Sample Chapter

 

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Principles of Animal Physiology 3rd Edition By Christopher D.Moyes – Test Bank

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 1      Introduction to Physiological Principles

 

 

1) Which Porcelain crabs, those living in cool temperate regions or those living in hot tropical regions, appear to be more vulnerable to global warming and why?

  1. A) Species living in cool temperate regions appear to be more vulnerable because it is harder to adapt to heat than to cold.
  2. B) Species living in cool temperate regions appear to be more vulnerable because these species require cold temperatures to reproduce.
  3. C) Species living in hot regions appear to be more vulnerable because they are living at the edge of their thermal tolerance range and likely have limited ability to adjust their thermal tolerance.
  4. D) Species living in hot regions appear to be less vulnerable because they are already adapted to hot environments.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 3

 

 

2)
Animal physiology is the study of

 

  1. A)

 

how structures allow animals to function.

 

  1. B)

 

the chemical reactions found in animals.

 

  1. C)

 

the genetic lineage seen in the evolution of animals.

 

  1. D)

 

migratory patterns of animals.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 4 4

 

3)
One theme in physiology states that the physiology of an animal is part of its __________, which is based on its __________ and environmental influences.

 

  1. A)

 

genotype; ancestry

 

  1. B)

 

phenotype; genotype

 

  1. C)

 

ancestry; phenotype

 

  1. D)

 

phenotype; diet

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 4 4

 

4)
Which of the following statements is true about phenotype?

 

  1. A)

 

After an initial development period, phenotype of an organism is static.

 

  1. B)

 

Phenotype is affected by organization at the biochemical level only.

 

  1. C)

 

Altering phenotype allows an organism to change its physiological response.

 

  1. D)

 

Genotype may influence phenotype, but phenotype never affects genotype.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 4 4

 

 

 

5)
One approach, known as __________, says that we can learn about one level of organization by studying the functions at the level below it.

 

  1. A)

 

reductionism

 

  1. B)

 

emergence

 

  1. C)

 

systematics

 

  1. D)

 

bioinformatics

 

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref:  7

 

6)
Surface area to volume ratio influences thermal physiology such that

 

  1. A)

 

small animals have a higher surface area to volume ratio, decreasing heat loss.

 

  1. B)

 

small animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio, decreasing heat loss.

 

  1. C)

 

small animals have a higher surface area to volume ratio, increasing heat loss.

 

  1. D)

 

small animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio, increasing heat loss.

 

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 10

 

7)
The scaling coefficient for metabolic rate should be 2/3 is based on

 

  1. A)

 

relationships between surface area and volume.

 

  1. B)

 

relationships between body mass and volume.

 

  1. C)

 

relationships between volume and metabolism.

 

  1. D)

 

relationships between metabolism and activity of the animal.

 

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 10

8) In physiology, you learned that form reflects function. When comparing the digestive systems of carnivores and herbivores, you observed that

  1. A) carnivores have much larger stomachs than herbivores.
  2. B) carnivores have a much smaller caecum, and a much shorter intestinal tract than herbivores.
  3. C) carnivores have a smaller caecum, but a larger intestinal tract than herbivores.
  4. D) the digestive systems of the two are similar because both are mammals.

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 11–12

 

 

 

9)
 

The proximate cause of an organism’s unique characteristic can be answered by

 

  1. A)

 

studying the animals lineage.

 

  1. B)

 

looking for evolutionary advantages of the characteristic.

 

  1. C)

 

identifying the genes that regulate the characteristic.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 12

 

10)
The term adaptation most commonly refers to

 

  1. A)

 

changes within an individual that are irreversible.

 

  1. B)

 

changes within an individual that are reversible.

 

  1. C)

 

changes within a population seen over time.

 

  1. D)

 

changes within an individual that cannot be inherited.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 12-13

 

11)
Adaptation can change the genetic composition of a population because

 

  1. A)

 

environmental stressors favor survival of certain genotypes.

 

  1. B)

 

individuals possessing favorable genes tend to produce more offspring.

 

  1. C)

 

genes are passed on only if offspring are produced.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 13

 

12)
Genetic drift is most likely to occur

 

  1. A)

 

due to differences in “fitness” of individuals.

 

  1. B)

 

in large populations.

 

  1. C)

 

when a large portion of the population is killed, regardless of genetics.

 

  1. D)

 

in ocean populations where genes can drift between individuals.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 13

 

13)
Organisms that are closely related to each other will

 

  1. A)

 

share some features with all other organisms.

 

  1. B)

 

share some features only with organisms from this same group.

