive influence through their campaign contributions.
  3. C) Corporations and Super-PACs do not represent the will of the people.
  4. D) Corporations and Super-PACs can contribute more than other interests.

 

 

  1. Which scenario would most likely result in restrictions of free speech?

 

  1. A) Joining the American Communist Party
  2. B) Criticizing the president when the nation goes to war
  3. C) Attempting to discourage people from enlisting in the military during a draft
  4. D) Expressing unpopular opinions in the newspaper

 

 

  1. Which conclusion comports with the current rights of prisoners held captive as part of the United States’ war on terrorism?

 

  1. E) Suspected terrorists do not have any constitutional protections.
  2. F) Suspected terrorists have all constitutional protections of ordinary citizens.
  3. G) Suspected terrorists have some access to the court system, but there is still a lack of clarity on the matter.
  4. H) Suspected terrorists must be deported within 60 days of their detention.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. A 40-hour work week is specified in the Brazilian Constitution.

 

 

 

  1. Britain was the first nation to guarantee individual rights and freedoms in its Constitution.

 

 

  1. During World War II, the United States government deprived Japanese Americans of due process rights and interned them.

 

 

 

  1. In the United States, the separation of powers gives Congress lawmaking authority, while the presidency administers the law.

 

 

  1. Proposition 227 ended bilingual education in California in 1998.

 

 

  1. Your book demonstrates that civil rights and liberties, even today, are still violated by both the developing world and western democracies.

 

 

  1. In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), the Supreme Court ruled that the District of Columbia’s gun restrictions did not violate the Second Amendment of the Constitution.

 

 

  1. The term “constructed” refers to something that is recent and artificial, often wrongly assumed to be old and hallowed.

 

 

  1. Sedition is heavy criticism of the government or officials aimed at producing discontent or rebellion.

 

 

 

  1. The Pentagon Papers dealt with freedom of religion.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

 

  1. A(n) __________ is a written document outlining the structure of a political system.

 

 

 

  1. __________ is the unwillingness of judges to overturn statutes passed by the legislature.

 

 

 

  1. If a legislature passes a law that violates the Constitution, a judge might practice __________ and strike the law down.

 

 

 

  1. People in the American South may prefer a limited role of government in the economy, while those in the Northeast may favor greater government involvement. These two areas have very different __________.

 

 

 

  1. The fact that in the United State there are a variety of ethnic groups and some speak languages other than English deals with the issue of __________.

 

 

 

  1. Voting is typically viewed as a __________ right.

 

 

 

  1. To the Founders of the United States, life and liberty are examples of __________, which should be automatically granted.

 

 

  1. The Constitution’s militia clause is found in the __________.

 

 

 

  1. Exaggerated fear of Communist subversion was known as a __________.

 

 

 

  1. The Bush Administration denied “unlawful enemy combatants” __________ rights prior to the 2004 Supreme Court decision dealing with the matter.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Distinguish between constitutions and statutes.

 

 

 

  1. What are the dangers of changing Constitutions frequently? Give an example where this has been a problem.

 

 

  1. Explain the debate over multiculturalism.

 

  1. How can a “red scare” limit speech?

 

 

  1. Evaluate the controversy over whether or not terrorists have rights in the United States.

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain the purposes of constitutions. Why are they necessary?

 

 

 

  1. How are powers separated in the United States? How might this separation change over time?

 

 

  1. Where do rights come from? Evaluate the arguments for whether or not they are artificial.

 

 

  1. Evaluate the Constitutional claims on the issue of gun rights in the United States.

 

 

  1. Trace the right of free speech as it relates to sedition in the United States. How has interpretation of the Constitution changed over time?

 

Chapter 6-  Regimes

 

Chapter 6-       Regimes

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Which type of regime has an obedient media, state-supervised interest groups, and pervasive corruption?

 

  1. A) Transitional
  2. B) Democratic
  3. C) Authoritarian
  4. D) Totalitarian

 

 

  1. How many parties exist in a totalitarian regime?

 

  1. A) Several
  2. B) Two
  3. C) One
  4. D) Varying, depending on election year

 

 

  1. In Iraq __________ vote for different parties, making governance complicated and often violent.

 

  1. A) Sunnis and Shiites
  2. B) men and women
  3. C) the young and the old
  4. D) the wealthy and the poor

 

 

  1. Though rare, a “true” democracy, is a system in which __________.

 

  1. A) all citizens meet periodically to elect officials
  2. B) all citizens meet periodically to elect officials and personally enact laws
  3. C) popular accountability is common, but political competition is extremely limited
  4. D) the wealthy almost always have greater influence than the poor

 

 

  1. Recall one unstated but important function of alternation in power.

 

  1. A) The guarantee of economic growth
  2. B) An inherently peaceful turnover of power
  3. C) Control of corruption
  4. D) The encouraging of civil disobedience

 

 

  1. A media that is critical of its nation’s government is typically indicative of __________.

 

  1. A) the degree of democracy in a country
  2. B) the health of a nation’s economy
  3. C) the degree of wealth in a nation
  4. D) the overall weakness of a nation

 

 

  1. Though some specify term limits, most democratic systems allow for __________.

 

  1. A) reelection
  2. B) institutionalized dynasties
  3. C) opposition activity only just before the election
  4. D) the selling of congressional seats

 

 

  1. Which of the following countries is, arguably, a “fake democracy”?

 

  1. A) France
  2. B) Germany
  3. C) Cuba
  4. D) Russia

 

 

  1. Which country has recently become more authoritarian?

 

  1. A) Cuba
  2. B) China
  3. C) Spain
  4. D) Venezuela

 

 

  1. The non-violent civil rights campaigner, Martin Luther King, and his followers changed both the __________ of America.

 

  1. A) religion and psychology
  2. B) laws and the psychology
  3. C) laws and economy
  4. D) public policy and educational system

 

 

  1. What is the relationship between alternation in power and democratic elections?

 

  1. A) Neither one are usually accompanied by peaceful protest.
  2. B) Both are heavily dependent on religion playing a minimal role.
  3. C) Both depend upon groups of citizens voting automatically for a given party.
  4. D) Both must have must have an element of uncertainty and fluidity.

 

 

  1. What is evidence for the usefulness of social media in relation to democracy?

 

  1. A) Text messaging, Twitter, Facebook, and TV media helped catalyze the “Arab Spring.”
  2. B) Myspace played an indispensable role in the Chinese democracy movement that led to Tiananmen Square.
  3. C) The U.S. Press has been called “the fourth branch of government.”
  4. D) Social media has contributed to the strengthening of government authority through its tendency toward supporting government positions.

 

 

  1. What German thinker argued that any organization, no matter how democratic its intent, ends up run by a small elite?

 

  1. A) Thomas Hobbes
  2. B) Robert Michels
  3. C) C. Wright Mills
  4. D) Robert Dahl

 

 

 

  1. Who can organize a group to protest or demand something from politicians?

 

  1. A) Almost exclusively those citizens most in touch with policy issues
  2. B) Only the most well-connected citizens
  3. C) Primarily wealthiest citizens
  4. D) Just about any group of citizens

 

 

  1. Conservative billionaires generously funded pro-Romney __________ and yet still lost the 2012 presidential election.

 

  1. A) politicians
  2. B) policies
  3. C) super-PACs
  4. D) social media

 

  1. Describe the more accurate reflection of reality regarding elite and pluralist theories: a view of society as __________.

 

  1. A) many billiard balls colliding with each other and with government policy
  2. B) a series of small pyramids, each capped by an elite
  3. C) many billiard balls, each sitting beneath a pyramid
  4. D) a single pyramid, with many elite at the top

 

 

  1. Modern elite theorists tend to be __________, contrary to what one might assume.

 

  1. A) radicals
  2. B) conservatives
  3. C) evangelical Christians
  4. D) libertarians

 

 

  1. The wealthiest 1 percent of Americans received the biggest of the Bush administration’s 2001 tax cuts, which some would argue is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) government being too big
  2. B) the unaccountable nature of elites
  3. C) political power benefitting those with money and connections
  4. D) good public policy

 

 

  1. How do elitists compare to pluralists, in regards to accountability to the masses?

 

  1. A) Those who argue that elites are little accountable are elite theorists; those who argue that elites are only mildly accountable are pluralists.
  2. B) Those who argue that pluralists are little accountable are elite theorists; those who argue that elites are ultimately accountable are elitists.
  3. C) Those who argue that elites are very accountable are elite theorists; those who argue that elites are ultimately accountable are pluralists.
  4. D) Those who argue that elites are little accountable are elite theorists; those who argue that elites are ultimately accountable are pluralists.

 

 

  1. Totalitarianism began with __________.

 

  1. A) Mao Zedong’s rise and the fomenting of the Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
  2. B) Mussolini’s coming to power in Italy in 1922
  3. C) Hitler’s rise in Germany in 1933
  4. D) Lenin’s 1917 seizure of power in Russia

 

 

  1. Right-wing totalitarianism does not desire revolution; instead, it attempts to block __________.

 

  1. A) a leftist revolution
  2. B) ethnic turmoil
  3. C) an Islamic fundamentalist movement
  4. D) a libertarian revolution

 

 

 

  1. The mass media in totalitarian states __________.

 

  1. A) show the system is functioning well under wise leaders, while practicing a mildly critical attitude toward the official ideology
  2. B) question the system, but still push the official ideology
  3. C) show the system is functioning well under wise leaders, and sell the official ideology
  4. D) question the system only in times of crisis, otherwise selling the official ideology

 

 

  1. __________ states regularly use organized terror and violence against their citizens to maintain control and achieve their goals.

 

  1. A) Authoritarian
  2. B) Transitional
  3. C) Oligarchic
  4. D) Totalitarian

 

 

 

  1. Describe the purpose of total control as relates to the image of the state.

 

  1. A) To reveal the state as genuine and open entity
  2. B) To excuse the state’s invasive and/or violent political measures
  3. C) To convey to the citizens a perception of only everyday order
  4. D) To convey to visitors a perception of nearly perfect order

 

 

  1. What country is a contemporary example of a totalitarian regime?

 

  1. A) Iran
  2. B) North Korea
  3. C) Vietnam
  4. D) China

 

 

  1. The Nazi Gestapo, the Soviet NKVD under Stalin, and Mussolini’s OVRA had no judicial restraints. How is this indicative of the totalitarian state’s embrace of organized terror?

 

  1. A) In an effort to keep the military from seeking too much power, security police utilize both physical and psychological methods.
  2. B) In an effort to keep the people cowed, security police utilize both physical and psychological methods.
  3. C) In an effort to keep the people cowed, security police solely utilize physical methods.
  4. D) In an effort to keep the people cowed, security police solely utilize psychological methods.

 

 

  1. How do totalitarian regimes eliminate armed resistance?

 

  1. A) They hold a monopoly on all weapons.
  2. B) They attempt to pacify the people by encouraging peaceful protest.
  3. C) They attempt to distract the people with entertainment and sports.
  4. D) They ensure that the only weapons the people have access to are manual action.

 

 

  1. What are features of an all-encompassing ideology?

 

  1. A) An official theory of history and economics, a portrayal of the world in black-and-white terms, and acceptance of an imperfect society
  2. B) An official theory of history and economics, a portrayal of the world in black-and-white terms, and claims of a perfect society
  3. C) An eclectic sense of history and economics, a portrayal of the world in complex terms, and claims of a perfect society
  4. D) An official theory of history and economics, a portrayal of the world in complex terms, and claims of a perfect society

 

 

  1. Venezuela is considered what type of authoritarian regime?

 

  1. A) Military
  2. B) Personalistic
  3. C) Limited monarchy
  4. D) Dominant-party

 

 

  1. Which ambassador to the UN argued that there is a difference between authoritarian and totalitarian regimes?

 

  1. A) Francisco Franco
  2. B) Jeane J. Kirkpatrick
  3. C) Robert Mugabe
  4. D) Adlai Stevenson

 

 

  1. __________ showed an early form of authoritarianism with his famous phrase: “The state—that’s me.”

 

  1. A) Francisco Franco
  2. B) Fidel Castro
  3. C) Queen Anne
  4. D) Louis XIV

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a cause for democratic failure?

 

  1. Wealth
  2. Minor inequality
  3. No middle class
  4. Expansive civil society

 

 

 

  1. Describe “authoritarian” capitalism.

 

  1. A) The regime allows partially market economies, and loosely controlled political activities.
  2. B) The regime allows partially market economies, but tightly retains political control.
  3. C) The regime tightly controls market economies, but allows freedom of political activity.
  4. D) The regime allows partially market economies, but tightly retains control of infrastructure.

 

 

  1. What happened to democracy in formerly colonized nations after World War II?

 

  1. A) Democracy was relatively quickly replaced by authoritarianism.
  2. B) Democracy flourished.
  3. C) Libertarianism quickly replaced democracy.
  4. D) Religious political movements began to strongly flavor democracy.

 

  1. In Zimbabwe, in 2008, Robert Mugabe was kept in power through miscounted elections. This is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) the sway that authoritarianism holds in much of the third world
  2. B) corruption being largely a problem of the developed world
  3. C) the inherent and natural complexities of the electoral system
  4. D) the sway that totalitarianism holds in much of the third world

 

 

  1. Spain, under Franco, was an example of what type of authoritarian regime?

 

  1. A) Military
  2. B) Personalistic
  3. C) Traditional monarchy
  4. D) Dominant-party

 

 

  1. What are the main types of authoritarianism?

 

  1. A) Military, personalistic, traditional plutarchy, dominant-party, and single-party
  2. B) Security, personalistic, traditional monarchy, dominant-party, and single-party
  3. C) Military, personalistic, traditional monarchy, dominant-party, and single-party
  4. D) Military, pluarlistic, traditional monarchy, dominant-party, and single-party

 

 

 

  1. Why might authoritarianism have spread in newly independent nations around the early mid-twentieth century?

 

  1. A) Though colonialists had encouraged democracy; there was a lack of individualism and market economies, levels of education and income were low.
  2. B) Colonialists had never encouraged democracy; there was too much individualism and levels of education and income were low.
  3. C) Colonialists had never encouraged democracy; there was a lack of individualism and market economies, and levels of education and income were low.
  4. D) Though colonialists had encouraged democracy, and there was a tradition of individualism and market economies, levels of education and income were low.

 

 

  1. What is the difference between “traditional” authoritarianism and totalitarianism?

 

  1. A) “Traditional” authoritarianism seeks political passivity and obedience rather than enthusiastic participation and mobilization.
  2. B) “Traditional” authoritarianism seeks political passivity and civil disobedience rather than enthusiastic participation and mobilization.
  3. C) “Traditional” authoritarianism seeks political activity and obedience rather than enthusiastic participation and mobilization.
  4. D) “Traditional” authoritarianism seeks political passivity and obedience rather than enthusiastic dissent.

 

 

  1. More than half the world’s nations are at least a bit __________.

 

  1. A) theocratic
  2. B) democratic
  3. C) authoritarian
  4. D) oligarchic

 

 

  1. The collapse of Communist regimes shows the role of the __________ in a

negative sense.

 

  1. A) middle classes
  2. B) dictator
  3. C) church
  4. D) economy

 

 

  1. What two types of regimes have contributed to the latest wave of democracy?

 

  1. A) Authoritarian and communist
  2. B) Communist and totalitarian
  3. C) Authoritarian and totalitarian
  4. D) Theocratic and communist

 

 

  1. How have economics managed to transform authoritarian regimes?

 

  1. A) Growing economies have transformed whole societies into a democracy.
  2. B) Growing economies have transformed minimal aspects of societies into more democratic systems.
  3. C) Dwindling economies have spurred even greater authoritarianism.
  4. D) Dwindling economies have spurred democratic change in hopes that such a change might spur the economy.

 

  1. Oil exports retard democracy because they concentrate __________ in the hands of a few.

 

  1. A) wealth and power
  2. B) knowledge and wealth
  3. C) power and knowledge
  4. D) ideology and wealth

 

 

 

  1. Some voters, never having known democracy, turn to authoritarian figures who promise to restore __________.

 

  1. A) the power of elites and incomes
  2. B) ties with the outside world and stability
  3. C) stability and incomes
  4. D) stability and military prowess

 

 

 

  1. What prepares a people’s democratic attitudes?

 

  1. A) Guidance from powerful elites
  2. B) A liberal intellectual bent
  3. C) Having fomented and carried out a revolution
  4. D) Centuries of religious and philosophical evolution

 

 

 

  1. Describe the relationship of citizens of petrostates to their governments.

 

  1. A) Citizens stand independent of the government with regard to employment, but do not form an autonomous, pluralistic middle class.
  2. B) Citizens depend on the government for jobs and handouts, but form an autonomous, pluralistic middle class.
  3. C) Citizens depend on the government for jobs and handouts and do not form an autonomous, pluralistic middle class.
  4. D) Citizens stand independent of the government with regard to employment, and tend to form an autonomous, pluralistic middle class.

 

 

  1. Explain how Russia might be described as a kleptocracy.

 

  1. A) The executive is relatively powerful; the parliament is weak; the oil and gas sectors are under both private and government control, as is most of the popular media, aiding in the support of a middle class.
  2. B) The executive is extremely powerful; the parliament is weak; the oil and gas sectors are under private control, as is most of the popular media, creating a diverse and complex economy.
  3. C) The executive is extremely powerful; the parliament is weak; the oil and gas sectors are under government control, as is most of the popular media, leaving a select few to get rich.
  4. D) The executive is relatively powerful; the parliament is relatively powerful; the oil and gas sectors are under government control, but the popular media is not, leaving a select few to get rich.

 

 

  1. Why do democracies tend to fail in poor countries?

 

  1. A) Economic growth creates a large upper class; education levels rise; people increasingly recognize their interests and express them; pluralism; the market itself teaches citizens to be government-reliant.
  2. B) Economic growth creates a large middle class; entrepreneurship levels rise; people increasingly recognize their interests and though they rarely express them; pluralism; the market itself teaches citizens about self-reliance, pluralism, tolerance, and not expecting too much.
  3. C) Economic growth creates a large middle class; education levels rise; the market itself teaches citizens about self-reliance, pluralism, tolerance, and not expecting too much.
  4. D) Economic growth creates a large middle class; education levels rise; people increasingly recognize their interests and express them; pluralism; the market itself teaches citizens about self-reliance, pluralism, tolerance, and not expecting too much.

 

 

  1. How do the experiences of Poland and the Czech Republic differ from that of Hungary, as relates to transitions into democracy?

 

  1. A) Poland and the Czech Republic have created lasting democracies, while Hungary has shown shades of authoritarianism.
  2. B) Poland and the Czech Republic have created lasting democracies, while Hungary has shown shades of totalitarianism.
  3. C) Poland and the Czech Republic have shown shades of authoritarianism, while Hungary has created a lasting democracy.
  4. D) Poland and the Czech Republic have created lasting kleptocracies, while Hungary has shown shades of democracy.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Egypt is indicative of a democratic regime.

 

  1. Until the nineteenth century democracy carried a positive connotation.

 

 

 

  1. The statement: “All men recognize the right of revolution; that is, the right to refuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyranny or its inefficiency are great and unendurable,” is representative of a healthy relationship to civil disobedience.

 

 

 

  1. All political scientists agree that in democracy elites make the actual decisions while the masses generally go along with it.

 

  1. The fact that Yale graduates George Bush and John Kerry were both members of the super-elite and secretive Skull and Bones society is an example of money and connections giving elites access to political power.

 

 

  1. Totalitarian governments can usually only be ousted if the entire regime collapses.

 

 

 

  1. Totalitarian governments can usually only be ousted if the entire regime collapses.

 

 

  1. Postcolonial leaders having picked up socialist views while students in Europe contributed to the proliferation of authoritarian regimes in developing nations.

 

 

  1. Rigged elections in nations like Zimbabwe confirm the rule of any variety of parties.

 

 

  1. Petrostates, like those around the Persian Gulf, are not ripe for democracy but are ripe for overthrow.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. Brazil is considered __________ by the Select Freedom House 2012 Rankings, which measures degrees of democracy.

 

 

  1. Sponsors of __________ can oversimplify and manipulate issues, despite their appearance of being very democratic.

 

 

  1. The U.S. congress reluctantly voted for the 2008 and 2009 financial bailouts, as opinion ran against those bailouts, abandoning the __________ theory to act as trustees for the public good.

 

 

  1. The U.S. oil industry, in which George W. Bush and Dick Cheney had been executives, were given __________ by those men during their time in office together, an example of the access elites have to political power.

 

 

  1. Secret arrests, imprisonment, and torture are made possible under totalitarian regimes, as __________ guarantees either do not exist or are ignored.

 

 

 

  1. The twentieth century version of __________ is quite different from the autocracies of centuries past.

 

 

  1. In an authoritarian regime legislator’s __________ the dictator’s laws, and puppet prime ministers and cabinet’s carry them out.

 

 

  1. Niger’s version of authoritarianism is of the __________ type.

 

 

 

  1. In most middle-income and __________ nations democracy tends to last.

 

 

 

  1. Democracy is dependent for its growth, at least in part, on a __________ economy.

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is the main idea of popular accountability of government?

 

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast elites and pluralists.

 

 

  1. How are security forces an example of a tool of organized terror?

 

 

  1. How are security forces an example of a tool of organized terror?

 

  1. How does authoritarianism in developing nations contrast with authoritarianism in the global north?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. There are different types of democracy. Explain the differences between representative democracy and direct democracy. Which type of democracy does the U.S. have and why? Also, how are liberal and illiberal democracies different? Provide at least one example of each.

 

 

 

  1. The textbook presents a few main modern regime types. What are they and what countries exemplify each type? What are the key differences in these regime types? In other words, what details distinguish them from one another – use historical examples from the text to aid in your explanation?

 

 

  1. What is totalitarianism? What are the essential elements in a totalitarian regime? Specifically, what are the roles of the state and what is the relationship between state and society? How is totalitarianism different than authoritarianism? What are some examples of totalitarianism that make these differences clear?

 

 

  1. What is authoritarianism? What factors would lead us to conclude that a regime is authoritarian, as opposed to democratic or totalitarian? What are the five types of authoritarianism and how do they differ? Provide examples of each of the five types in your answer.

 

 

  1. What types of states are most likely to become authoritarian? Why? Along the same lines, what authoritarian states have been most likely to democratize? Under what circumstances does this democratization occur and why? Based on previous findings, describe one country you think is likely to democratize in the near future.

 

Chapter 7-  Political Culture

 

Chapter 7-       Political Culture

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Studies of __________ look for basic, general values on politics and government.

 

  1. A) politics
  2. B) political culture
  3. C) public opinion
  4. D) political values

 

 

  1. Public opinion studies rarely go beyond __________.

 

  1. A) concerns of daily life
  2. B) qualitative data
  3. C) a particular regional focus
  4. D) quantified data

 

 

 

  1. Which nation’s people expressed a 43 percent rate of satisfaction with their democracy in a 1995 Gallup survey?

 

  1. A) Germany
  2. B) America
  3. C) Mexico
  4. D) France

 

 

 

  1. Political culture changes __________.

 

  1. A) frequently
  2. B) very slowly
  3. C) with each generation
  4. D) very quickly

 

 

  1. Churches, clubs, businesses, and soccer leagues are all elements of __________.

 

  1. A) political culture
  2. B) political trust
  3. C) civil society
  4. D) civic engagement

 

 

  1. Because they can be voted out of office if the people are aroused, politicians usually work to keep the public __________.

 

  1. A) politically aware but pacified
  2. B) passive and quiet
  3. C) voting and active
  4. D) weak but well-educated

 

 

  1. The 1959 and 1960 survey of 1,000 people in five countries, conducted by Almond and Verba, uncovered three political cultures. What were they?

 

  1. A) Participant, subject, and parochial
  2. B) Participant, object, and parochial
  3. C) Voting, subject, and parochial
  4. D) Participant, subject, and secular

 

  1. Measuring whether legitimacy is gaining or declining or how a president’s popular support changes is exemplary of how political culture and public opinion surveys might overlap insofar as __________.

 

  1. A) neither tends to keep track of responses over time
  2. B) neither tends to go beyond quantified data
  3. C) both may wish to go beyond quantified data
  4. D) both may wish to keep track of responses over time.

 

 

  1. How is the U.S. able to loudly proclaim its democratic values in the face of its history of low voter turnout?

 

  1. A) Voter turnout is the most crucial aspect of democratic culture, but surveys measuring American voter turnout have been historically inaccurate.
  2. B) Voter turnout isn’t an inherently crucial aspect of democratic culture.
  3. C) The actions of U.S. legislators outweigh the number of citizens who turnout to elect them.
  4. D) The American history of patriotism and its people’s pride in that record transcend voter turnout.

 

 

  1. How does political competence compare with political efficacy?

 

  1. A) Political competence is concerned with knowing how to have a political impact, whereas political efficacy is concerned with feeling one has at least some power to have a political impact.
  2. B) Political competence is concerned with knowing why political events occur; whereas political efficacy is concerned with feeling one has at least some power to have a political impact.
  3. C) Political competence is concerned with knowing how to have a political impact, whereas political efficacy is concerned with feeling one has no ability to have a political impact.
  4. D) Political competence is concerned with knowing those who have a political impact; whereas political efficacy is concerned with feeling one has at least some power to have a political impact.

 

 

  1. __________ has grown in the political cultures of most of the advanced democracies.

 

  1. A) Cynicism
  2. B) Hopefulness
  3. C) Excitement
  4. D) Sadness

 

 

  1. Some political thinkers are scared for U.S. stability if __________ continues to grow.

 

  1. A) distrust
  2. B) communitarianism
  3. C) polarization
  4. D) political investment

 

 

  1. Case studies have revealed that the U.S. is much __________ than most other countries.

 

  1. A) poorer
  2. B) more invested in grassroots politics
  3. C) more religious
  4. D) more opposed to economic bailouts

 

  1. Political culture is a combination of strongly felt and long-remembered values, and __________.

 

  1. A) reactions to current events
  2. B) disgruntled citizens
  3. C) citizens willing to form associations
  4. D) the prosperousness of a nation’s elite

 

 

 

  1. Identify the reasoning for the phrase: “Two Spains.” Spain was split by __________.

 

  1. A) agrarian and industrial culture
  2. B) southern and northern coasts
  3. C) small-town and big-city
  4. D) religion and religiosity

 

 

  1. The sudden rise of __________ is seen by some people as an indication that Americans remain willing to form associations.

 

  1. A) sports culture
  2. B) the Tea Party
  3. C) white supremacy
  4. D) PTAs

 

 

 

  1. The years of Watergate, the Vietnam War, and inflation correlated with a __________ in citizens’ trust in the U.S. government.

 

  1. A) sharp rise
  2. B) barely noticeable uptick
  3. C) sharp decline
  4. D) barely noticeable decline

 

 

  1. How is trust in others crucial to a healthy business environment?

 

  1. A) Less business is possible when trust in others is involved, but those involved tend to be happier.
  2. B) The greater trust one has in their collaborators, the more monetary success they will achieve.
  3. C) One can do more and better business with people you trust.
  4. D) Trust in others leads to greater inventiveness.

 

 

  1. What is the consequence of people demanding their “rights” in the absence of a corresponding sense of responsibility?

 

  1. A) Demands on government become impossible.
  2. B) A decline in business always results.
  3. C) The growth of distrust in government fades.
  4. D) Volunteerism grows.

 

 

  1. What was the catalyst for the growth of what Richard Nixon called the “silent majority?

 

  1. A) A continuation of interest in the already prominent conservative Christian movement
  2. B) A reaction against a culture of dissent, upheaval, and cultural adventurism
  3. C) Growing acceptance of cultures of mediation and silence associated with eastern religions
  4. D) An expanding discontentment with family values

 

 

  1. A country’s political culture tends to be __________.

 

  1. A) monolithic
  2. B) multifaceted
  3. C) static
  4. D) easily quantifiable

 

 

  1. Convention delegates tend to be more __________ than average voters.

 

  1. A) insecure
  2. B) uneducated
  3. C) conservative
  4. D) ideological

 

 

  1. Elites tend to be much more interested in politics and more __________.

 

  1. A) apathetic
  2. B) lacking in a sense of influence
  3. C) participatory
  4. D) free of ideology

 

 

  1. According to the text, __________ is only the starting point for political participation.

 

  1. A) the act of voting
  2. B) joining a political party
  3. C) awareness of political issues
  4. D) running for political office

 

 

  1. Broader education makes __________ more likely.

 

  1. A) entrepreneurship
  2. B) a deeper investment in elitism
  3. C) a decreased interest in politics
  4. D) participation in politics

 

 

  1. Identify the correlation between annual income and activity as a convention delegate.

 

  1. A) Most convention delegates have annual incomes much higher than average voters.
  2. B) Most convention delegates have annual incomes much lower than average voters.
  3. C) Most convention delegates have annual incomes much higher than even high-income voters.
  4. D) Most convention delegates have annual incomes similar to average voters.

 

  1. The 2001 U.S. tax cut favored the wealthiest. This is an example of the concept that __________.

 

  1. A) those who speak up and donate money still fail to benefit while those on the lower socioeconomic scale also do not
  2. B) those who speak up and donate money benefit while those on the lower socioeconomic scale also benefit
  3. C) those who speak up and donate money benefit while the super-elite do not
  4. D) those who speak up and donate money benefit while those on the lower socioeconomic scale do not

 

 

  1. What is the correlation between the recent economic growth of some nations in East Asia, like Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, and their lack of resources?

 

  1. A) Despite those nations’ lack of natural resources, the sheer creative innovativeness of their people and their willingness to forgo the benefits of political office in order to focus on entrepreneurship still propels their economies.
  2. B) Despite those nations’ lack of natural resources, the discipline and hard work of their people and their willingness to trust one another still propels their economies.
  3. C) Despite those nations’ lack of natural resources, the high education levels and entrepreneurship of their people and their willingness to trust one another still propels their economies.
  4. D) Despite those nations’ lack of natural resources, the religious ferventness of their people still propels their economies.

 

 

  1. Why is it standard across the world that people possessing greater education, money, and ideological convictions take the leading roles in politics?

 

  1. A) Better-educated people show greater interest in political fundraising, in addition to showing greater political efficacy, and tend to feel that what they do has at least some political impact.
  2. B) Better-educated people, despite showing less political competence, show greater political efficacy and are less concerned with whether what they do has a political impact.
  3. C) Better-educated people show greater political competence and they feel that what they do has at least some political impact.
  4. D) Better-educated people can afford to be uninvested in politics, and therefore show less political efficacy while maintaining the sense that they feel that politicians work directly for them.

 

 

  1. What is the difference between elite and mass political culture?

 

  1. A) Elites possess better education, higher income, and more influence, and they are much more interested in politics and are more participatory.
  2. B) Elites possess equivalent education to their mass political culture counterparts, higher income, and more influence, and they are much more interested in politics and are more participatory.
  3. C) Elites possess better education, higher income, but only nominal influence, but they are much more interested in politics and are more participatory.
  4. D) Elites possess better education, higher income, and more influence, yet they are less participatory.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a minority subculture?

