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Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition Hoeger – Test Bank
 
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Test Bank[1] for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e

Chapter 1 – Physical Fitness and Wellness

 

Chapter Learning Objectives (LO)

 

  1. Understand the health and fitness consequences of physical inactivity.
  2. Identify the major health problems in the United States.
  3. Learn how to monitor daily physical activity.
  4. Learn the Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
  5. Define wellness and list its dimensions.
  6. Define physical fitness and list health-related and skill-related components.
  7. State the differences among physical fitness, health promotion, and wellness.
  8. Distinguish between health fitness standards and physical fitness standards.
  9. Understand the benefits and significance of participating in a comprehensive wellness program.
  10. List key national health objectives for the year 2020.
  11. Determine if you can safely initiate an exercise program.
  12. Learn to assess resting heart rate and blood pressure.

 

True/False

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       F       1.   The epidemic of physical inactivity in the United States is called the Secondary Death Syndrome.

 

1       F       2.   Life expectancy is calculated by subtracting years of ill health from healthy life expectancy.

 

1       T       3.   The leading causes of death in the United States today are largely lifestyle related.

 

2       F       4.   Chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) is related mostly to activity level.

 

1       T       5.   The Surgeon General’s Report states that regular moderate physical activity can prevent premature death, unnecessary illness, and disability.

 

5       F       6.   Physical fitness alone is always sufficient to lower the risk for disease and ensure better health.

 

5       T       7.   Physical wellness entails confidence and optimism about one’s ability to protect physical health and take care of health problems.

 

6       F       8.   The main emphasis of fitness programs should be on the skill-related components.

 

8       T       9.   The metabolic profile includes measures of insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol levels.

 

9       T       10. Scientific evidence now links participation in fitness and wellness programs not only to better health but also to lower medical costs and higher job productivity.

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       b       11. Research shows that deterioration of the human body can be hastened by:

  1. physical activity.
  2. physical inactivity.
  3. good nutrition.
  4. regular exercise.

 

1       d       12. The epidemic of physical inactivity in the United States is called:

  1. Inactive Death Syndrome.
  2. Physical Death Syndrome.
  3. Secondary Death Syndrome.
  4. Sedentary Death Syndrome.

 

1       d       13. Life expectancy for a girl born today in the United States is between _____ years.

  1. 50 and 60
  2. 60 and 70
  3. 70 and 80
  4. 80 and 90

 

1       b       14. The factor LEAST affecting health and longevity is:

  1. family genetics.
  2. health care accessibility.
  3. personal behavior.
  4. the surrounding environment.

 

1       c       15. One possible factor that contributed to the United States’ low ranking of life expectancy as compared to many industrialized countries is:

  1. its low status as a developed country.
  2. the inadequate medical care systems.
  3. the extremely poor health of some groups.
  4. its low incidence of coronary heart disease.

 

2       b       16. The top leading cause of death in the U.S. is (Leading Health Problems in the:

  1. cancer.
  2. cardiovascular disease.
  3. accidents.
  4. CLRD.

 

2       d       17. Tobacco use causes _____ percent of lung cancer in the United States.

  1. 20
  2. 40
  3. 60
  4. 80

 

2       d       18. Evidence indicates that as much as _____ percent of all human cancer can be prevented through positive lifestyle behaviors.

  1. 20
  2. 40
  3. 60
  4. 80

 

2       a       19. Smoking accounts for about _____ percent of all cancer deaths.

  1. 30
  2. 40
  3. 50
  4. 60

 

2       a       20. The leading cause of fatal automobile accidents in the U.S. is:

  1. alcohol intoxication.
  2. lack of common sense.
  3. poor road conditions.
  4. poor driving skills.

 

3       a       21. Which of the following is NOT an example of exercise?

  1. walking to get some groceries from a nearby store
  2. walking 30 minutes before going to work every day
  3. riding a bicycle for 25 miles every other day
  4. walking 30 minutes on the treadmill every day

 

3       b       22. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is:

  1. discontinuous and unplanned.
  2. planned, structured, and repetitive.
  3. not a contributor to physical fitness.
  4. random or unstructured.

 

3       c       23. The 2007 updated recommendations by the ACSM and AHA indicate that to promote and maintain good health, all healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age need:

  1. vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes five days a week.
  2. moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 minutes three days a week.
  3. moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes five days a week.
  4. activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance five days a week.

 

3       d       24. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences recommends _____ daily physical activity to prevent weight gain.

  1. 30 minutes of high-intensity
  2. 60 minutes of high-intensity
  3. 30 minutes of moderate-intensity
  4. 60 minutes of moderate-intensity

 

3       a       25. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture recommend that _____ daily physical activity might be necessary to prevent weight gain.

