Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank Of Principles of Environmental Science 6th Edition by Cunningham

 

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SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 03

Evolution, Species Interactions, and Biological Communities

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is not a common strategy for successful intraspecific competition?
    A. eating prey before they are “ready” (ripe) for other species
    B.  spreading seeds or offspring far and fast
    C.  producing substances that are toxic to competitors
    D.  the life cycle of dragonflies (the larva live in the water)
    E.  All of these are strategies for successful interspecific competition.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.01
Topic: Tolerance Limits
 

  1. There is/are usually _______ tolerance limit(s) responsible for limiting the number and location of a species. However, some organisms have ____________ that limit(s) their distribution.
    A.one; a specific critical factor
    B. one; other environmental conditions
    C. one specific; many factors
    D. many; other environmental conditions
    E. many; a specific critical factor

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.01
Topic: Tolerance Limits
 

Use the following example for the question. A species of fish can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100°F there are no individuals present. In the range from 97°F–100°F and 90°F–94°F there are a few individuals present. Below 90°F there are no individuals present. Between 95°F–96°F there are many individuals.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.01
Topic: Tolerance Limits
 

 

  1. What would you label the range of temperature from 90°F to 94°F for this particular species?
    A.zone of intolerance
    B. zone of physiological stress
    C. tolerance limit range
    D. optimal range
    E. range of tolerance

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.01
Topic: Tolerance Limits
 

  1. What would you label the range of temperature from 95°F to 96°F for this particular species?
    A.zone of intolerance
    B. tolerance limit range
    C. zone of physiological stress
    D. optimal range
    E. range of tolerance

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.01
Topic: Adaptation
 

  1. What is the difference in the adaptation of a sled dog’s (such as a Husky) thick coat of hair to help it withstand the cold temperatures of Arctic winters and a dog that adapts to cold temperatures in the fall by growing a thickened coat? The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.
    A.regional; natural selection at the individual level
    B. individual; physiological modifications at the population level
    C. population; physiological modifications at the individual level
    D. species; natural selection at the population level
    E. ecosystem; physiological modifications at the individual level

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.01
Topic: Natural Selection
 

 

  1. Evolution occurs as a result of
    A.the discovery of a desirable characteristic in a population.
    B. an individual’s physiological modification.
    C. environmental change that forces modification in a resident species.
    D. better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic.
    E. a population’s physiological modification.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.01
Topic: Natural Selection
 

  1. Natural selection will ultimately make a species
    A.more intelligent.
    B. physically bigger.
    C. better adapted to its environment.
    D. more aggressive.
    E. less vulnerable to its predators.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.01
Topic: Natural Selection
 

  1. Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because
    A.tall flowers spread their seeds farther.
    B. tall flowers cannot reproduce.
    C. short flowers can reproduce.
    D. short flowers spread their seeds farther.
    E. short flowers have less competition when the lawn is mowed often.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.02
Topic: Competition
 

 

  1. A titmouse and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources. The best way to classify this interaction is as
    A.mutualism.
    B. intraspecific competition.
    C. interspecific competition.
    D. symbiosis.
    E. commensalism.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.02
Topic: Competition
 

  1. An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is
    A.different ecological niches for juveniles and adults.
    B. rapid reproduction.
    C. eating prey before they are “ready” (ripe) for other species.
    D. resource partitioning.
    E. None of these. These are examples for reducing interspecific competition.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.02
Topic: Competition
 

  1. Symbiosis means
    A.a relationship in which both species benefit.
    B. a parasitic relationship.
    C. commensalism.
    D. living together.
    E. a relationship in which one species benefits and the other does not benefit.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.02
Topic: Symbiosis
 

 

  1. In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides _________ and the relationship is best described as _______.
    A.most of the photosynthesis; symbiosis
    B. poisons that deter predation; commensalism
    C. structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism
    D. very little to the algal partner; parasitism
    E. some of the photosynthesis; commensalism

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Figure: 3.16a
Section: 3.02
Topic: Mutualism
 

  1. An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
    A.that it can produce.
    B. that survive to adulthood.
    C. its habitat can support.
    D. it produces at one time.
    E. it actually produces over its lifetime.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.03
Topic: Populations
 

  1. A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental carrying capacity.
    A.meets
    B. overshoots
    C. undershoots
    D. oscillates around
    E. decreases

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.03
Topic: Populations
 

 

  1. In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?
    A.carrying capacity geometric increase
    B. irruptive growth
    C. J-shaped curve
    D. S-shaped curve
    E. Malthusian growth

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.03
Topic: Populations
 

  1. A biological community’s productivity is a measure of
    A.its number of species.
    B. the number of individuals in the community.
    C. available solar energy that can be converted to biomass.
    D. the amount of biomass produced in the community.
    E. All of these are combined in measuring a community’s productivity.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.04
Topic: Productivity
 

  1. In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be
    A.great.
    B. small.
    C. widely variable from year to year.
    D. the same from year to year.
    E. None of these. Abundance does not depend on diversity.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.04
Topic: Communities
 

 

