Sample Chapter

 

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Research Methods Process Inquiry 8th By Edition Graziano Raulin -Test Bank
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Graziano and Raulin Research Methods Test Bank

 

Chapter 1 Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment

1.1 Opening Note to Students on Active Learning

1) For most college students, reading

  1. A) is extremely difficult.
  2. B) has become overlearned.
  3. C) has been replaced by video games.
  4. D) automatically produces understanding.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 3

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) After reading a section in a textbook, students

  1. A) typically understand everything in the section.
  2. B) will know it by heart.
  3. C) often cannot remember the material.
  4. D) usually recall every idea in it.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 3

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) When studying a textbook,

  1. A) it is a good idea to ignore chapter outlines.
  2. B) you should read the chapter only once.
  3. C) try not to think about the material as you read it.
  4. D) you should pay attention to the outlines, summaries, and footnotes.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 3

Skill: Interpretive

 

1.2 Science

1) Scientific thinking can be conducted

  1. A) while fishing.
  2. B) in a laboratory setting.
  3. C) with the aid of computers, statistics, and other equipment.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 4 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) ________ is a process of formulating specific questions and then finding answers in order to better understand nature.

  1. A) Scientific research
  2. B) Psychoanalysis
  3. C) Romaticism
  4. D) History

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 4

Skill: Factual

 

3) According to your text, what is the “essence” of science?

  1. A) the facts
  2. B) its way of thinking
  3. C) the hardware
  4. D) its theories

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 4 (PQ, SG)

Skill: Factual

 

4) The essence of science is

  1. A) a logical way of acting.
  2. B) a logical way of thinking.
  3. C) laboratory equipment, statistical procedures, and computers.
  4. D) the applied products of science.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 4

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Who systematically posed questions to citizens of his era to reveal their ignorance and make them

uncomfortable?

  1. A) Socrates
  2. B) Thales
  3. C) Galileo
  4. D) Hippocrates

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) The Scopes monkey trial

  1. A) took place in Africa.
  2. B) featured the great debate between Dr. Darwin and Mr. Scopes.
  3. C) pitted scientific evolutionary theory against Leviticus.
  4. D) debated the teaching of concepts of evolution in high school classes.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Factual

 

7) Our modern equivalent of the Scopes trial is

  1. A) the use of genetics in medical diagnoses.
  2. B) seen in almost every domestic dispute brought to the courts.
  3. C) today’s attempts to get the “intelligent design” concept into school science classes.
  4. D) the academic debates over heredity versus environment.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) The ancient Greek philosopher executed as a subversive was

  1. A) Socrates.
  2. B) Herodotus.
  3. C) Aristotle.
  4. D) Plato.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Factual

 

9) Scientists are pervasive ________; that is, they constantly challenge accepted wisdom in their search for more.

complete answers.

  1. A) optimists
  2. B) skeptics
  3. C) pessimists
  4. D) laureates

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) A good scientist must

  1. A) be unwilling to tolerate uncertainty.
  2. B) deny anything that is uncertain.
  3. C) focus only on what is certain about the world around us.
  4. D) be willing to tolerate uncertainty.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) Scientific censorship

  1. A) must be balanced against the importance of freedom to exchange ideas.
  2. B) primarily occurred in communist countries.
  3. C) is often necessary to advance science.
  4. D) never occurs in the United States.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) A scientist’s pursuit of curiosity can best be described as

  1. A) passive
  2. B) idle.
  3. C) peripatetic.
  4. D) active

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) Skinner noted that a motivator for scientists is

  1. A) curiosity.
  2. B) fame.
  3. C) money.
  4. D) the questioning reflex.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Factual

 

14) Active curiosity

  1. A) is a major characteristic of scientists.
  2. B) is the only characteristic that differentiates scientists from others.
  3. C) should be discouraged in children.
  4. D) is of little use to scientists.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) The term ________ in science mean discoveries that are unanticipated, fortuitous or “lucky.”