  1. up to 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity
  2. up to 90 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity
  3. between 60 and 90 minutes of moderate-intensity
  4. between 60 and 90 minutes of vigorous-intensity

 

3       c       26. Which of the following is correct?

  1. A 10-minute brisk walk is about 1,900 steps.
  2. A 10-minute-mile walk is about 1,900 steps.
  3. A 15-minute-mile walk is about 1,900 steps.
  4. A 20-minute brisk walk is about 1,900 steps.

 

3       d       27. The general recommendation for adults is _____ steps per day.

  1. 25,000
  2. 20,000
  3. 15,000
  4. 10,000

 

7       c       28. Which of the following have been developed to educate people regarding healthy lifestyles and provide the necessary support to achieve wellness?

  1. health education programs
  2. lifestyle education programs
  3. health promotion programs
  4. physical promotion programs

 

7       b       29. A constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being refers to:

  1. health promotion.
  2. wellness.
  3. fitness.
  4. determination.

 

7       d       30. Which ONE of the following is required to improve health and quality of life, prolong life, and achieve total well-being?

  1. individual’s will power
  2. personal determination
  3. health promotion programs
  4. positive lifestyle habits

 

7       b       31. Since taking a college “Fitness for Living” course two years ago, Misty, who lost 20 pounds while taking the course, has been able to maintain the recommended body weight by applying what she learned in the course. This “Fitness for Living” course is an example of which of the following?

  1. fitness way of life program
  2. health promotion program
  3. obesity prevention program
  4. weight management program

 

7       b       32. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. Physical fitness alone is always sufficient to lower the risk for disease and ensure better health.
  2. Maintaining an active lifestyle and avoiding risky behaviors will help Jane lower her risk for disease.
  3. Jane’s excellent physical fitness alone is sufficient to protect her from getting cardiovascular disease.
  4. As long as Jane exercises regularly and eats nutritious food, she will have excellent health.

 

5       c       33. _____ wellness is the dimension most commonly associated with being healthy.

  1. Emotional
  2. Mental
  3. Physical
  4. Spiritual

 

5       b       34. _____ wellness implies an ability to create opportunities to learn.

  1. Emotional
  2. Mental
  3. Physical
  4. Spiritual

 

5       d       35. _____ wellness endows you with the ease and confidence to be outgoing, friendly, and affectionate toward others.

  1. Emotional
  2. Mental
  3. Physical
  4. Social

 

5       a       36. John recycles and uses public transportation most of the time. He possesses a high level of _____ wellness.

  1. environmental
  2. occupational
  3. social
  4. physical

 

5       b       37. Jane believes that she has an ideal job that is both challenging and rewarding. She is enjoying a high level of _____ wellness.

  1. environmental
  2. occupational
  3. social
  4. physical

 

5       c       38. Mary has a sense of meaning and direction in her life and a relationship to a higher being. She has a high level of _____ wellness.

  1. intellectual
  2. mental
  3. spiritual
  4. emotional

 

9       d       39. The Harvard Alumni Study showed that an increase in physical activity:

  1. increases the risk of many accident deaths.
  2. increases the risk of cardiovascular deaths.
  3. decreases the risk of many accident deaths.
  4. decreases the risk of cardiovascular deaths.

 

4       a       40. The National Physical Activity Plan:

  1. makes mass media recommendations.
  2. is a public school effort.
  3. replaces Healthy People 2000.
  4. was established in 2000.

 

6       d       41. Which of the following is a component of health-related fitness?

  1. speed and power
  2. metabolic fitness
  3. reaction time
  4. muscular strength

 

6       a       42. Which of the following is a component of skill-related fitness?

  1. reaction time
  2. muscular flexibility
  3. muscular endurance
  4. muscular strength

 

4       d       43. Which is NOT reported as a strategy to implement the National Physical Activity Plan? Making:

  1. best practice exercise models available in the workplace.
  2. physical activity a “vital sign” for health care providers.
  3. schools accountable for student quality and quantity of physical activity.
  4. taxes higher for building owners that do not promote physical

activity.

 

6       d       44. Several landmark studies have:

  1. revealed a consistent parallel relationship between physical activity levels and mortality, regardless of risk factors.
  2. shown a dose-response relationship between physical activity levels and mortality, regardless of risk factors.
  3. recommended vigorous exercise and longer duration for anyone who wishes to improve health and fitness.
  4. confirmed the benefits of physical activity and exercise on health, longevity, and quality of life.