  1. Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of
    A.species in the population.
    B. species at each trophic level.
    C. genetic variations within a species.
    D. primary producers available.
    E. primary producers relative to the number of consumers.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.04
Topic: Communities
 

  1. A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores, and only one carnivore, has
    A.little complexity.
    B. little diversity.
    C. a great deal of complexity.
    D. low productivity.
    E. a great deal of productivity.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.04
Topic: Communities
 

  1. Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
    A.into a climax community; species replaces another
    B. and replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
    C. on unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
    D. and then fails; niche changes
    E. intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.05
Topic: Succession
 

 

  1. Which of the following are pioneer species?
    A.wood warblers
    B. dandelions
    C. starlings
    D. lichens
    E. humans

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.05
Topic: Succession
 

  1. As ecological development proceeds, a biological community
    A.gradually stagnates.
    B. becomes more diverse.
    C. goes through repeated secondary succession stages.
    D. goes through repeated primary succession stages.
    E. becomes less complex.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 3.05
Topic: Succession
 

  1. A climax community is one that
    A.is relatively stable and long lasting.
    B. lasts forever.
    C. contains oaks or white spruce.
    D. is impervious to disruption.
    E. is adapted to periodic disruption.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.05
Topic: Succession
 

 

  1. ___________ is the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.
    A.Adaptation
    B. Habitat
    C. Tolerance range
    D. Resource partition
    E. None of these are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.01
Topic: Niche
 

  1. What term describes species which arise in non-overlapping geographic regions?
    A.intraspecific competition
    B. interspecific competition
    C. sympatric speciation
    D. allopatric speciation
    E. invasive species

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.01
Topic: Speciation
 

  1. Two unpalatable or dangerous species which have warning patterns or colors and appear similar are an example of _________________.
    A.symbiosis
    B. competitive exclusion
    C. mutualism
    D. Batesian mimicry
    E. Mullerian mimicry

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.02
Topic: Predation
 

 

  1. Which of the following is not generally true of k-selected species compared to r-selected species?
    A.they have shorter generation times
    B. they reach sexual maturity later
    C. they have fewer young
    D. they have longer life spans
    E. they have slower population growth rates

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.03
Topic: R/K Selection
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The most common reason that introduced species cause trouble is because they are larger than native species.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.02
Topic: Introduced/Exotic Species
 

  1. The introduction of a predator onto an island originally free from predators is likely to cause the extinction of a native species.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 3.02
Topic: Predation
 

  1. In general species diversity is higher near the poles than near the equator.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 3.04
Topic: Communities
 

Chapter 09

Air: Climate and Pollution

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The two main gases making up the lower atmosphere are
    A.helium and hydrogen.
    B. carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.
    C. oxygen and methane.
    D. nitrogen and oxygen.
    E. oxygen and carbon dioxide.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.01
Topic: Climate
 

  1. The atmospheric zone where most weather events occur is the
    A.stratosphere.
    B. thermosphere.
    C. troposphere.
    D. mesosphere.
    E. stratopause.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.01
Topic: Climate
 

  1. The correct sequence of atmospheric zones upward from the earth’s surface is
    A.stratosphere, troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
    B. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
    C. mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, thermosphere.
    D. thermosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, mesosphere.
    E. troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, thermosphere.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.01
Topic: Climate
 

 

  1. When cool, dry air sinks from the upper atmosphere toward the Earth’s surface, it is
    A.compressed and cooled further.
    B. allowed to expand and become warmer.
    C. compressed and becomes warmer.
    D. forced to release any remaining moisture.
    E. going to hold more water because there is more water vapor closer to the Earth’s surface.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 9.06
Topic: Climate
 

  1. A social or policy concern related to climate change might be
    A. the change in migratory patterns of birds.
    B.  an increased land area in some countries due to the melting of glaciers.
    C.  increased drought in agricultural regions.
    D.  warmer average temperatures.
    E.  movement of tectonic plates.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 9.03
Topic: Climate Change
 

  1. Paying to plant trees because you use carbon in your daily life would be an example of
    A. carbon reduction.
    B.  cap and trade.
    C.  carbon offsets.
    D.  carbon sequestration.
    E.  going carbon neutral.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 9.04
Topic: Climate Change
 

 

  1. The air pollutant least successfully removed from the air by technologies in developed nations is
    A. carbon dioxide.
    B.  sulfur oxides.
    C.  nitrogen oxides.
    D.  particulate matter.
    E.  VOCs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.09
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. When El Niño occurs every three to seven years, a mass of warm Pacific water that is usually pushed westward by trade winds
    A.surges back eastward toward South America.
    B. becomes much warmer than usual, strengthening trade winds.
    C. cools dramatically.
    D. sinks and therefore cools substantially.
    E. surges northward toward Japan.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.02
Topic: Climate
 

  1. As far as we are currently aware, who were the first people to notice the El Niño Southern Oscillation cycle?
    A.scientists studying atmospheric changes
    B. meteorologists
    C. indigenous people in South America
    D. Peruvian fishermen
    E. colonial governors in South America from Spain

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.02
Topic: Climate
 

 