  1. A) essential
  2. B) primary
  3. C) serendipity
  4. D) heuristic

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Factual

 

16) Charles Gross discovered a single neuron that was sensitive to stimuli when he

  1. A) presented multi-colored squares to the monkey.
  2. B) allowed graduate students to pick the stimuli to show the monkey.
  3. C) disconnected the apparatus and allowed the monkey to react naturally.
  4. D) waved “good night” to the monkey.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Factual

 

17) A scientist’s curiosity leads to discoveries because of

  1. A) lack of rigidity.
  2. B) pure luck and long hours of research.
  3. C) a prepared mind, luck, and long hours of research.
  4. D) a prepared mind and the knowledge of the latest technological advances.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 6-7 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

18) Scientists and artists

  1. A) use entirely different methods in their work.
  2. B) are entirely different kinds of people.
  3. C) engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual endeavors.
  4. D) are thoroughly alienated from each other.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 7

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) Both scientists and artists

  1. A) would argue that art and science are fundamentally different.
  2. B) engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual pursuits.
  3. C) represent their ideas visually.
  4. D) present verifiable truths.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 7

Skill: Factual

 

20) Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) Youngsters who are good at science or math cannot be proficient in the arts.
  2. B) While scientists have great curiosity about nature, artists have little or none.
  3. C) Science and art have a great deal in common.
  4. D) Science and art have little in common.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 7 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) Who is considered the first great medical illustrator?

  1. A) Thales
  2. B) Verocchio
  3. C) Hippocrates
  4. D) da Vinci

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 7

Skill: Factual

 

22) Leonardo da Vinci is a good example of someone who combined art and

  1. A) culture.
  2. B) science.
  3. C) theology.
  4. D) business.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 7-8

Skill: Interpretive

 

1.3 Acquiring Knowledge

1) Believing in something because your family has always accepted it as true is an example of

  1. A) intuition.
  2. B) rationalism.
  3. C) tenacity.
  4. D) superstition.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Applied

 

2) Which of Helmstadter’s common methods of acquiring knowledge is characterized by acceptance of an idea because it has always been accepted?

  1. A) tenacity
  2. B) intuition
  3. C) rationalism
  4. D) authority

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 9 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

3) The belief that symptom substitution will occur if enuretic children are treated by conditioning therapies, even in the face of consistent contradictory evidence, is an example of

  1. A) tenacity.
  2. B) rationalism.
  3. C) empiricism.
  4. D) science.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Applied

 

4) Believing in something because the President tells you it is true is an example of

  1. A) authority.
  2. B) civic duty.
  3. C) tenacity.
  4. D) intuition.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Applied

 

5) The method of acquiring knowledge in which an individual has a hunch or “gut feeling” but does not rationally examine facts is

  1. A) authority.
  2. B) tenacity.
  3. C) intuition.
  4. D) empiricism.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Factual

 

6) “Research methods examinations are always easy; this is a research methods exam; therefore, this exam is easy” is an example of

  1. A) intuition.
  2. B) rationalism.
  3. C) empiricism.
  4. D) sick humor.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

7) Rationalism develops knowledge by the use of

  1. A) observation.
  2. B) empirical facts.
  3. C) reasoning.
  4. D) reasoning and observation.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) One problem with using rationalism to obtain knowledge is that

  1. A) the premises may be unimportant.
  2. B) the premises may not be true.
  3. C) observations may be representative, but there may be exceptions.
  4. D) observations may not be completely representative.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) Empiricism gains knowledge through

  1. A) intuition.
  2. B) reasoning.
  3. C) observation.
  4. D) reasoning and intuition.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11 (SG, PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

10) Understanding or knowing the world through observation of real events is called

  1. A) rationalism.
  2. B) empiricism.
  3. C) tenacity.
  4. D) intuition.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

11) In which method of acquiring knowledge must the major and minor premises be true if we are to draw a correct conclusion?

  1. A) tenacity
  2. B) intuition
  3. C) authority
  4. D) rationalism

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) Which of the following methods of gaining knowledge is developed through reasoning processes alone?

  1. A) rationalism
  2. B) empiricism
  3. C) raison d’etre
  4. D) science

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) Which of the following methods of gaining knowledge employs the use of actual sense data?

  1. A) empiricism
  2. B) intuition
  3. C) extrasensory perception
  4. D) tenacity

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10-11

Skill: Interpretive

 

14) Of the following methods of acquiring knowledge, which is the most demanding in terms of adequacy of information?

  1. A) tenacity
  2. B) intuition
  3. C) authority
  4. D) empiricism

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 10-11

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) A researcher observes many babies and sees them all cry. She concludes that babies often cry. This is an example of

  1. A) empiricism.
  2. B) intuition.
  3. C) rationalism.
  4. D) tenacity.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Applied

 

16) Which of the following methods of acquiring knowledge places the most demands on the nature of evidence and procedures for study?