 

8       a       45. To improve the metabolic profile, one:

  1. does not have to have weight loss or improvement in aerobic capacity.
  2. must have moderate weight loss and improvement in aerobic capacity.
  3. must have significant weight loss or improvement in aerobic capacity.
  4. must have significant weight loss through daily physical activities.

 

9       b       46. The greatest benefit of fitness and wellness programs is that physically fit individuals:

  1. have optimal athletic performance.
  2. enjoy a better quality of life.
  3. always live a longer life.
  4. can always avoid injuries.

 

8       d       47. Which of the following gives the individual a degree of independence throughout life that many people in the United States no longer enjoy?

  1. emotional well-being
  2. personal determination
  3. absence of any disease
  4. sound physical fitness

 

8       a       48. The health fitness standards proposed in Chapter 1 are based on data linking:

  1. minimum fitness values to disease prevention and health.
  2. maximum fitness values to disease prevention and health.
  3. minimum fitness values to the ability to enjoy recreational activities.
  4. adequate fitness values to the ability to enjoy recreational activities.

 

8       b       49. Which of the following programs is sufficient to achieve the health fitness standard for cardiorespiratory endurance?

  1. a 2-mile walk in less than 30 minutes, two to three times a week
  2. a 2-mile walk in less than 30 minutes, five to six times a week
  3. a 5-mile walk in less than 60 minutes, one to two times a week
  4. a 6-mile walk in less than 90 minutes, one to two times a week

 

8       a       50. Physiological and metabolic fitness can be attained through an active lifestyle and _____ physical activity.

  1. moderate-intensity
  2. vigorous-intensity
  3. daily light-intensity
  4. formal, intense

 

8       a       51. Achieving VO2max values of 35 and 32.5 mL/kg/min for men and women, respectively, could be selected as the:

  1. health fitness standards.
  2. physical fitness standards.
  3. metabolic fitness standards.
  4. skill-related fitness standards.

 

9       a       52. As the need for physical exertion in Western countries decreased steadily during the last century:

  1. health care expenditures increased dramatically.
  2. Americans enjoyed their good health more than ever.
  3. health care expenditures decreased dramatically.
  4. Americans did not need preventative health care.

 

9       d       53. Which is NOT true regarding the health care costs in the United States?

  1. Major contributors to health care costs are unhealthy behaviors that lead to obesity and smoking.
  2. An estimated 1 percent of the people account for 30 percent of the health care costs.
  3. Half of the people use up about 97 percent of the health care dollars.
  4. The U.S. spends less per person on health care than any other industrialized nation.

 

9       b       54. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. About 50 percent of the people account for 30 percent of health care costs.
  2. About 50 percent of the people use up about 97 percent of health care dollars in the U.S.
  3. The average health care cost per person in the U.S. is the lowest worldwide.
  4. The United States provides good health care for all of its citizens.

 

9       a       55. Although many benefits accrue from participating in a regular fitness and wellness program, the greatest benefit of all is that physically fit individuals enjoy:

  1. a better quality of life.
  2. better athletic performance.
  3. improved muscular flexibility.
  4. a healthy immune system.

 

10     c       56.Which of the following points is addressed by Healthy People 2020 objectives?

  1. public health and quality enhancement
  2. worldwide health improvements for all
  3. personal responsibility for health behavior
  4. elimination of worldwide health disparities

 

10     d       57. Among the National Health Objectives for the Year 2020 to increase participation in physical activities and fitness, _____ of them are being met.

  1. all
  2. most
  3. half
  4. none

 

10     a       58. One unique goal of the Healthy People 2020 Objectives is to _____ among all groups of people.

  1. eliminate health disparities
  2. improve physical fitness level
  3. reduce health care spending
  4. reduce the risks for diseases

 

11     c       59. The reaction of the cardiovascular system to higher levels of physical activity:

  1. can be predicted by a fitness instructor.
  2. can always be predicted.
  3. cannot be totally predicted.
  4. cannot be predicted by a doctor.

 

11     c       60. Which of the following is NOT a risk factor that might interfere with safe participation in exercise?

  1. irregular heart rhythm
  2. abnormal blood pressure
  3. a resting heart rate of 64 beats per minute
  4. fainting

 

11     c       61. Before you start to engage in an exercise program or participate in any exercise testing, you should fill out the questionnaire in Lab 1C. If your answer to:

  1. one of the questions is yes, you don’t need to see a physician before participating in a fitness program.
  2. all but one of the questions is yes, you should see a physician before participating in a fitness program.
  3. any of the questions is yes, you should see a physician before participating in a fitness program.
  4. any of the questions is no, you should see a physician before participating in a fitness program.