 

  1. A) Hindus in India
  2. B) Caucasians in America
  3. C) The Han in China
  4. D) Quebecois in Canada

 

 

  1. The very fact of distinct subcultures within a nation may spur __________.

 

  1. A) greater political peace
  2. B) voluntary integration
  3. C) only limited national pride
  4. D) great political turmoil

 

 

 

  1. During the era of Kennedy and Johnson __________ was portrayed as a matter of national security.

 

  1. A) nationalism
  2. B) integration
  3. C) constitutionalization of the English language
  4. D) keeping subcultures distinct

 

 

  1. Failures at attempts at the integration of subcultures into the mainstream may result in those subcultures seeking __________.

 

  1. A) assimilation
  2. B) independence
  3. C) the institutionalization of their language
  4. D) emigration en-masse

 

 

  1. Describe the African-American political subculture. African-Americans tend to be __________.

 

  1. A) less educated and poorer than whites, but less liberal and Republican in voting
  2. B) as highly educated as whites, but poorer, as well as more liberal and Democratic in voting
  3. C) less educated and poorer than whites, as well as more liberal and Democratic in voting
  4. D) less educated and poorer than whites, as well as less religious and Democratic in voting

 

 

  1. In order to create a(n) __________ in which most Americans feel at home, the United States has relied largely on voluntary integration.

 

  1. A) alternative mainstream culture
  2. B) greater sense of nationalism
  3. C) series of distinct subcultures
  4. D) mainstream culture

 

 

  1. The 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) a government effort to ensure equal treatment of job applicants regardless of race
  2. B) a government attempt to rid the real estate industry of racism
  3. C) a major federal effort to integrate the schools
  4. D) a federal push for integration on public mass transit

 

 

  1. Since the mid-1990s Quebec’s desire for separation from Canada has waned, working as an example of __________.

 

  1. A) bilingualism and multiculturalism leading to national fragmentation
  2. B) an active desire for a subculture to become absorbed by mainstream culture
  3. C) how continued adherence to traditions and religious leaders in the modern era can lead to peace
  4. D) mainstream culture’s general supremacy

 

 

  1. The Norwegian Americans of the fictional “Lake Wobegon,” Minnesota do not constitute a subculture because __________.

 

  1. A) they are not politically radical
  2. B) their politics and culture are mainstream
  3. C) they never seek out independence
  4. D) their culture is not appreciated by the nation at large

 

 

  1. Why is it significant that California made English its official language in 1986, and in 1998 eliminated bilingual education, speeding assimilation of subcultures?

 

  1. A) California’s approach has been considered divisive, if not discriminatory.
  2. B) California is rarely an indicator of nationwide trends.
  3. C) California is often an indicator of nationwide trends.
  4. D) California is often far more progressive than the nation at large.

 

 

  1. Governments often engage in overt socialization through __________.

 

  1. A) family
  2. B) education
  3. C) peer groups
  4. D) mass media

 

 

  1. What source of socialization works through the use of parades with flags and soldiers, proclamations of top leaders, and hosting prestigious sporting events such as the Olympics?

 

  1. A) Government
  2. B) Civil society
  3. C) Education
  4. D) Powerful subculture

 

 

  1. Which of the following countries have engaged in overt political socialization?

 

  1. A) China and Canada
  2. B) England and France
  3. C) U.S. and England
  4. D) China and France

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the strongest source of political socialization?

 

  1. A) School
  2. B) Peer groups
  3. C) Mass media
  4. D) Family

 

 

  1. Theodor Adorno and others created a 29-item questionnaire that allegedly showed __________.

 

  1. A) pre-fascist political views.
  2. B) one’s knowledge of culture.
  3. C) ideological religious tendencies.
  4. D) Religipre-democratic political views.

 

 

 

  1. Some scholars argue that TV watching makes people __________ in/about community or group activities.

 

  1. A) invested
  2. B) passive and uninterested
  3. C) happier and excited
  4. D) likely to participate

 

 

  1. How were the 2008 Beijing Olympics an example of an agent of socialization?

 

  1. A) It was a government display, building public support and loyalty.
  2. B) It was a citizen-organized display, building public support and loyalty.
  3. C) It was a government display, building support and loyalty largely among the state’s vast array of bureaucrats.
  4. D) It was a government display, building public entrepreneurship and individual self-confidence.

 

  1. How is Iran’s control of state media indicative of the fact that media cannot do everything?

 

  1. A) The majority of Iranians believe their nation’s media because it is controlled by the government, yet they are still actively rebellious.
  2. B) The majority of Iranians do not believe their nation’s media because it is controlled by the government.
  3. C) The majority of Iranians believe their nation’s media because it is controlled by the government, yet government ideology and programs often falter.
  4. D) A minority of Iranians do not believe their nation’s media because it is controlled by the government.

 

 

  1. The ability of government to control political attitudes is limited __________.

 

  1. A) because governments are generally out of touch with social media, and rarely monitor it
  2. B) because despite messages and experiences reaching individuals through the churches and schools, citizens never trust their government
  3. C) due to the mass violence necessary to enforce government-sponsored political attitudes
  4. D) because messages and experiences reach individuals through conversations with primary groups of kin or peers, who put their own spin on messages

 

 

  1. What would an upholder of “family values” look to as the cause of youthful drug-taking and violence?

 

  1. A) The relative absence of peers creating a gap filled by the influence of parents
  2. B) The relative over-presence of parents creating a lack of peers
  3. C) The relative absence of parents creating a gap filled by the influence of peers
  4. D) The relative absence of parents creating a gap filled by the influence of sports

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The Indian caste system is embedded in its political culture.

 

 

 

  1. Political culture changes only slowly.

 

 

 

  1. The rule of anticipated reactions theory explains why U.S. voter turnout is the lowest of all industrialized democracies.

 

 

 

  1. In general, richer countries have more religious populations.

 

 

  1. Wealthier, more educated elites are more likely to vote than the less educated, less wealthy masses.

 

 

  1. Culture and development are rarely linked. For instance, Max Weber argued that Catholicism is the cultural basis of capitalism because of an engrained work ethic among Catholics.

 

 

  1. Minorities can be integrated into mainstream society voluntarily or through overt measures of political socialization. The U.S. has traditionally pursued the latter.

 

 

  1. Of the many sources of political socialization, the family’s influence usually outweighs them all.

 

 

  1. The parents of peers are a recognized influence on the forming of political values.

 

 

  1. The ability to function in business and governance using only one language has contributed to China’s recent economic growth.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. “The system of __________ beliefs, expressive symbols, and values, which defines the situation in which political action takes place,” is defined as political culture.

 

 

  1. Parochial political culture is the __________ democratic of the three types of civic culture covered by Almond and Verba.

 

  1. According to Figure 7.1, in 2004 trust in the U.S. government fell over the __________.

 

  1. Economic repercussions are feared by those who see the decline of America’s __________ associations.

 

 

  1. The under-educated and poor tend to feel __________ as regards their ability to influence politics.

 

  1. There are differences among ethnic, religious, and regional groups, even among __________ Americans.

 

  1. About __________ percent of the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives are held by African Americans.

 

  1. Ethnically and linguistically distinct from the peoples of West Pakistan, the Bengalis of East Pakistan __________ in 1971.

 

  1. If at odds with what __________ and family teach the mass media may be unsuccessful in influencing the peoples’ political existence.

 

  1. Children accept __________ values unconsciously and uncritically and may retain them all their lives.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. What are the main ideas behind participant, subject, and parochial political culture?

 

  1. What are the two sides of the “culture wars” in America, and why does such a schism exist?

 

  1. How do delegates to both Republican and Democratic conventions illustrate the divisions between elite and mass subculture?

 

  1. How does national integration today contrast with national integration in previous eras?

 

  1. How are families an example of an agent of socialization?

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is political culture? What are some essential elements of American political culture? In turn, address the differences between political culture and public opinion. Have the essential elements of American political culture changed over time or not? Provide examples in your response.

 

 

 

  1. Describe the three political cultures as presented by Almond and Verba. What are the outcomes of these different political cultures? What is the significance of these outcomes? Compare countries where each political culture is at work.

 

  1. Has political culture decayed in general? Specifically, has it decayed in America? If so, what are the factors that have led to this decay? What are the outcomes of this decay? Is there hope for resurgence? Explain.

 

  1. What is a subculture? What is a minority subculture? What are their functions in the broader political arena? Do these subcultures play similar roles across countries?

 

  1. Describe the process of political socialization. What are the various sources of political socialization? Which sources are strongest and why? As regards political socialization, what are the roles of the state and what is the relationship between state and society? What happens when sources of socialization provide conflicting information? Provide examples.

 

 

Chapter 8-    Public Opinion

 

Chapter 8-       Public Opinion

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Public opinion is important in a __________, but it is often ignorant, fickle, and

untrustworthy.

 

  1. A) fascist state
  2. B) democracy
  3. C) totalitarian state
  4. D) plutocracy

 

 

  1. __________ can lead or tamper with public opinion.

 

  1. A) Protests
  2. B) Elections
  3. C) Interest groups
  4. D) The church

 

  1. A __________ government cannot be one led through sheer violence and coercion.

 

  1. A) fundamentalist
  2. B) long-lasting
  3. C) malevolent
  4. D) military

 

  1. Though a man’s opinion of his neighbor’s religion would not be part of public opinion, that

man’s feeling on __________ would be.

 

  1. A) the best brand of camera
  2. B) the quality of artwork on offer at the local art museum
  3. C) the state of his local church
  4. D) prayer in public schools

 

  1. Elections may point to what voters generally think of a candidate overall but __________.

 

  1. A) rarely focus on specific issues
  2. B) are usually unreliable
  3. C) rarely actually focus on general issues
  4. D) tend to be poorly administered

 

  1. Widespread sympathy can be generated by bringing grievances to national attention, especially __________.

 

  1. A) when scholars monitor those grievances
  2. B) when only small town politicians are involved
  3. C) when the media watch
  4. D) if the church becomes involved

 

  1. How was the event of 1971, in which President Nixon announced that he would be the first president to visit China, a positive example of governments creating the public opinion they desire?

 

  1. A) Americans actively protested.
  2. B) Americans supported the decision.
  3. C) Americans supported the decision until trip became an embarrassment.
  4. D) Americans supported the President, but not the trip.

 

  1. How was American support of the policy of Bush senior on Lithuania, as indicated by a solid majority in a1991 poll, indicative of the concept that public opinion shows widespread ignorance?

 

  1. A) None knew how long Bush had been in office.
  2. B) Most were more concerned with Latvia.
  3. C) Most had a negative view of Lithuania.
  4. D) None knew where Lithuania was located.

 

  1. Which is a possible explanation for the failure of scientific sampling method in the 1948 U.S. election when Dewey was solidly predicted to defeat Truman?

 

  1. A) The error was in assuming that respondents who said they were decided would wind up voting in the same ratio as those who had already undecided.
  2. B) The error was in assuming that respondents who said they were undecided would wind up voting in the same ratio as those who had already decided.
  3. C) The error was in assuming that non-respondents would wind up voting in the same ratio as those who had already decided.
  4. D) The error was in assuming that Democrats who said they were undecided would wind up voting in the same ratio as those Republicans who had already decided.

 

  1. If the majority of citizens are opposed to a given policy or action why might the government go ahead with that policy or action?

 

  1. A) Politicians tend to be arrogant and believe what they think is right.
  2. B) In order to rouse the people to action, even if it is action against a government policy.
  3. C) Citizen preference does not always reflect what is best for the nation, in general.
  4. D) The government rarely has a way of knowing what the people think.

 

 

  1. The two ways social class tends to be measured is __________.

 

  1. A) objective and subjective
  2. B) rational and irrational
  3. C) republican and democratic
  4. D) militaristic and diplomatic

 

  1. __________ people have been shown by survey results to be tolerant, favor civil rights, and understand different viewpoints.

 

  1. A) Religious
  2. B) Wealthy
  3. C) College-educated
  4. D) Rural

 

  1. Women, in most recent elections, were several percentage points more likely to vote __________ for president than were men.

 

  1. A) Republican
  2. B) Democrat
  3. C) Green Party
  4. D) Libertarian

 

 

 

  1. When summarized statistically in curves that show the distribution of opinions on a range from one extreme position to the other, when there is a matter on which there are few doubters, opinions are shown to be __________to one side, in the shape of a __________.

 

  1. A) skewed; J-curve
  2. B) unimodal; single hump
  3. C) polarizing; flat-line
  4. D) bimodal; U-curve

 

 

  1. What is the main idea of a country’s outlying regions’ relationship with the capital? Those outlying regions usually __________.

 

  1. A) attempt to align themselves with the capital’s policies
  2. B) find themselves inundated with city-dwellers looking for work
  3. C) fail entirely to communicate with the capital
  4. D) harbor resentment against the capital

 

 

  1. Describe the relationship between the mass public and complicated political decisions?

 

  1. A) Though they rarely react after decisions have been made, the mass public does not comprehend a great deal about complex issues.
  2. B) Though they can react after decisions have been made, the mass public does in fact comprehend a great deal about complex issues.
  3. C) Though they can react after decisions have been made, the mass public does not comprehend a great deal about complex issues.
  4. D) Though they almost never react after decisions have been made, the mass public does take action on decisions before and/or during the evolution of those decisions.

 

 

 

  1. What must good public opinion studies do, especially those dealing with complex or specialized queries?

 

  1. A) Distinguish between elite and mass opinions
  2. B) Attempt to complicate the respondents’ responses, in order to get at their real opinions
  3. C) Pose the simplest questions possible
  4. D) Separate conservative from liberal opinions

 

 

  1. In the 1980s, as represented by the gender gap, women liked federal programs for home and family and disliked the Republican emphasis on __________ and disdain for women’s rights.

 

  1. A) corruption
  2. B) regionalism
  3. C) economics
  4. D) war

 

 

  1. How was Catholic John F. Kerry’s stance on abortion a factor in his 2004 run for President?

 

  1. A) Catholics tend not to vote.
  2. B) It lost Kerry many Catholic votes.
  3. C) It won Kerry many Catholic votes.
  4. D) It had little to no impact via Catholic voters, who tend to vote as actively as other sectors of the public.

 

 

  1. How were veterans’ experiences in Vietnam related to their position on the U.S. war in Iraq? They __________ of/in the U.S. war in Iraq.

 

  1. A) were instinctively critical
  2. B) tended to be uninterested
  3. C) were adamantly in favor
  4. D) tended to want to take part

 

 

 

  1. What is an example of American manual workers going against the expected habits of their class.

 

  1. A) African American laborers motivated by noneconomic issues, such as race, gun control, etc. moving toward support of the Republican party
  2. B) White working-class Americans motivated by noneconomic issues, such as race, gun control, etc. moving toward support of the Republican party
  3. C) Working-class Hispanics motivated by noneconomic issues, such as race, gun control, etc. moving toward support of the Green party
  4. D) White working-class Americans motivated by economic issues

 

 

  1. According to Almond’s “three publics,” the elite might play to the “attentive public” because they __________.

 

  1. A) tend to pass on views that mobilize the general public
  2. B) tend to pass on views that mobilize other elites
  3. C) rarely pass on negative views that might upset the general public
  4. D) rarely pass on views that simply repeat those of the elite

 

 

  1. Why might wealthy people consider themselves to be middle class?

 

  1. A) They perceive their class status to be in danger of imminent decline.
  2. B) Their ancestors were working class.
  3. C) They hope to set themselves apart from their fellow elites.
  4. D) They have working class origins.

 

  1. Why did some fear the hollowing out of the American middle class, while Americans simultaneously lost some of their belief that coming generations would always rise?

 

  1. A) American social mobility fell behind that of West Europe’s and Canada’s.
  2. B) American social mobility fell behind that of North Africa’s and Eastern Europe’s.
  3. C) The social mobility of the poorest Americans fell behind that of those in West Europe and Canada.
  4. D) The social mobility of only the American middle-class rose while the other classes saw a decline in social mobility.

 

 

  1. Particularly in__________, published surveys are quite carefully watched.

 

  1. A) wartime
  2. B) Africa
  3. C) election years
  4. D) the south

 

 

  1. The least expensive approaches to polling—a generally expensive activity—tend to be __________.

 

  1. A) generally as effective as more expensive approaches
  2. B) the most accurate
  3. C) the least accurate
  4. D) entirely inaccurate

 

 

  1. What relatively new obstacle has arisen in regards to accurate telephone surveys?

 

  1. A) Americans tend to simply decline or hang up.
  2. B) Widespread technical issues
  3. C) Many people provide misleading answer during phone surveys.
  4. D) Very few respondents vote.

 

  1. A debate that has arisen over some of the side effects of published surveys is whether __________.

 

  1. A) people are educated enough to answer surveys appropriately
  2. B) by treating polls as authoritative verdicts, journalists create self-fulfilling prophecies
  3. C) men answer as honestly as women
  4. D) polls are too conservative to determine policy

 

  1. Describe how tone of voice and facial expressions play a role in the delivery of the polling questions.

 

  1. A) In order to avoid discouraging one response over another and the skewing of results, pollsters must utilize sympathetic looks.
  2. B) In order to avoid encouraging one response over another and the skewing of results, pollsters must avoid dressing to conservatively and sympathetic looks.
  3. C) In order to avoid encouraging one response over another and the skewing of results, pollsters must avoid certain tones of voice and using foreign accents.
  4. D) In order to avoid encouraging one response over another and the skewing of results, pollsters must avoid certain tones of voice and sympathetic looks.

 

  1. A survey sampling aimed at being both random and highly representative must involve selecting which of the following?

 

  1. A) Geographic districts to sample, their religious characteristics, and random selection of which people to question from various categories
  2. B) Republican districts to sample, their population characteristics, and random selection of which people to question from various categories
  3. C) Geographic districts to sample, their population characteristics, and random selection of which people to question from a very narrow range of categories
  4. D) Geographic districts to sample, their population characteristics, and random selection of which people to question from various categories

 

 

  1. When you hypothesize that decreases in a nation’s per capita GDP lead it away from Democracy, what kind of variable are you demonstrating?

 

  1. A) Dependent
  2. B) Unifying
  3. C) Independent
  4. D) Opaque

 

 

  1. How was the following 1965 exchange between a Johnson aid and Lyndon Johnson—who was both escalating the war in Vietnam and a close watcher of the polls—illustrative of the volatility of public opinion: The aid told Johnson: “we have overwhelming public opinion on our side.” Johnson replied, “Yes, but for a very underwhelming period of time.”

 

  1. A) Two-thirds support for the war in 1965 turned into two-thirds opposition in 1968
  2. B) Two-thirds opposition for the war in 1965 turned into two-thirds support in 1968
  3. C) Two-thirds support for the war in 1965 remained two-thirds support in 1968
  4. D) Two-thirds opposition for the war in 1965 remained two-thirds opposition in 1968

 

 

  1. How did a new breed of “precision pollsters” in 2012 markedly alter the way established firms conducted polling?

 

  1. A) By focusing on trends of only a few groups, especially in the swing states, to accurately predict an Obama win in both the popular vote and the Electoral College.
  2. B) By focusing on trends in various groups, especially in the non-swing states, to accurately predict an Obama win in both the popular vote and the Electoral College.
  3. C) By focusing on trends in various groups, especially in the swing states, to accurately predict an Obama win in both the popular vote and the Electoral College.
  4. D) By focusing on trends in Democratic groups, especially in the swing states, to accurately predict an Obama win in both the popular vote and the Electoral College.

 

 

  1. Why is it difficult to include a proportionally representative cross section of society in the process of polling?

 

  1. A) It is extremely difficult to separate society into groups.
  2. B) If they query too many or too few of various groups, they lose proportionality.
  3. C) So few people want to take part in polls.
  4. D) Proportionality is little valued by those sponsoring the polls.

 

 

  1. Presidents traditionally start with __________ support and then support__________.

 

  1. A) low; rises
  2. B) high; remains high
  3. C) high; declines
  4. D) erratic; stabilizes

 

 

  1. Groups are invested in a variety of questions, thus public opinion is __________.

 

  1. A) predictable
  2. B) fragmented
  3. C) easily quantifiable
  4. D) unitary

 

 

  1. Describe the kind of difficult events which a president faces and which rallies the American people to that president.

 

  1. A) Breaking ground for a new government building
  2. B) An unsuccessful hunt for an international criminal
  3. C) International hostage crisis
  4. D) Personal infidelity

 

 

  1. What impact does a bad economy have for presidential popularity?

 

  1. A) A decline in popularity
  2. B) A rise in popularity, as an effort at encouragement
  3. C) Little to no impact
  4. D) Researchers find it nearly impossible to generalize about the relationship between a bad economy and presidential popularity

 

  1. Describe the relationship Americans have with gun control.

 

  1. A) Most favor some form of gun control, but most also own guns.
  2. B) Though they are primarily uninformed about the issue, most favor some form of gun control.
  3. C) In addition being quite energized about the issue, most also favor form of gun control.
  4. D) Though they are primarily lukewarm about the issue, most favor some form of gun control.

 

  1. What impact does a bad economy have for presidential popularity?

 

  1. A) A decline in popularity
  2. B) A rise in popularity, as an effort at encouragement
  3. C) Little to no impact
  4. D) Researchers find it nearly impossible to generalize about the relationship between a bad economy and presidential popularity

 

 

  1. How is the failure of the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion an example of the impact dramatic foreign policy events often have on public support of the president?

 

  1. A) Support for the president remained unmoved.
  2. B) Even as a failure, the event spurred public support for President Kennedy.
  3. C) The event spurred public disdain for President Kennedy.
  4. D) The failure led to a decline in military support for Kennedy which only then led to a decline in public support.

 

 

  1. What is the impact of the perception of political elites that most Americans do not know enough to form sound opinions on vital issues of the day?

 

  1. A) Political elites, aware of the ignorance and low interest of the general public, may convince themselves not to give all of their attention to foreign policy.
  2. B) Political elites, aware of the high level of political knowledge and high interest of the general public, may convince themselves to pay too much attention to public opinion.
  3. C) Political elites, aware of the ignorance and low interest of the general public, may convince themselves not to pay much attention to public opinion.
  4. D) Political elites, aware of the ignorance and low interest of the general public, may convince themselves to spend most of their time trying to spur public interest in politics.

 

 

  1. Why might retired people support economic liberal programs like Social Security and Medicare despite calling themselves conservative?

 

  1. A) Americans are not particularly clear about what they mean by “liberal” or “conservative.”
  2. B) Americans do not particularly care about labels like “liberal” or “conservative.”
  3. C) Retired people tend to have quite unpredictable political positions.
  4. D) Social Security and Medicare were once considered conservative economic programs.

 

  1. Why is it that despite Jews only making up less than 2 percent of the U.S. population most elected officials take a pro-Israel stance?

 

  1. A) A great deal of elected officials are themselves Jewish.
  2. B) Most elected officials are ignorant of the politics of Israel, and so simply go along with the wishes of American Jews.
  3. C) Most elected officials are predisposed to supporting Israel regardless of pressure from citizens.
  4. D) Among American Jews are extremely avid supporters of Israel.

 

  1. Not only can polls keep track of public opinion, they can also __________.

 

  1. A) alienate politicians
  2. B) encourage people to run for office
  3. C) cancel out public opinion
  4. D) craft public opinion

 

  1. Some urge __________ in an effort not to impact elections that are in progress.

 

  1. A) a delay in publication of the results of exit polls
  2. B) a delay in broadcasting the results of exit polls
  3. C) quicker release of entrance poll results
  4. D) avoiding the use of exit polls altogether

 

 

  1. Poor poll showings, especially early in the campaign __________.

 

  1. A) are very rarely a self-fulfilling prophecy of defeat some candidates
  2. B) discourage the media from covering the data they accrue
  3. C) are a self-fulfilling prophecy of defeat some candidates
  4. D) often encourage voters to turnout to ensure their candidate pulls out the win

 

 

  1. There is no __________ to control(ling) the broadcasting of polls.

 

  1. A) constitutionally legal way, to date
  2. B) desire among citizens
  3. C) way, at all
  4. D) benefit

 

 

  1. How is the influence of exit polls related to the U.S. presidential vote, in comparison to the House or state legislatures?

 

  1. A) Immense evidence has been found that exit polls influence the U.S. presidential vote, as well as influencing other contests for the House, Senate, or state legislatures.
  2. B) No evidence has been found that exit polls influence the U.S. presidential vote, and they are though not to influence other contests for the House, Senate, or state legislatures either.
  3. C) No evidence has been found that exit polls influence the U.S. presidential vote, but they might influence other contests for the House, Senate, or state legislatures.
  4. D) Some evidence has been found that exit polls influence the U.S. presidential vote, but have been proven not to influence other contests for the House, Senate, or state legislatures.

 

 

  1. Why might leading early in the polls be crucial to a politician running for office?

 

  1. A) Those who trail in the early polls statistically get more contributions, more news coverage, and thus more supporters over the course of the campaign.
  2. B) Those who lead in the early polls get fewer contributions, but they receive more news coverage, and thus more supporters.
  3. C) Those who trail in the early polls get more contributions, but less news coverage, and a middle-range number of supporters.
  4. D) Those who lead in the early polls get more contributions, more news coverage, and thus more supporters.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Even in the long-term, presidents who shrug off public opinion remain vilified.

 

 

  1. Only democracies are vulnerable to public opinion.

 

  1. The U.S. bailouts that were a response to the 2008 financial meltdown were a result of elite consensus and contrary to the will of the majority—thus indicating a frequent gap between

elites and mass public opinion.

 

  1. Beginning with the work of Karl Marx, scholars have treated social class as an important factor in public opinion.

 

  1. The weak relationship between education and social class contributes to polarization.

 

  1. Wallonia in Belgium and Basque country in Spain are examples of center-periphery tensions.

 

  1. All public opinion polls pose questions to a group of randomly selected individuals without reference to their age, gender, or location.

 

  1. “Conservative” and “liberal” can have varying meanings for voters, particularly when considering economic versus noneconomic issues.

 

  1. American presidents experience their highest public opinion ratings during their honeymoon period and after “rally events” such as the Iran hostage crisis.

 

  1. Some nations, like France, bar publishing polls for two days before and during election day.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. In 2012, __________, an approach honed by statistician Nate Silver, made polling more accurate.

 

 

  1. Because surveys work best when focused on specific details, public opinion can be seen as a backup and detailing for inputting __________ into politics.

 

 

  1. A “God gap” was brought into U.S. politics by the rise of the __________.

 

 

  1. Because Republicans criticized the anti-semitic repression of Jews in __________, nineteenth-century American Jews tended to self-describe as Republicans.

 

  1. __________ opinion curves are the basis of democracy.

 

 

  1. Any survey that records only those who __________ is invalid.

 

 

  1. 100 to 200 regular interviewers in different areas around the country who each interview 15 to 20 persons in a designated locality offer the most __________ method of sampling.

 

 

  1. Because they have ideas and __________, the attentive public, although relatively few in number, has great impact on politics.

 

  1. The killing of Osama bin Laden in 2011 caused President Obama’s public support ratings to ________, but only briefly.

 

 

  1. __________ decisions tend to guide public opinion.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is the relationship between public opinion and ignorance/knowledge?

 

 

  1. What are the three aspects of Almond’s “three publics,” and why are they of significance?

 

  1. How does the manner or way of asking questions impact polling?

 

 

  1. How does the way different regimes treat both the attentive public and its intellectuals compare?

 

 

  1. Does the early prediction in the East persuade westerners not to bother to vote?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is public opinion? What is not public opinion? Why are policymakers concerned with public opinion? What are the consequences of politicians paying attention to public opinion? Provide examples in your response.

 

 

 

  1. What factors affect public opinion? Which factors appear to be most important? Which are least important? Are some factors closely related to others? Explain and provide examples of each factor.

 

  1. What are public opinion polls? To whom are they useful? How are public opinion polls conducted? Are they reliable? Why or why not?

 

  1. What factors and/or events drive presidential ratings? Why are there particular periods during a presidency that are more predictable in relation to his popularity? Use examples from at least two presidents to further explore your initial discussion. What are the impacts of presidential approval based on one situation for other areas of presidential activity?

 

  1. Are polls an alternative form of direct democracy? Should policy decisions be made based on polls? Why or why not? In your answer, address the benefits and disadvantages of public opinion polls. Provide examples.

 

 

Chapter 9-  Political Communication

Chapter 9-       Political Communication

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Which president’s 1828 victory over John Quincy Adams is generally considered one of the dirtiest media campaigns in history?

 

  1. A) Thomas Jefferson
  2. B) Andrew Jackson
  3. C) James Madison
  4. D) Ulysses S. Grant

 

  1. Franklin D. Roosevelt won support for his policies through which radio program?

 

  1. A) Fireside follies
  2. B) Hearthside manner
  3. C) Democracy now
  4. D) Fireside chats

 

 

  1. Through tracking the use of mail, newspapers, and telephone calls, Karl W. Deutsch is remembered for demonstrating which of the following facts?

 

  1. A) The political system and the communication system inversely influence one another.
  2. B) The political system and the communication system negatively influence one another.
  3. C) The political system and the communication system parallel one another.
  4. D) The political system and the communication system deter one another.

 

 

  1. Given its lack of tradition in objective reporting, __________ tend(s) to be wildly partisan.

 

  1. A) blogs
  2. B) newspapers
  3. C) television
  4. D) radio

 

 

  1. Face-to-face communication is most effective for altering political opinions because __________.

 

  1. A) it allows for dialogue to occur between parties
  2. B) it is most directly accessible to the observer
  3. C) it is more audible than other forms of media
  4. D) audiences tend to trust it

 

 

  1. Recall one reason mass media yields a greater voter-opinion return than face-to-face communication.

 

  1. A) It appeals to a more intelligent demographic.
  2. B) Its audience is more easily influenced.
  3. C) Face-to-face communication lacks technological complexity.
  4. D) It reaches a larger audience.

 

  1. Identify one way in which television influenced the 1960s civil-rights movement in a way that print and radio did not.

 

  1. A) It directly communicated commentators’ opinions.
  2. B) It showed fire hoses and police dogs attacking peaceful marchers.
  3. C) Pundits advocated for non-violent direct action.
  4. D) It allowed news anchors to articulate their convictions orally.

 

  1. Identify the statement that supports the assertion that “Fewer Americans now are interested in news than they were one or two generations ago.”

 

  1. A) Today’s newspapers have a weaker impact on voting demographics.
  2. B) Terrorist attacks generate copious media attention.
  3. C) Only about a third of people watch television news or read newspapers.
  4. D) Viewers are only interested in lascivious and licentious news stories.

 

  1. An oligopoly occurs when __________.

 

  1. A) a single corporation owns and controls an entire industry
  2. B) a small number of corporations own and control an entire industry
  3. C) a single person owns and controls an entire industry
  4. D) the government owns and controls an entire industry

 

 

  1. The elite press exposes public wrongdoing via __________, which the average outlet typically avoids for fear of legal repercussions.

 

  1. A) investigative reporting
  2. B) espionage techniques
  3. C) security leaks
  4. D) computer hacking

 

 

  1. Of the following demographics, who, statistically, who is likely to “consume” the most media?

 

  1. A) An electrician who holds a G.E.D.
  2. B) A college professor who has earned a PhD.
  3. C) A registered nurse with a master’s degree
  4. D) A college undergraduate

 

  1. Statistically speaking, which family member would probably pay the most attention to media?

 

  1. A) Your 21 year-old brother
  2. B) Your 13 year-old cousin
  3. C) Your 16 year-old sister
  4. D) Your 39 year-old mother

 

  1. Identify the media outlet that holds the most influence over the American public, despite its relatively small audience base.