  1. A) intuition
  2. B) tenacity
  3. C) empiricism
  4. D) authority

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) A person who does not believe that the north pole exists because he or she has never seen it is demonstrating

  1. A) rational empiricism.
  2. B) naive empiricism.
  3. C) tenacious empiricism.
  4. D) sophisticated empiricism.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Applied

 

18) One limitation of the use of empiricism is that

  1. A) observations may not be representative.
  2. B) logical processes can be incorrect.
  3. C) costly equipment is necessary.
  4. D) basic premises must be true.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) ________ empiricism includes observing phenomena, not only directly but also indirectly through direct observation of their impact on other objects.

  1. A) Rational
  2. B) Tenacious
  3. C) Sophisticated
  4. D) Naive

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Interpretive

 

20) Which of the following brings together elements of both empiricism and rationalism?

  1. A) colloquia
  2. B) science
  3. C) scientology
  4. D) phenomenology

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) Science is a way of thinking that integrates both

  1. A) tenacity and intuition.
  2. B) ad hoc and post hoc reasoning.
  3. C) rational logic and empirical observation.
  4. D) a priori hypotheses and tenacity.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Factual

 

22) The statement, “I won’t believe it unless I see it” is an example of

  1. A) naive empiricism.
  2. B) rational empiricism.
  3. C) sophisticated empiricism.
  4. D) tenacity.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 11

Skill: Applied

 

23) The method of acquiring knowledge that makes the most demands on the information is

  1. A) empiricism.
  2. B) rationalism.
  3. C) science.
  4. D) tenacity

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) Which of the following does science NOT use?

  1. A) empiricism
  2. B) astrology
  3. C) rationalism
  4. D) general principles

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) A researcher observes children, logically thinks about his observations, and produces a theory. He is using

  1. A) science.
  2. B) empiricism.
  3. C) theorism.
  4. D) rationalism.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Which of the following statements is accurate?

  1. A) Scientific thinking represents an integration of rationalism and direct empirical observation.
  2. B) Scientific endeavors are completely separate from social parameters.
  3. C) Scientific thinking is primarily based on intuition.
  4. D) There was no science before Copernicus, Galileo, or Newton.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

1.4 Emergence of Science

1) The “orderliness belief” suggests that

  1. A) although the universe is not orderly, being orderly and precise yourself can make it more orderly.
  2. B) early men had a fallacy that the universe was orderly.
  3. C) the universe operates in an orderly, lawful manner.
  4. D) the ancient religions and their gods demanded orderly worship.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

2) Between 6000-4000 B.C.

  1. A) the Egyptians started primitive trading networks.
  2. B) the Sumerians created one of the strongest empires in history.
  3. C) the Babylonians and Egyptians flourished and lived in complex, stable societies.
  4. D) humans only had polished stone tools.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12-13

Skill: Factual

 

3) Which of the following did people NOT do between 6000-4000 B.C.?

  1. A) complicated business skills dependent on navigation
  2. B) write important books on astronomy, medicine, and surgery
  3. C) have a unified concept of the universe in which gods played an important role
  4. D) have a unified conception of the universe in which astrology played an important role

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) Benjamin Farrington emphasized two characteristics of the skills men had up until 1,000 B.C. These were

  1. A) practical skills and knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
  2. B) religious, abstract knowledge and conceptualizations of the universe and practical skills.
  3. C) practical skills and more abstract general ideas about nature.
  4. D) abstract general ideas about nature and skill at pleasing the gods.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

5) Which of the following is correct?

  1. A) By about 1000 B.C., humans had still not developed any measurable civilization.
  2. B) Technology is a recent development of the twentieth century.
  3. C) There was no hint of science until the eighteenth century.
  4. D) By 1000 B.C., there had developed a rich legacy of human skills.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

6) The great surge from neolithic stone tools into the age of metals occurred during

  1. A) The Golden Age.
  2. B) 6000-4000 B.C.
  3. C) the antediluvian era.
  4. D) the Age of Enlightenment.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

7) According to Farrington (1949), endeavors such as metallurgy and agriculture are based on

  1. A) a cooperative decision by a community.
  2. B) an assessment of the needs of the community.
  3. C) the application of practical, empirical skills.
  4. D) the development of abstract, theoretical ideas.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) According to Farrington (1949), people develop abstract, general ideas about nature by

  1. A) developing rhetorical skills.
  2. B) utilizing leisure time.
  3. C) engaging in metallurgy and agriculture.
  4. D) building on a long involvement in practical skills.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) Science began to flourish and grow into a powerful social movement during the

  1. A) Dark Ages.
  2. B) Eisenhower presidency.
  3. C) Golden Age.
  4. D) late Renaissance (seventeenth century).

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Factual

 

10) Human civilizations were settled in the eastern Mediterranean region by about

  1. A) 1000 A.D.
  2. B) 6000 B.C.
  3. C) 1000 B.C.
  4. D) the time of the Roman Empire.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

11) The development of abstract, general information comes about through

  1. A) a renunciation of practical, everyday operations.
  2. B) a rejection of craftsmanship and artisanship.
  3. C) a long involvement in using empirical skills and concrete manipulations of the physical environment.
  4. D) the study of abstract subjects such as astronomy and biology.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12-13

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) How do we classify the early (5000-4000 B.C.) skills of the Mediterranean artisans?