 

12     a       62. Resting heart rate is assessed when you have been:

  1. reading in bed quietly for about half an hour.
  2. exercising vigorously for about half an hour.
  3. watching an action movie for about half an hour.
  4. exercising gently for no longer than half an hour.

 

12     c       63. Which of the following is CORRECT?

  1. A higher resting heart rate always indicates a stronger heart.
  2. A lower resting heart rate always indicates a stronger heart.
  3. A lower resting heart rate might indicate a stronger heart.
  4. A normal resting heart rate indicates a stronger heart.

 

12     d       64. The extent of bradycardia depends on the amount of training an:

  1. height.
  2. blood type.
  3. weight.
  4. genetics.

 

12     d       65. While measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope, _____ blood pressure is recorded as the point where the sound of the pulse becomes audible.

  1. average
  2. diastolic
  3. mean
  4. systolic

[1] By Paul A. Smith, PhD, McMurry University (Abilene, Texas).

Test Bank[1] for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e

Chapter 3 – Nutrition for Wellness

 

Chapter Learning Objectives

 

  1. Define nutrition and describe its relationship to health and well-being.
  2. Learn to use the U.S. Department of Agriculture MyPlate guidelines for healthier eating.
  3. Describe the functions of the nutrients, carbohydrates, fiber, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water in the human body.
  4. Define the various energy production mechanisms of the human body.
  5. Be able to conduct a comprehensive nutrient analysis and implement changes to meet the Dietary Reference Intakes.
  6. Identify myths and fallacies regarding nutrition.
  7. Become aware of guidelines for nutrient supplementation.
  8. Learn the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010.

 

True/False

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       F       1.   The more the nutrients a person has, the healthier he or she is.

 

3       F       2.   Vitamins and minerals are used by the body to supply energy.

 

3       T       3.   Excess glucose in the blood is converted to fat and stored in adipose tissue.

 

3       T       4.   Increased fiber intake decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease.

 

3       F       5.   Other than supplying energy, fat has no functional value in our bodies.

 

3       F       6.   Essential amino acids are manufactured in the body.

 

5       T       7.   The RDA is the daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people in the U.S.

 

6       T       8.   Excessive intake of vitamin A and beta-carotene can be detrimental to health.

 

4       F       9.   Fat is a primary fuel for the ATP-CP system.

 

7       T       10. Protein (amino acid) supplements will not increase muscle mass.

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       a       11.  Proper nutrition means that a person’s diet:

  1. supplies all the essential nutrients.
  2. has enough fruits and vegetables.
  3. has enough vitamins and protein.
  4. supplies a sufficient amount of energy.

 

1       d       12.  Essential nutrients include:

  1. meat and dairy products, grains, fruits, and vegetables.
  2. substrates, protein, calcium, iron, and multiple vitamins.
  3. water, whole grains, white meat, fruits, and vegetables.
  4. carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water.

 

2       b       13.  MyPlate nutrition guidelines recommend that you should:

  1. consume your grains sparsely.
  2. make half of your grains whole.
  3. not worry about the types of grains.
  4. limit your grains to whole grains.

 

2       d       14.  MyPlate nutrition guidelines recommend that you should consume _____ sparsely.

  1. fruits and vegetables
  2. meat and beans
  3. whole grains
  4. whole milk

 

2       d       15.  Which of the following is a good example of whole-grain food?

  1. bleached flour
  2. degermed cornmeal
  3. white rice
  4. brown rice

 

2       c       16.  When increasing the intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk, it is important to decrease the intake of _____ foods to balance caloric intake with energy needs effectively.

  1. low-calorie
  2. high-calorie
  3. low-nutrient
  4. high-nutrient

 

3       c       17.  The primary function of carbohydrates is to:

  1. serve as an important component of muscle.
  2. provide texture and flavor to foods.
  3. supply energy to body cells.
  4. promote chemical reactions within cells.

 

3       a       18.  Excess glucose in the blood is:

  1. converted to fat and stored in adipose tissue.
  2. converted to protein and used by the body.
  3. converted to fiber and discharged from the body.
  4. not important in controlling body fat.

 

#                                              3       b       19.  Fruit sugar, fructose, occurring naturally in fruits and honey:

  1. is a better source of sugar than table sugar.
  2. is converted to glucose and used by the body.
  3. is more unlikely to cause health problems than table sugar.
  4. can be consumed more than other sugars without causing obesity.

 

3       b       20.  Glycogen is:

  1. made from amino acids and vitamins.
  2. stored in the liver and skeletal muscles.
  3. supplied from adipose tissue breakdown.
  4. mainly obtained through food consumed.