 

  1. C)

 

have no features in common with any other organism.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 12

 

14) The flippers of marine mammals, the legs of dogs, and the wings of birds are examples of ______________ structures.

  1. A) homologous
  2. B) analogous
  3. C) convergent
  4. D) shared

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

 

 

15)
Which of the following statements about conformers and regulators is correct?

 

  1. A)

 

In a conformer, internal conditions mimic external changes.

 

  1. B)

 

In a regulator, internal conditions regulate external changes.

 

  1. C)

 

An organism could be a thermo-conformer and an ionoregulator.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and C

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 15

 

16)
Being a conformer is beneficial because

 

  1. A)

 

it’s possible to maintain a stable environment.

 

  1. B)

 

it consumes less energy than being a regulator.

 

  1. C)

 

it allows an organism to live in a wide range of environments that differ from its internal environment.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 15

 

17)
Maintaining homeostasis relies on

 

  1. A)

 

short-term behavioral changes.

 

  1. B)

 

short-term physiological changes.

 

  1. C)

 

long term strategies.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 16

 

18)
Growing and shedding fur is an example of a physiological change following a

 

  1. A)

 

seasonal cycle.

 

  1. B)

 

circadian rhythm.

 

  1. C)

 

lunar cycle.

 

  1. D)

 

diurnal cycle.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 16

 

19)
When maintaining homeostasis, it is important to do all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

detect external conditions.

 

  1. B)

 

control external conditions.

 

  1. C)

 

generate compensatory responses to the changes.

 

  1. D)

 

protect vital areas from damaging changes.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 16

 

20)
The set point in a feedback loop is

 

  1. A)

 

the point at which the stimulus no longer is required.

 

  1. B)

 

the point at which the (effector) organ or gland starts to change the environment.

 

  1. C)

 

a range of values for a parameter that the body tries to maintain.

 

  1. D)

 

the last step of a series of changes before the body is “set.”

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 17

 

21)
__________ is/are an example of positive feedback loop control.

 

  1. A)

 

Vomiting

 

  1. B)

 

Maintaining internal body temperature

 

  1. C)

 

Plasma glucose levels

 

  1. D)

 

Eating when hungry

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 17

 

22)
Acclimatization is a term referring to

 

  1. A)

 

irreversible changes in phenotype due to natural environmental variation.

 

  1. B)

 

irreversible changes in phenotype due to controlled environmental change.

 

  1. C)

 

reversible changes in phenotype due to natural environmental variation.

 

  1. D)

 

reversible changes in phenotype due to controlled environmental change.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 17

 

23)
The phenotypic expression of a genotype can be altered by

 

  1. A)

 

developmental processes.

 

  1. B)

 

environmental conditions.

 

  1. C)

 

physiological conditions.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 17-18

 

24)
Polyphenism is a type of phenotypic plasticity that

 

  1. A)

 

can be easily reversed when necessary.

 

  1. B)

 

occurs only when adults are exposed to certain environmental factors.

 

  1. C)

 

is also called developmental plasticity.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 18

 

25)
The genetic makeup of an organism, the __________, can be expressed in a variety of ways and has major effects on physiological traits.

 

Answer:
genotype

 

Page Ref: 4

 

26)
__________ of a population occurs when environmental stressors favor survival of certain genotypes, leading to their increased levels of reproduction.

 

Answer:
Adaptation

 

Page Ref: 12-13

 

27)
When a large portion of a population is wiped out and the genetic base is rebuilt from a small group of individuals, then the __________, a type of genetic drift, may result.

 

Answer:
founder effect

 

Page Ref: 13

 

28) Genetic drift results in ________________ evolution, which refers to changes in a population that are not due to differences in fitness.

Answer: neutral

Page Ref: 13

 

 

29)
An organism that maintains its internal environment regardless of changes in the external environment is called a __________.

 

Answer:
regulator

 

Page Ref: 15

 

30)
Physiological processes that change in a predictable pattern on a daily basis are said to follow a __________.

 

Answer:
circadian rhythm

 

Page Ref: 16

31) Metabolism is homeostatically regulated but, during lactation, metabolism has to be adjusted to account for the energetic demands of milk production. This process is referred to as ___________.

Answer: allostasis

Page Ref: 16

 

 

32)
Factors that generate opposite effects on a pathway are termed __________.

 

Answer:
antagonistic controls

 

Page Ref: 16-17

 

 

33)
Environmental factors can cause __________, or a range of phenotypes from a single genotype.