  1. A) abstract skills
  2. B) empirical skills
  3. C) religious
  4. D) rationalistic skills

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12-13 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) Science has been one of western civilization’s ways of acquiring knowledge since

  1. A) the Middle Ages.
  2. B) the Romans, 4,400 years ago.
  3. C) the Greeks, 2,400 years ago.
  4. D) Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and Darwin.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Factual

 

14) Scientists and physicians believe they can predict the same outcome of a disease in different patients based on

  1. A) the orderliness belief.
  2. B) tenacity and intuition.
  3. C) biological bases of behavior.
  4. D) rational principles.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

15) The first Greek philosopher to combine an empirical rational view of the universe is

  1. A) Anaximander.
  2. B) Socrates.
  3. C) Xenophanes.
  4. D) Thales.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

16) Thales’ philosophy

  1. A) speculated about a natural cosmology in which earth was the basic substance.
  2. B) stressed the observation of natural events in an unnatural universe.
  3. C) stressed the observation of natural events in a natural universe.
  4. D) stressed the mysticism of gods, demons, and spirits.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

17) Which of the following was an early empiricist?

  1. A) Estiabanes
  2. B) Thales
  3. C) Ptolmy
  4. D) Plato

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) The ancient and implicit belief that the physical world is predictable is called

  1. A) the empirical tradition.
  2. B) the orderliness belief.
  3. C) the rationalistic tradition.
  4. D) the predictability belief.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

19) The basic components necessary for the emergence of science had been developed by

  1. A) 600 B.C.
  2. B) the twelfth through the thirteenth centuries.
  3. C) the sixteenth century.
  4. D) 5000 B.C.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

20) The “orderliness belief” of Whitehead (1925) refers to

  1. A) Copernicus’ belief that the planets are arranged in order of size.
  2. B) the implicit belief that the universe is orderly and predictable.
  3. C) the preoccupation of the ancient Egyptians with order.
  4. D) the observation that order always emerges out of chaos.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) The pre-Socratic period

  1. A) neglected to include Thales.
  2. B) occurred in Greece around 600-400 B.C.
  3. C) occurred after the Trojan War.
  4. D) occurred in Egypt around 2600-2400 B.C.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

22) Thales is notable for a view of the world that

  1. A) emphasized religious and mystic experiences.
  2. B) rejected speculation altogether.
  3. C) excluded attention to observational details.
  4. D) combined empiricism and rationalism.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) Thales speculated that the basic substance of the universe was

  1. A) water.
  2. B) phlogiston.
  3. C) air.
  4. D) fire.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

24) Hippocrates was

  1. A) the first physician.
  2. B) an Ionian rationalist in Plato’s tradition.
  3. C) an empiricist.
  4. D) the first physician to see the importance of ethics.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) An early concept of evolution on earth was put forth by

  1. A) Thales.
  2. B) Anaximander.
  3. C) Aristophanes.
  4. D) Hippocrates.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

26) Empirical and theoretical considerations of geological change over time were developed by

  1. A) Hippocrates
  2. B) Xenophanes
  3. C) Plato
  4. D) Socrates

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

27) The Ionian scientist-philosopher who first employed experimental methods was

  1. A) Nebulus.
  2. B) Ionis.
  3. C) Strato.
  4. D) Thales.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

28) A basic assumption of early artisans, which was essential for the application of their skills in a reliable manner, was

  1. A) rationalism.
  2. B) philosophical mysticism.
  3. C) intuition.
  4. D) the orderliness belief.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) Hippocrates’ treatments for disease involved

  1. A) clinical observations of patients.
  2. B) prayer and exorcism.
  3. C) many powerful medicines.
  4. D) both A and C.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

30) Who was the first to begin actual experimentation?