 

3       c       21.  Soluble fiber:

  1. binds water in the digestive tract.
  2. creates a bulkier stool.
  3. lowers blood cholesterol.
  4. improves the texture of food.

 

3       a       22.  Insoluble fiber:

  1. lowers the risk for colon cancer.
  2. lowers blood sugar level.
  3. lowers blood cholesterol level.
  4. binds and excretes fat from the body.

 

3       a       23.  The most concentrated energy source in the body is:

  1. fat.
  2. protein.
  3. vitamins.
  4. carbohydrates.

 

3       b       24.  More than 90 percent of the weight of fat in foods and more than 95 percent of the stored fat in the human body are in the form of:

  1. compound fats.
  2. triglycerides.
  3. hydrogenated fats.
  4. unsaturated fats.

 

3       c       25.  Hydrogenation of fats:

  1. causes fats to be burned as energy faster.
  2. makes fats a healthier source of nutrients.
  3. transforms fats into trans fatty acids.
  4. causes fats to be excreted from the body faster.

 

3       b       26.  Trans fatty acids:

  1. are essential to human health.
  2. have no known health benefit.
  3. are as good as omega-3 fatty acids.
  4. are better than saturated fat.

 

3       a       27.  Consuming _____ reduces abnormal heart rhythms and blood clotting.

  1. omega-3 fatty acids
  2. omega-6 fatty acids
  3. polyunsaturated fat
  4. trans fatty acids

 

3       a       28.  Lipoproteins are a:

  1. combination of lipids and proteins.
  2. good source of complete proteins.
  3. combination of fatty acids and nitrogen.
  4. healthier liquid form of proteins.

 

3       a       29.  Which of the following is associated with lower risk for coronary heart disease?

  1. HDL
  2. LDL
  3. VLDL
  4. cholesterol

 

3       a       30.  The primary function of proteins is to:

  1. serve as an important component of muscle.
  2. provide favorable texture and flavor to foods.
  3. supply a high level of energy to body cells.
  4. promote chemical reactions within cells.

 

3       a       31.  Complete protein sources:

  1. supply all essential amino acids.
  2. supply more energy than incomplete sources.
  3. are stored in the body as adipose tissue.
  4. do not raise serum cholesterol levels.

 

3, 4   d       32.  The higher the intake of animal protein:

  1. the more blood enzymes are produced to prevent precancerous cells from developing into tumors.
  2. the lower the intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, so the risk of cardiovascular diseases is decreased.
  3. the more protein is used by the body to build muscles, repair injured cells, and produce blood cells.
  4. the more protein is converted to glucose or fat by the body, or even excreted in the urine.

 

3       a       33.  Minerals:

  1. help regulate body functions.
  2. are found only in animal products.
  3. are a good source of energy for the body.
  4. make up about 70 percent of total body weight.

 

3       b       34.  The National Academy of Sciences recommends that daily fat intake _____ percent of total caloric intake for individuals with normal insulin response to carbohydrates.

  1. can be up to 35
  2. should not exceed 30
  3. should be between 50 and 60
  4. should not exceed 20

 

5       a       35.  The amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the nutrient requirement of half the healthy people in specific age and gender groups is known specifically as the:

  1. Estimated Average Requirement.
  2. Recommended Dietary Allowance.
  3. Adequate Intake.
  4. Dietary Reference Intake.

 

5       c       36.  Fat intake provides _____ percent of total calories for an individual who on a given day consumes 2,385 calories with 106 grams of fat.

  1. 18
  2. 31
  3. 40
  4. 44

 

5       b       37.  The daily amount of a nutrient that is considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of nearly all healthy people in the United States is known specifically as the:

  1. Estimated Average Requirement.
  2. Recommended Dietary Allowance.
  3. Adequate Intake.
  4. Dietary Reference Intake.

 

5       a       38.  If a diet has enough of protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C, the foods consumed in natural form to provide these nutrients typically _____ the human body needs.

  1. contain all the other nutrients
  2. lack many essential nutrients
  3. contain more calories than
  4. contain fewer calories than

 

5       b       39.  The current average daily fat consumption in the U.S. diet is about _____ percent of the total caloric intake.

  1. 37
  2. 34
  3. 25
  4. 20

 

6       d       40.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. Daily intake of fat-soluble vitamins is crucial.
  2. Antioxidant supplements prevent free radical damage.
  3. Amino acid supplements will increase muscle mass.
  4. Antioxidant supplements increase the risk of death.

 

6       b       41.  Vegetarian diets:

  1. are the key measure one should use to manage weight.
  2. can be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
  3. cannot meet the DRIs for nutrients even with proper planning.
  4. can avoid nutritional deficiencies without proper planning.