 

Answer:
phenotypic plasticity

 

Page Ref: 17-18

 

 

34)
An animal that undergoes physiological changes caused by an experimentor regulating environmental variables is said to have __________.

 

Answer:
acclimated

 

Page Ref: 17

 

 

 

35) In research, what are two important features of model organisms? Provide an example of a model organism in physiological research.

Answer: Model organisms are important in physiological/biological research because 1) they have features that are suitable for experimental study and 2) understanding a process in a model organism provides better insight into how processes work in other species. The squid is an excellent model organism because its specialized large neurons allowed physiologists to gain an in-depth understanding of how neurons work in animals.

Porcelain crabs are also a good example of model organisms when it comes to studying environmental adaptations. Many species of these crabs live in very different environments, enabling researchers to compare the physiological adaptations of the different species under different environmental conditions.

Page Ref: 3, 7

 

36)
Explain how a cell and molecular physiologist can be a developmental and applied physiologist as well.

 

Answer:
There are a number of ways to categorize the work that physiologists do. It can be divided by level of organization, processes, or the type of science (pure vs. applied). In this case a physiologist could study the process of development at the cell and molecular level with the purpose of preventing birth defects.

 

Page Ref: 5-7

 

37)
Explain why it is important to understand chemistry and physics before studying physiology. Be sure to include some examples.

 

Answer:
Physiology follows the laws of chemistry and physics. Just because an ion is diffusing in a physiological system does not mean it will not interact with other ions or form chemical bonds. Understanding that fluids flow from areas of high to low pressure helps one understand the cardiovascular system as well.

 

Page Ref: 7-9

 

38)
Explain why a certain mutation in a genome may not continue to be beneficial after an environmental stressor is removed.

 

Answer:
Expression of certain genes always contains certain costs and benefits. In some cases, expression of a mutated gene may be very costly in some aspects. However, if this mutation allows for survival and reproduction, the benefit outweighs the cost. On the other hand if the environmental stressor is removed, the cost may exceed the benefit. Those individuals with the mutation now lose the advantage because they are “spending” resources on a useless protein rather than one of current benefit.

 

Page Ref: 11-13

39) List the four conditions that are needed for adaptive evolution to occur. Provide one specific example of adaptive evolution.

Answer: 1) There must be variation in a trait among individuals in a population; 2) the trait must be heritable; 3) the trait must increase the fitness of the individuals that possess this trait; and 4) if the environment changes, the trait may no longer be beneficial.

Insecticide resistance is a good example of adaptive evolution. Mosquitoes that are resistant to a specific insecticide have higher fitness in the presence of the insecticide compared to insects without the gene/mutation for resistance.

Page Ref. 13

 

 

40)
How does an organism’s body determine whether to utilize short-term or long-term strategies for maintaining homeostasis?

 

Answer:
It always costs energy to maintain an internal environment that may differ from the external environment. The key question is cost versus benefit. If the difference will last a long time, it will be beneficial to invest more resources early on, which will allow the organism to maintain other functions (e.g. growing fur in winter). On the other hand, if it is a short-term difference (e.g. hot sun at noon), then less expensive measures may be more appropriate.

 

Page Ref: 15-16

 

41)
How is it possible for a single genotype to generate a broad range of phenotypes?

 

Answer:
Organisms may have identical genotypes, but depending on their environment, expression of some genes may be more beneficial than others. Thus, environmental factors can regulate which genes are expressed at any one point in time, allowing for different phenotypes (physical expression), from a single set of genes.

 

Page Ref: 17-18

Chapter 3      Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Cell Physiology

 

 

 

 

1)
 

Which of the following types of energy is strictly potential energy?

 

  1. A)

 

mechanical energy

 

  1. B)

 

radiant energy

 

  1. C)

 

chemical energy

 

  1. D)

 

electrical energy

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 40

 

2)
Once the activation energy has been transferred to a molecule,

 

  1. A)

 

it has reached the transition state.

 

  1. B)

 

it will always return to the substrate conformation.

 

  1. C)

 

it will always move on to the product conformation.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and C

 

Answer:
A

 

Page

 

3)
Ref: 42

 

What is the correct relationship between chemical reactions and temperature?

 

  1. A)

 

All chemical reactions are endothermic, and therefore require warmer temperatures.

 

  1. B)

 

Warmer temperatures provide the activation energy required to start chemical reactions.

 

  1. C)

 

Warmer temperatures allow more energy to be released during a chemical reaction.

 

  1. D)

 

Chemical reactions are not dependent on temperature at all.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 42

4) Which of the following bonds are classified as weak bonds?