  1. A) Socrates
  2. B) Strato
  3. C) Thales
  4. D) Aristotle

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) Thales lived in

  1. A) Athenia.
  2. B) Parthenon.
  3. C) Ionia.
  4. D) Galiccia.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

32) The earliest descriptions of an orderly and knowable universe are found in

  1. A) Ionian philosophy.
  2. B) the writings of Plato.
  3. C) Peripatetic philosophy.
  4. D) the work of Ptolemy.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Both Thales and Hippocrates employed

  1. A) leeches in the treatment of disease.
  2. B) careful observation in natural conditions.
  3. C) mysticism and intuition.
  4. D) systematic, experimental manipulations.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) Strato was

  1. A) an early artisan and maker of the famous Stradivarius violins.
  2. B) a rationalist.
  3. C) an empiricist.
  4. D) an early Greek physician who rivaled Hippocrates.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

35) Hippocrates was one of the first people to attribute the cause of illness to

  1. A) political events.
  2. B) natural events.
  3. C) incomplete exorcisms.
  4. D) an invasion of body cavities by demons and spirits.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Factual

 

36) The ancient Greeks

  1. A) excelled in rationalistic philosophies but never developed empiricism.
  2. B) developed scientific models but did not develop cosmologies.
  3. C) developed both rationalism and empiricism.
  4. D) did not use scientific methods.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13-14 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

37) In the history of science,

  1. A) rationalism was the first tradition to emerge.
  2. B) ratiocination served as the cornerstone of modern science.
  3. C) authority quickly became the primary tradition of scientists.
  4. D) empiricism was the first tradition to emerge.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 13-14 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

38) Greek empirical science declined for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. A) the decrease in the use of slavery.
  2. B) the upper class beginning to focus on pure reason and abstract truths.
  3. C) the growing stratification of society.
  4. D) the increasing social power of religion.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

39) After about 400 B.C., observations of orderliness and regularity in the physical world were taken as evidence that

  1. A) philosophy was useless.
  2. B) there was more than one deity.
  3. C) nature was controlled by divine intelligence.
  4. D) nature was capricious and uncontrollable.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

40) After 400 B.C., Greek philosophy became

  1. A) increasingly abstract, rational, and mystical.
  2. B) increasingly involved with questioning the existence of divine intelligence.
  3. C) increasingly abstract, rational, and empirical.
  4. D) more focused on understanding and controlling nature.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) Which of the following may have been partly responsible for the decline of Greek empiricism?

  1. A) the Peloponnesian Wars
  2. B) the emergence of Christianity
  3. C) stratification of society into occupational and status classes
  4. D) the Trojan War

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

42) The technical and empirical skills and knowledge of the early Greeks were primarily passed on through

  1. A) the mystical philosophers.
  2. B) the code of Hammurabi.
  3. C) scrupulously documented writings.
  4. D) the oral tradition.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

43) For the Greeks, ________ represented the culmination of their philosophical legacy.

  1. A) empiricism and rationalism
  2. B) the pursuit of pure reason
  3. C) the pursuit of hedonism
  4. D) empiricism and pragmatism

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

44) The value of using sense data was rediscovered during

  1. A) the French Revolution.
  2. B) the post-Platonic period.
  3. C) the medieval years.
  4. D) the Renaissance.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

45) The value of empirical science during the medieval age was

  1. A) to contradict theological dogma.
  2. B) to challenge ancient Greek thought.
  3. C) to help illustrate divine workings.
  4. D) to question the validity of religious teachings.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Interpretive

 

46) Some of the theological constraints placed on empiricism by the medievals were weakened by

  1. A) church authorities who believed that progress was important.
  2. B) the revival of classical and Islamic empirical science in the thirteenth century.
  3. C) the influence of Renaissance art.
  4. D) the influx of Hindus and Muslims from the Indian subcontinent.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15

Skill: Interpretive

 

47) From the end of the twelfth century, there was a general trend toward

  1. A) a decrease in the use of scientific methods.
  2. B) learning about phenomena by using scientific methods.
  3. C) rational mysticism.
  4. D) reliance on intuition and reason to acquire knowledge.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15

Skill: Interpretive

 

48) Early empirical science was submerged until

  1. A) the French Revolution.
  2. B) its rescue by Socrates and Plato.
  3. C) the late Renaissance.
  4. D) the Magna Carta.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15

Skill: Interpretive

 

49) Which of the following events helped science to become established during the thirteenth century?

  1. A) the transfer of church authority from Rome to Avignon
  2. B) the teachings of Francis Bacon
  3. C) the development of medical schools
  4. D) an edict from Pope Pius II

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15

Skill: Interpretive

 

50) Which of the following is true?