 

6       a       42.  Multivitamins provide:

  1. antioxidants.
  2. phytonutrients.
  3. real energy.
  4. soluble fiber.

 

2       d       43.  The MyPlate healthy food plan contains the following five major food groups:

  1. protein, carbohydrate, water, vitamins, and minerals.
  2. grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meats and beans.
  3. pasta/rice, cheese, poultry, eggs, and green veggies.
  4. veggies, fruits, grains, protein, and dairy.

 

1       b       44.  In humans, phytonutrients seem to have a powerful ability to:

  1. protect the skin from the powerful sunlight.
  2. block the formation of cancerous tumors.
  3. supply sufficient amount of vitamins.
  4. provide energy for normal body function.

 

5       b       45.  _____ do not eat red meat but do eat fish, poultry, milk products, and eggs.

  1. Ovolactovegetarians
  2. Semivegetarians
  3. Lactovegetarians
  4. Ovovegetarians

 

1       a       46.  Because most plant-based products lack one or more essential amino acids, the key to a healthful vegan diet is to:

  1. eat foods that possess complementary proteins.
  2. eat animal-based products at least once a week.
  3. take daily multiple vitamins and minerals.
  4. avoid eating too many plant-based products.

 

1       a       47.  Eating nuts several times a week may lead to the:

  1. reduced incidence of heart disease.
  2. reduced level of blood antioxidants.
  3. increased level of homocysteine.
  4. increased risk for many cancers.

 

1       a       48.  Soy products are linked to lower risk for:

  1. breast cancer.
  2. colon cancer.
  3. lung cancer.
  4. stomach cancer.

 

1       d       49.  Probiotics have been found to:

  1. cause gastrointestinal infections and disorders.
  2. decrease the immune activity of their host.
  3. increase the risks for certain types of cancers.
  4. prevent disease-causing organisms from settling in.

 

7       a       50.  Nutritional supplementation:

  1. may benefit individuals who are strict vegetarians.
  2. provides benefits to healthy people who eat a balanced diet.
  3. helps prevent chronic diseases and cure a common cold.
  4. helps people run faster, jump higher, or boost energy levels.

 

7       a       51.  A food that offers specific health benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients it contains is called a _____ food.

  1. functional
  2. fortified
  3. high-octane
  4. transgenic

 

7       b       52.  It is recommended that we obtain 1,000 to 2,000 IU vitamin D per day. The best source of vitamin D is:

  1. from a variety of food sources alone.
  2. sun exposure of the face, arms, and hands.
  3. the combination of salmon, mackerel, tuna, and sardines.
  4. the combination of fortified milk, yogurt, and orange juice.

 

7       b       53.  Nutrition supplements:

  1. balance the diet of people who are too busy to eat unhealthily.
  2. do not supply all the nutrients and other beneficial substances present in food.
  3. are the richest sources of antioxidants and phytonutrients.
  4. supply all the nutrients and other beneficial substances found in food.

 

7       c       54.  If your supplement contains calcium carbonate, take:

  1. the supplement with an iron-rich meal.
  2. no less than 500 mg at a time.
  3. the supplement with meals all the time.
  4. the supplement without food.

 

4       c       55.  Most of the ATP supplied for a 200-meter run by a trained runner comes from the _____ system.

  1. aerobic
  2. ATP-CP
  3. lactic acid
  4. ATP

 

4       d       56.  Athletes in strength training and body building need to:

  1. obtain at least 30 percent of total daily caloric intake from protein.
  2. take at least 10 capsules of amino acids four times per day for a month.
  3. have a prolonged loading phase of creatine supplementation.
  4. have a balanced diet with a large variety of nutrients from all food groups.

 

4       a       57.  The two main fuels that supply energy for physical activity are:

  1. sugar and fatty acids.
  2. vitamins and caffeine.
  3. amino acids and water.
  4. protein and vitamin B.

 

4       b       58.  During weight lifting, which of the following systems provides energy?

  1. aerobic
  2. ATP-CP
  3. lactic acid
  4. anaerobic

 

4       a       59.  Marathon runners primarily utilize which of the following systems to provide energy?

  1. aerobic
  2. ATP-CP
  3. lactic acid
  4. anaerobic

 

1       c       60.  Osteoporosis can be caused by:

  1. adequate calcium intake.
  2. drinking alcohol moderately.
  3. excessive protein intake.
  4. regular physical activity.

 

8       b       61.  The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans describe a healthy diet as one that:

  1. emphasizes organically produced fruits and vegetables.
  2. includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and seafood.
  3. is low in complex carbohydrates and high in good protein.
  4. provides complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

 

8       c       62.  To stem the obesity epidemic, most Americans need to:

  1. switch to vegetarian diets.
  2. have an Okinawan diet.
  3. consume fewer calories.
  4. watch what they eat.