  1. A) hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces
  2. B) hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bonds
  3. C) ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, ester bonds
  4. D) peptide, bonds, disulfide bonds, ether bonds

Answer: A

Page Ref: 43

 

 

5)
Which of the following types of bonds is not based on attraction of one molecule for the other, but instead is based on an uncharged molecule’s inability to form a bond with water?

 

  1. A)

 

van der Waals interactions

 

  1. B)

 

hydrogen bonds

 

  1. C)

 

ionic bonds

 

  1. D)

 

hydrophobic bonds

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 44

 

6)
The correct term(s) for the most abundant liquid in which other molecules are dissolved is/are

 

  1. A)

 

solvent.

 

  1. B)

 

solute.

 

  1. C)

 

solution.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and C

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 45

 

7)
Diffusion of a solute through a solution is decreased by an

 

  1. A)

 

increased concentration gradient.

 

  1. B)

 

increased size of molecule.

 

  1. C)

 

increased diffusion coefficient.

 

  1. D)

 

increased diffusion area.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 46

 

8)
What is the osmolarity of a solution containing 3 M MgCl2 and 2 M glucose?

 

  1. A)

 

5 OsM

 

  1. B)

 

8 OsM

 

  1. C)

 

11 OsM

 

  1. D)

 

10 OsM

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 47

 

9)
Two compartments are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and urea. Compartment I contains 1 M NaCl. Compartment II contains 2 M urea. Which of the following is a correct statement of their relationship based on the initial conditions?

 

  1. A)

 

Compartment I is isosmotic to Compartment II.

 

  1. B)

 

Compartment I is hyposmotic to Compartment II.

 

  1. C)

 

Compartment I is hypertonic to Compartment II.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and C

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 48

 

10)
pH is a measure of

 

  1. A)

 

[H+].

 

  1. B)

 

[OH-].

 

  1. C)

 

ratio of [H+] to [OH-].

 

  1. D)

 

ratio of [OH-] to [H+].

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 49

 

11)
Which of the following statements is true for a strong base?

 

  1. A)

 

It has a low pK.

 

  1. B)

 

It has a high pK.

 

  1. C)

 

It easily donates [H+].

 

  1. D)

 

It dissociates slowly.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 49

 

12)
Some of the most common buffers in animal cells are effective because

 

  1. A)

 

they have a pK value that is close to the normal pH of the cell.

 

  1. B)

 

they can bind with H+ in a chemical reaction, forming a new product that can be eliminated from the body.

 

  1. C)

 

they have very low pK values.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 51

 

13)
Metabolic pathways that include synthetic reactions are called

 

  1. A)

 

anabolic

 

  1. B)

 

catabolic

 

  1. C)

 

amphibolic

 

  1. D)

 

both A and C

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 51

 

14)
Free energy (ΔG) represents the amount of energy

 

  1. A)

 

available for use from a reaction.

 

  1. B)

 

required to start the reaction.

 

  1. C)

 

that could potentially be released from a reaction.

 

  1. D)

 

that goes to randomness.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref:52

 

15)
Km in the Michaelis-Menten equation represents

 

  1. A)

 

the maximum amount of substrate that can be catalyzed by the enzyme.

 

  1. B)

 

the amount of substrate required for the initial velocity to be half of the maximal velocity.

 

  1. C)

 

the amount of substrate required to start an enzymatic reaction.

 

  1. D)

 

a set constant used for all enzymatic reactions.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 54

 

16)
How can environmental conditions such as salt concentration, temperature, and pH physically affect the enzyme itself?

 

  1. A)

 

Ions can bind to the active sites of enzymes, preventing the binding of substrate.

 

  1. B)

 

Changes in temperature change the rate at which molecules interact with the enzyme.

 

  1. C)

 

All these factors can disrupt the weak bonds that hold the enzyme in its active conformation.

 

  1. D)

 

These factors affect only the substrate.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 56

 

17)
Which of the following types of regulation involves binding to the active site?

 

  1. A)

 

competitive inhibition

 

  1. B)

 

allosteric regulation

 

  1. C)

 

covalent modification

 

  1. D)

 

both B and C

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 56

 

18)
Why is ATP an important molecule?

 

  1. A)

 

It links major pathways that release energy with those that require energy.

 

  1. B)

 

It is an energy source that is found in high concentrations in cells.

 

  1. C)

 

It is an energy source that is always available in large quantities.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 58

 

19)
The __________ structure of proteins involves interactions of amino acids that are found on different subunits.