  1. A) Medieval Christianity, whatever its abstract notions, was primarily an empirical and scientific social movement.
  2. B) Medieval Christianity preserved and even enhanced empirical science.
  3. C) Medieval Christianity totally rejected all empirical science.
  4. D) The suppression of Galileo’s discoveries is an example of the medieval Christian’s complete suppression of

science.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

51) The emergence of modern science occurred during the

  1. A) Bubonic Plague.
  2. B) twentieth century.
  3. C) fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
  4. D) Industrial Revolution.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

52) The most basic tenet in medieval thought was that

  1. A) the king was the ultimate source of truth.
  2. B) the most important way to discover information was by combining rationalism and empiricism.
  3. C) the scriptures were the ultimate source of truth.
  4. D) the directly observable was most important.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

53) The most basic tenet of medieval thought was probably that

  1. A) scientific methods were superior to the scriptures.
  2. B) truth was attainable by reading animal entrails.
  3. C) truth could be discovered by empirical inquiries.
  4. D) the ultimate source of truth was to be found in the scriptures.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14-15

Skill: Interpretive

 

54) There were two major constraints on empirical science during the medieval years. These constraints were that science could not contradict

  1. A) either the government or the church.
  2. B) theological dogma and had to be used in the service of religion.
  3. C) theological dogma and had to be used in the service of humanity.
  4. D) the government and had to be used in the service of humanity.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Interpretive

 

55) The value of using the senses was rediscovered by

  1. A) Francis Bacon and Augustine.
  2. B) Aldous Huxley and Francis Bacon.
  3. C) Louis Pasteur and Ernst Mach.
  4. D) Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Factual

 

56) The concept of mind-body dualism was conceived by

  1. A) Marquis de Sade.
  2. B) Rene Descartes.
  3. C) Francis Bacon.
  4. D) Thomas Aquinas.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

57) About when did modern science emerge?

  1. A) the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
  2. B) the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
  3. C) the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  4. D) the twentieth century

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

58) Science achieved independent status as a way of understanding nature by the

  1. A) beginning of the eighteenth century.
  2. B) beginning of the nineteenth century.
  3. C) end of the eighteenth century.
  4. D) end of the nineteenth century.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Factual

 

59) The most rapid development in science occurred during

  1. A) the end of the twentieth century.
  2. B) the Eisenhower presidency.
  3. C) the beginning of the twentieth century.
  4. D) World War II.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Factual

 

60) Science had achieved an independent status by the beginning of

  1. A) the nineteenth century.
  2. B) the seventeenth century.
  3. C) the Middle Ages.
  4. D) the Renaissance.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Factual

 

61) Science had become an accepted social institution by

  1. A) the Renaissance.
  2. B) the twentieth century.
  3. C) the medieval period.
  4. D) the nineteenth century.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Factual

 

62) Science is

  1. A) primarily a development of the twentieth century.
  2. B) alive and well but hidden in laboratories in big universities.
  3. C) primarily a recent phenomena.
  4. D) not really a recent or modern development.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 16 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

63) The view that science and technology are closely linked has fostered the notion that

  1. A) science itself is a fairly recent phenomenon.
  2. B) science itself is actually an old phenomenon.
  3. C) technology is necessary in scientific research.
  4. D) technology is better than science.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 16

Skill: Interpretive

 

64) Scientists

  1. A) indulge their curiosity.
  2. B) seldom follow-up their “hunches.”
  3. C) never question their research.
  4. D) have no real goals.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 16

Skill: Interpretive

 

65) The overriding goal of science

  1. A) is to develop more effective medicine.
  2. B) is to develop knowledge about the universe.
  3. C) is yet to be determined.
  4. D) differs from one decade to another as science advances.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 16

Skill: Interpretive

 

66) Prediction in science is

  1. A) seldom accurate.
  2. B) making a “good guess.”
  3. C) the overriding goal of science.
  4. D) rarely attempted.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 16

Skill: Interpretive

 

1.5 Psychology

1) Evolutionary theory

  1. A) has had little impact on psychological science.
  2. B) has profoundly affected psychological science.
  3. C) deals with the history of social revolutions.
  4. D) is a biological concept that does not apply to psychology.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) An evolutionary concept that supports research on animals in order to understand human behavior is

  1. A) geological formations.
  2. B) psychophysics.
  3. C) phylogenetic continuity.
  4. D) mind-body dualism.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

3) The discipline of psychology is devoted to

  1. A) the scientific study of behavior.
  2. B) the study of the psyche.
  3. C) understanding social systems.
  4. D) performing various kinds of psychotherapy.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Factual

 

4) The Darwinian concept of natural selection

  1. A) was taken directly from the nineteenth century humanitarian movement.
  2. B) emphasized individual differences, and later led to psychological testing.
  3. C) described the choices that people are free to make when they are not bound by ethics.
  4. D) down-played the biological changes that can occur over generations.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Which of the following did NOT contribute to the evolution of psychology?