 

8       a       63.  Which of the following is NOT recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

  1. Drink alcohol in moderation if you are a young adult.
  2. Choose fats wisely for good health.
  3. Choose and prepare foods with little salt.
  4. Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health.

 

8       d       64.  Organic foods are:

  1. found to be more nutritious than conventional food.
  2. necessary to eat because pesticide exposure from conventional food is great.
  3. not regulated by the government.
  4. susceptible to contamination with bacteria and heavy metals.

 

8       a       65.  Data from 2011 showed that individuals who eat the most dietary fiber have a 22 percent lower _____ than those who eat the least amount of fiber.

  1. all-cause mortality
  2. incidence of skin rashes
  3. resistance to infection
  4. vitamin D level

 

 

Critical Thinking/Short Answer

 

LO#   Question

 

1       66.  Why is variety recommended to supply nutrients in the diet?

 

Answer: No food contains a complete complement of nutrients. Many types of foods are required to get the suggested nutrients.

 

3       67.  Describe some of the disease states resulting from dietary mineral excess and deficiency.

 

Answer: Examples are calcium deficiency (osteoporosis), iron deficiency (anemia), and sodium excess (hypertension); others are listed in Table 3.5.

 

2       68.  Use MyPlate to develop a healthy weight management plan for yourself.

 

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

4       69.Use weight lifting, a 200-meter run by a trained runner, and a marathon as examples to discuss the three energy production mechanisms of the human body.

 

Answer: The energy derived from food is not used directly by the cells. It is first transformed into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The subsequent breakdown of this compound provides the energy used by all energy-requiring processes of the body. ATP must be recycled continually to sustain life and work. ATP can be resynthesized in three ways:

  1. ATP-CP system. Weight lifting is an all-out activity and uses the ATP-CP system. The body stores small amounts of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP). The amount of stored ATP provides energy for just 1 or 2 seconds. During brief all-out efforts, ATP is resynthesized from CP, another high-energy phosphate compound. This is the ATP-CP, or phosphagen, system. Depending on the amount of physical training, the concentration of CP stored in cells is sufficient to allow maximum exertion for up to 10 seconds. Once the CP stores are depleted, the person is forced to slow down or rest to allow ATP to form through anaerobic and aerobic pathways.
  2. Anaerobic or lactic acid system. A 200-meter run by a trained runner is a maximal-intensity exercise that is sustained for 10 to 180 seconds. In this situation, ATP is replenished from the breakdown of glucose through a series of chemical reactions that do not require oxygen (hence “anaerobic”). In the process, though, lactic acid is produced. As lactic acid accumulates, it leads to muscular fatigue. Because of the accumulation of lactic acid with high-intensity exercise, the formation of ATP during anaerobic activities is limited to about 3 minutes. A recovery period then is necessary to allow for the removal of lactic acid. Formation of ATP through the anaerobic system requires glucose (carbohydrates).
  3. Aerobic system. A marathon is a long-distance run. The production of energy during slow-sustained exercise is derived primarily through aerobic metabolism. Glucose (carbohydrates), fatty acids (fat), and oxygen (hence “aerobic”) are required to form ATP using this process; and under steady-state exercise conditions, lactic acid accumulation is minimal. Because oxygen is required, a person’s capacity to utilize oxygen is crucial for successful athletic performance in aerobic events. The higher one’s maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the greater one’s capacity to generate ATP through the aerobic system—and the better the athletic performance in long-distance events.

 

5       70.  Suppose that a person eats 330 grams of carbohydrates, 35 grams of fat, and 45 grams of protein on a given day. (a) What percentage of the total grams of food is in the form of fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively? Please show the formulas. (b) How many calories are provided by fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively? Please show the formulas. (c) What percentage of the total calories is provided by fat? Please show the formulas.

 

Answer: (a) Percent from fat: 8.5% (35 grams of fat ÷ 410 grams of total food = 0.085; 0.085 x 100% = 8.5%); percent from carbohydrate: 80.5% (330 grams of carbohydrates ÷ 410 grams of total food = 0.805; 0.805 x 100% = 80.5%); percent from protein: 11% (45 grams of protein ÷ 410 grams of total food = 0.11; 0.11 x 100% = 11%).

(b) 1,320 calories are derived from carbohydrates (330 grams x 4 calories per gram), 180 calories from protein (45 grams x 4 calories per gram), and 315 calories from fat (35 grams x 9 calories per gram), for a total of 1,815 calories.