 

  1. A)

 

primary

 

  1. B)

 

secondary

 

  1. C)

 

tertiary

 

  1. D)

 

quaternary

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 59-60

 

20)
Which of the following carbohydrates is a monosaccharide?

 

  1. A)

 

sucrose

 

  1. B)

 

lactose

 

  1. C)

 

glucose

 

  1. D)

 

maltose

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 60-61

 

 

 

21) Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. A) monosaccharides / glucose, fructose, sucrose
  2. B) disaccharides / lactose, maltose, galactose
  3. C) polysaccharides / glycogen, starch, chitin
  4. D) glycosylation / addition of lipids to macromolecules

Answer: C

Page Ref: 60-61

 

 

22)
Which of the following polysaccharides performs a structural role?

 

  1. A)

 

amylose

 

  1. B)

 

glycogen

 

  1. C)

 

chitin

 

  1. D)

 

amylopectin

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 62

 

23)
__________ is the metabolic pathway that synthesizes glycogen.

 

  1. A)

 

Gluconeogenesis

 

  1. B)

 

Glycogenesis

 

  1. C)

 

Glycogenolysis

 

  1. D)

 

Glycolysis

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 62

 

24)
Glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway for the production of ATP because

 

  1. A)

 

it can proceed with or without oxygen.

 

  1. B)

 

it can produce ATP quickly.

 

  1. C)

 

it can be used to metabolize fats and carbohydrates equally well.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 63

 

25)
All of the following are lipids, EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

steroids.

 

  1. B)

 

glycogen.

 

  1. C)

 

triglycerides.

 

  1. D)

 

phospholipids.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 66

26) Which of the following statements correctly describes fatty acids?

  1. A) Volatile fatty acids are the longest fatty acids.
  2. B) Saturated fatty acids are linear in structure and have one or no double bonds.
  3. C) Medium-chain fatty acids are produced by ruminants when cellulose is fermented.
  4. D) Double bonds in fatty acids create bends/kinks in the chain, thus altering membrane structure.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 66

 

 

27)
Glycerol molecules connected to three fatty acids are termed

 

  1. A)

 

monoacylglycerides.

 

  1. B)

 

diacylglycerides.

 

  1. C)

 

triglycerides.

 

  1. D)

 

cholesterol.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 68

 

28)
Cells within the adipose tissue that store lipids are called

 

  1. A)

 

adipocytes.

 

  1. B)

 

fat bodies.

 

  1. C)

 

hepatopancreas.

 

  1. D)

 

blubber.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 69

 

29)
Lipids used as a major component of biological membranes include

 

  1. A)

 

phospholipases.

 

  1. B)

 

sphingolipids.

 

  1. C)

 

free fatty acids.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 70

 

30)
__________ enters the TCA cycle and forms NADH and FADH2, which can then be used for ATP production.

 

  1. A)

 

Acetyl CoA

 

  1. B)

 

Glucose

 

  1. C)

 

Pyruvate

 

  1. D)

 

A fatty acid chain

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 71

 

31)
Cells can regulate the rate of the TCA cycle using all the following ways, EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

controlling the concentration of the substrate.

 

  1. B)

 

controlling the concentration of the required enzyme.

 

  1. C)

 

controlling the amount of energy the cell must expend for survival.

 

  1. D)

 

controlling the catalytic activity of the required enzymes.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 71-72

 

32)
Electrons can enter the electron transport system via many paths. The first point of commonality in the ETS for all these paths is

 

  1. A)

 

complex I.

 

  1. B)

 

complex II.

 

  1. C)

 

cytochrome c.

 

  1. D)

 

ubiquinone.

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 72

 

33)
Production of ATP by the mitochondrial ATP synthase is increased by

 

  1. A)

 

high levels of ATP.

 

  1. B)

 

high levels of ADP.

 

  1. C)

 

low levels of physical activity.

 

  1. D)

 

low proton motive force.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 73

 

34)
Which of the following is a benefit of using phosphocreatine to store energy (as compared to ATP)?

 

  1. A)

 

Phosphocreatine can be used by almost any process requiring an input of energy.

 

  1. B)

 

Phosphocreatine can diffuse more easily to areas needing energy.

 

  1. C)

 

Phosphocreatine allows muscles to stop using ATP, conserving it for other uses.

 

  1. D)

 

Phosphocreatine is produced during periods of high muscle activity.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref:74

 

35)
What is the advantage of storing energy as glycogen rather than as lipids?

 

  1. A)

 

It contains more energy per unit mass.

 

  1. B)

 

It does not prevent physical functions of a cell.