  1. Most of the excessive carbon dioxide that is expected to cause global warming is generated by
    A.green plants.
    B. burning of fossil fuels.
    C. production of cement and clearing of forests.
    D. All of these are correct.
    E. burning of fossil fuels and production of cement and clearing of forests only.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.03
Topic: Climate Change
 

  1. What are the ecological implications of global warming?
    A.Plants and animals that are residing in fragmented habitats may not be able to move to a suitable habitat.
    B. In general, plants and animals will probably benefit from warmer temperatures.
    C. Since farmland may be lost, the habitats for plants and animals will increase in area.
    D. Since biodiversity is usually higher in warmer, milder climates, it will probably be increased.
    E. Tropical ecosystems will get even warmer than they are now.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 9.03
Topic: Climate Change
 

  1. Proponents of climate change say that given what we know about the probability of the greenhouse effect, the best thing to do is
    A.immediately cease all industrial activity.
    B. wait and see how much temperatures change before we change our habits.
    C. severely cut back on production of greenhouse gases.
    D. not worry about greenhouse gas production.
    E. focus on the development of technological advances to help decrease the effects of climate change.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.04
Topic: Climate Change
 

 

  1. The amount of CO2 released by human activities per year is approximately ___________.
    A.30 million tons
    B. 300 million tons
    C. 3 billion tons
    D. 30 billion tons
    E. 300 billion tons

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.03
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. Primary pollutants are those that are
    A.released directly in dangerous forms.
    B. produced in the greatest quantities.
    C. the most dangerous.
    D. the most threatening to people.
    E. classified by the EPA as the most dangerous and abundant.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.05
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. ________ is/are examples of secondary pollutants.
    A.Aerosols
    B. Volatile organic compounds
    C. Photochemical oxidants
    D. Combustion gases
    E. Dust from soil erosion

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.05
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

  1. A major source of VOCs is
    A.incomplete burning of hydrocarbons.
    B. combustion of sulfur-containing fuel.
    C. photochemical oxidation.
    D. CO in the atmosphere.
    E. CO2 in the atmosphere.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.05
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. ___________ ozone is harmful, damaging plants and human health while ozone at the _________ level screens out mutagenic ultraviolet radiation.
    A.Stratospheric; troposphere
    B. Thermospheric; mesosphere
    C. Tropospheric; stratosphere
    D. Mesospheric; thermosphere
    E. Stratospheric; mesosphere

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.06
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. The “ozone hole” is a depletion currently most serious
    A.at the most populated latitudes.
    B. over North America.
    C. in tropical latitudes.
    D. near the Hadley cells.
    E. near the poles.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.06
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

  1. There are serious signs that ozone depletion may lead to
    A.UV-caused skin cancers.
    B. UV-caused blindness.
    C. IR-caused sunburn.
    D. All of these are correct.
    E. UV-caused skin cancers and UV-caused blindness only.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.06
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. The most common human health response to air pollution is
    A.inflammatory responses in sensitive tissues.
    B. lung cancer.
    C. blindness caused by deteriorating eye tissues.
    D. skin cancer.
    E. heart disease.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.07
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. One of the principal ways lakes suffer from acid deposition is that
    A.rocks on the bottom begin to dissolve.
    B. fish eggs die and fish populations fall.
    C. aquatic vegetation turns yellow.
    D. plants grow excessively and choke other life.
    E. All of these can happen in a lake from acid deposition.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.07
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

  1. What type of buildings and monuments are most susceptible to acid damage?
    A.granite and basalt
    B. wood
    C. limestone and marble
    D. concrete and brick
    E. brick and bronze

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.07
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. The use of scrubbers, precipitators, and filters on power plants and other “smokestack” industries probably accounts for a(n)
    A.increase in nitrogen oxides.
    B. decrease in sulfur oxides and solid particulate matter.
    C. decrease in volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, solid particulate matter, and lead.
    D. decrease in solid particulate matter and lead.
    E. decrease in nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, solid particulate matter, and lead.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.08
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. The __________________ is an international treaty designed to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
    A.Tokyo Accord
    B. Kyoto Declaration
    C. International Agreement on Global Warming
    D. Kyoto Protocol
    E. Tokyo Principle

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.04
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

  1. The phenomenon where cool, dense air sits under a layer of lighter warmer air is known as a ____________________.
    A.heat sink
    B. heat island
    C. temperature inversion
    D. Milankovitch cycle
    E. thermocline

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.02
Topic: Climate
 

  1. The most significant part of President George W. Bush’s “Clear Skies Initiative” would have _________________.
    A.reduced allowable sulfur emissions
    B. reduced allowable nitrogen emissions
    C. reduced allowable particulate emissions
    D. eliminated new source reviews for industry in favor of voluntary controls
    E. none of these are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.06
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Worldwide, air pollution control efforts are least advanced or least successful in major cities of developing countries.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 9.03
Topic: Air Pollution
 

 

  1. Eastern European cities and farming regions have been notable in recent years for their steady and successful cleanup accomplishments.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.09
Topic: Air Pollution
 

  1. Nineteen of the 20 warmest of the last 150 years have occurred since 1980.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.03
Topic: Climate Change
 

  1. There has been an increase in frequency and intensity of storms and hurricanes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 9.03
Topic: Climate Change