 

  1. A) Newspapers
  2. B) Radio
  3. C) Elite media
  4. D) Local news services

 

  1. Analyze the role of wire-service copy in generating content for local media.

 

  1. A) Local media outlets avoid wire-service copy, relying instead on their own reporters.
  2. B) Wire-service copy dictates, by manner of national policy, the content of local media outlets.
  3. C) The Associated Press provides local news outlets with much of its reported content through wire-service copy.
  4. D) The Associated Press owns most local media outlets nationwide and uses wire-service copy to ensure uniform content.

 

 

  1. What is the relationship between the Associated Press (AP) and the U.S. government?

 

  1. A) The government owns and operates the AP.
  2. B) The government closely supervises the AP, but does not control it.
  3. C) The government heavily subsidizes the AP, indirectly influencing its content.
  4. D) The AP is free of government influence, financial or otherwise.

 

 

  1. What is one political advantage of social media possessed neither by televised nor print media?

 

  1. A) The Web reaches a very wide demographic base.
  2. B) The Internet may catch stories the conventional media may overlook.
  3. C) Blogs receive content from the Associated Press.
  4. D) Search engines allow users to look up whatever they want, allowing them to focus on candidates they already like.

 

 

  1. In 2007, Talking Points Memo “jolted” the conventional media by reporting which of the following stories?

 

  1. A) A terrorist attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya.
  2. B) Then-Senator Obama’s intention to campaign for the presidency.
  3. C) The Bush administration’s termination of liberal-leaning attorneys.
  4. D) Scandal concerning the U.S. invasion of Iraq.

 

 

  1. 9/11 produced strong media support preceding the 2003 Iraq War, leaving the public largely uncritical of President Bush. This is an example of a(n) __________.

 

  1. A) media exposé
  2. B) investigative report
  3. C) undermining morale
  4. D) rally event

 

  1. In 2009, Iranians used computers and cell phones to mobilize against a rigged election. This is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) the media’s insufficiency in dealing with massive crowds
  2. B) a non-violent coup d’état
  3. C) digital media’s ability to undermine undemocratic regimes
  4. D) the potential threat of digital spies like the “Wikileaks” organization

 

 

  1. How does television compare to the Internet and social media?

 

  1. A) Both may reach wide audiences, but television is less convincing.
  2. B) The Internet is widely used, but inefficacious at influencing public opinion.
  3. C) Television appeals to more educated audiences, who tend not to trust what they read online.
  4. D) Television coverage is more uniform, while reporting on the Internet is widely varied.

 

 

  1. Which of the following media outlets would likely seem dangerous to a corrupt, authoritarian regime with a strong information monopoly?

 

  1. A) Newspaper editorials
  2. B) Television anchors
  3. C) Internet blogs
  4. D) Primetime coverage

 

 

  1. Many blame television sound bites for __________.

 

  1. A) the trivialization of politics
  2. B) the spread of false information
  3. C) corrupt political campaigns
  4. D) the rise of social media

 

 

  1. “Taking Heads” provide a sense of personality and credibility by __________.

 

  1. A) disseminating memorable slogans
  2. B) relaying political information to viewers
  3. C) appearing calm and collected in the face of a crisis
  4. D) imitating face-to-face communication

 

  1. According to communication theorist Marshall McLuhan, television is an inherently emotional medium because __________.

 

  1. A) viewers associate it more closely with film
  2. B) its coverage bypasses the brain and goes straight to the heart
  3. C) it presents politicians as familiar and therefore likeable characters
  4. D) makeup and lighting effects make its subjects appear more attractive

 

  1. Coined by sociologist Erving Goffman, __________ refers to the basic line of a news story.

 

  1. A) coverage
  2. B) framing
  3. C) narration
  4. D) conflict

 

 

  1. Since the invention of the telegraph, Washington has allowed private companies to operate communications __________.

 

  1. A) under strict guidelines
  2. B) with large government subsidies
  3. C) independently for profit
  4. D) under tax sheltered annuities

 

  1. Nonpaternalism is defined as __________.

 

  1. A) the absence of supervision or guidance
  2. B) ubiquitous control by a legislative body
  3. C) a censure of executive government
  4. D) a decline in federal oversight

 

 

  1. Television usually covers events after the fact, because __________.

 

  1. A) advertising time restraints make live coverage difficult to manage
  2. B) viewers tend not to tune in until close to 6:00 pm
  3. C) camera crews don’t always know in advance what’s going to happen
  4. D) the Associated Press works on a twenty-minute delay

 

  1. Press conferences, committee hearings, official statements—and recently, YouTube videos—probably wouldn’t receive much airtime except for television’s lopsided schedule and its need to cover something. Critics call these phenomena __________.

 

  1. A) media events
  2. B) coverage vacuums
  3. C) televised posturing
  4. D) journalistic filler

 

  1. Television deepens a long-term tendency toward “president-worship” by __________.

 

  1. A) covering influential supreme court cases
  2. B) critiquing specific members of congress
  3. C) reporting primarily on the legislative branch
  4. D) focusing attention heavily on the executive branch

 

  1. U.S. television campaigning costs have risen to the billions, costing up to $100,000 for a one-minute spot. This cost has directly influenced virtually all __________ campaigns.

 

  1. A) presidential and judicial
  2. B) judicial and congressional
  3. C) mayoral and gubernatorial
  4. D) senatorial and presidential

 

  1. Interpret the impact of negative ads on the outcome of a campaign, as evidenced by the 2012 U.S. presidential election.

 

  1. A) Negative ads are effective in swaying voters unidentified with a political party.
  2. B) Negative ads almost always assure a win for the party that runs them.
  3. C) Voters tend to tune them out, and thus, they have little effect.
  4. D) Campaigns profit from negative ads by attacking their opponent’s weak points.

 

  1. Under many circumstances, increased media attention can favor an incumbent president; however, it can easily damage a campaign when __________.

 

  1. A) the president fails to fix a problem and the media implies he is making it worse
  2. B) another news story focuses attention elsewhere
  3. C) a challenging candidate makes a political “gaff,” attracting media attention to himself
  4. D) the president fixes a problem to the dissatisfaction of the opposing party

 

  1. Which of the following events is an example of the “bandwagon effect”?

 

  1. A) An incumbent candidate loses a political debate, but earns his party’s nomination regardless.
  2. B) Commentators proclaim a candidate the “winner” of a political debate; the candidate then carries that momentum to gain his party’s nomination.
  3. C) Commentators proclaim a political debate a “tie,” but the challenging candidate receives a favorable bump in the polls.
  4. D) Unable to decide between two strong candidates, a party compromises to nominate a little-known candidate.

 

 

  1. When large U.S. financial firms threatened to collapse in 2008, media coverage tended to favor the White House narrative that the nation was on the brink of another “Great Crash,” ignoring the more critical story put forth by academic think-tanks. This is an example of how __________ have the upper hand in framing a story.

 

  1. A) legislators
  2. B) pundits
  3. C) elites
  4. D) lobbyists

 

 

  1. Analyze the media’s longtime ignorance of the hatred brewing against Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak, only to focus heavily on his regime when large crowds amassed chanting for his ouster.

 

  1. A) News producers pay more attention to stories with good visuals than without.
  2. B) Reporters are biased against Middle Eastern politics.
  3. C) Viewers tend to respond poorly to stories on dictatorial regimes.
  4. D) Audiences favor sports programming over stories with political implications.

 

 

  1. How has television shaped the roles of political party organizations and leaders in nominating candidates for election?

 

  1. A) Leaders are bypassed as candidates enter party conventions with established momentum.
  2. B) Party leaders have gained increased control as they develop close ties to the media.
  3. C) Organizations have strengthened due to divisive bipartisan sound bites.
  4. D) Parties have weakened due to increased media expenditures.

 

 

  1. Assess the efficacy of narrow-angle coverage in framing a high-profile news story.

 

  1. A) Due to its ability to provide a ground-level perspective, narrow-angle coverage is the truest style of reporting.
  2. B) Narrow-angle coverage provides well-rounded reporting, providing a more complete understanding of the issue at hand.
  3. C) Narrow-angle coverage creates a realistic understanding of the situation at hand, but is highly ineffective in generating emotional appeal.
  4. D) Narrow-angle coverage creates positive audience response, but does little to offer a holistic understanding of the conflict being covered.

 

 

  1. Analyze the relationship between television viewership and group participation.

 

  1. A) Increased viewing leads to increased political involvement.
  2. B) Decreased viewing is associated with a decline in perceived voter efficacy.
  3. C) Increased viewing is associated with lower social trust and group membership.
  4. D) Decreased viewing has no statistically significant effect on voter participation.

 

 

  1. The war in which country, which cost $1 trillion and 2,000 American lives, went largely ignored during the 2012 presidential election?

 

  1. A) Iraq
  2. B) Syria
  3. C) Libya
  4. D) Afghanistan

 

  1. Because the president gets in and out of helicopters, visits foreign leaders, and is sometimes involved in scandals, the media tends to cover the executive branch more heavily than the legislative or judicial branches. This is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) checks and balances
  2. B) televised glut
  3. C) structural bias
  4. D) executive drama

 

  1. As sports and local interests generate the best response from consumers, communications theorists claim that the general public __________.

 

  1. A) is comprised of avid sports fans
  2. B) dislikes complicated, in-depth analyses
  3. C) receives its news from other sources
  4. D) prefers entertainment-style news

 

  1. Why do state governments tend to receive less media attention than national or even local governments?

 

  1. A) States possess little legislative power.
  2. B) Few media outlets focus primarily on state politics.
  3. C) Political action at the state level does little to directly influence viewers’ lives.
  4. D) Not all viewers pay state taxes.

 

 

 

  1. Which U.S. president famously muttered, “You won’t have __________ to kick around anymore” after losing the 1962 California governor’s race.

 

  1. A) John F. Kennedy
  2. B) Lyndon B. Johnson
  3. C) Richard Nixon
  4. D) Ronald Reagan

 

 

 

  1. Which early U.S. president is noted for having said, “Were it left to me to decide [between government without] newspapers and newspapers without government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”

 

  1. A) George Washington
  2. B) John Adams
  3. C) Thomas Jefferson
  4. D) Andrew Jackson

 

 

  1. Due to the routine killing of investigative reporters in countries like Russia, Ukraine and Mexico, many papers in such places practice __________ to stay open and alive.

 

  1. A) anonymous reporting
  2. B) executive control
  3. C) adversarial printing
  4. D) self-censorship

 

  1. The 1964 New York Times v. Sullivan U.S. Supreme Court decision states that __________, as “public” persons are presumed open to media scrutiny.

 

  1. A) the press is largely protected from charges of libel
  2. B) newspapers can be sued over accusations of libel
  3. C) television anchors are wholly exempt from charges of slander
  4. D) radio personalities can be charged with defamation

 

 

  1. Tired of repetitive, misleading briefings, journalists began to “snoop around” in the Vietnam War, uncovering a corrupt and inept Saigon regime. This is an example of a(n) __________ relationship.

 

  1. A) adversarial
  2. B) compliant
  3. C) disjunctive
  4. D) platonic

 

  1. Compare the influence of television on public opinion concerning the Vietnam and Korean Wars.

 

  1. A) Televised bloodshed in both incidents incited public outrage.
  2. B) Despite the televised bloodshed in Vietnam, the sheer body count swayed public opinion against the war.
  3. C) Depicting droves of North Korean and Chinese soldiers, televised content in the Korean War rallied public support.
  4. D) Television had no effect on either conflict.

 

  1. Republicans often claim the media maintains a liberal bias; radicals argue that the media defers to the president and large corporations. The media’s exhaustive coverage of President Clinton and the Monica Lewinsky affair suggests that __________.

 

  1. A) only left-leaning institutions come under media scrutiny
  2. B) only radical institutions come under media scrutiny
  3. C) conservative institutions primarily come under media scrutiny
  4. D) most institutions, left or right, eventually come under media scrutiny

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Radio usage has increased in popularity since 2003.

 

  1. The Associated Press prides itself on fairness and objectivity.

 

 

  1. Most newspaper revenue comes from advertising.

 

 

 

  1. Wire services define news as information that comes from an official “source.”

 

 

 

  1. A nation’s increased communication positively correlates with increased modernization.

 

 

  1. Started by Howard Dean’s 2004 bid for president, online campaign funding has since proven to be ineffective.

 

 

  1. Super-PACs maintain the ability to contribute unlimited funding.

 

  1. Though they place the news into a meaningful context, editorials and columns never contain more news than straight news stories.

 

 

 

  1. All the President’s Men revealed a massive cover-up by the Oval Office.

 

 

  1. In Saigon, the U.S. military held afternoon press briefings, dubbed the “five o’clock follies,” in which upbeat spokesmen portrayed progress in the war.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. Scholars have long recognized the dependence of politics on __________.

 

 

  1. China employs tens of thousands of social-media watchers and arrests critical bloggers, but Chinese people take pride in freeware that allows them to jump the __________.

 

 

  1. The Internet simply releases stories as the news digests without paying for them, under the slogan, “__________.”

 

  1. Long the dean of television anchors, Walter Cronkite stated that television news was just a “__________ service.”

 

 

  1. Many voters ignore party labels, a trend political scientists call __________.

 

  1. Television has enhanced media coverage for the White House during political campaigns, but not always in the __________’s favor.

 

  1. Charges and countercharges—especially from super-PACs—place __________ on the candidate, sometimes provoking indecision and apathy.

 

  1. The civil service and state __________ are particularly under covered by the media.

 

  1. Although they made Johnson the chief culprit, Nixon was outraged by the release of the __________.

 

  1. Studies show that news reporters and writers tend to be __________, a bias that sometimes appears in their coverage.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. How do elite media influence reportage beyond the proportion of their circulation?

 

  1. How can social media undermine a dictatorial regime?

 

  1. What benefits and detriments does the media pose to an incumbent candidate?

 

  1. Why is there little coverage by any entity other than the elite media of likely international trouble spots?

 

  1. Explain the adversarial relationship between media and government. Provide an example.

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. In 2009, Iranians used computers and mobile phones to organize against rigged elections and a corrupt regime. In what ways does social media possess the potential to undermine dictatorial regimes? Is this form of media sustainable as an outlet for free speech? Cite specific examples.

 

 

  1. Television commentators often proclaim “winners” and “losers” in presidential primary races, labeling certain candidates “front-runners.” What is the effect of such labeling? How does it contribute to the “bandwagon effect” and what result does this produce on the outcome of a political campaign?

 

  1. In many ways, television coverage can be beneficial for incumbent candidates, particularly presidential ones. However, when an incumbent comes under fire, it can be equally detrimental. Compare and contrast the advantages of incumbency in the media. What hurdles does the president face? How can he use the media in his favor? Provide specific examples from past election cycles.

 

  1. Since the 1970s, the U.S. presidency has been fraught with an adversarial relationship with the media. Explain this adversarial relationship and identify its underlying causes. Provide specific examples contributing to its formation.

 

  1. Vietnam is described as the first television war. Shots of bodies and bloody GIs quickly had the American public up in arms. Despite the visual aspect of this conflict, public opinion turned on that war much in the way it did during the Korean War, on which there was no television coverage—as the casualties mounted. Assess the influence of visual media on public opinion. Does it heavily influence public opinion, as some critics suggest? Or is the public more affected by statistics and objective reporting?

 

Chapter 10-     Interest Groups

 

Chapter 10-     Interest Groups

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Federal lobbying currently costs around $ __________ per year.

 

  1. A) 500 million
  2. B) 5 billion
  3. C) 1 billion
  4. D) 5 million

 

  1. What group or groups do interest groups over-represent?

 

  1. A) The wealthy and specialized interest groups
  2. B) Businesses and non-profit organizations
  3. C) The wealthy and businesses
  4. D) The larger interest groups and specialized interest groups

 

  1. There are rarely more than __________ or so political parties, for several reasons, including the length of a ballot.

 

  1. A) two
  2. B) three
  3. C) twenty
  4. D) a dozen

 

 

  1. __________ are only the latest iteration of well-funded interest groups.

 

  1. A) Defense industry representatives
  2. B) Super-PACs
  3. C) Student organizations
  4. D) Neo-conservative lobbyers

 

  1. Who generally belongs to interest groups?

 

  1. A) A multiplicity of people
  2. B) Primarily the middle-class
  3. C) Almost exclusively the well-educated
  4. D) Suburbanites and urbanites

 

 

  1. Explain which individuals have the most influence on politics via interest groups.

 

  1. A) Women
  2. B) The elderly
  3. C) A wide variety of people
  4. D) Rich individuals

 

 

  1. What U.S. groups that are underrepresented by interest groups took to the street in inner-city riots in the 1960s, thus demonstrating what group or groups might do when they cannot express their grievances through legitimate channels?

 

  1. A) Poor and Hispanics
  2. B) African Americans and women
  3. C) Poor and African Americans
  4. D) Hispanic Americans and women

 

 

  1. The National Rifle Association is an example of an interest group that seeks the support of primarily one party, in that it tilts strongly toward __________ candidates.

 

  1. A) Independent
  2. B) Libertarian
  3. C) Republican
  4. D) Tea Party

 

 

  1. Why did the 2010 healthcare reform bill contain no provision for public insurance options?

 

  1. A) The insurance industry blocked them.
  2. B) The people had no desire for a public option.
  3. C) Democrats paid more attention to the private option.
  4. D) Farmers, heavily invested in the insurance industry, blocked them.

 

 

  1. Why is the democratic playing field uneven?

 

  1. A) Some groups are rich and well-connected.
  2. B) The relatively frequent use of violence by some groups can intimidate others.
  3. C) Some groups give substantial amounts of money directly to the citizenry.
  4. D) There are more working class and poor people and they regularly organize themselves to get a larger piece of the pie.

 

 

  1. Many interest groups are brought about by government, insofar as they are __________.

 

  1. A) associated with government programs
  2. B) funded largely by the government
  3. C) almost exclusively based in the nation’s capital
  4. D) usually formed by former politicians

 

  1. Bureaucracies have become big, and powerful, developing __________ of their own.

 

  1. A) candidates
  2. B) interests
  3. C) political parties
  4. D) media outlets

 

 

  1. A great deal of legislation originates in __________.

 

  1. A) economic downturns
  2. B) corporate boardrooms
  3. C) specialized agencies
  4. D) secret

 

  1. A common scenario with government-created interest groups is: Congress creates a program, the program creates an interest group, and then __________.

 

  1. A) the interest group works on Congress to keep supporting it
  2. B) the public works on Congress to keep supporting it
  3. C) the interest group works on the public to support it
  4. D) the interest group works on the President to support it

 

  1. Describe how bureaucracies see their tasks.

 

  1. A) With iconoclastic eyes, seeking to controvert typical government policies
  2. B) With very conservative eyes, seeking to keep their agencies small and economical
  3. C) As only work to be completed
  4. D) As extremely crucial, demanding bigger budgets and more employees each year

 

 

  1. What characterizes weak states with regard to interest groups?

 

  1. A) Interest groups are usually government controlled.
  2. B) Interpenetration of crime and politics
  3. C) Interest groups are rarely allowed.
  4. D) Interpenetration of religion and politics

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of crime catalyzing the creation of an interest group?

 

  1. A) Public school teachers who organized cheating on standardized tests organized an interest group.
  2. B) Drug-related crime in Columbia led to armed interest groups.
  3. C) Somalian pirates have created interest groups to support the proliferation of international shipping by sea.
  4. D) Pickpocket and theft crime led to interest groups who battle stop-and-frisk laws.

 

 

  1. Describe the relationship between the branches and subdivisions of the U.S. government has with interest groups.

 

  1. A) Each branch or division has a limited the number of interest groups allowed to pursue grants, alterations in regulations, or the establishment of their own agency.
  2. B) Each branch or division has one or more interest group requiring grants, alterations in regulations, or the establishment of their own agency.
  3. C) Each branch or division has one or more interest offering bribes, encouraging fraud, or pursuing insider information.
  4. D) Only a few branches or divisions has one or more interest group requiring grants, alterations in regulations, or the establishment of their own agency.

 

 

  1. How is interest-group activity viewed in France?

 

  1. A) With great admiration
  2. B) As without real impact
  3. C) As dirty and it is looked down upon
  4. D) As opaque and mysterious

 

 

  1. Why did some criticize the lobbyist-backed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac bailouts?

 

  1. A) The bailout prevented each from keeping profits private.
  2. B) The bailout allowed only Fannie Mae to keep profits private but pass on the risk to taxpayers.
  3. C) The bailout allowed each to keep profits private but pass on the risk to taxpayers.
  4. D) The bailout prevented each from keeping profits private, but some risk was still passed on to taxpayers.

 

 

  1. Probably the largest single factor in the success of interest groups is __________.

 

  1. A) money
  2. B) tax-exempt status
  3. C) member numbers
  4. D) regional location

 

 

  1. The trend toward negative advertising in political campaigns is spurred, in part, by __________.

 

  1. A) political ignorance
  2. B) soft money
  3. C) divisions among party members
  4. D) the growth of social media

 

 

  1. The largest and most quickly growing U.S. interest group, with around 40 million members, is the __________.

 

  1. A) NRA
  2. B) NAACP
  3. C) AARP
  4. D) PTA

 

  1. Explain what keeps the doors of Congress open to interest groups.

 

  1. A) A healthy culture of disagreement and debate
  2. B) The exchange of favors
  3. C) The careful cultivation of civil servants and members of Congress over the years
  4. D) A neutral relationship with bureaucrats and Congress-people

 

  1. Describe the role played by the healthcare and financial industries.

 

  1. A) They are the smallest campaign contributors to both parties, but still receive ample consideration.
  2. B) They are the biggest campaign contributors to the Democratic Party, and receive ample consideration.
  3. C) They are the biggest campaign contributors to the Republican Party, and receive ample consideration.
  4. D) They are the biggest campaign contributors to both parties, and receive ample consideration.

 

 

  1. What was Teddy Roosevelt’s reaction to the big-money politics of his predecessor, President McKinley?

 

  1. A) Roosevelt supported the Tillman Act, a reform prohibiting corporations from giving funds to parties and candidates.
  2. B) His party discontinued taking monies from corporations.
  3. C) Roosevelt supported the Tillman Act, a reform limiting the giving funds of funds by corporations to parties and candidates.
  4. D) He lobbied privately for his fellow politicians to stop taking money from corporations.

 

 

  1. How was the 1973 Supreme Court ruling that states could not arbitrarily restrict a woman’s right to an abortion connected to the phenomenon of single-issue groups? The ruling __________.
  2. A) catalyzed Jews, Muslim fundamentalists, and others to form the “pro-life” movement, which in turn, spurred the formation of “pro-choice” groups
  3. B) catalyzed Roman Catholics, Protestant fundamentalists, and others to form the “pro-life” movement, which in turn, spurred the formation of “pro-choice” groups
  4. C) failed to catalyze Roman Catholics, Protestant fundamentalists, and others to form a “pro-life” movement, but the formation of “pro-choice” groups was spurred
  5. D) catalyzed Roman Catholics, Protestant fundamentalists, and others to form the “pro-life” movement, which in turn, yet no “pro-choice” groups formed in reaction

 

 

  1. How are Germany and Sweden exemplars of complete public financing?

 

  1. A) Each uses tax dollars to fund election campaigns.
  2. B) Each tries to limit campaign spending.
  3. C) Both subsidize parties after the election based on how many votes they received and parliamentary seats they won.
  4. D) Both allow corporate funds to subsidize the use of government tax dollars to fund election campaigns.

 

 

  1. Why do U.S. unions seem powerful even though business has far more clout than unions?

 

  1. A) American unions are much larger than most businesses.
  2. B) Schoolteachers, police, civil servants, etc. are very beloved by the public.
  3. C) S. unions attract much attention when they strike at major firms.
  4. D) They receive a great deal more media attention at all times.

 

 

  1. Why does a group as large, and with a reach as large, as the NAACP have so little influence?

 

  1. A) Size and reach don’t inherently translate into influence, even if the group isn’t disadvantaged.
  2. B) The largest groups are often ignored as people assume groups that attract such large numbers must be having their needs met.
  3. C) Disadvantaged groups with smaller grievances are among the least likely to be listened to.
  4. D) Disadvantaged groups with the biggest grievances are among the least likely to be listened to.

 

 

  1. Many are convinced that __________ buy Congress with campaign contributions and favors given by corporations.

 

  1. A) unions
  2. B) lobbyists
  3. C) universities
  4. D) the military

 

 

  1. In countries where __________, the courts become an arena of interest-group contention.

 

  1. A) public defenders are unavailable
  2. B) the rule of law is strong
  3. C) judges have little power
  4. D) the rule of law is weak

 

 

  1. Some interest groups maintain a low profile by promoting their objectives without __________ them.

 

  1. A) lobbying for
  2. B) fully funding
  3. C) advertising
  4. D) openly debating

 

 

  1. Describe the defense some present for those who riot in reaction to perceived wrongful police shootings and arrests, discrimination, etc.

 

  1. A) They argue that rioters are only opposing the violence they suffer daily at the hands of police, all levels of government, and an economy that keeps them underpaid and unemployed.
  2. B) They argue that rioters are only taking part in the same atmosphere of violence they suffer daily at the hands of police, all levels of government, and an economy that keeps them underpaid and unemployed.
  3. C) They argue that rioters are too poorly educated and so much the products of poor environments that they cannot possibly be held accountable.
  4. D) They argue that rioters are only opposing the violence they suffer daily at the hands of others in their neighborhoods.

 

  1. Why did Occupy Wall Street protesters take to direct protest?

 

  1. A) Violent protest had already been attempted
  2. B) The movement could not compete with the financial and political resources of Wall Street.
  3. C) Direct protest seemed a more powerful gesture.
  4. D) The financial and political resources of Wall Street made action through social media negligible.

 

 

  1. When interest groups approach the __________ it may not be in need of or want of a new law, but merely favorable interpretation of existing rules and regulations.

 

  1. A) courts
  2. B) corporate world
  3. C) public
  4. D) administration

 

 

  1. How was the railroads use of television to explain their case for fair government policies related to their investment in public image?

 

  1. A) TV allowed the industry to push for government policies that would help railroads a mainstay of the toy industry.
  2. B) Using TV to address those policies was crucial to that industry’s ability to survive and compete with trucking.
  3. C) Railroads found TV invaluable in educating the public about policies that would have made high speed rail possible.
  4. D) Competition among players in the railroad industry threatened the survival of the industry, and TV was utilized to address policies that would have prevented that.

 

 

  1. Many top former administration officials and some 200 former senators and congresspeople shifting into careers as extremely highly-paid D.C. lobbyists is an example of __________.

 

  1. A) lobbyists attempting to hire those who give their firm the most ethical possible public image
  2. B) interest groups attempting to sway the judiciary
  3. C) the phenomenon of many government bureaucracies being “captured” or “colonized” by the lobbying groups they deal with.
  4. D) a government-to-lobbying transition that has been a commonplace since the mid-1800s

 

 

  1. According to Olson why do small, well-organized groups, especially with money, often override the broader public interest?

 

  1. A) The latter have much to gain from favorable but narrow laws and rulings, so they lobby intensely. The former see nothing to gain, are not organized or intense, and lobby little.
  2. B) The former have much to gain from favorable but narrow laws and rulings, so they lobby intensely. The latter see much to gain, and are not organized or intense, but lobby little.
  3. C) The former have much to gain from favorable but narrow laws and rulings, so they lobby intensely. The latter see nothing to gain, are not organized or intense, and lobby little.
  4. D) The former have much to gain from fair, broad laws and rulings, so they lobby some. The latter also favor broad laws and rulings, but not organized or intense, and lobby little.

 

 

  1. How might an interest group keep a discreet profile whilst pushing their mission without explicit advertising?

 

  1. A) Such a group might plant news stories that promote their cause subtly while quietly working against the publication of stories that work against their position.
  2. B) The group might infiltrate the offices of opposing groups or politicians and accrue incriminating information which might be anonymously conveyed to the media.
  3. C) They might have lobbyists push news stories in the local media that are directly given to that local media by those lobbyists.
  4. D) A group might plant stories in social media promoting their cause, but also publicly work against the publication of stories that work against their mission.

 

 

  1. __________ aid(s) smaller organizations in fending off more powerful interest groups.

 

  1. A) Coalitions
  2. B) Civil disobedience
  3. C) Violence
  4. D) A clear message

 

 

  1. Because __________ action either way angers one group or another certain issues are “hot potatoes.”

 

  1. A) economic
  2. B) union
  3. C) coalition
  4. D) government

 

 

  1. Successful interest groups tend to be dominated by a __________ of political activists.

 

  1. A) vocal but scholarly cadre
  2. B) discreet but wealthy cadre
  3. C) vocal minority
  4. D) vocal majority

 

 

  1. What is the central paradox surrounding voters and their elected leaders?

 

  1. A) Most people don’t vote, so leaders pay their greatest attention to interest group demands, rather than to the demands of ordinary voters.
  2. B) Voters elect leaders, but leaders pay their greatest attention to interest group demands, rather than to the demands of ordinary voters.
  3. C) Voters attempt to elect leaders, but are usually disappointed to find their candidate loses; the winning candidate pays their greatest attention to interest group demands, rather than to the demands of ordinary voters.
  4. D) Voters elect leaders, and accordingly leaders pay their greatest attention to ordinary voters, rather than to the demands of their fellow office-holders.

 

 

  1. By deregulating reasonable safeguards, __________ bears much responsibility for debacles like that connected with Enron.

 

  1. A) the executive branch
  2. B) lobbyists
  3. C) Congress
  4. D) Freddie Mac

 

  1. Describe a “stalemate society.”

 

  1. A) One in which trapped between international allies, the president finds him or herself relegated to focusing solely on domestic issues
  2. B) A society which progresses politically but not economically
  3. C) A society in which lobbyists find themselves unable to influence government
  4. D) One in which government may find itself unproductive, stuck between powerful interests and unable to move on important problems

 

 

  1. Provide an illustration of the problem of whether interest groups really speak for all their members or for a small, militant minority.

 

  1. A) Muslim Americans find it nearly impossible to form interest groups of any influence, at all, such that the few which achieve influence tend to speak only for the power elite among them.
  2. B) The Roman Catholic hierarchy takes positions on contraception and abortion that many ordinary Catholics do not.
  3. C) Jewish organizations are weaker supporters than most American Jews.
  4. D) Christian Evangelical organizations take extremely diverse positions, such that their voices are evenly balanced across their supporters.

 

 

  1. How is Rousseau’s emphasis on the “general will” over and above the “particular wills” that make up society related to interest groups?

 

  1. A) With legislators and executives attuned to interest groups, it’s often as if no one is considering the interests of the whole country.
  2. B) With legislators and the judiciary attuned to interest groups, it’s often as if no one is considering the interests of the whole country.
  3. C) With legislators and executives attuned to the “citizens’ lobby,” it’s often as if no one is considering the interests of the corporate community.
  4. D) With legislators and executives attuned to interest groups, it’s often as if no one is considering the interests of politics at the local level.