 

  1. C)

 

It can be mobilized very rapidly.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 75

 

36)
High concentrations of __________ indicate that a cell has plenty of energy.

 

  1. A)

 

ADP

 

  1. B)

 

AMP

 

  1. C)

 

NAD+

 

  1. D)

 

Acetyl CoA

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 76

 

37)
When an ion crosses the membrane and binds to a protein to accomplish this feat, it is using

 

  1. A)

 

passive diffusion.

 

  1. B)

 

facilitated diffusion.

 

  1. C)

 

active transport.

 

  1. D)

 

either B or C

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 78-79

 

38)
Ion channels that open or close based on changes in the membrane potential are called

 

  1. A)

 

voltage-gated channels.

 

  1. B)

 

ligand-gated channels.

 

  1. C)

 

mechanogated channels.

 

  1. D)

 

porins.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 79

 

39)
Which of the following statements is true concerning secondary active transporters?

 

  1. A)

 

A symporter can bind only one particle.

 

  1. B)

 

An exchanger/antiporter will always be electroneutral.

 

  1. C)

 

Electrogenic carriers generate a charge difference across the membrane.

 

  1. D)

 

The direction in which charged particles are transported across the membrane does not affect the electrical gradient.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 81

 

40)
The main reason the interior of the cell is negative at rest is because

 

  1. A)

 

the membrane is more permeable to Na+ than any other ion.

 

  1. B)

 

the membrane is more permeable to K+ than any other ion.

 

  1. C)

 

the Na+/K+ pump is electrogenic.

 

  1. D)

 

it contains a much higher concentration of Cl-.

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 82

 

41)
The cytoskeleton is composed of a variety of fibers, including

 

  1. A)

 

macrotubules.

 

  1. B)

 

large filaments.

 

  1. C)

 

microfilaments.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 85

 

42)
Vesicles that are produced by the ER-Golgi network may be released from the cell using the process of

 

  1. A)

 

exocytosis.

 

  1. B)

 

endocytosis.

 

  1. C)

 

phagocytosis.

 

  1. D)

 

both B and C

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 85

 

43)
The extracellular matrix performs a variety of functions, including mediation of interactions between cells. __________ is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which provides protection and acts as a shock absorber.

 

  1. A)

 

Collagen

 

  1. B)

 

Chondroitin sulfate

 

  1. C)

 

Hyaluronan

 

  1. D)

 

Fibronectin

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 87

 

44)
__________ are the sections of DNA used to encode RNA.

 

  1. A)

 

Chromosomes

 

  1. B)

 

Exons

 

  1. C)

 

Introns

 

  1. D)

 

Genomes

 

Answer:
B

 

Page Ref: 91

 

45)
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship between DNA, RNA, and transcription factors?

 

  1. A)

 

There is only one transcription factor for each region of DNA encoding RNA.

 

  1. B)

 

Transcription factors must always bind close to the transcription start site.

 

  1. C)

 

Phosphorylation is one way of regulating interactions between proteins required for transcription of DNA.

 

  1. D)

 

Transcription factors carry out the process of transcription themselves.

 

Answer:
C

 

Page Ref: 92

 

46)
Proteins may be degraded by proteosomes because

 

  1. A)

 

they have become damaged.

 

  1. B)

 

they are labeled with ubiquitin.

 

  1. C)

 

they are proteins which are rapidly degraded as part of the cell’s control of protein levels.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
D

 

Page Ref: 93

 

47)
Variations in proteins can arise from a SINGLE gene using

 

  1. A)

 

alternative splicing.

 

  1. B)

 

different alleles.

 

  1. C)

 

duplication of genetic material during crossover.

 

  1. D)

 

mobile elements or jumping genes.

 

Answer:
A

 

Page Ref: 93

 

48)
The second law of __________ says that the universe is moving from a state of order to one of disorder.

 

Answer:
thermodynamics

 

Page Ref: 39

 

49)
The energy of movement is termed __________ energy.

 

Answer:
kinetic

 

Page Ref: 39

50) Transmembrane gradients are often referred to as____________________ gradients.

Answer: electrochemical

Page Ref: 41

 

51) The term that describes a macromolecule that has unfolded as a result of an increase in temperature is _________.

Answer: denatured

Page Ref: 60

 

 

 

52)
 

The __________ is formed by water molecules that surround water-soluble molecules in a solution.

 

Answer:
hydration shell

 

Page Ref: 46

 

53)
Molecules that can be positive or negative, depending on the pH of the solution, are called __________.

 

Answer:
zwitterions

 

Page Ref: 50

 

54)
All metabolic pathways in a cell, tissue, or organism can be referred to as the __________.