  1. A) biology
  2. B) astronomy
  3. C) physiology
  4. D) astrology

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) Psychology as an independent scientific discipline started in the laboratory of

  1. A) Wilhelm Wundt.
  2. B) Ernst Weber.
  3. C) Ivan Pavlov.
  4. D) Sigmund Freud.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Factual

 

7) Wilhelm Wundt’s work was known as

  1. A) structural functionalism.
  2. B) structuralism.
  3. C) functionalism.
  4. D) behaviorism.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Factual

 

8) The trend in early psychology in America was a movement from

  1. A) Gestalt psychology to functionalism.
  2. B) behaviorism to structuralism.
  3. C) functionalism to structuralism.
  4. D) structuralism to functionalism.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) A study focused on the clinical treatment of children would most typically have developed from

  1. A) structural functionalism.
  2. B) functionalism.
  3. C) structuralism.
  4. D) Gestalt psychology.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Applied

 

10) Psychology as an independent discipline had its roots in the laboratory of

  1. A) Wilhelm Wundt.
  2. B) Ernst Mach.
  3. C) Sigmund Freud.
  4. D) Alfred Binet.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

11) Gestalt psychology focuses on

  1. A) specific individual behaviors.
  2. B) the whole, which is less than the sum of its parts.
  3. C) the whole, which is greater than the sum of its parts.
  4. D) analyzing the whole in separate parts.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

12) The chief spokesperson for early behaviorism was

  1. A) Edward Hull.
  2. B) Francis Galton.
  3. C) Edward Watkins.
  4. D) John Watson.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Factual

 

13) Behaviorism is the study of

  1. A) actions caused by the conscious mind.
  2. B) instinctive animal behaviors.
  3. C) specific actions.
  4. D) unconscious processes causing behavior.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Interpretive

 

14) A study of test taking behavior under stressful conditions is most typical of which type of psychology?

  1. A) behaviorism
  2. B) psychoanalytic
  3. C) functional structuralism
  4. D) structural functionalism

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Applied

 

15) Conscious experience, creativity, and personal growth are central ideas in

  1. A) humanistic psychology.
  2. B) behaviorism.
  3. C) psychophysics.
  4. D) psychobiology

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) Humanistic psychology

  1. A) was never influential.
  2. B) grew out of behaviorism.
  3. C) never developed into a “school” of psychology.
  4. D) is the major psychotherapeutic model today.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) A major concept in Humanistic Psychology is

  1. A) social stratification.
  2. B) self-actualization.
  3. C) the unconscious mind.
  4. D) learning.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Factual

 

18) Cognitive psychology

  1. A) now routinely addresses applied issues.
  2. B) has no history as an academic discipline.
  3. C) focuses on academic research with no possible applied value.
  4. D) grew out of nineteenth century humanism.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) The “school” of psychology that emphasized holistic experience was

  1. A) functionalism.
  2. B) structuralism.
  3. C) Gestalt psychology.
  4. D) humanistic psychology.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

20) The field that studies perception, learning, and memory is

  1. A) behaviorism.
  2. B) humanistic psychology.
  3. C) psychoanalysis.
  4. D) cognitive psychology.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) In the early 20th century, a group of people generally barred from higher education were

  1. A) Caucasians.
  2. B) Protestants.
  3. C) women.
  4. D) the wealthy.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19-20 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

22) In the early twentieth century, women

  1. A) were generally well accepted as professionals in psychology.
  2. B) entered graduate schools in great numbers.
  3. C) were discriminated against by university graduate programs.
  4. D) earned nearly 35% of the advanced degrees in psychology

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 19-20

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) Edward B. Tichener was the mentor for the first female to earn a Ph.D. degree in psychology. Nevertheless, he

  1. A) refused to offer her a job after graduation.
  2. B) disagreed with the position of the university to grant her the degree.
  3. C) never allowed her to attend his weekly research meetings.
  4. D) refused to allow her to teach.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 20

Skill: Factual

 

24) In addition to women, what group experienced heavy discrimination in the early 20th century in psychology graduate schools?