 

 

  1. How did much of U.S. finance come to be little supervised after Reagan’s tenure as president?

 

  1. A) Congress has generally delivered whatever the finance industry specified, and regulations and safeguards were rolled back.
  2. B) Presidents have generally delivered whatever the finance industry specified, and regulations and safeguards were rolled back.
  3. C) Congress has generally delivered whatever the finance industry specified, save the regulations and safeguards the industry pushed.
  4. D) Citizens have generally pushed against most legislation having to do with the finance industry, including regulations and safeguards related to the finance industry.

 

 

  1. How well do interest groups serve the needs of the average citizen?

 

  1. A) The small businessperson, the poorly informed citizen, and minority groups with little money tend to be represented by interest groups, whether they know it or not and therefore are rarely lost in the push and pull of larger interests and government.
  2. B) The small businessperson, the poorly informed citizen, and minority groups acquire large stores of money, thus resisting the possibility of being lost in the push and pull of larger interests and government.
  3. C) The large businessperson, the well informed citizen, and well-represented groups with extensive cash access are still just as often as not lost in the push and pull of other larger interests and government.
  4. D) The small businessperson, the poorly informed citizen, and minority groups with little money tend to get lost in the push and pull of larger interests and government.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Interest groups and political parties are the same, except political parties work through elected representatives and interest groups do not.

 

  1. Individuals have little power and influence in a democracy; by joining together with others in an interest group, individuals can increase their power and influence.

 

  1. Governments directly create interest groups.

 

  1. Bureaucracies have become big, powerful interest groups and as a result sometimes undermine government efficiency and effectiveness.

 

 

  1. Interest group success is mostly based on the notoriety of their cause.

 

 

  1. The first attempt to limit campaign financing in the U.S. was the Tillman Act of 1907, supported by Theodore Roosevelt.

 

 

  1. Socioeconomic status of members is related to groups’ success.

 

 

 

  1. There has been a rise of single-issue interest groups, like the AFL-CIO, since the 1970s.

 

 

  1. Interest groups in the U.S. work through the legislature and the executive but not the judicial system.

 

 

  1. Scandals, like that connected to Enron, are found all over the world, and tend to be traceable back to laws that interest groups create to favor themselves.

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. __________ interest groups attract those aiming at religious, environmental, or gender goals.

 

 

  1. French __________ is reflected in Rousseau’s work, which argues that “particular will” will distort the “general will.”

 

 

  1. The power that Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) has over the Diet illustrates that bureaucracies sometimes __________.

 

 

  1. Interest groups are separate from the legislature in __________, but they are integrated into the legislature in             .

 

 

  1. __________ has tried to limit the influence of interest groups by subsidizing parties after the election according to how many votes they received, and parliamentary seats they won.

 

 

  1. Right to Life is a __________ interest group.

 

 

  1. Women’s rights, the death penalty, and gun control are examples of __________ issues addressed and dealt with by the U.S. Supreme Court.

 

 

  1. Federal officials on the take are usually __________ rather than __________.

 

 

  1. The appearance of __________ is a potential negative effect of interest groups playing an active role in politics.

 

 

 

  1. Issues tend to be silenced by political candidates who attempt to appeal to as broad a segment of the voting public as possible, especially in __________ systems.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Is it accurate that, as pluralists believe, no interest group can monopolize power?

 

 

  1. Discuss the role that government-created interest groups play.

 

  1. Can or should anything be done to curb the power of interest groups and the money associated with them?

 

 

  1. How is the following question exemplary of Olson’s theory of interest groups?

Why should Europeans contribute much to NATO when the Americans provide them with free security?

  1. How is the example of the “subprime crisis” related to the skewing of political policy?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Compare and contrast interest groups and political parties. Provide examples in your discussion of their similarities and differences. What advantages do interest groups offer that political parties don’t? What advantages do political parties offer that interest groups don’t?

 

 

  1. What is an interest group? What role are they supposed to play in a democratic society? What benefits are they supposed to provide? In reality, do they play these roles and provide these benefits? Explain. Are there any disadvantages to interest groups?

 

  1. What is the relationship between interest groups and government? How does this apply to government-created interest groups? Provide examples. What are the effects of bureaucrats as interest groups? Do you believe this crossover between bureaucrats and interest groups to be right?

 

 

  1. What makes interest groups especially powerful and influential? Why? Should anything be done to control the power and influence of interest groups? Why or why not.

 

  1. What are the various strategies employed by interest groups to accomplish their goals? Discuss each of these strategies along with their effectiveness. Which of these strategies are utilized the most and why? Provide examples of each.

 

 

Chapter 11-     Parties

Chapter 11-     Parties

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of political parties?

 

  1. A) Parties limit voters’ choices by narrowing the playing field.
  2. B) Parties function as an input device, allowing citizens to get their needs heard.
  3. C) Parties decide the issues for televised political debates.
  4. D) Parties nominate candidates, thereby increasing the voter efficacy.

 

  1. The Democratic Party that Franklin D. Roosevelt established in the 1930s __________.

 

  1. A) helped elect Democratic presidents five times in a row
  2. B) corrupted the traditional Democratic platform
  3. C) disrupted political mores regarding campaign finance
  4. D) lobbied congress to pass the 1936 Farm Bill

 

 

 

  1. Roosevelt’s Democratic coalition consisted of which three disparate interest groups?

 

  1. A) Blacks, whites and Hispanics
  2. B) Women, gun-owners and the NAACP
  3. C) Young voters, the poor and the Irish
  4. D) Catholics, Jews and blacks

 

  1. In the 1980s, Ronald Reagan aggregated economic and noneconomic conservative groups into the Republican Party, a coalition which __________.

 

  1. A) lasts availingly into this day
  2. B) was egregiously disbanded in 2008 by Barrack Obama
  3. C) was revived by George W. Bush in 2000
  4. D) revivifies the Party’s platform as established in 1924

 

  1. By welcoming new groups into their ranks, parties __________.

 

  1. A) rob those groups of their individual interests and concerns
  2. B) give groups a pragmatic and psychological stake in the overall political system
  3. C) establish a monocultural dependence on the party system
  4. D) enhance political hegemony by disenfranchising voters outside of these groups

 

 

  1. The British Labour Party and the U.S. Democratic Party attracted workers by __________.

 

  1. A) adopting a Marxist stance on unions and workers’ rights
  2. B) redistributing capital amongst middle laborers
  3. C) arguing for the seizure of corporatized assets
  4. D) demanding union rights, fair labor policies and welfare benefits

 

 

  1. Large parties in particular can be analyzed as __________.

 

  1. A) generations of like-minded voters
  2. B) coalitions of interest groups
  3. C) team-led organizations based around a theme
  4. D) trustworthy representatives of national interest

 

 

  1. By introducing citizens to candidates and showing members how to speak in public, compromise, and conduct meetings, parties deepen their __________.

 

  1. A) political competence
  2. B) understanding of bipartisanship
  3. C) regional interest
  4. D) trenchant liberal views

 

 

  1. Which of the following would likely occur if interest groups comprised the highest form of political organization in the United States?

 

  1. A) Party platforms would become more fair and balanced than they are today.
  2. B) The nation would maintain a more well-rounded view of campaign issues.
  3. C) Voters would become disenfranchised as the number of candidates diminished.
  4. D) There would be few overarching values that could command nationwide support.

 

 

  1. Differentiate between democratic theory and neo-institutional theory.

 

  1. A) Democratic theory states that parties have grown so large that they can now afford to ignore voters, while neo-institutional theory states that parties are beholden to voter critique.
  2. B) Democratic theory states that political parties cannot afford to ignore voters, while institutional theory claims that parties can afford to disregard them.
  3. C) Neo-institutional theory claims that institutions have grown so large they govern with disregard to regional politics.
  4. D) Neo-institutional theory states that no institution, new or old, can afford to disregard voters; democratic theory is choosier.

 

  1. Germany uses party lists but is divided into 16 states, thus partly __________ national party control.

 

  1. A) decentralizing
  2. B) capitalizing
  3. C) extending
  4. D) regulating

 

 

  1. Party discipline in the United States is __________ compared to most European nations.

 

  1. A) muscular
  2. B) penetrating
  3. C) weak
  4. D) divisive

 

 

  1. Which late 20th century American president is responsible for making the Republican Party more coherently conservative?

 

  1. A) Dwight D. Eisenhower
  2. B) Richard Nixon
  3. C) Gerald Ford
  4. D) Ronald Reagan

 

 

  1. British parties select candidates by bargaining between national headquarters and local constituency organizations. This system is __________ the party list system in Israel.

 

  1. A) more centralized than
  2. B) less centralized than
  3. C) as equally centralized as
  4. D) as inversely centralized as

 

 

  1. “Blue Dog Democrats” are __________.

 

  1. A) Democrats who support clean coal
  2. B) Democrats chided for being left of the party center
  3. C) Democrats elected from conservative districts
  4. D) independent candidates whose views align closely with the Democratic Party

 

 

 

  1. As Schattschneider argues, Washington becomes “a punching bag for every special and local interest in the nation” because __________.

 

  1. A) U.S. parties are so decentralized that they cannot agree on a strong national platform
  2. B) U.S. parties are so rigidly centralized that they cannot agree on a clear party platform
  3. C) party platforms are so erringly unclear
  4. D) a weakened executive branch fails to control its own party in congress

 

  1. Which U.S. system makes it difficult for parties to bridge the separation of powers to enact platforms?

 

  1. A) Checks and balances
  2. B) The Federal Reserve
  3. C) Bicameral legislation
  4. D) Executive privilege

 

 

  1. If Republicans start worrying that Libertarian candidates are taking some of their votes, the Libertarians will become __________.

 

  1. A) virtually extinct
  2. B) trenchantly corrupt
  3. C) a relevant party
  4. D) an adjunct group

 

  1. Analyze the relationship between elected officials, their constituents, and political parties.

 

  1. A) Political parties maintain strict control over elected officials due to direct campaign contributions.
  2. B) Elected officials hold themselves more accountable to PACs and constituents than to political parties.
  3. C) Officials generally keep promises made to party leaders, ensuring their “frontrunner” status in upcoming primaries.
  4. D) PACs and constituents hold little sway over official policy compared to party leaders.

 

  1. According to Giovanni Satori’s definition, why was the States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats) a relevant party?

 

  1. A) Main parties controlled the Dixiecrat platform by laundering campaign contributions to States’ Rights candidates.
  2. B) States’ Rights candidates received major donations from super-PACs.
  3. C) The Dixiecrat party was included in that year’s televised debates.
  4. D) Main parties were forced to take them into account in campaigning for votes and forming coalitions.

 

 

  1. Ideologically, Communists are considered a(n) __________ party.

 

  1. A) detrimental
  2. B) dangerous
  3. C) left-wing
  4. D) illegitimate

 

 

  1. Right-wing parties, such as the British Conservatives under Thatcher, want to __________.

 

  1. A) promote state religion at the risk of diminishing local identity
  2. B) dismantle the welfare state, break the power of unions, and promote vigorous capitalist growth
  3. C) regulate business through increased taxes, strengthen labor unions, and implement Keynesian economic strategies
  4. D) distribute wealth according to income level, educational background and number of children

 

 

  1. China, North Korea, Vietnam and __________ preserve the party-controlled state, but appear ripe for change.

 

  1. A) Laos
  2. B) Bangladesh
  3. C) Japan
  4. D) Cuba

 

 

  1. What did the Moderate Party do to acquire a majority in the Swedish Riksdag (parliament)?

 

  1. A) Formed a coalition with the Center, Liberal and Christian Democratic parties
  2. B) Divided assets with Greens, Liberals and the Party of the Left
  3. C) Implemented a divisive nationalist party platform
  4. D) Teamed up with the Sweden Democrats, Center Party and the Social Democrats

 

 

  1. Supervising the Central Committee, the __________ of a dozen or so top party leaders was the real heart of Soviet governance.

 

  1. A) Kremlin
  2. B) Politburo
  3. C) Sputnik
  4. D) Glasnost

 

 

  1. Why did Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (1985–1991) deliberately undermine the Soviet party structure?

 

  1. A) The Communist Party filled government positions with opportunists, leading to corruption.
  2. B) The Communist Party fell to pressure from the West, particularly U.S. President Ronald Reagan.
  3. C) The Soviet economy weakened due to poor wheat production in the Ukraine.
  4. D) The Soviet party structure could not sustain the massive convict population occupying Siberia.

 

 

  1. Interpret the relationship between Lenin’s Communist Party, the government, and the economy.

 

  1. A) It featured the interlocking of a single party with government and the economy.
  2. B) It included the separation of church, state and power.
  3. C) It excluded communication between government and economy, with single party rule.
  4. D) It extended government subsidies to state-owned institutions and international organizations.

 

 

  1. Socialist parties prior to World War II, still partly Marxist and aiming their messages largely at the working class, are an example of __________ parties.

 

  1. A) Apparatchik
  2. B) Bildungsroman
  3. C) Weltanschauung
  4. D) Schadenfreude

 

 

  1. Which one of the following statements best represents the Communist Party’s style of rule under the leadership of Joseph Stalin?

 

  1. A) The Communist Party exercised direct control of state operations and the economy.
  2. B) The Communist Party did not rule directly, but supervised, monitored, and controlled the personnel of the state and economic structures.
  3. C) The Communist Party directly redistributed wealth through caucuses organized by party leaders.
  4. D) The Communist Party ruled with an “iron fist,” quashing frequent rebellions but leaving state-run operations to local party heads.

 

 

 

  1. Why did Gorbachev fail to break up the Communist power monopoly in the Soviet Union?

 

  1. A) Attempting to keep pace with tiger economies like Japan, Gorbachev overstretched the U.S.S.R.’s financial base.
  2. B) Gorbachev failed to recognize the strength of Russian agricultural lobbyists.
  3. C) Gorbachev’s attempts to match American industrial power overstretched the Soviet’s already crumbling economic base.
  4. D) Gorbachev underestimated how brittle the Soviet power system was, and in turn, it collapsed.

 

 

  1. Stable, moderate party systems made democracy possible in which former totalitarian nations?

 

  1. A) Vietnam and North Korea
  2. B) Spain and West Germany
  3. C) Syria and Iraq
  4. D) Bolivia and El Salvador

 

  1. Britain’s party system led to a(n) “__________ parliament” and shaky government following the 2010 elections.

 

  1. A) tenacious
  2. B) hung
  3. C) grateful
  4. D) inept

 

  1. When parties become too messy or fluid, critics call them __________ systems.

 

  1. A) nascent
  2. B) unsound
  3. C) inchoate
  4. D) rudimentary

 

  1. One-party systems are generally associated with which types of government?

 

  1. A) Democratic and oligarchic
  2. B) Monarchic and socialist
  3. C) Theocratic and Communist
  4. D) Authoritarian and totalitarian

 

 

  1. Which of the following nations is an example of a dominant-party system?

 

  1. A) Iran
  2. B) North Korea
  3. C) Russia
  4. D) Australia

 

  1. What is a major fault in the two-party system?

 

  1. A) Only two parties have an equal chance of winning.
  2. B) Only members of the two major parties are allowed to serve in congress.
  3. C) The two-party system almost always leads to gridlock, slowing legislation.
  4. D) The major parties oust executives with whom they disagree.

 

  1. Identify the greatest impact of third parties within a two-party system.

 

  1. A) They break up gridlock among the two major parties.
  2. B) They remind the two big parties of voter discontent and offer new ideas.
  3. C) They exert a large role in shaping foreign policy for the two major parties.
  4. D) They stagnate the nomination process for both major parties.

 

  1. How do multiparty systems avoid cabinet instability?

 

  1. A) They construct stable coalitions that govern effectively.
  2. B) They create uniformity under the regime of a single elected party.
  3. C) They establish a single party platform around which the legislature clusters.
  4. D) Elected parties exert full control over the cabinet.

 

  1. Compare and contrast multiparty systems in Europe and the United States.

 

  1. A) Voting for a third party in Europe equates to “throwing your vote away,” while at least in the United States third parties receive some representation.
  2. B) Voting for a third party in the U.S. is little more than a “protest vote,” while even small parties in most European nations receive some representation in return for votes.
  3. C) Voting for an American third party supports issues such as the environment, gay rights and agricultural reform.
  4. D) Voting for a European third party combines aspects of major and minor parties, unlike the United States, which is more rigid in party structure.

 

  1. What is the major flaw in personalistic parties, such as Putin’s Unity Party?

 

  1. A) They allow constituents to become too familiar with candidates, discouraging them from voting for anyone else.
  2. B) They rigidly entrench themselves in the nation’s politics, often creating policies that last long beyond their applicability.
  3. C) They are disingenuous and usually fail under close media scrutiny.
  4. D) They often serve merely as tools to elect a specific candidate and represent no official ideology.

 

  1. Which two former dominant-party nations have recently seen their party systems fragment?

 

  1. A) Syria and Lybia
  2. B) India and Japan
  3. C) Australia and New Zealand
  4. D) Hungary and the Czech Republic

 

s

 

  1. The American electoral system is based on the British “first past the post” (FPTP) system, named so because __________.

 

  1. A) third parties can “post” to earn representation
  2. B) major parties are subject to intense scrutiny by third parties
  3. C) it resembles a horse race; even a nose better wins
  4. D) it tends to promote more equal representation

 

  1. Why does proportional representation (PR) allow and even encourage parties to split?

 

  1. A) PR systems assign parliamentary seats in proportion to the percentage of votes in that district.
  2. B) PR systems designate representation on a flat regional basis.
  3. C) PR systems allow only a simple plurality to win.
  4. D) Voters in PR systems tend to be less loyal to their parties.

 

  1. Poland’s exceedingly fragmented multiparty system has recently formed into a __________ one.

 

  1. A) splintered
  2. B) conservative
  3. C) fractured
  4. D) moderate

 

  1. Because U.S. parties are weakly organized and decentralized—in effect, every congressional district and state has its own parties, little related to each other—the parties do not cohere well at the __________ level.

 

  1. A) local
  2. B) regional
  3. C) state
  4. D) national

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following has recently done much to encourage state and local party organizations to cooperate with national party platforms?

 

  1. A) Door-to-door canvassing
  2. B) Cohesive national platforms
  3. C) Computerized mailing lists
  4. D) Local political pandering

 

 

  1. What did the 2012 U.S. presidential election demonstrate about party cohesion?

 

  1. A) Super-PACS can harm party cohesion.
  2. B) Stringent party cohesion can harm electoral chances.
  3. C) Party cohesion remains unaffected by monetary funds.
  4. D) American voters prefer strongly cohesive parties.

 

 

 

  1. Today’s voters tend to be __________ loyal to their parties than in the past.

 

  1. A) more
  2. B) less
  3. C) similarly
  4. D) equally

 

  1. Evaluate the effect of 1980s Republican Party cohesion on the Democratic Party.

 

  1. A) The Democratic Party crumbled in the face of strong conservative cohesion.
  2. B) The Democratic Party demonstrated almost no response to Republican cohesion.
  3. C) Many Democrats converted to the Republican Party to elect Ronald Reagan.
  4. D) The Democratic Party assumed greater cohesion in the 1990s and late 2000s.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage to having less powerful, less centralized parties?

 

  1. A) Fluid and flexible parties may be better able to process demands from a wider range of citizens.
  2. B) Mutable party platforms possess greater persuasive abilities over the general public.
  3. C) Parties can form a stronger organizational identity based around a single, cohesive ideology.
  4. D) Third parties can effectively shoot for power grabs at legislative seats.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. In the United States, parties integrate successive waves of immigrants and minorities—currently Hispanics—into American political life.

 

 

  1. A new president appoints approximately 6,000 people to executive departments and agencies, allowing the party to steer policy for the course of his term.

 

  1. Britain’s party system is among the most centralized in the world.

 

 

 

  1. In parliamentary systems, the majority party must resign when constituents submit a vote of non-confidence in the party.

 

  1. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Communist governments were voted out of power.

 

  1. The parties in Sweden’s Riksdag maintain a right-leaning ideological bent.

 

  1. In 2000, Mexico’s conservative National Action Party (PAN) overcame the Party of Institutional Revolution’s (PRI) lock on the presidency with the election of Vicente Fox, moving Mexico from a dominant-party to a multiparty system.

 

 

  1. A two party system is a party system with only two parties present.

 

  1. Small parties tend to be underrepresented in two-party and two-plus party systems.

 

 

  1. New policy ideas almost never come from specialist think tanks.

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. Parties assuage conflicts between interest groups through __________—in other words, pulling together their separate interests into a larger organization.

 

 

  1. In Israel’s candidate selection system, each party draws up a __________ of 120 nominees to the Knesset (parliament) and voters choose a single list.

 

  1. In 2012, the __________ split the Republican Party into pragmatists willing to compromise and militants unwilling to bend.

 

 

  1. Because the Democratic Party controlled both the executive and legislative branches, President Johnson was able to push his __________ program into law.

 

  1. The “classic” Communist system founded in the Soviet Union by __________ featured a single party interlocked with government and the economy.

 

  1. Spain, which has a history of multiparty fragmentation, now has a __________ system: a large Socialist Party, a large center-right Popular Party, and several smaller parties.

 

  1. ___________ occurs when parties compete in a centripetal manner.

 

  1. Among the most important institutional choices a nation can make is the choice between an electoral system based on single-member districts or on __________ representation.

 

  1. Changing a country’s electoral laws can alter a country’s party system, pushing the nation from a __________ to a two-plus system, as in Germany.

 

  1. U.S. parties are weakly organized and decentralized, and thus, the parties do not __________ well at the national level.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain how parties integrate citizens into the political system.

 

  1. Describe party centralization and decentralization. Provide an example.

 

  1. Using Sartori’s definition, identify the criteria for party relevance.

 

  1. Analyze the method by which left-wing parties propose to level class differences.

 

  1. Differentiate between one-party systems and dominant-party systems.

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Parties play an important role in the political system by socializing citizens to political interests. Explain how this socialization process increases political competence. Who benefits from it? Cite specific examples.

 

  1. Assess the relationship between party finance and transparency. How does this relationship allow anonymous interest groups to shape party interests and activities? How might voters benefit from increased transparency?

 

  1. The Soviet experience demonstrates that single parties with stringent power monopolies, strict control over commerce, and little accountability tend to ossify, leaving them unable to handle to complex tasks of the modern world. How has the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) tried to avoid this fate? And how has economic growth affected control over Chinese corruption?

 

  1. Identify the origins of inchoate parties and their role as personalistic vehicles. What has been their legacy in places like Eastern Europe and Latin America?

 

  1. Compare and contrast single-member districts and proportional representation (PR). How effective is each electoral system in representing its people’s interests? How do they support the party systems around which they arose?

 

 

Chapter 12-     Elections

 

Chapter 12-     Elections

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. U.S. turnout seldom falls below 40 percent in __________elections.

 

  1. A) local
  2. B) congressional
  3. C) gubernatorial
  4. D) presidential

 

  1. Americans must __________ sometimes months before the election and before campaign excitement mounts.

 

  1. A) lobby
  2. B) declare an allegiance to a particular party
  3. C) register to vote in person
  4. D) caucus

 

 

  1. The peak of U.S. voter turnout was in 1960 at __________ percent.

 

  1. A) 30
  2. B) 63
  3. C) 73
  4. D) 56

 

 

 

  1. What is the American voters’ general response to the typically long ballot featuring a variety of local, state and national candidates, and often referendums, as well?

 

  1. A) A display of extensive knowledge of the various campaigns
  2. B) Excitement
  3. C) Bafflement
  4. D) Relative to international trends, record high time spent in the voting booth

 

 

  1. Describe the argument of Anthony Downs’s landmark 1957 work, An Economic Theory of Democracy.

 

  1. A) The text argued that people vote if the returns outweigh the costs.
  2. B) The text claims that property owners fearing tax hikes still don’t tend to vote.
  3. C) The text argued that citizens are not intimidated by the level of the stakes and they will go to the trouble of voting.
  4. D) The text makes the claim that the cost of political information has no impact on determining whether a person will vote.

 

 

  1. Describe the average European ballot.

 

  1. A) They are no more and no less complicated than American ballots.
  2. B) They are simple, typically offering only a choice of party, but most countries do little to nothing to control and limit TV political advertising.
  3. C) They are even more complex than American ballots, typically offering a multitude of choices, and most countries do little to control and limit TV political advertising.
  4. D) They are simple, typically offering only a choice of party, and most countries control and limit TV political advertising, while some allow none.

 

 

  1. How was the 2012 U.S. election an example of an election that turned on voter turnout?

 

  1. A) Republicans boosted the participation rates of their traditional voters, and pushed voter registration for those favorably disposed to the Republican Party, while the Democrats paid less attention to grass-roots work, concentrating instead on TV advertising.
  2. B) Democrats boosted the participation rates of their traditional voters, and pushed voter registration for those favorably disposed to the Democratic Party, while the Republicans paid less attention to grass-roots work, concentrating instead on TV advertising.
  3. C) Democrats boosted the participation rates of their traditional voters, despite Republicans pushing voter registration for those favorably disposed to their party, and concentrating on TV advertising.
  4. D) Democrats boosted the participation rates of their traditional voters, and pushed voter registration for those favorably disposed to the Democratic Party, and despite Republicans paying attention to grass-roots work, and concentrating instead on TV advertising they still lost.

 

 

  1. How are Sweden, Italy and Germany examples of nations with high voter turnout? Turnout in those nations has __________.

 

  1. A) occasionally reached 90%
  2. B) often reached 95%
  3. C) sometimes been as high as 65%
  4. D) very regularly been as high as 90?

 

 

  1. Why do Americans vote so little?

 

  1. A) Typically, given the enormous number of immigrants the U.S. plays host to, most U.S. nonvoters are poorly-versed in the tradition of voting, and are therefore are largely unengaged by most elections.
  2. B) Typically, more than half of U.S. nonvoters say they that while they are interested in and satisfied with candidates, they still feel that their vote makes no difference or that none of the candidates is really good, while the two large parties may not offer an interesting or clear-cut choice.
  3. C) Typically, most U.S. nonvoters say they are uninterested in or dissatisfied with candidates, feeling their vote makes no difference or that none of the candidates are really good, while the two large parties may not offer an interesting or clear-cut choice.
  4. D) Typically, most U.S. voters find it impossible to convince others to vote, despite the fact that nonvoters are most likely to vote if convinced by those close to them.

 

 

  1. What do you think might be a side-effect of or a cause of nations with very high voter turnout having that level of turnout?

 

  1. A) They may have a kind of political fever in which partisan politics has become too intense.
  2. B) They likely play host to elections in which indistinct personalities and a relatively unified electorate bring out more voters.
  3. C) They probably don’t offer automatic voter registration.
  4. D) They usually have mandatory voting.

 

 

  1. __________ gives people a stake in election outcomes, and education raises levels of interest and sophistication.

 

  1. A) Life in the suburbs
  2. B) Family tradition
  3. C) Nationalism
  4. D) High income

 

 

  1. The __________ overcame some of the barriers in the way of black voter registration, predominantly in the south.

 

  1. A) postmaterialism movement
  2. B) 1965 Voting Rights Act
  3. C) 1865 Gettysburg Address
  4. D) Brown vs. Board of Education case

 

 

  1. In recent U.S. elections, women have voted more than men, a reflection of __________.

 

  1. A) women’s higher education levels
  2. B) feminism
  3. C) women’s higher income levels
  4. D) regional differences

 

  1. What is the likely reason for middle-aged and older people being more likely to vote than the young?

 

  1. A) The middle-aged person is at peak earning and the old person is concerned with Social Security and Medicare.
  2. B) The middle-aged person is at medium earning and the old person is concerned with retiring and grandchildren.
  3. C) Middle-aged people tend to be more highly educated and the old person is concerned with Social Security and Medicare.
  4. D) Middle-aged people tend to live in urban areas and the old person is concerned with Social Security and Medicare.

 

  1. Describe the impact thinkers believe negative campaigning might have on voter turnout.

 

  1. A) Young voters, in particular, may be turned off by negative campaigning, and conclude that all politicians are dirty.
  2. B) Potential voters may be turned off by robocalls, and conclude that all politicians are dirty.
  3. C) Potential voters may be turned off by negative campaigning, and conclude that all politicians are dirty.
  4. D) Potential voters may be turned excited by the luridness of negative campaigning, but nevertheless conclude that all politicians are dirty.

 

  1. Describe the impact of education on those who vote.

 

  1. A) Education drops the sense of participation and makes people feel more cynical, which makes people more likely to take action, but not to actually follow political news.
  2. B) Education lifts the sense of participation and abstract intellectual curiosity, which makes people more likely to follow individual politicians.
  3. C) Education lifts the sense of political knowledge, which makes people more likely to follow political news and feel involved.
  4. D) Education lifts the sense of participation and abstract intellectual curiosity, which makes people more likely to follow political news and feel involved.

 

  1. What impact does young people beginning to pay taxes have on their relationship to voting?

 

  1. A) It tends to make them more likely to vote, but less likely to work for a given campaign.
  2. B) Beginning to pay taxes tends to make them less interested in elections.
  3. C) It tends to make them more liberal in their voting.
  4. D) As they begin paying taxes they become more interested in elections.

 

  1. What is the relationship between African-American voting rates and Barack Obama’s run for president?

 

  1. A) African-American voting rates rose to those of white voters, as black income and education levels rose.
  2. B) African-American voting rates unexpectedly remained far below those of white voters, as black income and education levels remained steady.
  3. C) African-American voting rates rose to those of Hispanic voters, as black income and education levels rose.
  4. D) African-American voting rates fell unexpectedly below those of white voters, despite black income and education levels rising.

 

  1. Why is it that in most of the world, cities have higher turnouts than rural areas?

 

  1. A) Partly because those who live rurally tend to feel less enfranchised
  2. B) Partly because urbanites on average have higher education levels
  3. C) Partly because people who have lived in the same place are less likely to vote than are transients or newcomers
  4. D) Partly because men tend to vote more than men

 

  1. Why might factory workers in small towns feel a different sense of the stakes elections hold than executives and professionals?

 

  1. A) Factory workers in small towns may perceive a great deal of difference between candidates, noticing considerable change from one administration to another, while executives and professionals feel generally less involved, but still perceive a direct correlation between who wins and their personal fortune.
  2. B) Factory workers in small towns may perceive little difference between candidates, noticing little change from one administration to another, and while executives and professionals share this sense of noticing little change from one administration to another, they still perceive a direct correlation between who wins and their personal fortune.
  3. C) Factory workers in small towns may perceive little difference between candidates, noticing little change from one administration to another, while executives and professionals feel involved and perceive a direct correlation between who wins and their personal fortune.
  4. D) Executives and professionals may perceive little difference between candidates, noticing little change from one administration to another, while factory workers in small towns feel involved and perceive a direct correlation between who wins and their personal income.

 

  1. Party ID is important to party __________.

 

  1. A) enfranchisement
  2. B) loyalty
  3. C) stability
  4. D) influence

 

  1. __________ regions may harbor economic and cultural resentments at rule by a distant capital.