(c) If 315 calories are derived from fat, 17% of the total caloric intake is in the form of fat (315 ÷ 1,820 x 100 = 17 percent).

 

 

Essay

 

LO#   Question

 

3       71.  What does the body need from the diet? In general, what does the body do with these materials?

 

Answer: The body needs supplies of the building blocks for tissue growth and repair (proteins, vitamins, minerals, water), substrates for energy (fats, carbohydrates), and a good absorptive environment (fiber, water).

 

5       72.  Compare/contrast the characteristics of the predominant ethnic diets as they are prepared and eaten in their home countries and in the United States.

 

Answer: Many ethnic diets are healthier than the typical American diet because they emphasize consumption of complex carbohydrates and limit fat intake. The predominant minority ethnic groups in America are African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American. Unfortunately, the generally healthier ethnic diets quickly become Americanized when these people enter the United States. Often, they cut back on vegetables and add meats and salt to the diet in conformity with the American consumer.

The African American diet (soul food) is based on the regional cuisine of the American South. Soul food includes yams, black-eyed peas, okra, and peanuts. The latter have been combined with American foods such as corn products and pork. Today, most people think of soul food as meat, fried chicken, sweet potatoes, and chitterling.

Hispanic foods in the United States arrived with the conquistadores and evolved through combinations with other ethnic diets and local foods available in Latin America. For example, the Cuban cuisine combined Spanish, Chinese, and native foods; Puerto Rican cuisine developed from Spanish, African, and native products; Mexican diets evolved from Spanish and native food. Prominent in all of these diets were corn, beans, squash, chili peppers, avocados, papayas, and fish. The colonists later added rice and citrus foods. Today, the Hispanic diet incorporates a wide variety of foods, including red meat, but the staple still consists of rice, corn, and beans.

Asian American diets are characteristically rich in vegetables and use minimal meat and fat. The Okinawan diet in Japan, where some of the healthiest and oldest people in the world live, is high in fresh (versus pickled) vegetables, high in fiber, and low in fat and salt. The Chinese cuisine includes more than 200 vegetables, and fat-free sauces and seasoning are used to enhance flavor. The Chinese diet varies somewhat within regions of China. The lowest in fat is that of southern China, with most meals containing fish, seafood, and stir-fried vegetables. Chinese food in American restaurants contains a much higher percentage of fat and protein than the traditional Chinese cuisine.

 

1       73.  Define nutrition and describe its relationship to health and well-being.

 

Answer: Good nutrition is essential to overall health and wellness. Proper nutrition means that a person’s diet supplies all the essential nutrients for healthy body functioning, including normal tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. The diet should also provide enough substrates to produce the energy necessary for work, physical activity, and relaxation. Too much or too little of any nutrient can precipitate serious health problems.

Diseases of dietary excess and imbalance are among the leading causes of death in many developed countries throughout the world, including the United States. A diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol increases the risk for diseases of the cardiovascular system, including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease (CHD), and strokes. In sodium-sensitive individuals, high salt intake has been linked to high blood pressure. Up to 50 percent of all cancers may be diet related. Obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis also have been associated with faulty nutrition.

 

2       74.  Describe the composition of the diet recommended by MyPlate, including specific food examples.

 

Answer: The MyPlate healthy food plan contains five major food groups. The food groups are vegetables, fruits, grains, protein, and dairy. Whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy provide the nutritional base for a healthy diet. When increasing the intake of these food groups, it is important to decrease the intake of low-nutrient foods to effectively balance caloric intake with energy needs. The consistent message is to eat a diet with ample fruits (mostly whole, limiting fruit juices) and vegetables, especially dark green and orange vegetables. At least half of grains consumed should be whole rather than refined grains. In terms of meat, poultry, and fish, the recommendation is to consume about 3 ounces and not to exceed 6 ounces daily. [Specific food examples will vary.]

 

8       75.  List and discuss four of the eleven key messages to manage weight provided by the 20105 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

 

Answer: Answers will vary, but will include four of the following:

  1. Improve eating and physical activity behaviors.
  2. Control total caloric intake.
  3. Increase physical activity. Reduce sedentary time.
  4. Maintain appropriate caloric balance during each stage of life.
  5. Reduce daily sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg (ages 2-50) and 1,500 mg (ages 51 and older).
  6. Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fatty acids by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  7. Consume less than 300 mg per day of dietary cholesterol.
  8. Keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
  9. Reduce intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars.
  10. Limit consumption of foods that contain refined grains.
  11. If consumed and legal, alcohol should be limited to 1 drink daily for women and 2 drinks daily for men.

 

 

 

[1] By Paul A. Smith, McMurry University (Abilene, Texas).