 

Answer:
metabolism

 

Page Ref: 51

 

55)
Reversible enzymatic reactions eventually reach the point of __________, where the reactions in the forward and reverse directions are occurring at the same rate.

 

Answer:
equilibrium

 

Page Ref: 54

 

56)
Energy is stored temporarily in reducing equivalents such as __________, and then released later in oxidation reactions.

 

Answer:
NAD or NADP

 

Page Ref: 57

 

57)
In order to ensure that some proteins are properly folded, the cells use __________, such as heat shock proteins.

 

Answer:
molecular chaperones

 

Page Ref: 60

 

58)
The products of glycolysis are ATP, NADH, and __________.

 

Answer:
pyruvate

 

Page Ref: 63

 

59)
Fatty acids with no double bonds are termed __________, and have a linear structure.

 

Answer:
saturated

 

Page Ref: 66

 

60)
__________ is the process of forming acetoacetyl CoA from two acetyl CoA molecules.

 

Answer:
Ketogenesis

 

Page Ref: 68

 

61)
Steroid hormones use __________ as a precursor molecule.

 

Answer:
cholesterol

 

Page Ref: 70

 

62)
The ratio between oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production is termed the __________.

 

Answer:
respiratory quotient

 

Page Ref: 75

 

63)
The __________ describes how phospholipids, proteins, and other biological molecules come together to form a flexible cell membrane.

 

Answer:
fluid mosaic model

 

Page Ref: 78

 

64)
An __________ protein is one that spans the entire membrane or is fixed in it.

 

Answer:
integral membrane

 

Page Ref: 78

 

65)
When the potential of a cell membrane becomes less negative, or gains more positive charges, the term __________ is applied.

 

Answer:
depolarized

 

Page Ref: 84

 

66)
Winding DNA around __________ serves two major purposes: protection and compression.

 

Answer:
histones

 

Page Ref: 91

 

67)
RNA is degraded by enzymes called __________.

 

Answer:
RNases

 

Page Ref: 92

 

68)
Your book refers to the process of diffusion and mentions that both chemical and electrical gradients may influence this process. Explain why Na+ would be influenced by both chemical and electrical gradients, but glucose would not.

 

Answer:
Diffusion allows molecules to form random distributions based on parameters such as charge and chemical concentration. A charged molecule such as Na+ will move into this distribution based on electrical and chemical relationships. Because glucose is not charged, it will not be influenced by other, charged, molecules.

 

Page Ref: 40-41

 

69)
A water molecule is held together by polar covalent bonds. Because the electrons are not shared equally in this arrangement, water exhibits many unique characteristics that are beneficial for life (e.g. high surface tension). Discuss several of these characteristics and explain how they are beneficial to living organisms.

 

Answer:
High surface tension results from attractive forces between water molecules. Smaller organisms can travel across the surface of the water if they don’t break these weak bonds. Water has a lower density when frozen, which means that it will float, insulating aqueous habitats. Its high boiling point/heat of vaporization means that animals can utilize it for cooling. Heat/energy from the animal is transferred to the water, which then evaporates. Water is also an excellent solvent for charged molecules such as Na+, K+, and Cl-. The concentration of these solutes can then be used by the organism to generate electrochemical gradients. They may also be used to alter the

 

freezing point or osmotic pressure of an organism’s internal environment.

 

Page Ref: 45-46

 

70)
Temperature and pH can have profound effects on the ionization states of molecules. Explain how they can cause these effects and why ionization is important physiologically.

 

 

Answer:
Molecules are frequently connected to each other via weaker or less stable bonds. The ionization state of molecules frequently is dependent upon weaker bonds. Generally, lower temperatures make bonds more stable, and higher temperatures destabilize the bonds by decreasing or increasing molecular movements. pH also changes bond strength by changing the concentration of hydrogen ions available to interact with molecules. Changes in ionization of proteins can change their folding, and therefore their function. Since proteins are integral to cell performance, disrupting their functionality will also disrupt normal processes in cells, causing possible harm to the organism.

 

Page Ref: 50, 55

 

71)
Proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids all perform vital functions for an organism. Discuss some of these vital functions and what could happen to an animal if one of these biological molecules were removed from their diet.

 

Answer:
Proteins play important roles in the structure of cells, as well as function. Receptors, transporters, and enzymes are just a few of the functional roles proteins play. Carbohydrates are important structurally and as an energy source. Carbohydrates can be used as a rapidly accessible form of energy, or they can be stored for later use. Lipids are critical for membrane formation, chemical signaling, and energy sources. Without lipids, isolation of the intracellular and extracellular components would be impossible.