 

  1. A) Urban
  2. B) Liberal
  3. C) Northern
  4. D) Outlying

 

  1. __________ electoral system(s) can guarantee translating the public’s will into governance in a way that is both fair and simple.

 

  1. A) No
  2. B) Democratic
  3. C) Modern
  4. D) State

 

  1. Describe the “marriage gap.”

 

  1. A) Married people are several points more Republican than unmarried people.
  2. B) Married people are several points more Libertarian than unmarried people.
  3. C) Married people are several points more Democratic than unmarried people.
  4. D) Married people are several points more nationalistic than unmarried people.

 

  1. __________ tend to embrace conservative values and vote for conservative parties.

 

  1. A) Academics
  2. B) Country and suburban dwellers
  3. C) Urban dwellers
  4. D) West coast dwellers

 

  1. Describe the purpose of the Electoral College.

 

  1. A) To provide an alternative to the generally democratic approach to politics in the U.S.
  2. B) To overrepresent states with fewer voters, especially the Southern states
  3. C) To allow for greater constitutional change
  4. D) To avoid the problem of a “hung” government

 

  1. How does the rise in the percentage of blacks who make up the electorate relate to American political parties?

 

  1. A) This demographic shift works against Democrats.
  2. B) This demographic shift works against Republicans.
  3. C) This demographic shift works against the Green Party.
  4. D) This demographic shift works against urban Democrats.

 

  1. How was the 2012 instance of Romney winning most of the white Protestant evangelical vote an example of the role of religion in U.S. elections?

 

  1. A) Religious versus secular has fallen off as one of the strongest predictors in U.S. voting.
  2. B) Nonreligious versus Catholics is the single strongest predictor in U.S. voting.
  3. C) Religious versus secular is the single strongest predictor in U.S. voting.
  4. D) Religious versus secular is only one of the many predictors in U.S. voting.

 

  1. Why do some working class people vote for conservative parties?

 

  1. A) Because they perceive themselves to be middle class, have a school tradition, or have individual convictions
  2. B) Because they perceive themselves to be middle class, have a family tradition, or lack individual convictions
  3. C) Because they perceive themselves to be upper class, have a family tradition, or have individual convictions
  4. D) Because they perceive themselves to be middle class, have a family tradition, or have individual convictions

 

 

  1. Why did most 18-to-29-year-old voters vote for Obama in 2008 and 2012?

 

  1. A) They were more open on race and worried about their jobs during the financial crisis.
  2. B) There were more men than women who voted in that age range.
  3. C) They were fearful of economic experiments.
  4. D) They had lost faith in the Republican party.

 

 

  1. The party __________ of many voters dissolved in several watershed presidential elections.

 

  1. A) shifting
  2. B) loyalties
  3. C) recruitment
  4. D) skepticism

 

 

  1. Scholars have noticed spreading __________ in the U.S. electorate and are concerned that it could do damage to democracy.

 

  1. A) party hopping
  2. B) creation of parties
  3. C) polarization
  4. D) influence of social media

 

  1. The Clinton victories in 1992 and 1996 and the Obama victory of 2008, all based on the __________, undermine the theory of electoral realignment.

 

  1. A) economy
  2. B) military
  3. C) right to life
  4. D) grassroots movements

 

 

  1. Describe what the 2008 and 2012 winning coalitions of young people, women, and minorities indicated.

 

  1. A) the emergence of a new, liberal bloc
  2. B) the emergence of a new, socialist bloc
  3. C) the emergence of a new, working class bloc
  4. D) the emergence of a new, independent bloc

 

 

  1. Describe an example of a “deviating election.”

 

  1. A) A candidate shift that is only temporary, with voters going back to the candidate they initially favored
  2. B) A party shift that appears permanent, but sees voters going back to their long-term party ID years later
  3. C) A party shift that is only temporary, with voters going back to their long-term party ID
  4. D) A party shifting its support from one primary candidate to another, with the going back to support that initial candidate in subsequent elections

 

 

  1. What does partisan polarization look like?

 

  1. A) Partisans take to the streets, armed and prepared for street battles with the opposing party.
  2. B) Party identifiers maintain the same militancy they have always possessed, continuing their dislikes and slurs against the other party.
  3. C) Party identifiers become violent in their campaigning.
  4. D) Party identifiers become more militant, as do dislikes and slurs against the other party.

 

  1. If Nixon’s 1968 election was indicative of realignment, then what would Carter’s election in 1976 mark?

 

  1. A) A definitive expansion of Democratic values
  2. B) An indicator of depolarization
  3. C) A massive upset
  4. D) A deviating election

 

  1. The impact of the Supreme Court’s 1972 “one person, one vote” ruling had a side-effect of __________.

 

  1. A) many states resisting taking a census
  2. B) many states now redistricting after every census
  3. C) a few states redistrict after every census
  4. D) gerrymandering being undermined by redistricting

 

 

  1. Why has the theory of critical or realigning elections been so long debated by political scientists?

 

  1. A) Political scientists tend to be even more partisan than the average voter.
  2. B) Some emphasize the idea that party ID remains largely unchanged per voter across elections, while others point to watershed elections in which party loyalties shift.
  3. C) Statisticians can offer almost no notable data on party loyalty or lack thereof.
  4. D) “Critical elections” definitively determine how nearly every elections will go.

 

  1. Why are “independent” voters key to one’s understanding of whether substantial dealignment is occurring?

 

  1. A) Many voters who call themselves “independent” actually lean to one party or the other.
  2. B) More than 75 percent of voters who call themselves “independent” are genuine neutrals.
  3. C) At least 45 percent of those who cast ballots call themselves “independent.”
  4. D) Most voters who call themselves either a Democrat or a Republican actually lean “independent.”

 

 

  1. People very often vote without __________.

 

  1. A) any party affiliation
  2. B) knowing precisely what they are voting for or why
  3. C) having been granted citizenship
  4. D) knowing the parties involved in the election

 

  1. The 2012 victory for Democrats came through their emphasis on __________ operations.

 

  1. A) covert media
  2. B) rural voter registration
  3. C) neighborhood turnout
  4. D) non-“swing” state

 

 

  1. Voting blocs __________ the public-opinion blocs.

 

  1. A) tend to parallel
  2. B) tend to contradict
  3. C) rarely take part in
  4. D) disregard

 

  1. What are the habits of candidates as regards their positions on issues?

 

  1. A) They are endlessly opportunistic, but tend to alter their positions on issues only in the face of scandal or crisis.
  2. B) They resist being opportunistic, rarely altering their positions on issues to win the most votes.
  3. C) They are only relatively opportunistic, altering their positions on issues to win the most votes.
  4. D) They are endlessly opportunistic, altering their positions on issues to win the most votes.

 

  1. Describe the innovations that super-PACs brought to the 2012 presidential election.

 

  1. A) They produced more, and progressively effective, TV ads than ever.
  2. B) They produced more robocalls than ever.
  3. C) They produced more, and progressively negative, TV ads than ever.
  4. D) They produced less robocalls than ever.

 

  1. What does the Index of Consumer Confidence do, as regards elections?

 

  1. A) Offers no indication on the way presidential elections will turnout
  2. B) Measures how economically secure Americans feel, but reflects little how presidential elections will go
  3. C) Measures how secure Americans feel in the industrial sector of the economy
  4. D) Predicts most presidential elections

 

  1. Ronald Reagan and Barack Obama were prime examples of __________.

 

  1. A) winning political personalities
  2. B) winning political personalities, and politicians who led leaders in other countries to adopt similar approaches
  3. C) liberal political personalities, and politicians who led leaders in other countries to adopt similar approaches
  4. D) conservative political personalities, and politicians who led leaders in other countries to adopt similar approaches

 

  1. Johnson in 1964, Nixon in 1972, Reagan in 1984, etc. are examples of the phenomenon of __________.

 

  1. A) voters rewarding the incumbent’s party when they think the government in general is doing a good job
  2. B) voters rewarding the challenging party when they think the government in general is doing a bad good job
  3. C) voters punishing the incumbent’s party when they think the government in general is doing a bad job
  4. D) lobbyists rewarding the incumbent’s party when they think the government in general is doing a good job

 

  1. Why are voting blocs not what they used to be?

 

  1. A) People are often Libertarian on some things and Tea Party-ist on other things.
  2. B) Americans continue to fit demographic, ethnic, and religious pigeonholes.
  3. C) Attitudes on religion, free enterprise, welfare, patriotism, civil rights, and other issues do not cut across the old voting blocs.
  4. D) Americans do not fit demographic, ethnic, or religious pigeonholes.

 

  1. Why is a strong positive retrospective view potentially crucial for parties? Such a view __________.

 

  1. A) can turn into a party identification
  2. B) can often spur voters to found their own parties
  3. C) rarely turns into a party identification
  4. D) often turns voters off from voting altogether

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Voter turnout in the U.S. is traditionally higher than European countries such as Sweden, Germany, and Italy.

 

  1. The higher a person’s education and income, the more likely they are to vote.

 

  1. The voting age in the U.S. was lowered from 21 to 18 in 1960.

 

 

  1. According to the postmaterialism theory, a person with a higher level of education will not necessarily be more likely to vote.

 

  1. Elections were called early and at opportune times by Margaret Thatcher in Britain.

 

  1. Many working-class people identify as middle class and therefore vote more conservatively than they should according to their class.

 

 

  1. The electoral college can produce a winner of the presidential election that does not win the majority of the popular vote.

 

  1. The last major party realignment in the U.S. came in 1980 with Reagan being elected president.

 

 

  1. Voters engage in prospective voting when they base their decision on an incumbent president’s actions during his tenure.

 

  1. Opportunistic reaction to events compose much of political life.

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. Fewer than 20 American adults is involved enough in politics to attend a political meeting, contribute money, or __________ a neighborhood.

 

  1. The __________ constitutional amendment lowered the U.S. voting age from 21 to 18.

 

  1. Cities have __________ turnouts than rural areas because __________.

 

 

  1. Being older than __________ would make a person more likely to vote.

 

 

  1. Recently, party identification in the U.S. has been __________ and the number of swing voters has been __________.

 

  1. The province of __________, in Canada, is an example of periphery regions that experience center-periphery tensions that often affect voting patterns.

 

  1. The __________ voting bloc is the strongest predictor in U.S. voting.

 

  1. Roosevelt’s __________ influenced an electoral realignment in U.S. politics.

 

  1. Mass and leader __________ influence(s) citizen’s vote choice in presidential elections and threatens the role of rational choice.

 

  1. “Retrospective voting” involves voters choosing whether or not to vote for a candidate based on overall __________ performance, especially in regard to the economy.

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Why do Americans vote so little?

 

 

  1. Describe those who tend to be nonvoters, and explain why they tend to be nonvoters.

 

  1. Is the U.S. electoral system defective? Explain your answer.

 

  1. How does party identification tend to evolve from childhood through adulthood? Explain your answer.

 

  1. Why do democracies tend to see candidates adjusting their positions toward the center as election day nears?

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What are the most important factors in determining why people vote? Are there particular factors which appear to be more important than other factors? Does this hold true for all countries or just the U.S.? Why are people not voting in the U.S.? What role do the two parties play in this?

 

  1. What types of people are most likely to vote? Provide examples and explain why these groups are more likely than others to vote. Discuss their interests and abilities in your answer.

 

 

 

  1. What are the long-term and short-term factors in why people vote? Why? What role does party identification play? Discuss the role class plays in voting, as well. Finally, touch upon the role region plays.

 

  1. What are realigning elections? Describe voter realignment? In addition to critical elections, what are the causes of realignment? Are we undergoing another realignment now? Are realignments positive or negative? Explain.

 

 

  1. How are elections won? In other words, what distinguishes candidates who win from those who lose? Have these factors changed over time? Are the current factors that influence electoral outcomes positive or negative for a democratic society? Explain and provide examples.

 

Chapter 13-     Legislatures

Chapter 13-     Legislatures

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. According to theorists, what happens to political institutions as they become more modern?

 

  1. A) Their infrastructures crumble under labyrinthine bureaucracy.
  2. B) They become more specialized, complex, and differentiated.
  3. C) They grow broader in scope and focus.
  4. D) They establish a militaristic presence and harsh economic policies.

 

 

  1. Often at war, ambitious European monarchs desperately needed revenues. Some of them started calling assemblies of notables to levy taxes. In return for their “power of the purse,” these assemblies received a modest input into royal policies. Such were the beginnings of the __________.

 

  1. A) American Congress
  2. B) French Estates General
  3. C) British Parliament
  4. D) Swedish Riksdag

 

 

  1. Which British monarch famously broke the nation’s ties with the Roman Catholic Church?

 

  1. A) George IV
  2. B) James I
  3. C) Charles II
  4. D) Henry VIII

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms is defined as the post-feudal concentration of power in a monarch?

 

  1. A) Absolutism
  2. B) Totalitarianism
  3. C) Teetotalism
  4. D) Monarchy

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best defines feudalism?

 

  1. A) A political structure in which power is dispersed evenly.
  2. B) A system of political power dispersed among layers.
  3. C) A political structure in which power rests with church leaders.
  4. D) A system of political power distributed to the working class.

 

 

  1. By the seventeenth century, Parliament considered itself coequal with the monarch and even supreme in what area of rule?

 

  1. A) Taxes
  2. B) War
  3. C) Law
  4. D) Welfare

 

 

  1. The English Civil War erupted between which two political forces?

 

  1. A) Monarchists and democrats
  2. B) Democrats and parliamentarians
  3. C) Parliamentarians and royalists
  4. D) Loyalists and separatists

 

 

  1. English philosopher John Locke extolled the power of which governing branch as the most basic and important?

 

  1. A) Executive
  2. B) Judicial
  3. C) Legislative
  4. D) Parliamentary

 

  1. Countries with limits on government have usually had feudal pasts, which suggests what about the dispersion of power?

 

  1. A) Equal distribution of power is the only effective political structure.
  2. B) Power must be distributed by the working class.
  3. C) Power should be concentrated among the lower classes.
  4. D) Dispersion of power is good and concentration of power is bad.

 

 

  1. Why do the responsibilities of legislative and executive powers often overlap?

 

  1. A) Separation of powers is rarely clear-cut.
  2. B) Separation of powers is rare among industrialized nations.
  3. C) Separation of powers is absolute.
  4. D) Separation of powers grants obtuse levels of power to the executive branch.

 

 

  1. Which systems demonstrate the clearest separation of power between the executive and legislative branches?

 

  1. A) Parliamentary
  2. B) Presidential
  3. C) Monarchies
  4. D) Ministerial

 

 

  1. How often does the cabinet change in a parliamentary system?

 

  1. A) Every four years
  2. B) Every six years
  3. C) Every eight years
  4. D) When the cabinet is voted out or resigns

 

 

  1. In Europe, a cabinet is equivalent to a U.S. __________.

 

  1. A) administration
  2. B) congress
  3. C) president
  4. D) legislature

 

 

  1. In a parliamentary system, voters directly elect __________.

 

  1. A) members of parliament and the prime minister
  2. B) members of parliament and the ministerial cabinet
  3. C) members of parliament only
  4. D) the prime minister only

 

 

  1. Voters receive the most direct representation in which system?

 

  1. A) Parliamentary
  2. B) Presidential
  3. C) Electoral
  4. D) Coalition

 

 

  1. Because of the separation of powers inherent in a presidential system, some scholars think that executive-legislative __________is common in systems like that used in the United States.

 

  1. A) cooperation
  2. B) stagnation
  3. C) deadlock
  4. D) insolvency

 

 

  1. What is the effect of “divided” government, such as that used in the United States, on spending and policy formation?

 

  1. A) It encourages unhealthy spending and foolish policies.
  2. B) It holds down spending and foolish policies.
  3. C) It encourages irresponsible spending because representatives are held accountable for only a short amount of time.
  4. D) It encourages responsible spending, but is slow to implement policy.

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms identifies a primary danger to multiparty systems?

 

  1. A) Ombudsman
  2. B) Gridlock
  3. C) Stalemate
  4. D) Immobilism

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a possible advantage of parliamentary systems as compared to presidential systems?

 

  1. A) Parliamentary cabinets are held directly accountable to voters, and thus work closely with the legislature.
  2. B) Because the prime minister is held directly accountable to voters via approval ratings, parliamentary systems are more likely to pass legislature quickly and effectively.
  3. C) Presidents often become involved in scandals, trapping their administrations in bureaucratic quagmire and slowing legislature.
  4. D) Parliamentary cabinets can be quickly overturned, and thus, such systems can avoid the paralysis experienced in many presidential systems.

 

 

  1. Interpret the reason behind the swift passage of laws between Britain’s cabinet and the House of Commons.

 

  1. A) New laws move between the House of Commons and the House of Lords without electoral delay.
  2. B) The House of Commons consists only of the cabinet’s party, which is always loyal to the prime minister.
  3. C) The cabinet passes new laws to the House of Commons, where the prime minister’s party holds a majority.
  4. D) The prime minister uses “whip” tactics to maintain party coherence in the House of Commons.

 

 

  1. The United States parliament consists of two chambers, the __________ and the __________.

 

  1. A) executive; legislative
  2. B) Senate; House of Representatives
  3. C) president; Supreme Court
  4. D) president; Congress

 

  1. China’s National People’s Congress uses a __________ parliament.

 

  1. A) unicameral
  2. B) bicameral
  3. C) tricameral
  4. D) multicameral

 

  1. Germany’s __________ represents the 16 Länder and is coequal to the lower house on constitutional questions.

 

  1. A) Riksdag
  2. B) Reichstag
  3. C) Bundesrat
  4. D) Bildungsroman

 

 

  1. New Zealanders, Danes, and Swedes—all with __________ systems—concluded that their upper houses served no purpose and abolished them in recent decades.

 

  1. A) two-party
  2. B) unitary
  3. C) bicameral
  4. D) supervisory

 

  1. South Africa once had a three-chambered parliament, including __________.

 

  1. A) aristocrats, commoners and working-class people
  2. B) indigenous people, whites and immigrants
  3. C) West Africans, sub-Saharan people, and Arabs
  4. D) whites, mixed-race peoples, and East Indians

 

 

  1. Within a unitary system, how useful is an upper house?

 

  1. A) The upper house is absolutely necessary.
  2. B) Its utility waxes and wanes according to power distribution.
  3. C) It is less necessary than the lower house.
  4. D) Its usefulness is unclear.

 

 

  1. Assess the role of Britain’s House of Lords.

 

  1. A) The primary house in Britain’s parliament, they are the architects of most new laws in the United Kingdom.
  2. B) Holding similar weight as the House of Commons, they pass legislature in coordination with one another.
  3. C) A revisionary body, they rewrite laws vetoed by the prime minister.
  4. D) Mostly an elderly debating society, they sometimes catch errors in laws that are passed too quickly.

 

 

  1. Under the Unites States Constitution, the Senate represents __________ while the House represents __________.

 

  1. A) the states; the people
  2. B) federal interests; local ones
  3. C) foreign issues; domestic ones
  4. D) the president abroad; his interests at home

 

 

  1. Compare the parliamentary systems of China and Great Britain.

 

  1. A) Great Britain’s parliament is bicameral while China’s is unicameral.
  2. B) Great Britain’s parliament is unitary while China’s is solitary.
  3. C) China’s parliament is bicameral while Britain’s is unicameral.
  4. D) China’s parliament is three-chambered while Britain’s is bicameral.

 

 

  1. Examine the power relationship between Britain’s House of Commons and the House of Lords.

 

  1. A) The House of Lords is the upper house and thus determines most of the country’s foreign policy. The House of Commons deal with domestic affairs.
  2. B) The House of Commons overrides any objection from the House of Lords with a simple majority vote.
  3. C) The House of Lords is the more powerful branch drafting the majority of legislature and overriding weak legislating by the House of Commons.
  4. D) The House of Commons works with the prime minister, who uses a “whip” system to maintain coherence in the House of Lords.

 

 

  1. What sorts of bills do individual legislators create?

 

  1. A) Individual legislators draft most important legislation, including immigration reform.
  2. B) Most individual legislators focus on major legislation benefiting their party’s interests.
  3. C) Individual legislators draft minor legislation, such as tax breaks for constituents.
  4. D) Few individual legislators deal with minor legislation, such as smoking bans.

 

  1. Virtually every legislature has a number of standing or permanent committees and may from time to time create special __________ committees to study urgent matters.

 

  1. A) emergency
  2. B) crisis
  3. C) disaster
  4. D) ad hoc

 

 

 

  1. In the United States, the two houses have a total of about __________ subcommittees.

 

  1. A) 150
  2. B) 250
  3. C) 550
  4. D) 1,050

 

 

  1. Changes in the 1970s weakened the nearly tyrannical powers of American committee chairpersons by __________.

 

  1. A) making it easier to establish subcommittees
  2. B) restricting the chairpersons’ authority
  3. C) establishing specialized “field” committees
  4. D) altering their responsibilities to include international affairs

 

 

 

  1. The main purpose of legislative bodies, in theory, is to formulate laws. This, however, varies among political systems and is generally __________.

 

  1. A) increasing
  2. B) stagnating
  3. C) declining
  4. D) inflating

 

 

  1. Often lawmakers are so busy with __________ casework that they pay little attention to making laws.

 

  1. A) constituency
  2. B) environmental
  3. C) congressional
  4. D) commercial

 

 

  1. Assess the role of most modern legislators.

 

  1. A) Due to strict changes in the process, modern legislators focus solely on lawmaking.
  2. B) Because of increased advertising costs, many legislators spend most of their time raising funds for upcoming elections.
  3. C) Modern legislators function as ombudsmen, intervening with government on behalf of constituent complaints.
  4. D) Legislators work on contract, accepting campaign donations on behalf of legal causes.

 

  1. Identify three major criticisms both parties have leveled against the Obama administration.

 

  1. A) Over-spending, bailing out financial institutions, and complex healthcare reform
  2. B) Lax immigration policies, weak drug control, and failed national security policies
  3. C) Strict gun control laws, feeble immigration policies, and harsh healthcare mandates
  4. D) Frail drug policies, a weak handle on the terrorism threat, and ignorance of LGBTQ rights

 

 

  1. How did Democratic control of Congress allow the United States legislature to deal with the Iraq War?

 

  1. A) Congress set a timetable for the war’s end.
  2. B) Congress cut funding for foreign activities outlined by the executive branch.
  3. C) Congress was able to hold critical hearings.
  4. D) Congress blocked legislation extending executive privilege.

 

 

  1. Examine the psychological effect of apartheid legislature on South Africa’s racial majority.

 

  1. A) Black South Africans felt underrepresented, as the drafting legislature included less than 10 black African representatives.
  2. B) Created by a whites-only majority, black South Africans did not feel represented.
  3. C) Black South Africans accepted the laws, feeling powerless to affect change.
  4. D) Because the legislature passed in South Africa’s lower house, most black people begrudgingly accepted it.

 

 

  1. The U.S. Senate rules allow a member to declare a __________ to block legislation, which can be ended only with a vote of “cloture” (closure) by three-fifths of the Senate.

 

  1. A) debate
  2. B) filibuster
  3. C) bind
  4. D) tie-up

 

 

  1. The average annual number of filibusters in the U.S. Senate has __________ since 1981.

 

  1. A) greatly increased
  2. B) slightly increased
  3. C) greatly decreased
  4. D) fluctuated widely

 

 

  1. Projects that bring improvements to or spend money in a representative’s district are called __________.

 

  1. A) pork barrel
  2. B) log rolling
  3. C) whip projects
  4. D) flood control

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an effect of Congress’s fragmentation into committees and subcommittees?

 

  1. A) It hastens argumentation.
  2. B) It creates interparty splits.
  3. C) It allows representatives to ignore constituents.
  4. D) It delays agreement.

 

 

  1. In U.S. House contests, more than __________ of incumbents win.

 

  1. A) 30%
  2. B) 50%
  3. C) 70%
  4. D) 90%

 

 

  1. The U.S. pork barrel takes second place to the __________, whose legislators are famous for delivering massive (and often unneeded) public-works projects to their districts and shielding farmers from competition.

 

  1. A) French
  2. B) Australians
  3. C) Japanese
  4. D) Vietnamese

 

 

  1. Contrary to Locke’s expectations, nineteenth-century legislatures __________.

 

  1. A) lost power to the executive
  2. B) gained power over the executive
  3. C) stripped power from the executive
  4. D) maintained a cooperative relationship with the executive

 

 

  1. Due to its near-feudal dispersion of power with weaker party discipline and its tendency to deadlock, the U.S. legislature is considered highly __________.

 

  1. A) utilitarian
  2. B) domineering
  3. C) efficacious
  4. D) inefficient

 

 

  1. Assess Vladimir Putin’s handling of the deadlock between the Russian Duma and the executive branch under Boris Yeltsin.

 

  1. A) Under the auspices of the Unity Party, Putin seized power and now rules Russia under a one-party system.
  2. B) Putin spearheaded reforms under the National Party of the Left, which allowed parties in the Duma to more swiftly compromise.
  3. C) Putin founded his own party, which controls two-thirds of the Duma, but Russia is no longer a democracy.
  4. D) Putin led the ouster of Yeltsin’s administration, making way for faster legislation and a more democratic Russia.

 

 

  1. Evaluate the impact of absentee voting in the legislature.

 

  1. A) It may indicate that the system has grown overly labyrinthine and is in need of change.
  2. B) Absentee voting has little effect on legislative outcomes, as members who miss have no stake in the legislation being voted on.
  3. C) It almost certainly indicates that the legislator is misrepresenting his constituents and misusing taxpayer funds.
  4. D) It may indicate that the legislator is busy doing other important things, but may also indicate just plain laziness.

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. During the Age of Enlightenment, French philosopher René DesCartes declared that liberty could be secured only if government were divided into four distinct branches, with the ability to check and balance each other.

 

 

  1. The French Estates General, with three houses (for nobles, clerics, and commoners), was the first successful example of parliamentary checks and balances.

 

  1. Cabinet and government, terms used interchangeably, are what Americans call an “administration.”

 

  1. The United States takes great pride in its fusion of powers.

 

 

  1. Britain’s House of Lords was reformed in 1999 to keep “life peers” and exclude most hereditary peers.

 

  1. Most parliaments use a unicameral system, with fewer parliaments worldwide implementing bicameral systems.

 

  1. Since African Americans vote in considerable numbers, representatives in the U.S. South take care not to offend them.

 

  1. Assignment to the more prestigious of Congressional committees, such as the House Ways and Means Committee or Armed Services Committee, is frequently damaging to representatives’ careers, and thus, they tend to avoid these assignments.

 

 

  1. In parliamentary systems, particularly those in Europe, party discipline is strong and legislators obey party whips.

 

  1. The European parliaments really are more rational and efficient than the U.S. Congress, but they are also less powerful and less interesting. Efficiency has led to atrophy.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. In Britain, Sweden, and some other European countries, legislatures slowly grew in power and were able to resist monarchs’ __________ demands.

 

 

 

  1. __________ systems most clearly show the separation of power between the executive and legislative branches.

 

 

  1. Within parliamentary systems, if no one party has a majority of seats, two or more parties must form a __________.

 

 

 

  1. The United States Founding Fathers insisted on “checks and balances,” otherwise known as ___________.

 

 

 

  1. Members of Parliament with no executive responsibilities sit behind the cabinets and are called __________.

 

 

  1. Like some two-thirds of parliaments around the world, the French __________ maintains a bicameral legislature.

 

 

  1. One good way to study something is to see how it changes over time, or a __________ study.

 

 

  1. In Britain, the __________ allows members of Parliament to grill ministers, sometimes with devastating results.

 

  1. In Democratic parliaments, once a bill reports favorably out of committee it goes to __________, where it needs a majority vote to pass.

 

 

  1. For better or worse, a __________ age has shifted power away from legislatures.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain the development of feudalism and the “balance of powers.”

 

 

  1. Differentiate between presidential and parliamentary systems.

 

  1. Describe the benefits and pitfalls of bicameral and unicameral legislatures.

 

 

  1. Evaluate the work of today’s legislators. To what extent are they responsible for creating laws?

 

  1. Analyze the decline of parliamentary power.

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Examine the origins of parliaments by comparing feudalism and absolutism. How did one develop into the other and what effect has that system had on today’s separation of powers?

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast presidential and parliamentary systems. How are they similar? In what ways are they disparate? Evaluate each system using specific examples.

 

 

 

  1. Differentiate between bicameral and unicameral systems, evaluating the benefits and detriments to each. Overall, which seems like the most effective legislative system? Provide examples from your text.

 

 

  1. Examine the committee system. How do committees function to create laws? What other roles do committees play in the process of legislative representation? Assess the advantages and disadvantages of these roles.

 

 

  1. Investigate the decline of legislatures from the late nineteenth century to the present. How has legislative power declined and where is that power currently centralized? What changes, social or otherwise, influenced that shift? Does this shift enforce or disrupt the balance of powers?

 

 

Chapter 14- Executives and ureaucracies

Chapter 14-     Executives and Bureaucracies

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The head of ministry is equivalent to the __________ in the United States.

 

  1. A) chief of government
  2. B) head of state
  3. C) departmental secretary
  4. D) premier

 

  1. Which country refers to its prime minister as a chancellor?

 

  1. A) Italy
  2. B) Germany
  3. C) Britain
  4. D) France

 

 

  1. How many years does a president serve in France’s semipresidential system?

 

  1. A) eight
  2. B) seven
  3. C) four
  4. D) five

 

 

 

  1. Who directly calls forth the leader of the largest party to take office with a cabinet and become the prime minister?

 

  1. A) The voters
  2. B) Parliament
  3. C) The monarch
  4. D) The House of Commons

 

 

  1. Explain the process by which the Chancellor of Germany can be ousted.

 

  1. A) The chancellor is tried by the Bundestag, resulting in an impeachment.
  2. B) The chancellor can be ousted by using “constructive no confidence,” in which the Bundestag votes in a replacement cabinet.
  3. C) The Bundestag holds a majority vote to oust the chancellor.
  4. D) The chancellor can be ousted with “constructive no confidence,” in which a replacement cabinet overthrows the current chancellor.

 

  1. Describe how the election process in a parliamentary system slightly resembles presidential elections in the United States.

 

  1. A) Party chiefs run as candidates for prime minister.
  2. B) Citizens vote directly for the each new prime minister.
  3. C) Citizens vote for a party member with the knowledge that the next prime minister will be the head of the largest party.
  4. D) The prime minister is appointed for a four-year term and can be reappointed one time.

 

 

  1. The only political system that could guarantee the cooperation between the legislative and executive branches is __________.

 

  1. A) a monarchy
  2. B) a dictatorship
  3. C) a democracy
  4. D) an oligarchy

 

 

  1. When it comes to electing officials, which factor matters the most to voters in both presidential and parliamentary elections?

 

  1. A) Party affiliation
  2. B) Political ideologies
  3. C) Money invested in campaign
  4. D) Personality

 

 

  1. How did Israel’s practice of directly electing prime ministers prove that combining parliamentary and presidentialism does not create a stable government?

 

  1. A) Israelis voted for smaller parties to make up the legislature, resulting in a fractionated Knesset that could easily vote out the prime minister via a motion of confidence.
  2. B) Israeli voters elected a prime minister from a minority party and chose only majority party members for the legislature.
  3. C) The hybrid system was met with a lower voter turnout than in previous years.
  4. D) After voting for a prime minister, many Israeli voters did not participate in the election of the legislature.

 

  1. Distinguish the process that a parliamentary system uses to oust a chief executive from the one available in the United States presidential system.

 

  1. A) Parliamentary systems rely on impeachment, presidential ones rely on constructive no confidence.
  2. B) Parliamentary systems use constructive no confidence while presidential systems have the option of impeachment.
  3. C) The prime minister can dissolve parliament and the president can resign from office.
  4. D) Parliamentary systems can hold a vote of no confidence and presidential ones have the option of impeachment.

 

 

  1. Greenstein referred to Eisenhower’s presidency as the __________ presidency.

 

  1. A) “hands-off”
  2. B) “hands-on”
  3. C) “hidden-hand”
  4. D) “open-hand”

 

 

  1. What is considered the “trump card” for a democracy?

 

  1. A) Electoral punishment
  2. B) Impeachment
  3. C) Electoral college
  4. D) Checks and balances

 

 

  1. Who receives the most attention in both parliamentary and presidential systems?

 

  1. A) Head of state
  2. B) Chief executive
  3. C) The legislature
  4. D) Voting citizens

 

 

  1. Labeled as “hands-off” by critics, President Reagan notably took __________.

 

  1. A) brisk walks and laborious hikes
  2. B) afternoon naps and frequent vacations
  3. C) road trips and long showers
  4. D) afternoon tea and second desserts

 

 

  1. Indicate which graph you would use if you wanted each data point to lead up to the following data point.

 

  1. A) Bar graph
  2. B) Scatter plot
  3. C) Flow chart
  4. D) Line graph

 

 

  1. You should use a bar graph to __________.

 

  1. A) demonstrate and plot change over time
  2. B) compare the differences between several items at the same time
  3. C) use more than one color for each item presented
  4. D) only for data that trends upwards, never downwards

 

 

  1. As the executive sees increased power, the __________ suffer a decrease.

 

  1. A) cabinet
  2. B) voters
  3. C) legislatures
  4. D) military

 

  1. Provide an example of what happens when a President takes on a more “hands-off” approach.

 

  1. A) The president grows stressed and tired after devoting a great deal of time to their administration.
  2. B) Senators must decide whether or not soldiers are sent into war if the president cannot make the decision on his own.
  3. C) After receiving only general directions from the president, subordinates commit an illegal transaction of goods and transfer money overseas.
  4. D) Subordinates of the administration receive both blame and praise for decisions made by the president.

 

 

  1. Choose a graph to best compare the age of voters and voter activity within the Unites States.

 

  1. A) Bar graph
  2. B) Line graph
  3. C) Scatter plot
  4. D) Pie chart

 

 

  1. How did President Reagan earn a second term in spite of his “hands-off” approach?

 

  1. A) He promised to take on a more “hands-on” approach during his second term.
  2. B) Citizens saw little to no flaws with his “hands-off” approach.
  3. C) He switched to a more “hands-on” approach in the months leading up to the election.
  4. D) He focused on his personality and ability to project a calm mood amongst citizens.

 

 

  1. In the case of both parliamentary and presidential systems, examine the reason democracies will not vanish, even though the executive seems to be receiving more and more power.

 

  1. A) Checks and balances keep the chief executive from gaining too much power.
  2. B) Chief executives will eventually have to face reelection, which depends greatly on the approval of voting citizens.
  3. C) Both systems have methods by which to oust chief executives.
  4. D) Subordinates carry out some of the workload of the chief executive.

 

 

  1. Cabinets in the United States are comprised of __________ members.

 

  1. A) 20 or more
  2. B) 10 or less
  3. C) a total of 15
  4. D) a total of 20

 

 

 

  1. Each division of government in a parliamentary system is headed by a __________.

 

  1. A) secretary
  2. B) president
  3. C) prime minister
  4. D) minister

 

 

  1. Describe how the United States expands its cabinet.

 

  1. A) The president can create a new department at his or her will.
  2. B) Congress must agree on the new department and provisions for its funds must be made.
  3. C) In order for a new department to be developed, a former one must be deleted.
  4. D) New departments are no longer developed.

 

 

 

  1. Explain which type of candidate parliamentary systems seek out to become ministers.

 

  1. A) Those who have experience winning elections and serving on a parliamentary committee
  2. B) Newcomers who can bring in a fresh perspective to the ministry
  3. C) Individuals who possess a great knowledge of the specific ministry’s area
  4. D) Those who have political experience regardless of whether or not they have been elected in the past

 

 

 

  1. What is the role of cabinet members?

 

  1. A) Cabinet members assist chief executives by designing and heading their own divisions of government.
  2. B) Cabinet members work independently from chief executives by heading a major executive division of government.
  3. C) Cabinets members assist chief executives by heading a major executive division of government.
  4. D) Cabinet members work independently from chief executives by designing and heading their own divisions of government.

 

  1. Which department emerged as a response to unemployed workers?

 

  1. A) Department of Health and Human Services
  2. B) Department of Homeland Security
  3. C) Department of Labor
  4. D) Department of Housing and Urban Development

 

 

  1. How does the addition of the Department of Energy exemplify the United States’ tendency to rely on the marketplace to make its decisions?

 

  1. A) The department was created when the United States became a leading industry of energy supply.
  2. B) The department was created in response to the 1970s energy crisis, in which many nations had reached a shortage of energy supply.
  3. C) The department was created in order to keep up with parliamentary systems that created their own ministries devoted to issues related to energy.
  4. D) The department was created in response to the 1970’s energy crisis, in which many nations had an abundance of energy supply.

 

 

  1. Why is it that few Americans can name three or more cabinet members?

 

  1. A) Cabinet members are primarily responsible for asking Congress for money to fund their departments, meaning they aren’t in the public eye as much.
  2. B) Given the amount of departments within the United States, Americans only learn about those in which they are interested.
  3. C) Because Americans do not directly elect cabinet members, they are unaware of who hold the positions.
  4. D) Few cabinet members are actually well-known politicians.

 

 

  1. A __________ is any large organization of appointed officials who implement laws and policies.

 

  1. A) government
  2. B) bureaucracy
  3. C) democracy
  4. D) cabinet

 

 

  1. If you have no bureaucracy, you have no __________.

 

  1. A) democracy
  2. B) chief executive
  3. C) presidential system
  4. D) government

 

 

  1. Describe a career civil servant.

 

  1. A) A civil servant who is elected based on their knowledge of a specialized area
  2. B) A professional civil servant who is not a political appointee, but answers to elected officials
  3. C) A civil servant who provides consultation to elected officials and does not have to abide by certain laws as other civil servants do
  4. D) A civil servant who works under an elected official with the intent of running for election one day

 

 

  1. What are the differences between a “temporary government” and a “permanent government?”

 

  1. A) Elected officials make up the “temporary government” while civil service make up the “permanent government.”
  2. B) Civil service makes up the “temporary government” while elected officials make up the “permanent government.”
  3. C) The “temporary government” is another name for bureaucracy while “permanent government” refers to civil service.
  4. D) The “temporary government” refers to civil service while the “permanent government” is another name for bureaucracy.

 

  1. How is the Roman Catholic Church bureaucratic in an ideal sense?

 

  1. A) The Pope, in most cases, must carry out his term until death.
  2. B) People donate large amounts of money to the Roman Catholic Church on an annual basis.
  3. C) It was established during the Middle Ages, and therefore has a long history of tradition.
  4. D) There is a chain of command in which the power starts with the Pope and moves down to the priest of the church.

 

 

  1. Would the United States government be classified as a bureaucracy if we eliminated the chain of command for the president?

 

  1. A) No, because a bureaucracy cannot exist without some sort of hierarchy of authority.
  2. B) Yes, because a bureaucracy naturally exists within any large organization.
  3. C) Yes, because the chain of command cannot be eliminated.
  4. D) Yes, because we would still have democracy, a key component to bureaucracy.

 

 

  1. Examine how a chain of command betters a bureaucracy.

 

  1. A) A chain of command creates a sense of uniformity and predictability within a government system.
  2. B) A chain of command establishes tradition, which is very important to bureaucracy.
  3. C) A chain of command is the only way for a government to operate and function properly.
  4. D) A chain of command does not better a bureaucracy.

 

 

  1. The current U.S. cabinets employ between __________ and __________ percent of all federal civil servants.

 

  1. A) 80; 90
  2. B) 75; 80
  3. C) 85; 90
  4. D) 70; 80

 

 

 

  1. One who is not interested in or participating in politics is __________.

 

  1. A) anti-political
  2. B) anarchical
  3. C) anti-establishment
  4. D) apolitical

 

 

 

  1. Which country referred to its state nobility as the Junkers?

 

  1. A) Germany
  2. B) Prussia
  3. C) France
  4. D) Britain

 

 

  1. Explain what happened to Japan’s economic state after World War II?

 

  1. A) The economy crumbled and remained in disarray until the 1990s.
  2. B) World War II did not affect Japan’s economic state, which had been prosperous before the war.
  3. C) The economy experienced an intense growth that lasted until the 1990s.
  4. D) World War II boosted Japan’s economy, which has been consistently growing ever since.

 

 

  1. Explain how corruption still occurs within China, even though party members are supposed to combat such occurrences.

 

  1. A) China’s authoritarian government depends on the cadres, who engage in corruptive practices such as accepting bribes and fake “taxes,” to run the country.
  2. B) The Communist Party’s Central Commission for Discipline Inspection expels party members who do not agree with the cadres’ corruptive practices, thereby eliminating the opposition.
  3. C) China’s Communist system prevents any of its officials from losing power.
  4. D) Any corruption done by the cadres does not hurt the regime in anyway.

 

 

  1. Discuss the differences between Germany’s bureaucrats and those of the U.S. and Britain.

 

  1. A) German bureaucrats believe that the law is flexible, whereas those in the U.S. and Britain see it as a set system of codes.
  2. B) German bureaucrats do not have a background in law, while those in the U.S. and Britain are often educated in law.
  3. C) German bureaucrats have a background in law that allows them to see the law as a set system of codes, whereas those in the U.S. and Britain manage to see law in a similar way without the required background.
  4. D) German bureaucrats believe the law is a set system of codes, while those in the U.S. and Britain see common law as more flexible.

 

 

  1. How are health warnings on cigarettes an example of bureaucracies having more power than Congress in some cases?

 

  1. A) Congress needed the approval of both the Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health and the surgeon general before requiring cigarette manufacturers to print health warnings.
  2. B) The Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health worked in tandem with the surgeon general to petition for cigarette manufacturers to print health warning, eventually forcing manufacturers to comply.
  3. C) The Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health and the surgeon general used data indicating that cigarettes increased lung cancer to put pressure on Congress, which eventually forced manufacturers to print warnings.
  4. D) Congress did not have the power to require cigarette manufacturers to print health warning on their label, but the Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health and the surgeon general did.

 

 

  1. Demonstrate how the majority of civil servants in the United States are employed by the local government.

 

  1. A) Local government provides many government services including schools and police, resulting in a greater number of civil servants at the local level.
  2. B) The majority of people are employed by local government because there are more of them in the nation than state or federal governments.
  3. C) Local government creates jobs that are easier to obtain than state or federal.
  4. D) Most people start out at the local government level before advancing to the state and federal levels.

 

 

  1. In what ways are French and Japanese bureaucracies similar?

 

  1. A) Japan’s vice ministers carry out much of the same tasks as France’s permanent secretaries.
  2. B) Both countries are heavily bureaucratized, with Japan having been modeled after France’s civil servants.
  3. C) Bureaucrats in Japan and France work in complete tandem with elected officials.
  4. D) Japanese and French bureaucrats focus primarily on finances and the economy.

 

  1. What evidence can you present in support of the reformation of Japan’s bureaucracy?

 

  1. A) Some believe that “no one is in charge” in Japan.
  2. B) The vice minister has more power than the minister of a ministry.
  3. C) Japanese civil servants retire at younger ages.
  4. D) Bureaucratic supervision has led to a flat economy after decades of economic prosperity.

 

 

  1. Which country became the least corrupt Latin American country by cutting back on its number of bureaucrats?

 

  1. A) Argentina
  2. B) Chile
  3. C) Mexico
  4. D) Peru

 

  1. The efficiency with which goods or services are produced is __________.

 

  1. A) Parkinson’s Law
  2. B) profitability
  3. C) productivity
  4. D) economic growth

 

 

  1. Explain the effects of having more regulations within a bureaucracy.

 

  1. A) More bureaucrats emerge when more regulations are instilled, resulting in more corruption.
  2. B) More regulations lead to more organization within bureaucracy, resulting in less corruption.
  3. C) More regulations eliminate the need for as many bureaucrats, resulting in less corruption.
  4. D) More corruption occurs when more regulations are instilled due to less bureaucrats being needed.

 

 

  1. How do Americans typically view bureaucrats?

 

  1. A) As overpaid workers who stir up trouble
  2. B) As necessary components within the government
  3. C) As individuals who hold no real power
  4. D) As liaisons between the voting citizens and the elected officials

 

 

  1. How do countries like Finland and Singapore avoid corruption within their public administration when corruption seems to plague nearly all bureaucracies?

 

  1. A) They have scaled back on the number of bureaucrats, allowing for fewer officials to commit heinous acts.
  2. B) Both countries have a lower number of regulations compared to other countries around the world.
  3. C) Their professional bureaucrats do not make public policy, they only carry out laws established by elected officials.
  4. D) The cultures of these countries place a great emphasis on public service, allowing them to keep corruption out of their administration.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. In a presidential system, a deadlock refers to the executive and legislative branches blocking each other.

 

 

  1. As the primus inter pares, the prime minister cannot dismiss any ministers in his cabinet unless he or she appointed them.

 

 

  1. In the American presidential system, Congress possesses the ability to increase the powers of the executive branch in extreme cases where the nation’s safety is at risk.

 

 

  1. If the pattern moves upward, it shows growth in a line graph, but demonstrates a decline in a bar graph.

 

 

  1. If your thesis and graph results do not match it means the data you collected is incorrect and you should start over until you find results that match your thesis.

 

 

  1. In the United States, cabinet members are elected officials.

 

  1. The military is considered a bureaucratic system.

 

 

  1. The Five-Year Plans refers to Hitler’s plans for rapid, centrally administered industrial growth in Germany during the Third Reich.

 

 

  1. In 1870 Britain established a merit civil service that focused on competitive exams over patronage to combat issues of nepotism and corruption within the bureaucracy.

 

 

 

  1. Parkinson’s Law refers to the concept that work is completed ahead of schedule as to accomplish as much as possible in any given amount of time.

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. The “deadlock of democracy” in the United States is analogous to __________ in the parliamentary system.

 

 

  1. When a minister disagrees with government policy, they are expected to resign and return to their seats in __________.

 

 

 

  1. Out of the __________ presidents who were impeached by the House, __________ was the only one to resign.

 

  1. The __________ fiasco occurred under Reagan’s presidency.

 

  1. Covariance compares how two or more items __________.

 

  1. Many Western European governments added __________ to their cabinets in the 1980s.

 

 

  1. Based on qualifications pertaining to their educational background and examinations, civil servants are __________ officials.

 

  1. Due to their apolitical nature, British bureaucrats __________ the ministry’s policies regardless of who has the most power.

 

  1. Hitler gained supporters with the rise of the Third Reich, which brought about the fall of the Weimar Republic in 1933, because the civil servant class loathed __________.

 

 

  1. Financiers gutted the regulatory role of the __________, leading to its part in the 2008 financial crisis.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What powers do prime ministers possess that could possibly benefit the United States president if he or she also had them?

 

  1. Discuss the ways in which a president can find the middle ground between being hands-on and hands-off.

 

 

  1. How does the United States cabinet system sometimes resemble the European cabinet system?

 

 

  1. Interpret what Max Weber means when he claims that bureaucracy is unavoidable.

 

  1. How does the United States bureaucratic system compare with more communist ones, like China and the Soviet Union?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. How long can a prime minister remain in office compared to a president? Why are executive terms established for presidents but not prime ministers? How do fixed terms place a check on presidents? Are there any downfalls to the fixed term? Does either method seem more efficient?

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast cabinet ministers with departmental secretaries. Provide examples in your discussion of their similarities and differences. How might cabinet ministers be better equipped for their role? What problems do department secretaries typically have?

 

  1. Describe what it means to be a bureaucracy. Would bureaucracy function without the career civil service? Explain. Given what we know, does Britain have a tighter bureaucracy than the United States? Why or why not? Indicate what this reveals about the United States?

 

 

 

  1. How is Japan an example of a more extreme bureaucratic system? Are there any benefits to a bureaucratic system run like this? What are the consequences? If a bureaucratic system such as this fumbles, what can be done to repair the damages?

 

  1. Why does bureaucracy receive so much hate? How are the actions of bureaucrats perceived by the public? Describe attempts by public administration to solve the problem of bureaucrats. Does the issue ever get solved? Why or why not? Is this evidence that even a corrupt bureaucracy is better than no bureaucracy?

 

Chapter 15-     Judiciaries

Chapter 15-     Judiciaries

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Unlike natural law, positive law uses __________.

 

  1. A) the spirit of the law to make determinations
  2. B) books to reach conclusions
  3. C) judicial sentencing to determine case outcomes
  4. D) jury selection to manipulate judgment

 

 

  1. Which of the following issues is a civil concern?

 

  1. A) Extortion
  2. B) Theft
  3. C) Divorce
  4. D) Trafficking

 

 

  1. International law consists of __________ and established customs recognized by most nations.

 

  1. A) treaties
  2. B) ratification
  3. C) amendments
  4. D) cease-fires

 

  1. Which of the following is an important role of U.S. courts and their greatest contribution to governance?

 

  1. A) Assure statutory laws do not violate the constitution
  2. B) Protect individual rights and liberties
  3. C) Guarantee administrative usages do not get out of hand
  4. D) Judicial review

 

 

  1. Developed by medieval Catholic theologians, what type of law argues that observing nature reveals God’s will?

 

  1. A) Natural law
  2. B) Divine law
  3. C) God’s law
  4. D) Higher law

 

  1. What are the key mechanisms of international law?

 

  1. A) Reciprocity and coalition
  2. B) Consistency and reciprocity
  3. C) Consistency and coherence
  4. D) Coalition and coherence

 

 

  1. What is the U.S. Supreme Court ruling regarding state obligation to international treaties?

 

  1. A) States maintain the right to select which treaties they will observe.
  2. B) States have no obligation to observe international treaties.
  3. C) States must observe international treaties ratified by the United States.
  4. D) States must observe international treaties ratified by state legislatures.

 

 

  1. Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court rulings reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision?

 

  1. A) Roe v. Wade
  2. B) Brown v. Board of Education
  3. C) Miranda v. Arizona
  4. D) Lawrence v. Texas

 

  1. Distinguish between primitive and modern judicial systems.

 

  1. A) Primitive legal systems rely largely on labyrinthine written and codified laws, while modern systems rely on oral rhetoric.
  2. B) Modern legal systems utilize recent advances in technology, while primitive legal systems must do without such amenities.
  3. C) Modern legal systems better ensure the rights of citizens, while primitive systems function on superstition and disbelief.
  4. D) Primitive legal systems are oral and consist of customs and beliefs, while modern systems are written and largely codified.

 

 

  1. Under which of the following circumstances might a case be pursued as both a criminal and a civil case?

 

  1. A) The federal government accuses investment houses of wrongdoing and investors who lost money sue them.
  2. B) Drug traffickers violate property and federal law by moving drugs across state borders.
  3. C) Burglars violate federal property and the state sues them for damages.
  4. D) A state accuses banks of mortgage fraud, sold to investors elsewhere in the nation.

 

 

  1. How many judicial structures comprise the U.S. court system?

 

  1. A) 23
  2. B) 47
  3. C) 51
  4. D) 75

 

 

  1. To what judicial authority can federal court decisions be appealed?

 

  1. A) Department of Citizen Security
  2. B) Secretary of Judicial Revisions
  3. C) Federal Oversight Commission
  4. D) U.S. Court of Appeals

 

 

  1. State court systems handle about __________ of the nation’s legal business.

 

  1. A) 30%
  2. B) 50%
  3. C) 70%
  4. D) 90%

 

 

  1. The English common law stressed the rights of free and equal men and was developed on the basis of precedent set by earlier judges, known today as __________.

 

  1. A) judge-made law
  2. B) judicial precedent
  3. C) example by trial
  4. D) court-generated

 

  1. Who nominates and approves federal judges in the U.S. court system?

 

  1. A) The President and the Senate
  2. B) The Senate and the House
  3. C) The President and Speaker of the House
  4. D) The Senate and the Secretary of State

 

 

  1. What legal agency in the United States generates reputation-based ratings of prospective federal judges?

 

  1. A) Judicial Ratings Bureau
  2. B) Federal Bureau of Judicial Review
  3. C) American Bar Association
  4. D) Office of Legal Assessment

 

 

  1. What did President Obama do to counterbalance the U.S. Supreme Court’s Conservative tilt?

 

  1. A) He appointed one African American justice and one Hispanic justice.
  2. B) He appointed two liberal women justices.
  3. C) He reinforced executive privilege.
  4. D) He appointed one conservative and one moderate justice.

 

  1. Describe the primary jurisdiction of the U.S. Supreme Court.

 

  1. A) It makes initial rulings on all federal cases, civil and criminal.
  2. B) It rules on high penalty cases, including those with life sentences and the death penalty.
  3. C) Its jurisdiction is almost entirely appellate, from lower federal or state supreme courts.
  4. D) Its jurisdiction is broad, ranging from appellate rulings to original rulings in federal crimes.

 

 

  1. Compare the election cycles of federal and state judges.

 

  1. A) State judges are elected directly, while federal judges go through an electoral college.
  2. B) State judges are elected based on population, while federal judges are elected per state.
  3. C) State judges are elected, while federal judges are appointed.
  4. D) The election process is nearly identical.

 

 

  1. Evaluate the political lean of President Eisenhower’s U.S. Supreme Court nominees.

 

  1. A) He exclusively nominated members of his own party, tipping the balance in his favor.
  2. B) He nominated candidates from both parties, seeking a balanced court.
  3. C) He nominated two Republicans and one independent, the first to be nominated to the Supreme Court.
  4. D) He nominated ethnic minorities, including one African American and the first Jewish justice.

 

 

  1. Anglo-American courts function on a(n) __________ and __________ process.

 

  1. A) adversarial; authoritarian
  2. B) accusatorial; ambivalent
  3. C) authoritarian; removed
  4. D) accusatorial; adversarial

 

  1. In the European court system, the prosecutor is an official who forwards evidence to the __________.

 

  1. A) investigating judge
  2. B) judicial panel
  3. C) case review board
  4. D) district attorney

 

  1. “The only lawyer around here is a Kalashnikov,” despaired one Russian, referring to the __________.

 

  1. A) district attorney
  2. B) prosecutor
  3. C) assault rifle
  4. D) Putin administration

 

  1. Describe the significance of Marbury v. Madison.

 

  1. A) The ruling laid precedent for judicial review.
  2. B) The ruling stated that the president is subject to the court’s decisions.
  3. C) The ruling decreed that current administrations must honor the appointments of previous administrations.
  4. D) The ruling claimed that federal taxes could not be levied on the states.

 

 

  1. Identify the role of French lawyers.

 

  1. A) They listen to the opposing argument and attempt to demonstrate logical or factual mistakes, hoping to sway the lay jury in the summation argument.
  2. B) They question witnesses to bring evidence to light, laying the groundwork for a closing argument.
  3. C) They listen passively as the opposing side questions the witness, interjecting only on grounds of mistaken procedure.
  4. D) They procure evidence for indictment but allow the judge to question witnesses, playing no active role in the trial process.

 

  1. How long is the tenure of British judges?

 

  1. A) Six years
  2. B) Eight years
  3. C) Twelve years
  4. D) Life

 

  1. Examine the ideal role of American judges.

 

  1. A) Judges should intervene frequently, interpreting the law according to their expertise and ensuring a fair trial.
  2. B) Judges should act as umpires, passively watching the legal drama and ruling only on disputed points of procedure.
  3. C) Judges should not intervene unless attorneys object, at which point they may either overrule or sustain the objection.
  4. D) Judges should take an active role, questioning witnesses, eliciting evidence, and commenting on procedure.

 

  1. Describe the role of theft on the post-Stalin Russian legal system.

 

  1. A) Theft was punished severely: a mere indictment almost certainly assured a 10-year prison sentence.
  2. B) With strict punishments set in place, theft greatly declined in the years after Stalin’s rule.
  3. C) Theft became the norm for Soviet economic life and helped bring down the system.
  4. D) Because all government property “belong[ed] to the people,” private citizens could legally steal from the government.

 

  1. Compare Anglo-American courts to those in Russia.

 

  1. A) Anglo-American courts include bourgeois concepts, such as property law and civil rights, whereas the Soviet-developed Russian system excludes these concepts.
  2. B) The Russian court is a passive institution that does not seek to correct lawbreakers or to apprehend criminals, whereas the Anglo-American system is an active institution.
  3. C) Courts in Russia frequently indict politicians disloyal to the president’s agenda, whereas Anglo-American courts remain separate from politics.
  4. D) Russian courts represent the upper class, while American courts protect the interests of common laborers.

 

 

  1. Distinguish the roles of Russia’s Committee on State Security (KGB) and the current Federal Security Service (FSB).

 

  1. A) The KGB was a corrupt organization, devoted to protecting Russia’s elite; the FSB protects the people’s interests.
  2. B) Unlike the KGB which focused primarily on counter-cultural activities, the FSB functions more as a Secret Service to protect the president from possible threats.
  3. C) The FSB aims to expose government corruptions, while the KGB protected it.
  4. D) The FSB continues the KGB’s aim, to make sure those in power stay in power.

 

 

  1. Which United States Federalist is famous for noting that the courts could limit legislative authority?

 

  1. A) George Washington
  2. B) John Adams
  3. C) Alexander Hamilton
  4. D) James Madison

 

 

  1. Which of the following actions comprise roles of the German Constitutional Court?

 

  1. A) It maintains liberty, defends civil rights, and protects the people against autocratic rule.
  2. B) It decides cases between states, protects civil liberties, and outlaws dangerous political parties.
  3. C) It reviews new laws against the constitution (Basic Law), assesses criminal cases, and checks political campaign funds.
  4. D) It preserves checks and balances, maintains separation of powers, and occasionally reverses decisions of lower courts.

 

 

  1. Strong-willed U.S. presidents have resisted the authority of the Court. Which of the following presidents notably disagreed with the Court’s decisions?

 

  1. A) Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and Abraham Lincoln
  2. B) Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan
  3. C) John F. Kennedy, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter
  4. D) Ulysses S. Grant, William McKinley, and Calvin Coolidge

 

 

  1. The concept of judicial review falls under which article of the U.S. Constitution?

 

  1. A) Article I: The Legislative Branch
  2. B) Article III: The Judicial Branch
  3. C) Article VI: Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
  4. D) Judicial review is not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution.

 

 

  1. Which of the following was an argument against granting the U.S. Supreme Court the power of judicial review?

 

  1. A) Many feared that such a power would give the Court a double check and compromise its neutrality.
  2. B) Some thought that such power would create untrustworthy judges.
  3. C) The founding fathers argued that judicial review would lead to undue indictments by the Court.
  4. D) Drafters of the Constitution feared that few laws would ever be set in stone.

 

 

  1. Which Swiss agency determines whether a cantonal law violates the Swiss constitution?

 

  1. A) National Judicial Branch
  2. B) Swiss Supreme Court
  3. C) Federal Tribunal
  4. D) Constitutional Review Board

 

 

  1. Compared to other countries, what is the perceived corruption in the United States, relative to income?

 

  1. A) Somewhat low
  2. B) Somewhat high
  3. C) Extremely low
  4. D) Extremely high

 

 

  1. Which of the following best articulates the stance of judicial restraint advocates?

 

  1. A) Judicial review is the best and only true method of checking legislative power.
  2. B) The court should practice restraint in cases in which legislative acts are presented for interpretation.
  3. C) Only the executive branch can restrain the Court, keeping the power of judicial review in balance with the other governing branches.
  4. D) Only Congress should make public policy and, unless a legislative act clearly violates the Constitution, the law should stand.

 

 

  1. How does the American concept of judicial review compare to the role of courts in foreign systems?

 

  1. A) Most countries maintain a similar process of judicial review, which evaluates federal laws against the nation’s constitution.
  2. B) Judicial review is more highly developed in the United States than in any other country, and Americans expect more of their courts than do other peoples.
  3. C) The United States is the only developed nation to maintain the process of judicial review.
  4. D) Most foreign constitutions are exempt from judicial review, stripping the courts of any power they might have in shaping legislation.

 

 

  1. Analyze the U.S. Supreme Court within context of Germany’s Constitutional Court.

 

  1. A) Because Germany’s Constitutional Court operates within a more rigid code of law, its decisions do not have the impact of U.S. Supreme Court decisions.
  2. B) Due to executive restraints, Germany’s Constitutional Court is less powerful than the U.S. Supreme Court.
  3. C) Germany’s Constitutional Court is more codified than the U.S. Supreme Court, making it rival and sometimes overrule the executive branch.
  4. D) The U.S. Supreme Court’s rulings function as the “law of the land,” while the Constitutional Court may still be overruled.

 

 

  1. Historically, Supreme Court justices used to be exclusively __________ upper- or upper-middle-class males.

 

  1. A) powerful
  2. B) WASP
  3. C) New England
  4. D) Christian

 

  1. Some justices, like __________ (one of six Jewish justices) and __________ (the first black justice), were active in reform and civil rights causes and brought their liberalism to the bench.

 

  1. A) Ruth Ginsberg; Earl Warren
  2. B) Owen Roberts; Hugo Black
  3. C) Arthur Goldberg; Clarence Thomas
  4. D) Louis Brandeis; Thurgood Marshall

 

 

  1. The Supreme Court’s decision in __________ (1954) triggered a revolution in American race relations, an area Congress had been unwilling to touch.

 

  1. A) Miranda v. Arizona
  2. B) Dred Scott v. Sandford
  3. C) Brown v. Board of Education
  4. D) Gibbons v. Ogden

 

 

  1. In Lombard v. Louisiana (1963), the Warren Court supported __________, ruling that blacks who had refused to leave a segregated lunch counter could not be prosecuted.

 

  1. A) boycotts
  2. B) sit-ins
  3. C) picket lines
  4. D) protests

 

 

  1. Among the most famous rulings in a criminal procedure, Mapp v. Ohio (1961) ruled that __________.

 

  1. A) evidence seized without a warrant was inadmissible in a state court
  2. B) police could seize any item deemed “evidence” in the absence of a warrant
  3. C) officers may lawfully search any person under the guise of “probable cause”
  4. D) law enforcement officers may search private residences without a warrant

 

  1. This 1966 case ruled that arrested persons must immediately be told of their right to remain silent and to have a lawyer present during police questioning.