 

Page Ref: 53-58, 60-61, 66

72) What is the role of molecular chaperones?

Answer: Form and function are important concepts in physiology. Proteins can form primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures; and these structures are critically important for the proper function of the proteins. All cells contain different molecular chaperones. Under stress, such as high temperature, proteins may unfold or denature, and denatured proteins cannot carry out their specific functions. Molecular chaperones bind to denatured proteins and refold them into the predenatured structure. For example, during heat stress, molecular chaperones called heat shock proteins (Hsp) help refold denatured proteins.

Page Ref: 60

 

 

73)
Release of energy from many biological molecules requires oxygen, and yet some species are able to survive in conditions having little or no oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia). What adaptations allow them to do this?

 

 

Answer:
The most obvious means is to decrease the energy requirements by slowing metabolic reactions in all or part of the tissues. This extends the supply of fuel that can be utilized without oxygen. Animals can also store more of their energy as glycogen, which can be metabolized by anaerobic glycolysis. Lastly, some animals have modified glycolytic pathways that produce end products other than lactate. These end products are less toxic, or can be removed easily from the body so they do not stop glycolysis.

 

Page Ref: 65-66

74) We know that fatty acids are an important source of energy for tissues. List the ketone bodies and explain why fatty acids sometimes need to be converted to ketone bodies before they can be used. Briefly summarize the two main steps in ketone metabolism.

Answer: Ketone bodies, such as acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate, are an important source of fuel for tissues that cannot use fatty acids directly. For example, brains of mammals use glucose as an energy source, however, under conditions of starvation, glucose levels are diminished. With little or no glucose available, the brain needs to obtain an alternative source of energy. Since the brain cannot use fatty acids directly, the liver converts the fatty acids to ketone bodies, which are then delivered to the brain and oxidized.

Ketogenesis is the first step that synthesizes ketone bodies. In ketogenic tissues such as the liver, Acetyl CoA is converted into the ketone bodies, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. These ketone bodies travel via the blood and are taken up by the brain (ketolytic tissue) where through the process of ketolysis, Acetyl CoA is resynthesized.

Page Ref: 68

 

 

75)
Organisms typically release more CO2 during periods of high activity. Based on your knowledge of the TCA cycle, explain how this occurs.

 

Answer:
If activity is increased, there is an increase in the need for ATP. In order to increase ATP production, there will be an increase in the rate of TCA cycle reactions. This leads to an increase in the amount of NADH and FADH2 produced, which will go through the electron transport system to provide energy for ATP production. Another by-product of the TCA cycle is CO2. Thus, when the rate of the TCA cycle increases, so does the rate of CO2 production.

 

Page Ref: 71-72

 

76)
There are multiple ways that particles may cross a cellular membrane. Discuss the salient features of passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.

 

Answer:
Passive diffusion implies that no aid is given by a protein; therefore, only molecules that are lipid soluble can cross. Passive diffusion also does not require direct energy input, so substances can move only from areas of high to low concentration. Facilitated diffusion has the same energy parameters as simple diffusion, but utilizes a protein to enable charged molecules to cross the lipid membrane. Active transport requires that molecules or ions bind to the protein and that energy will be utilized. Because energy is consumed in this type of transport, it can be used to generate gradients (i.e., “uphill” transport).

 

Page Ref 78-80

 

77)
The Na+/K+ ATPase pump plays only a minor role in directly generating the resting membrane potential. (The electrogenic contributions are minimal.) However, the cell’s membrane potential would not be possible without it. Explain how this can be true.

 

Answer:
Although the electrogenic properties of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump cannot account for the resting membrane potential, it does generate a large concentration gradient for both Na+ and K+. Because of this, when a K+ channel is open, K+ is able to move through the channel and down its gradient. The movement of the charge is a major contributor to the resting membrane potential.

 

Page Ref: 82

 

78)
Proteins form enzymes, transporters, channels, and many other critically important components of cells. Thus, it is essential that cells be able to regulate the amount of each protein that is available for use. What mechanisms are available to the cell for this regulation of protein levels?

 

Answer:
Cells may increase or decrease the rate of transcription and translation. Transcription provides a “copy” of the instructions (mRNA) on how to produce a protein, and translation is the process that assembles the primary chain of amino acids from the directions on the mRNA. Cells can also remove existing proteins by enzymatic digestion. The protein is labeled by ubiquitin and then taken to a proteosome for destruction.

 

Page Ref: 90-93