 

  1. A) Escobedo v. Illinois
  2. B) Gideon v. Wainwright
  3. C) Miranda v. Arizona
  4. D) Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier

 

  1. What have been the implications of the 2010 Citizens United case?

 

  1. A) Corporations were deemed as non-persons, and thus cannot contribute directly to political campaigns.
  2. B) Individuals, corporations, and unions may now contribute unlimited campaign funds through so-called “super-PACs.”
  3. C) Despite being considered collections of people by the Court, corporations may not donate to political campaigns.
  4. D) Individuals may donate unlimited campaign funds, but corporations face a stiff $100,000 cap.

 

  1. What was perhaps the most conservative shift of the Roberts Court?

 

  1. A) The Court took on notably fewer cases than before, reversing the tendency to use the Court at a back-up legislature.
  2. B) The Court ruled conservatively on abortion cases, whereas the previous Court tended to rule on the pro-choice side.
  3. C) Roberts and colleagues seemed more heavily influenced by outside opinion, lessening the Court’s ostensible objectivity.
  4. D) Despite its liberal rulings on gun control, the Court ruled conservatively on gay rights and immigration issues.

 

  1. Analyze the series of court decisions in 1962 and 1964 finding that unequal representation denied citizens their Fourteenth Amendment rights.

 

  1. A) The Court ordered that state legislatures apply the principle of “one person, one vote” in redrawing electoral lines.
  2. B) State legislatures were ordered to redraw district lines to better represent African Americans.
  3. C) The Republican party was censured for excluding the black vote using voter ID laws.
  4. D) States were forced to add one representative per 100,000 people to better serve impoverished areas.

 

 

  1. Compare the Warren Court to those immediately succeeding it.

 

  1. A) The Warren Court was generally considered conservative, but subsequent courts were seen as more liberal.
  2. B) Subsequent courts were conservative, but not nearly as conservative as the Warren Court.
  3. C) Succeeding Courts failed to represent the conservative agenda of the Warren Court.
  4. D) While the Warren Court was rather progressive, subsequent courts were viewed as conservative.

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. With only 2.3 million people in U.S. jails, we rarely hear about the criminal law system.

 

 

  1. Because in the United States the ultimate responsibility of interpreting the Constitution rests with the U.S. Supreme Court, laws cannot change once they’ve been ruled on.

 

 

  1. The federal courts hear many diversity jurisdiction cases, in which the issue deals with state law but residents are from different states.

 

 

 

  1. The pinnacle of the federal court system is the U.S. Supreme Court, consisting of one chief justice and six associate justices.

 

 

  1. In British and American criminal cases, the police investigate and report to a public prosecutor, often a county’s district attorney. The case is then passed to a judge who must decide whether to prosecute.

 

  1. British judges are nominally appointed by the prime minister, but the choice is really the monarch’s, based on recommendations of the lord chancellor.

 

  1. Court structures in other Western democracies largely parallel the U.S. system, but tend not to do as much in terms of governing.

 

 

  1. The U.S. Supreme Court’s power to review the constitutionality of federal legislative enactments is not mentioned specifically in the Constitution and has been vehemently challenged.

 

 

  1. Richard Nixon in the 1968 campaign championed the Warren Court, claiming that its decisions had cracked down on crime and better secured the nation’s streets.

 

 

 

  1. Under the Roberts Court, Brown v. Board of Education and Roe v. Wade received some limits, marking the Court as generally conservative, but federal authority to curb greenhouse gases was affirmed, and liberals celebrated.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  1. Criminal offences are divided into three categories, petty offences, misdemeanors, and __________.

 

 

  1. In the United States, we focus on __________ law, that which is written and compiled by humans over the centuries.

 

 

  1. As French kings overturned feudalism in favor of absolutism, legal scholars revived __________ to bolster central government and encourage commerce.

 

 

  1. Appellate courts base their majority-vote verdict primarily on __________ submitted by the attorneys for both parties; oral arguments are limited.

 

 

 

  1. Russia’s post-Soviet legal system has continued much of its former legal structure because most personnel were trained under the __________.

 

  1. Unlike British courts, European ones are influenced by the French __________, and thus do not maintain separate criminal and civil divisions.

 

 

  1. In the 1950s, Germany’s Constitutional Court ruled against both the Communist and __________ parties, finding that they wanted to overthrow the constitutional order.

 

 

  1. Scandals are standard in Italy, Japan, and France, rendering those countries more corrupt than their wealth suggests. They are therefore __________ on the Corruption Perception Index.

 

 

  1. 1963’s Gideon v. Wainwright held that __________ defendants must be provided with legal counsel.

 

 

 

  1. In 1978’s __________ case, the Burger Court ruled that reserving quotas for black medical school applicants violated equal protection for whites.

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. What is positive law and how is it different from natural law?

 

 

 

  1. How does the opposition party oppose and sometimes block the president’s Supreme Court nominations?

 

  1. How does the Russian court’s theoretical role differ from its practiced role?

 

 

  1. Discriminate between countries with low-perceived corruption and high-perceived corruption. How do these perceptions correlate with wealth?

 

 

  1. Analyze and evaluate presidential methods of dealing with undesirable Supreme Court rulings.

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Identify the influence of natural law on the American legal system. To what extent do we base our laws on objective rationale? To what extent is it influenced by religious or spiritual thought? Be sure to evaluate the latter using specific examples from your text.

 

 

  1. Examine the process by which U.S. judges are nominated and confirmed. Does this seem like a fair process? What extent does it have on the political lean of the Court, and therefore, on United States law? Cite specific examples.

 

 

  1. Compare the role of Anglo-American courts to the role of the courts in Europe. In what ways are the similar? How do they differ? Which system exerts stronger influence on legislation, and which system better serves the welfare of its people?

 

 

  1. Consider the process by which the U.S. Supreme Court gained the power of judicial review. Does this power, as some founding fathers argued, upset the balance of powers? Cite specific examples to determine whether or not today’s Court reveals any bias, and whether or not that bias negatively affects citizens’ rights.

 

 

  1. Analyze the political impact of the Warren Court (1953-1969). What were some of the major reforms instigated by Chief Justice Warren? How did successive courts revise Warren’s precedent concerning the Supreme Court’s political role in governance?

 

 

Chapter 16-     Political Economy

Chapter 16-     Political Economy

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Radicals use the term “political economy” instead of __________ to describe their critique of capitalism and the inequitable distribution of wealth among nations.

 

  1. A) Marxism
  2. B) laissez-faire
  3. C) public-choice
  4. D) Keynesian

 

 

  1. Identify the United States presidential candidate who famously used the slogan, “It’s the economy, stupid!”

 

  1. A) Ronald Reagan
  2. B) Walter Mondale
  3. C) Bill Clinton
  4. D) Bob Dole

 

  1. John McCain lost the 2008 presidential race in part because voters blamed Republicans of the previous administration for __________.

 

  1. A) the financial meltdown
  2. B) the September 11th attacks
  3. C) the BP oil spill
  4. D) Hurricane Katrina

 

  1. Describe British economist John Maynard Keynes’ proposal to cure economic depressions.

 

  1. A) Keynes suggested infusing the economy with government funds to promote spending.
  2. B) Keynes advocated for “trickle down” economic policies.
  3. C) Keynes argued for stronger stimulus packages to corporations and small businesses.
  4. D) Keynes proposed to cure depressions by dampening the swings of the business cycle.

 

  1. After World War II, conservative economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman sidelined Keynesianism with a __________ theory based on the original supply and demand of Adam Smith.

 

  1. A) forward-looking
  2. B) Marxist
  3. C) neoclassical
  4. D) nineteenth-century

 

 

  1. Early twentieth-century European governments subscribed to __________ doctrines, generally keeping their hands away from the economy.

 

  1. A) classic liberal
  2. B) inflationary
  3. C) neoclassical
  4. D) Smithian

 

  1. Describe Aristotle’s view of government, society and the economy.

 

  1. A) He understood them as maintaining a symbiotic relationship.
  2. B) He viewed them all as a single entity.
  3. C) He thought they exhibited an antagonistic relationship.
  4. D) He felt they functioned as mutual drains on one another.

 

 

  1. Characterize President Bush’s favored economic policy of pumping billions of federal dollars into shaky banks and firms.

 

  1. A) Smithian
  2. B) Marxist
  3. C) Keynesian
  4. D) Millian

 

 

  1. How do Keynesian economic policies differ from the traditional laissez-faire policies developed by Adam Smith?

 

  1. A) Laissez-faire advocates for “cutthroat” capitalism, while Keynesian policies seek to spread wealth equally among a nation’s citizens.
  2. B) Keynesian economics advocate for increased government control of economics, while traditional laissez-faire argues for a hands-free approach.
  3. C) Smithian policies advocate for increased spending and stimuli for government-run businesses, while Keynesian economics argues for a hands-free approach.
  4. D) The more liberal Smithian economies distribute wealth more evenly among society, while Keynesian economics tends to distribute wealth among the top one percent.

 

 

  1. Describe how today’s conservatives use the term “political economy.”

 

  1. A) Conservatives use the term to try to get back to the pure market system advocated by Adam Smith.
  2. B) Conservatives understand the term within the context of Machiavelli’s The Prince.
  3. C) Conservatives veer toward John Stuart Mill’s usage, which advocated utilitarianism.
  4. D) Conservatives take a neo-utilitarian approach, hoping to benefit the weakest members of society.

 

 

  1. During the Vietnam War, too much money chased too few goods, the classic definition of __________.

 

  1. A) a tax hike
  2. B) fixed rate exchange
  3. C) demand-pull inflation
  4. D) imbalance of payments

 

 

  1. Why was President Johnson reluctant to request a tax increase to pay for the Vietnam War?

 

  1. A) He felt it was an unjust and emotionally taxing conflict.
  2. B) He had just gotten a tax cut through Congress in 1964.
  3. C) He wanted to avoid blame for a war he knew the U.S. couldn’t win.
  4. D) He saw U.S. involvement as the fault of the Kennedy administration.

 

 

  1. The 1973 Mideast war allowed members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to __________.

 

  1. A) sell to nations in Eastern Europe
  2. B) export to Japan and China
  3. C) quadruple oil prices
  4. D) keep oil prices down

 

  1. During the 1970s critics developed this new term to describe inflation with stagnant economic growth.

 

  1. A) Growth Slope
  2. B) Quagmire
  3. C) Stagflation
  4. D) Recession

 

  1. President Jimmy Carter attempted to stimulate the economy, but this made inflation worse. This led him to __________.

 

  1. A) lose the 1980 election
  2. B) slash prices of corn and soybeans
  3. C) subsidize major oil companies
  4. D) increase the national deficit

 

 

  1. Map analysis suggested that Pennsylvania’s Perot vote in 1996 came from __________.

 

  1. A) wealthy business men in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia
  2. B) alienated people who typically do not vote
  3. C) left-leaning independents in urban areas
  4. D) conservatives fed up with Republican Party rhetoric

 

  1. Interpret the origin of President Clinton’s budget surplus from 1997-2000.

 

  1. A) The surpluses primarily resulted from budget cuts instigated by the Clinton administration from 1994-1998.
  2. B) President Clinton created the surplus through “trickle-down” policies, stimulating growth.
  3. C) Offshoring led to lower production costs for businesses and thus created revenue.
  4. D) The surpluses were largely the result booms in the high-tech and investment industries, generating higher tax revenues.

 

 

  1. Explain the primary source of recent cuts to the number and pay of American blue-collar manufacturing jobs.

 

  1. A) Many such jobs have been outsourced to East Asia, where production costs are low.
  2. B) American manufacturing jobs wax and wane with bubbles in the financial industry.
  3. C) Blue-collar workers have traditionally depended on manufacturing industries, now in decline due to technological innovations.
  4. D) More and more jobs are rendered obsolete with increases in computerized and robotic manufacturing.

 

  1. Analyze the role of “animal spirits” on financial bubbles.

 

  1. A) Banks produce bubbles by purchasing property at incredibly low rates and reselling that property to unsuspecting investors.
  2. B) Financial markets tend to produce “bubble” investments that let people ignore risk, leading to alternating manias and panics.
  3. C) The finance industry experiences massive eruptions of wealth that coincide with booms in other industries.
  4. D) Wall Street functions on an intuitive basis, as investors cannot predict the value of volatile stocks.

 

 

  1. Examine the outcome of recent spending cuts and the tax hikes on the wealthiest one percent of Americans, instigated by the Obama administration.

 

  1. A) Middle class Americans benefitted from lower taxes and more jobs.
  2. B) The compromise satisfied few and “kicked the can down the road” for likely repeats every few months.
  3. C) Angry Republicans struck back during the following fiscal cliff, creating gridlock and threatening government shutdown.
  4. D) Democrats were satisfied with the cuts and tax hikes, but Republicans were left with much to explain to their wealthy constituents.

 

 

  1. Investigate the possible outcome of sequestration had it taken place in 2013.

 

  1. A) Spending cuts would have pulled from social welfare programs, allowing Republicans to reform entitlements.
  2. B) The defense budget would have taken a major hit, as increased spending and decreased taxes led the government to seek investments elsewhere.
  3. C) New tax hikes would have taken money from the ultra-rich and redistributed it among the working class.
  4. D) The sudden tax increases and simultaneous spending cuts would likely have produced a “double-dip” recession just as the U.S. was coming out of the first.

 

 

  1. What was the poverty line in 2012?

 

  1. A) $14,505
  2. B) $17,060
  3. C) $23,050
  4. D) $26,750

 

 

  1. U.S. federal expenditures mandated by law, such as Social Security and Medicare, are referred to as __________.

 

  1. A) privileges
  2. B) entitlements
  3. C) benefits
  4. D) subsidies

 

 

  1. Conservatives hold that Johnson’s Great Society was a waste of money, locking recipients into __________ and encouraging a subculture of drugs and crime.

 

  1. A) entitlement benefits
  2. B) perpetual subsidies
  3. C) social safety nets
  4. D) welfare dependency

 

 

 

  1. What event is largely considered responsible for deterring Johnson’s War on Poverty?

 

  1. A) Great Society
  2. B) Vietnam War
  3. C) Middle-class entitlements
  4. D) Tax expenditures

 

 

  1. Between 1965 and 1973, the percentage of Americans living below the poverty line __________.

 

  1. A) doubled
  2. B) greatly decreased
  3. C) slightly increased
  4. D) rapidly increased

 

 

  1. Most liberals feel that the poverty line is _________.

 

  1. A) reasonable
  2. B) disproportionate
  3. C) too high
  4. D) too low

 

 

  1. According to the U.S. Labor Department, what determines the “poverty line”?

 

  1. A) The poverty line is three times a minimal food budget for nonfarm families of four.
  2. B) The poverty line is twice the minimal food budget plus $400 for lodging.
  3. C) The poverty line is three times the city minimal lodging budget.
  4. D) The poverty line is four times the minimal living expenses for an urban family of five.

 

 

  1. Since the 1950s, the American unionized workforce has declined from 40% to __________.

 

  1. A) 7%
  2. B) 16%
  3. C) 24%
  4. D) 33%

 

 

  1. Analyze the role of “derivatives” in the recent housing market bubble.

 

  1. A) “Deriving” their value from real estate speculation, derivatives created a volatile value system.
  2. B) Derivatives fluctuate widely in value, which led many investors to buy, only to lose large sums upon downward fluctuation.
  3. C) Derivatives became so complex that no one could understand them, which masked losses and made assets extremely difficult to evaluate.
  4. D) Derivatives forced many banking institutions to sell or close, condensing the control of the finance industry into a few small hands.

 

 

  1. Which U.S. president is responsible for implementing Food Stamps as a nationwide program?

 

  1. A) John F. Kennedy
  2. B) Lyndon B. Johnson
  3. C) Richard Nixon
  4. D) Jimmy Carter

 

 

  1. In 1996, President Clinton signed a major welfare reform that __________.

 

  1. A) ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program that provided federal matching funds to the states to help the poor, mostly single mothers
  2. B) restructured the Food Stamps program to distribute aid only to citizens and families far below the poverty line
  3. C) reduced funding to the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, which provides healthy food options to mothers with young children
  4. D) introduced healthcare reforms, ensuring that all U.S. citizens under 24 years of age would be covered

 

 

  1. The 2010 healthcare reform, known officially as __________, does not go nearly as far as most European and Canadian medical insurance and lacks a “public” option.

 

  1. A) the Federal Health and Welfare Act
  2. B) Obamacare
  3. C) the Affordable Care Act
  4. D) the Medical and Dental Reform Act

 

 

  1. Due to increased medical costs, Medicare recipients are required to contribute bigger __________ to hold down overuse.

 

  1. A) contributions
  2. B) subsidies
  3. C) imbursements
  4. D) copayments

 

 

  1. The __________ administration simplified the Food Stamps program by eliminating the provision that recipients buy the stamps at a discount with their own money.

 

  1. A) Kennedy
  2. B) Johnson
  3. C) Ford
  4. D) Carter

 

  1. Medical costs consume nearly __________ percent of the U.S. gross domestic product, most of it paid through government and private health insurance.

 

  1. A) 11
  2. B) 18
  3. C) 22
  4. D) 26

 

 

  1. Identify the major critique of workfare programs.

 

  1. A) They fail to adequately locate jobs for the people they train.
  2. B) They leave the government with unnecessary deficits.
  3. C) They are more expensive than traditional welfare programs.
  4. D) They drain the resources of potential employers.

 

  1. Which of the following is an increasing financial concern of the Medicare program?

 

  1. A) The proportion of older people in American society is increasing steadily.
  2. B) Every American citizen on reaching 65 obtains Medicare, regardless of class.
  3. C) Economic inequality renders Medicare more necessary for some than for others.
  4. D) Wealthy Americans are taking advantage of the Medicare system.

 

 

  1. Analyze recent changes to the Food Stamps program.

 

  1. A) The distribution of cash grants allows the program to be easily misused.
  2. B) The updated debit card system makes the program more difficult to misuse.
  3. C) Many recipients sell Food Stamps for 50 cents on the dollar in order to purchase drugs and alcohol.
  4. D) The program allocates surplus government dairy to the poor, ameliorating milk and cheese inflation.

 

 

  1. Differentiate between the rising costs of Medicare and Medicaid.

 

  1. A) Medicare anticipates rising costs due to changing proportions of people over 65.
  2. B) Medicaid expects rising costs due to looming financial busts.
  3. C) Medicare plans to keep spending down by raising the eligibility age to 69.
  4. D) Medicaid hopes to beat rising costs by adjusting the poverty level.

 

 

  1. Many Americans think the federal budget goes primarily toward welfare, which is __________.

 

  1. A) absolutely true
  2. B) somewhat exaggerated
  3. C) not at all the case
  4. D) slightly offensive

 

 

  1. According to political scientist Ira Sharkansky, “All modern states are welfare states, and all welfare states are __________.”

 

  1. A) democratic
  2. B) compassionate
  3. C) bureaucratic
  4. D) incoherent

 

 

 

  1. Many conservative economists argue that some banks are __________, because they would topple the rest of the economy with them.

 

  1. A) inherently successful
  2. B) too big to fail
  3. C) destined for profit
  4. D) practically invincible

 

 

  1. Theoretically, what are the consequences if the government assumes the burden of bad loans?

 

  1. A) Citizens will default on their mortgages.
  2. B) Banks will learn from their mistakes and pay back the burden with interest.
  3. C) Ultimately, the government will profit.
  4. D) Firms will be encouraged to continue their risky behavior.

 

 

  1. Why are many politicians wary about limiting Social Security and Medicare expenses?

 

  1. A) Many would be left without enough to support them.
  2. B) Caps to these program would undermine the welfare state.
  3. C) It can cost them votes.
  4. D) Both are primary social safety nets.

 

 

  1. What major 2008 event sparked debate concerning the government’s size and role?

 

  1. A) Financial Crisis
  2. B) Hurricane Katrina
  3. C) War in Libya
  4. D) Arab Spring

 

  1. How does the American welfare state compare to those of other industrialized nations?

 

  1. A) Much less is allocated to welfare in the United States.
  2. B) Other nations allocate less to welfare than the United States.
  3. C) The United States allocates about the same to welfare.
  4. D) Few nations besides the United States maintain funds for welfare.

 

  1. How might Americans’ reluctance toward entitlement programs benefit them in the long run?

 

  1. A) Citizens will pay lower taxes, stimulating the economy via “trickle down” economics.
  2. B) Entitlement programs are complex and inefficient; our government will save time and money by proceeding with caution.
  3. C) Americans can justify raising the debt ceiling through entitlement programs, so long as they are wary of the choices they make.
  4. D) Government subsidies to businesses, rather than spending on welfare programs, will help the United States generate revenue and reduce overall spending.

 

 

 

  1. Compare American and Canadian views on the size of government.

 

  1. A) Americans believe the government is too small, while Canadians feel that government intrudes on individual privacy.
  2. B) Similar nations located in North America, both Americans and Canadians feel that government is too large.
  3. C) Americans and Canadians generally agree that government should be larger, funding welfare programs such as Medicaid and Food Stamps.
  4. D) Many Americans believe government is too large, while Canadians recognize that government has a pivotal role to play and accept higher taxes.

 

 

  1. Investigate what historically happens to conservatives when firms are supposedly “too big to fail.”

 

  1. A) Conservatives argue for expensive bail-out packages.
  2. B) Most conservatives suggest letting the free market run its course.
  3. C) Most argue against expensive stimulus packages.
  4. D) They switch parties.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  • The classical economists of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—Adam Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, and Karl Marx—all wrote on what they called socialist economies.

 

  • Radicals use the term “political economy” instead of “late capitalism,” which is a hard sell these days.

 

 

  • Many of today’s American welfare programs began during the 1960s, under Kennedy and Johnson.

 

 

  • Starting in the late 1950s, the United States spent more abroad than it sold, leading to large deficits.

 

 

  • Conservatives argue that high taxes encourage effort and investment.

 

  • Attempting to correct the imbalance of 1960s deficits, President Nixon cut the link between the dollar and gold.

 

 

  • Conservatives complain that the poverty line is set too low; it can take two to three times that amount to survive in big cities.

 

 

  • Despite its extensive welfare programs, New York City maintains a high degree of poverty.

 

 

 

  • President Clinton’s 1996 entitlement reforms gave welfare recipients two years to get off government assistance.

 

 

 

  • One major problem with Medicaid is the large amount of it that ends up in the hands of fraudsters.

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  • Conservatives champion Adam Smith for developing the __________ system.

 

  • During bad times, government used to increase aggregate demand through __________ on public works and welfare to make recessions shorter and milder.

 

 

  • The __________ agreement priced an ounce of gold at $35 and fixed other currencies in relation to the dollar.

 

 

  • Established by Nixon, the __________ exchange rate devalued the dollar by about one fifth.

 

 

  • Deficit, debt, and taxation problems came together at the start of 2013 in what was popularly called a __________.

 

 

  • Many conservatives argue that poor communities develop a culture of poverty that instills ___________, an indifference to providing for their families and futures.

 

 

  • Official poverty figures do not include __________ benefits, such as food stamps, transferred to the poor by government programs.

 

 

  • Considered by Carter but easily misused, __________ would have functioned as a replacement for food stamps.

 

 

  • Some analysts call the federal __________ the best welfare program because it encourages people to work their way out of poverty.

 

 

  • The government assumed responsibility for the ___________ of bad loans in 2008.

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  • Briefly, what is the relationship between politics and economy?

 

  • Explain the escalating inflation rate under the Johnson administration.

 

 

  • Differentiate between liberal and conservative definitions of “poverty.”

 

  • Critique President Carter’s attempts at welfare reform.

 

 

  • Analyze the American trend against creating new entitlement programs.

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  • Examine the fundamental differences between Smithian and Marxist economic theories. What is the government’s role in each? Where do you see each playing out in the American economy, and how does such implementation benefit or harm our economy? Provide examples.

 

 

  • Examine the government’s hand in fixed exchange and floating exchange rates as they relate to the Gold Standard. How did Nixon intervene in the free market? Was this intervention successful?

 

 

  • Illustrate conservative and liberal definitions of “poverty.” How do these understandings focus the way each party views the poor? And how do those understandings influence the creation of social welfare programs?

 

 

  • Examine the efficacy of workfare programs. What do such programs intend to accomplish? What are some criticisms against them? Cite specific examples.

 

  • Analyze the 2008 financial crisis. What was the conflict in issuing bailouts to large firms? How is this form of government welfare fundamentally different from entitlement programs? Which presents the greater moral hazard?

 

Chapter 17-     Violence and Revolution

Chapter 17-     Violence and Revolution

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  • Several decades ago political scientists tended to overlook __________.

 

  • A) revolutions
  • B) dictatorships
  • C) government legitimacy
  • D) violence and upheaval

 

 

  • At the 1968 Democratic convention, Chicago police attacked __________ protestors, as well as many who just happened to be passing.

 

  • A) Vietnam War
  • B) feminist
  • C) anarcho-syndicalist
  • D) Cuban Missile Crisis

 

 

  • Thousands of __________ occur in China each year in which citizens gather to protest corrupt local officials, the seizure of farmland, toxic factories, or police cover-up of crimes.

 

  • A) “mass incidents”
  • B) acts of enormous violence
  • C) “public actions”
  • D) upper class movements

 

 

  • Rarely the work of small bands and conspirators alone, __________ are usually the result of system collapse, which permits small but well-organized groups (often military) to take over.

 

  • A) the erosion of legitimacy
  • B) acts of genocide
  • C) dictatorships
  • D) coup d’état

 

 

  • What is the most common response to serious domestic unrest?

 

  • A) Revolution
  • B) Coup d’état
  • C) Military takeover
  • D) UN diplomatic action

 

 

  • Despite thousands of young black South Africans being willing to risk jail or worse by taking up arms against the whites-only regime, that regime imagined for decades that the massive African majority would __________.

 

  • A) continue to rebel, but to no avail
  • B) simply keep their place
  • C) peacefully be folded into the political system
  • D) emigrate over time

 

  • What is the relationship between a high sense of government legitimacy among the people and police officers? Where legitimacy is high __________.

 

  • A) spending on policing is low
  • B) it is because there are fewer police interfering in civilian life
  • C) fewer police are needed
  • D) it is because police use a particularly heavy hand

 

  • What was the relationship between the rough handling by army troops of World War I veterans known as the “Bonus Army” and then-President Herbert Hoover’s election outcome?

 

  • A) Public support for the veterans’ rough treatment helped turn the country decisively equally in support of President Herbert Hoover in that fall’s election.
  • B) Public revulsion at the veterans’ rough treatment helped force President Herbert Hoover to replace his Vice President in that fall’s election.
  • C) Public revulsion at the veterans’ rough treatment helped turn the country decisively against President Herbert Hoover in that fall’s election.
  • D) Public support at the veterans’ rough treatment helped turn the country decisively equally in support of Hoover’s sending of American forces to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai, and hence his campaign in that fall’s election.

 

 

  • Why did Hubert Humphrey lose the election to Richard Nixon in 1968?

 

  • A) Specifically because he supported the feminist movement
  • B) Mostly because he stood against secret U.S. bombing campaigns in Laos and Cambodia
  • C) Largely because of his enormous support of the protestors at the convention
  • D) Primarily because of his ambiguous position on the Vietnam War

 

 

  • Why did the South African government finally begin a dialogue leading to the release of Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990, among other concessions?

 

  • A) The government was running out of the money it needed to fund police and military actions against black South-Africans.
  • B) The escalating violence between armed black South Africans and the government
  • C) The escalating violence among armed black South Africans
  • D) The government was infiltrated by less and less-racist whites.

 

 

  • Thinkpieces are often justifiable because we know that many data are __________.

 

  • A) flawed
  • B) falsified
  • C) analogous
  • D) always based on facts rather than estimates

 

 

  • Until recently, Central America and Southern Africa were home to __________ violence.

 

  • A) unrecognized
  • B) revolutionary
  • C) mild
  • D) non-revolutionary

 

 

  • In 1976, black students in South Africa’s Soweto township protested against the issue of being forced to __________.

 

  • A) modernize
  • B) have no more than one child per family
  • C) learn Afrikaans in school
  • D) take part in military service

 

  • Describe what can often happen in a changing society when, during times of prosperity, some people get rich faster than others.

 

  • A) Jealousy is aroused.
  • B) Politicians pay more attention to poverty.
  • C) The very poor revolt.
  • D) Economists become confused.

 

 

  • What did anthropologist Eric R. Wolf argue regarding societal changes?

 

  • A) The shift from simple subsistence farming to cash crops dependent on markets, landlords, and banks brings greater wealth to many peasants and yet fails to prevent them from fomenting revolution.
  • B) The shift from simple subsistence farming to cash crops dependent on markets, landlords, and banks impoverishes many peasants but is enough to prevent them from fomenting revolution.
  • C) The shift from simple subsistence farming to cash crops dependent on markets, landlords, and banks brings wealth to many peasants and turns them away from revolution.
  • D) The shift from simple subsistence farming to cash crops dependent on markets, landlords, and banks impoverishes many peasants and turns them from quietude to revolution.

 

 

  • What was the consequence of the separatist Ibo attempting to break away from Nigeria with their new state of Biafra in the late 1960s?

 

  • A) The Nigerian government defeated the Ibo, but only with assistance from a number of European nations.
  • B) The Nigerian government allowed the Ibo to secede without any violence.
  • C) The Ibo were defeated in a lengthy, costly war.
  • D) The Ibo were victorious in a relatively brief war.

 

  • Riots triggered by police beating youths, protests against globalization, and labor strikes against austerity are all examples of __________.

 

  • A) purely traditional violence
  • B) issue-oriented violence
  • C) violence carried out by civilian institutions of government
  • D) coups

 

  • Fighting between Arabs and Darfuris in Sudan, Sunni and Shia in Iraq, and Tibets and Chinese in Tibet are all examples of __________.

 

  • A) underground violence
  • B) primordial violence
  • C) rebellions based on Communist politics
  • D) self-defense

 

 

  • Why might even a period of prosperity bring about revolution?

 

  • A) When people move in and out of poverty, they have no hope for the future, and so see nothing to lose in rebelling.
  • B) When things improve for the wealthy, they start imagining an even better future. No longer content with their already luxurious lot, they want improvement faster than even a growing economy can deliver.
  • C) When things improve for the poor, they realize just how bad they’ve had it and their anger is unleashed.
  • D) When things improve for the poor, people start imagining a better future, and no longer content with their lot, they want improvement faster than even a growing economy can deliver.

 

 

  • How is high unemployment relevant to civil conflict?

 

  • A) Unemployed young men incline naturally to unrest.
  • B) The unemployed tend to be passive, keeping civil conflict at bay.
  • C) Unemployed mothers, desperate for their children, tend to take to the streets.
  • D) The unemployed tend to be uninformed about politics, and therefore rarely take part in civil conflict.

 

 

  • Because of its support of __________ governments in the Middle East, the United States is hated by Muslim terrorists.

 

  • A) primordial violence
  • B) secularism
  • C) corrupt and repressive
  • D) jihad

 

 

  • Occupying powers in Vietnam, whether French or American, deceived themselves into thinking they had __________ villages because they were able to drive through them in armored convoys.

 

  • A) infused democracy into
  • B) killed enough guerillas in
  • C) administrative control of
  • D) won the battle of hearts and minds in

 

 

  • Some states engage in __________, despite officially denouncing terrorism.

 

  • A) sharing intelligence with nongovernmental militias
  • B) “state-sponsored terrorism”
  • C) targeting specific groups for violence
  • D) democracy

 

 

  • What about U.S. agencies, like the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the CIA, make them so ill-prepared to fight terrorism?

 

  • A) They have extremely different missions when it comes to terrorism.
  • B) They are poorly funded.
  • C) They have a great deal of red-tape to get through in order to be able to communicate.
  • D) They are often unwilling to communicate with each other.

 

 

  • What are the aims of terrorists via their calculated acts of terrorism?

 

  • A) To panic their enemies, to gain publicity and recruits, and to get the foe to overreact and drive more people to side with the terrorists
  • B) To destroy as much of the economic strength of a nation as possible
  • C) To kill national leaders
  • D) To kill their enemies, to gain recruits, and to get the UN to overreact and cause more people to side with the terrorists

 

  • A lesson learned from the Vietnam War was that while the insurgent is__________, the occupier or government is impatiently trying to substitute firepower for legitimacy.

 

  • A) planting tripwire bomb devices
  • B) patiently building a network to supplant the regime
  • C) trying to find the best possible leader for its cause
  • D) lobbying for international support

 

  • What is it that many experts believe could be the only solution to the problem of Islamist terrorism?

 

  • A) Infiltration of terrorist groups by covert operators
  • B) Totalitarian rule
  • C) Modernization
  • D) Pacification through military action

 

  • ETA, PKK, PLO and the Tamil Tigers are all examples of __________.

 

  • A) Organizations sponsored by nations to stand in opposition to those that want their own state
  • B) Organizations that attempt to negotiate peace between organizations that want their own state and are opposed by nations in which they operate
  • C) Organizations that want their own state, and are supported by the nations in which they operate
  • D) Organizations that want their own state, and are opposed by the nations in which they operate

 

 

  • Why is the Middle East currently the breeding ground for considerable terrorist activity?

 

  • A) High birth rates produce many unemployed youth who are attracted to the simplistic lessons of Islamism, which has made the United States an object of hate.
  • B) Low birth rates produce too few citizens to keep the economy growing and poverty breeds unrest.
  • C) High birth rates produce many unemployed youth who are attracted to the complex lessons of Islamism, which has made other Middle Eastern nations an object of hate.
  • D) Low birth rates produce too few citizens to keep the economy growing, and the poor are attracted to the simplistic lessons of Islamism, which has made the United States an object of hate.

 

  • Does terrorism work?

 

  • A) Rarely, and seldom without political and/or economic pressure
  • B) Rarely, but primarily when brought against democratic nations
  • C) Often, and without much need for political pressure to aid it
  • D) Often, but only with the assistance of economic and/or political pressure

 

 

  • __________is a small or moderate change that essentially leaves the system intact.

 

  • A) Mass discontent
  • B) Reform
  • C) Dramatic system change
  • D) A coup d’etat

 

 

  • Preachers, teachers, lawyers, journalists, and others who deal with ideas often have a professional stake in __________ the system.

 

  • A) enriching
  • B) documenting
  • C) criticizing
  • D) supporting

 

 

  • When the moderate Iranian, Mohammed Khatami, won the presidency his reforms were blocked because real power stayed in the hands of __________.

 

  • A) insurgents
  • B) Muslim liberals
  • C) the religious elite
  • D) military leaders

 

 

  • Describe Harvard scholar, sociologist Theda Skocpol’s recent theory on revolution.

 

  • A) Revolutions nearly always fail because states, even those that are poorly managed, simply have too much power at their disposal.
  • B) Revolutions primarily bubble up from below, but are usually aided by an explicitly incompetent state leader.
  • C) Governments caught in situations they are able to manage become distracted nevertheless, which leads to revolutions, rather than such rebellions simply bubbling up from below.
  • D) Governments caught in situations they cannot manage lead to revolutions, rather than such rebellions simply bubbling up from below.

 

  • Describe what happens to intellectuals during Brinton’s “the old regime decays” stage of the revolution.

 

  • A) Intellectuals are alienated from the regime and turn to a proposed ideal system.
  • B) Intellectuals are liquidated.
  • C) The state intelligence agencies fold the intellectuals into their operations.
  • D) Intellectuals exult.

 

 

  • What is likely to happen if the people are unhappy and there is no organization to focus their discontents?

 

  • A) They will almost assuredly turn to violence.
  • B) Not much will happen.
  • C) The people will organize themselves, regardless.
  • D) They will eventually find other means of achieving contentedness.

 

 

  • How might one measure whether a genuine revolution has taken place?

 

  • A) The regime itself claims they are going through a revolution.
  • B) The old elites are replaces by new elites.
  • C) The regime is violently overthrown.
  • D) The state media declare a revolution has taken place.

 

 

  • The overthrowing of the moderates by the extremists is an example of a typical characteristic of which stage in Brinton’s “stages of revolution”?

 

  • A) At first, moderates take over.
  • B) A “thermidor” ends the reign of terror.
  • C) The extremists take over.
  • D) The old regime decays.

 

 

  • Why are intellectuals nearly everywhere discontented with the existing state of affairs?

 

  • A) They are highly educated and acquainted with a variety of ideas, some of them utopian.
  • B) They are elitist and can work with neither the people nor with the government.
  • C) Negative people tend to be attracted to intellectual spheres of life.
  • D) Intellectuals are no more discontented with the existing state of affairs than the rest of the population.

 

 

  • Why was jealousy provoked in the Iranian people, despite the booming economy of the early to mid-1970s?

 

  • A) Economic growth was only rapid for the working class and poor people, and was lacking for the wealthy.
  • B) No one who wasn’t already rich became rich, igniting the emotions of all the other classes of society
  • C) Economic growth was relatively even, and previously working class or poor people felt themselves empowered enough to engage the grudge they had from previously being underserved
  • D) Economic growth was uneven, with some getting rich fast, and others benefitting little to not at all.

 

  • The U.S. hesitated supporting the __________ revolutions because it feared they would fall under extremist influences.

 

  • A) Cuban
  • B) “Arab Spring”
  • C) Iranian
  • D) “velvet”

 

 

  • In France, the Revolution is still __________ more than two centuries later.

 

  • A) controversial
  • B) celebrated with unfettered zeal
  • C) not taught in schools
  • D) little talked about

 

 

  • By the 1980s, many radical countries were trying to __________ their revolutionary systems.

 

  • A) crush
  • B) spread to other nations
  • C) back out of
  • D) further

 

 

  • What brought about real mass unrest in the Soviet Union?

 

  • A) The fall of Soviet-supported communist regimes in Latin America
  • B) Brezhnev repressing the people
  • C) President Reagan threatening nuclear attack
  • D) Gorbachev admitting that things were wrong, and instituting major reforms

 

 

  • What is the crux of radical revolutionary thinking?

 

  • A) An economic plan to back up political ideas
  • B) Belief that it is possible to remake society
  • C) Belief that violence is the key to change
  • D) A purely ideological motive

 

  • Which of the following options best describes countries before and after revolutions?

 

  • A) Before, revolutionary movements are still idealistic and convinced they will bring a better society; after seizing power, the revolutionary regime discovers it’s not difficult to make an economy work.
  • B) Before, revolutionary movements are still idealistic and convinced they will bring a better society; after seizing power, the revolutionary regime discovers it’s a lot harder to make an economy work than it thought.
  • C) Before, revolutionary movements believe that a truly committed regime can redo society; after seizing power, the revolutionary regime discovers its ideological ideals are impractical.
  • D) Before, revolutionary movements bomb and assassinate in an effort to overthrow corrupt governments; after seizing power, the revolutionary regime almost always finds itself being bombed and in the sights of assassins.

 

 

  • Napoleon and Stalin are examples of __________.

 

  • A) revolutions’ persistent tendency to overthrow one form of tyranny only to replace it with another
  • B) the partial despotism of revolutionaries being replaced by a government composed of society’s elite
  • C) religious despots akin to Iran’s Khomeini
  • D) largely nonviolent revolutionaries

 

 

  • According to Hannah Arendt, the American struggle was indeed a revolution, perhaps history’s only complete revolution, __________.

 

  • A) for it alone ended with a democratic institutions.
  • B) because it became an example for other nations.
  • C) because it managed to route what was then the great world power.
  • D) for it alone ended with a new foundation of liberty instead of the tyranny that came after other revolutions.

 

 

  • Why do some scholars say velvet revolutions are not revolutions at all?

 

  • A) They are not ideologically driven.
  • B) They fail to bring about genuine democracy.
  • C) They lack the ferocious qualities of violent revolutions.
  • D) They don’t bring about real regime change.

 

 

  • Hannah Arendt pointed out that rage is the fuel of revolution, but what is now the greatest cause of rage?

 

  • A) The low level of education in developing nations
  • B) The enormous economic mismanagement in industrialized nations
  • C) The extreme violence utilized by industrialized nations against developing nations
  • D) The massive corruption now found in the developing lands

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  • Until recently, in Northern Ireland, terrorists killed with bombs and bullets, as a portion of the citizenry considered the government illegitimate.

 

  • The United States, generally, paid little attention to the plight of poor, inner-city whites until a series of riots took place in the late 1960s.

 

 

  • “Class antagonism” can be described as certain groups feeling bypassed by the economic growth of other groups, and therefore feeling embittered.

 

  • The Sandinistas’ overthrow of Somoza in Nicaragua is an example of a peaceful revolutionary movement.

 

 

 

  • Prior to 9/11 few thought of using tons of jet fuel to bring down buildings.

 

  • Islamic terrorism has hardly begun to fade.

 

  • Intellectuals tend to resent people who are richer but not as smart.

 

 

  • As Russia was losing to Germany in World War II, the tsarist state collapsed, giving Lenin’s small Bolshevik party a chance to grab power.

 

  • Attempting to correct social injustice, the Dutch Revolution became a bloody mess that ended in dictatorship.

 

 

  • In practice, reforms are hard to apply to corrupt regimes because the class in power has much to lose and strongly resists.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  • In __________, British troops patrolled with automatic weapons and armored cars.

 

  • When faced with __________, a government’s initial inclination is to crush it and blame a handful of “radicals and troublemaker.”

 

 

  • Reasoning by __________ is often mistaken, as no two situations are exactly alike.

 

 

  • An example of a situation starting in one issue category and __________ to another is when complaints of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo against their second-class status led successively to Albanian political parties, protests, underground groups, violence, and an armed rebellion that broke Kosovo away from Serbia in 1999.

 

  • __________ and his followers were calm and rational in their pursuit of political goals that strike outsiders as mistaken and evil.

 

  • Terrorism is difficult to fight because it falls between war and __________.

 

  • Most twentieth-century revolutionary movements were founded and led by __________ people.

 

 

  • In the “extremists take over” stage of revolution, even revolutionary comrades who are deemed to have strayed from the true path are __________.

 

  • The__________, in Cambodia, in the late 1970s murdered an estimated 1.7 million of their fellow citizens.

 

  • The American struggle was not sidetracked by the __________ problem, so it could focus on establishing a just and durable constitution with balanced powers and political freedom

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  • Why is the most common response to serious domestic unrest a military takeover?

 

  • The Tamil fight in northern Sri Lanka, 1983-2009, is an example of what “type” of violence? Provide the characteristics of that “type” of violence.

 

  • How was Hosni Mubarak an example of the idea that it’s better to stick with the dictators you know than the revolutionaries you don’t.

 

  • Describe the role of intellectuals in political violence and revolution.

 

  • What have been the consequences of the “Arab Spring,” moving forward to the current moment?

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  • What are the primary indicators of the breakdown of political systems? Provide examples. How do we know systemic breakdown when we see it and distinguish it from other phenomena? Is violence always indicative of breakdown or not? Explain and provide examples.

 

What types of people are most likely to vote? Provide examples and explain why these groups are more likely than others to vote. Discuss their interests and abilities in your answer.

 

  • What are the five types of violence, according to political scientist Fred R. von der Mehden? What are the distinguishing features of each type of violence? Are these types of violence mutually exclusive or not? Which type of violence do you think is the hardest to prevent? Why?

 

  • What is terrorism? How does terrorism differ from the five types of violence identified by Fred R. von der Mehden? Provide examples of acts of terrorism as well as acts that are not terrorism and explain the difference. What are the primary causes of terrorism, and what does this tell us about solutions to terrorism?

 

  • Is modernization the most likely source of domestic unrest? Describe the various theories which link modernization and conflict, explain how these theories are different, and provide examples. Which theory do you find most convincing and why?

 

  • What happens after a revolution? How is a post-revolution different than ordinary periods in the life of a nation? Provide examples. Do you agree that the American struggle was indeed a revolution? What roles do past revolutions play in the life of contemporary nations? Why are there so few revolutionary movements alive today?

 

Chapter 18-     International Relations

 

Chapter 18-     International Relations

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  • In theory, what is the role of foreign powers in relation to sovereign states?

 

  • A) Foreign nations maintain satellite rule.
  • B) Foreign powers “keep their fingers” in the sovereign’s politics.
  • C) Foreign states have no business intruding on sovereign affairs.
  • D) Foreign powers provide financial aid in times of crisis.

 

 

  • Which of the following results from U.S. economic sanctions against Iran?

 

  • A) Most countries around the world fall in line.
  • B) Economic powerhouses like China generally agree.
  • C) The United Nations issues an embargo.
  • D) Many countries make oil deals with Tehran anyways.

 

 

  • Which of the following statements is true regarding Canadian sovereignty?

 

  • A) Many Canadians argue that cultural penetration by the United States threatens their claim to sovereignty.
  • B) Canada unsuccessfully exerts cultural and economic sovereignty over the United States.
  • C) Canada does not maintain full legal sovereignty from the United States.
  • D) Few Canadians recognize foreign influence on their country’s sovereignty.

 

 

  • In order to form an economic and political union, members of the European Union must forfeit some of their sovereignty, which could eventually lead to __________.

 

  • A) financial collapse
  • B) civil war
  • C) cultural hegemony
  • D) a United States of Europe

 

 

  • Which of the following statements is generally true of sovereign nations?

 

  • A) Laws allow individuals to settle grievances in court.
  • B) The lack of legal enforcement forces most to settle disputes on their own.
  • C) The spirit of the law often conflicts with the letter of the law.
  • D) Written law sometimes conflicts with law as it occurs in practice.

 

 

  • Countries generally sign treaties over which of the following concerns?

 

  • A) Economic sanctions, cease-fires and fiscal cliffs
  • B) Tariffs, infrastructure and drug trafficking
  • C) Global warming, land mines and germ warfare
  • D) Trade, energy and education

 

 

  • Which of the following sanctions prevents North Korea from testing nuclear weapons on its own territory?

 

  • A) Economic sanctions are used to prevent North Korea from testing nuclear weapons.
  • B) The U.N. Committee on Nuclear Disarmament censures North Korea’s testing.
  • C) South Korea keeps its northern neighbor in check.
  • D) No foreign power can legally prevent North Korea from testing nuclear weapons.

 

 

  • During the Cold War, most of Eastern Europe remained under Soviet control and many small Central American countries functioned under the “watchful eye” of the United States. What might this suggest about the nature of sovereignty?

 

  • A) In the Western World, even small and militarily weak countries maintain sovereignty.
  • B) Small, weaker countries are routinely influenced by larger and more powerful countries.
  • C) As a matter of policy, large and powerful countries demonstrate little outside influence on smaller nations.
  • D) Small nations are almost never dominated by larger, more powerful ones.

 

  • Evaluate President Nixon’s contributions to International Relations.

 

  • A) Nixon was very successful internationally, strengthening U.S. relations with China and the Soviet Union.
  • B) Nixon was an astute domestic legislator, but his international policy was weak.
  • C) Nixon demonstrated keen acumen in regards to international affairs; however, his hesitancy to deal with Communists precluded strong relations with the U.S.S.R.
  • D) While the Watergate scandal eventually led to Nixon’s downfall, his domestic policy was quite successful.

 

  • Distinguish between President Johnson’s ability to govern domestic and foreign affairs.

 

  • A) Johnson was a master at generating foreign policy, but could almost never get a bill through congress.
  • B) Johnson authored a great deal of foreign and domestic legislation, little of which actually became law.
  • C) Johnson’s foreign policy skills were quite keen, though Vietnam is seen as his greatest failure.
  • D) Johnson successfully implemented domestic policy, but made little headway in terms of foreign affairs.

 

 

  • According to Hans Morgenthau, __________ is the basic element of international politics that idealists ignore at their peril.

 

  • A) compromise
  • B) peace
  • C) debate
  • D) power

 

  • Which elements of power are tangible or calculable?

 

  • A) economic and psychological pressure
  • B) intellectual and cultural influence
  • C) geography and natural resources
  • D) political and military might

 

 

  • What is a diplomat’s primary role?

 

  • A) Targeting feasible strategies and finding ways to implement them
  • B) Persuading foreign powers to comply with domestic interests
  • C) Utilizing foreign policy to strengthen the nation’s power ties
  • D) Identifying and developing complementary interests between nations

 

 

  • Which of the following factors is considered the best kind of power?

 

  • A) military force
  • B) rational persuasion
  • C) political manipulation
  • D) economic influence

 

 

 

  • Few guessed in the 1960s that Communist Vietnam would be friendly to the United States today. What strengthened this bond?

 

  • A) The United States paid reparations to families of deceased Vietnamese soldiers.
  • B) The two countries share a national interest in facing an assertive China.
  • C) Both nations are working to halt sex trafficking in poverty-stricken Vietnam.
  • D) Vietnamese immigrants to the United States have strengthened the U.S. economy.

 

 

  • Two countries, even allies, seldom have identical national interests. The best one can hope for is that their interests will be __________.

 

  • A) parallel
  • B) complementary
  • C) similar
  • D) compatible

 

 

  • Which of the following events is an example of an infeasible strategy?

 

  • A) Using helicopters and artillery to combat terrorist insurgents
  • B) Employing stun guns and tear gas to break up a riot
  • C) Targeting terrorist leaders with remote-controlled drone strikes
  • D) Hand-to-hand, street-level combat to halt a civil war

 

 

  • Classify most Americans’ views on foreign affairs and international policy decisions.

 

  • A) Informed
  • B) Educated
  • C) Astute
  • D) Weak

 

  • Analyze the shared national interest of the United States and Iraqi Kurds.

 

  • A) The Kurdish interest is motivated primarily by volatile regional politics, while the U.S. seeks to protect all Iraqi liberties.
  • B) The U.S. interest is a general, temporary, and secondary one, while the Kurdish interest is specific and permanent.
  • C) The U.S. interest encompasses all of Iraq, while the Kurdish one is limited and regional.
  • D) The Kurdish interest is culturally based, while the U.S. interest is purely economic.

 

 

  • Which of the following is an example of a temporary interest?

 

  • A) S. support for Iraq during its 1980s war with Iran
  • B) The U.S. keeping hostile powers out of the western hemisphere
  • C) Chinese export subsidies that cost Americans jobs
  • D) Russian military force applied in Georgia and Chechnya

 

  • Which of the following countries arguably maintains the largest free-market economy?

 

  • A) Japan
  • B) Australia
  • C) Great Britain
  • D) United States

 

  • Starting in the 1980s, “Thatcherism” spread to many countries, leading to __________.

 

  • A) stricter regulations
  • B) freer markets
  • C) revised tax laws
  • D) socialist expansion

 

 

  • The recent global contraction brought a new wave of __________, as one country after another worried about keeping jobs at home.

 

  • A) isolationism
  • B) outsourcing
  • C) offshoring
  • D) protectionism

 

 

  • What is considered the largest flaw in the Cold War bipolar model of International Relations?

 

  • A) It focused too heavily on trade.
  • B) It ignored economics.
  • C) It concentrated on military power.
  • D) It interpreted power only as political.

 

 

  • The __________ keeps world trade open by cutting tariffs and other barriers, creating freer trade and settling disputes.

 

  • A) North American Free Trade Agreement
  • B) International Monetary Fund
  • C) World Trade Organization
  • D) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

 

 

  • Most countries participate in __________, a largely capitalistic competition where goods, money, and ideas flow easily to wherever there are customers.

 

  • A) the world market
  • B) free trade agreements
  • C) non-tariff barriers
  • D) plurilateral agreements

 

 

  • As China grew in wealth, it sought out oil and mineral deals around the globe and expanded its borders, reaching far out into the South and East China Seas. What does China’s example suggest about increased prosperity?

 

  • A) Prosperity increases territorial expansion.
  • B) Prosperity does not necessarily bring peace.
  • C) International oil and mineral deals increase prosperity.
  • D) Prosperity is diminished by limited borders.

 

 

  • What phrase did Columbia economist Jeffrey Sachs use to describe the fall of the Soviet Union?

 

  • A) “Financial collapse”
  • B) “Second place”
  • C) “Markets won”
  • D) “Failed war”

 

 

  • Characterize the effect of European welfare states on entrepreneurial enterprises.

 

  • A) Expensive welfare states control taxes and work against starting new enterprises.
  • B) Generous welfare states instigate growth through tax incentives.
  • C) Stimulus packages allow new businesses to finance innovative ideas.
  • D) Charitable welfare states stunt growth through burdensome tax incentives.

 

 

  • Analyze the condition of countries such as Cuba and North Korea that refuse to play by the motto, “Make money, not war.”

 

  • A) They exist under oppressive social restrictions.
  • B) They thrive via socialist policies.
  • C) They trade within limited circles.
  • D) They live in isolation and poverty.

 

  • Which theory states that peace results when several states use national power and alliances to stabilize one another, blocking would-be expansionists?

 

  • A) Micro theory
  • B) Balance-of-power theory
  • C) Macro theory
  • D) Hierarchy-of-power theory

 

 

  • According to macro theorists, __________ are the key factors leading to war.

 

  • A) cultures
  • B) leaders
  • C) states
  • D) citizens

 

 

  • __________ theory argues that leaders often misinterpret another nation’s actions as hostile and threatening, and consider their own actions to be merely defensive.

 

  • A) Supervision
  • B) Misperception
  • C) Hypertension
  • D) Home-defense

 

 

  • A big war with a definitive outcome often brings peace because __________.

 

  • A) relative power is clearly seen
  • B) power struggles are safely obscured
  • C) weaker powers are rendered impotent
  • D) larger powers rest satisfied

 

  • Explain George Kennan’s comparison of American democracy to a “pea-brained dinosaur sitting contentedly in a swamp of unmindful threats.”

 

  • A) He rests still for the moment, but may attack any opponent at any time and should not be disturbed.
  • B) Despite the appearance of contentedness, he as actually quite violent.
  • C) Threats surround him but he exists in ignorance to them.
  • D) Once harmed by an adversary, he erupts into a violent rage that destroys the foe and wrecks his own habitat.

 

  • Which of the following instances constitutes an example of image theory?

 

  • A) The United Nations’ peaceful removal of nuclear weapons from Iraq
  • B) The United States’ invasion of Iraq to eradicate a nonexistent threat
  • C) The Japanese surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor
  • D) Hitler’s unprecedented invasion of Czechoslovakia to reclaim the Sudetenland

 

  • Characterize micro theories of war.

 

  • A) They view war as the result of history and geography.
  • B) They think of war as the consequence of the power and ambitions of states.
  • C) They consider culture the root cause of all war.
  • D) They explain war in terms of biology and psychology.

 

 

  • Identify a major flaw that causes many scholars to reject balance-of-power theory.

 

  • A) It is impossible to know what powers will balance each other.
  • B) In transitional times, shifting powers upset hierarchy.
  • C) Humans exhibit a wide range of behavior and are thus unpredictable.
  • D) War is the result of human aggression and genetics.

 

  • Analyze trends in violence since the Cold War.

 

  • A) The number of conflicts has increased dramatically.
  • B) While there tend to be fewer conflicts today, many more are injured in them.
  • C) The mass media shows a lot of violence, but statistics show a less violent world.
  • D) Though there are more conflicts today, medical advances save many lives.

 

  • Contrast macro and micro explanations of war.

 

  • A) Micro theory sees war as the result of minute concerns, while macro theory focuses on larger-level issues.
  • B) Micro theory states that war begins at the domestic level, while macro theory suggests it is a strictly international phenomenon.
  • C) Micro theory understands war as the result of biological and psychological factors, while macro theory focuses on geography and resources.
  • D) Micro theory argues that war is essentially a conflict between states, while macro theory sees war as a conflict between select individuals.

 

  • The United Nations’ predecessor, the ___________, tried collective security to ensure peace.

 

  • A) Geneva Convention
  • B) Fourteen Points of Peace
  • C) Court of International Justice
  • D) League of Nations

 

 

  • The oldest approach to preserving peace is through __________, with envoys sent from one state to another.

 

  • A) diplomatic contact
  • B) power displays
  • C) cease-fire agreements
  • D) balance of power

 

 

  • What precedent did the 1945-1946 Nuremburg War Crimes Trials set for international law?

 

  • A) The Trials reinforced sovereignty as a defense for war crimes.
  • B) The court discounted sovereignty as a cover for mass murder.
  • C) Nuremburg outlined international rules of engagement.
  • D) The Trials stated that no sovereign body could declare another world war.

 

 

  • Identify one major flaw in the current United Nations.

 

  • A) Larger nations maintain greater influence over world financial issues.
  • B) The organization receives support from the International Monetary Fund with no real way to repay those funds.
  • C) The U.N. has too much power and thus maintains strict authority over international security matters.
  • D) Permanent members of the Security Council maintain the right to veto anything they dislike.

 

  • Evaluate the changing role of sovereignty in today’s international relations.

 

  • A) International relations has reinforced the notion of sovereignty.
  • B) Sovereignty is dwindling in the face of international law.
  • C) Weaker nations are losing sovereignty to larger, more powerful ones.
  • D) United States sovereignty has weakened due to the threat of terrorism.

 

 

  • According to political scientist Frank L. Klingberg, naval expenditures, annexations, armed expeditions and diplomatic pressures reveal alternating phases of __________ in American foreign policy.

 

  • A) aggression and passivity
  • B) introversion and extroversion
  • C) commerce and stagnation
  • D) violence and tranquility

 

 

  • Some argue that since the 2003 Iraq War, the United States has practiced __________, losing allies and rejecting treaties that most countries desire.

 

  • A) unilateralism
  • B) interventionism
  • C) isolationism
  • D) supranationalism

 

 

  • Beijing currently defines its national interest as __________ and will not likely do anything to disrupt that goal.

 

  • A) international expansion
  • B) fiscal superiority
  • C) economic growth
  • D) military power

 

 

  • Describe the shift in American isolationism after 1941.

 

  • A) The United States witnessed a strong increase in isolationist tendencies.
  • B) Congress attempted to block the executive’s power to wage war.
  • C) Most Americans began favoring strong involvement in world affairs.
  • D) The nation curbed its international reach to pacify East Asian allies.

 

 

 

  • Assess the effect of misperception on U.S. involvement in World War II and the Cold War.

 

  • A) The United States misperceived the importance of regions such as the Sudetenland in World War II, a mistake from which we learned during the Cold War.
  • B) Misperception led to delayed U.S. involvement in the Cold War, while it led Americans to hastily deploy troops in World War II.
  • C) Americans in World War II underestimated the reach of foreign powers, later overestimating the importance of small regions during the Cold War.
  • D) The rampant spread of Nazism led Americans to misperceive Hitler’s reach; similarly, we overestimated Soviet influence in Eurasia.

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  • In practice, sovereignty is very clear-cut.

 

 

  • Theoretically, sovereignty means that foreign powers have no business intruding in your country’s affairs.

 

 

  • In 1991, Moscow saw its national interest in using military force to control Czechoslovakia and Georgia even though the outside world protested.

 

 

  • Following 9/11, NATO forces worked to stabilize Afghanistan because many European countries maintained a national interest in fighting al Qaeda.

 

  • In East Asia, civilians guide what are deemed key industries, aimed at rapid growth and dominance of certain markets.

 

 

  • According to balance-of-power theorists, the great periods of relative peace in the West have been times when the European powers balanced each other.

 

 

  • Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) were dismantled under UN supervision in the 1990s, but President Bush, convinced the country had revived its WMD programs, removed Iraq’s weapons in 2003.

 

 

  • Third parties can carry messages back and forth, clarify the issues, and suggest compromises, as the UN’s Ralph Bunche did between Arabs and Israelis in 1949.

 

 

  • The U.S. forces in IFOR (Implementation Force) in Bosnia during the 1990s were adequately equipped and instructed to destroy attackers; these robust rules of engagement incited violent rebellion from Serbian forces.

 

 

  • Starting in 1949, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) coordinated Western Europe and North America to act as a single defender under unified command in the event of Japanese attack.

 

 

 

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK

 

  • International relations differs from __________ politics, as there is no sovereign power over the world’s nations forcing them to obey laws and preserving peace.

 

  • If you know a country’s __________, from its history, geography, economy, and current politics, you can understand much of its behavior.

 

 

  • A ___________ interest is one that potentially threatens the life of your nation, such as Soviet missiles in Cuba.

 

  • Some countries resist the encroachments of free markets, hiding behind __________, or taxes on imports.

 

 

  • Predictions that economic interdependency would prevent war have proved false; the British-led globalization of the nineteenth century collapsed with __________.

 

 

  • A classic example of misperception, JFK portrayed a Soviet __________ over the United States and, in turn, increased the U.S. missile program.

 

  • The notion of __________ suggests that countries should work together in specialized areas so they see that they accomplish more by cooperation than by conflict.

 

 

  • After a broad, U.S.-led coalition booted Iraq out of __________ in 1991, UN inspectors combed through Iraq looking for the capacity to build weapons of mass destruction.

 

  • No two democracies have ever gone to war with one another. When Argentina and Britain fought over the Falklands in 1982, Argentina was a __________.

 

 

  • The Cold War created a __________ system that was clear but dangerous: the Western allies against the Soviets.

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  • Identify the role of sovereignty in enforcing domestic policy.

 

 

  • Examine the extent to which understanding a country’s national interest allows one to understand its behavior.

 

 

 

  • How can globalization sometimes breed resentment?

 

  • Analyze the effect of misperception on U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

 

 

  • Evaluate the increasing influence of international law over sovereignty. Is this a positive trend?

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  • Compare micro and macro theories of war. Which do you feel is the better explanation? How can this explanation be used to prevent future wars?

 

 

  • Examine global trends concerning violence and war since 1945. In general, has war increased or decreased? Why might this be the case? Do you foresee the continuation of this trend? Explain.

 

 

  • Investigate the role of diplomacy in maintaining peace between nations. What actions might a diplomat take to encourage peace? What are some factors that may cause diplomacy to fail? Provide specific examples from your text.

 

  • Today’s world seems to be moving beyond sovereignty and toward supranational leadership to cooperate on issues of global importance. What are some of these issues? How might they be solved through supranational cooperation? Does such cooperation impede the sovereignty of independent nations?

 

 

  • Analyze the recent American trend toward unilateralism, evaluating its impact on U.S. foreign relations throughout the last decade. Is this a positive policy? How might the continuation of unilateral policies affect American power?