  1. A) African Americans
  2. B) Chinese
  3. C) Mexicans
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 20

Skill: Factual

 

25) The ground breaking work of Kenneth and Mamie Clark heavily influenced the

  1. A) developmental theories of Piaget.
  2. B) early behavioral treatments of depression.
  3. C) development of functionalism in the United States.
  4. D) Supreme Court decision ending racial segregation in public schools.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 20

Skill: Factual

 

26) The dominant clinical model of psychotherapy in the 1930s and 1940s was

  1. A) rational emotive therapy.
  2. B) psychoanalysis.
  3. C) behaviorism.
  4. D) cognitive therapy.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 18-19

Skill: Factual

 

27) Which of the following is NOT an example of an effort to integrate ideas from different schools and disciplines?

  1. A) behavioral medicine
  2. B) behavioral neuroscience
  3. C) didactic science
  4. D) health psychology

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 20-21

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) ________ precipitated a shift in psychology from an academic discipline to a largely applied field.

  1. A) Sigmund Freud
  2. B) University Solidarity
  3. C) Charles Darwin
  4. D) World War II

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 21

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) Most psychologists represent ________ psychology, which integrates many schools, such as behaviorism or Gestalt psychology.

  1. A) integrated
  2. B) mainstream
  3. C) combined
  4. D) selected

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 21

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Although psychology had its roots in the natural sciences, it is often considered to be

  1. A) one of the seven hub sciences.
  2. B) a branch of physics.
  3. C) a pseudoscience.
  4. D) a physical science.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 21

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) ________ uses unscientific methods, theories, assumptions, and conclusions that pretend to be scientific.

  1. A) Humanism
  2. B) Pseudoscience
  3. C) Deuteronomy
  4. D) Pragmatism

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Factual

 

32) Recovered memory therapy is an example of

  1. A) breaking down barriers to effective therapeutic change.
  2. B) a treatment that was based on pseudoscientific principles.
  3. C) a technique that is now widely accepted by psychologists.
  4. D) a program that helped millions of psychologically disordered individuals.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Applied

 

33) In facilitated communication,

  1. A) teachers help young children to learn the basics of English grammar.
  2. B) individuals called facilitators help deaf individuals to speak more clearly.
  3. C) specialists working with autistic individuals try to help those individuals to express feelings and ideas.
  4. D) psychologists interpret the underlying meaning of statements made by people with schizophrenia.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) Why were so many professionals fooled into believing that facilitated communication with people who had autism was possible?

  1. A) Most were simply following the principles of communication established by early psychologists.
  2. B) They failed to be skeptical and entertain other interpretations of the findings.
  3. C) They were fooled by people who was masters at deception.
  4. D) There was extensive evidence that children with autism had higher level thoughts, and therefore, they naturally believed that those thoughts could be expressed if one was clever enough.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Applied

 

35) The most common practitioners of pseudoscience are

  1. A) drug companies.
  2. B) research assistants.
  3. C) television advertisers.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 23

Skill: Applied

 

36) The primary evidence for pseudoscience is usually

  1. A) experimental research.
  2. B) high constraint.
  3. C) presented in scientific journals.
  4. D) anecdotal.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 25 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

1.6 Ethical Principles

1) The ethics of science and scientific research

  1. A) are not mentioned in this text.
  2. B) are immensely important.
  3. C) are not understood by most scientists.
  4. D) are relatively unimportant in psychology.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) The authors of your textbook maintain that ethical guidelines for research

  1. A) must be learned by every student of science.
  2. B) are only a matter of common sense.
  3. C) need not be studied.
  4. D) do not apply to psychology.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Factual

 

3) Whose responsibility is it to make sure that research is carried out in an ethical manner.

  1. A) the research methods instructors
  2. B) the researcher
  3. C) the university
  4. D) the federal government

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) Ethical principles for research were developed to help guide

  1. A) research participants.
  2. B) government oversight committees.
  3. C) instructors of research methods courses.
  4. D) researchers.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Factual

 

1.7 Using the Resources of this Text

1) The best way to learn anything is

  1. A) through the process of active learning.
  2. B) by reading the material carefully.
  3. C) by listening carefully to your instructor’s lectures.
  4. D) through the process of passive learning.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) The Student Resource Website

  1. A) is thoroughly integrated with the content of the textbook.
  2. B) is available to students who purchase a separate subscription.
  3. C) can replace the text for those students who want to avoid the cost of the text.
  4. D) includes access to several advanced level textbooks.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Factual

 

3) Which of the following are included on the Student Resource Website?

  1. A) Tutorials on writing research reports in APA style
  2. B) Numerous resources for each chapter
  3. C) An interactive study guide/lab manual
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Factual

 

Graziano and Raulin Research Methods Test Bank

 

Chapter 3 The Starting Point: Asking Questions

3.1 Asking and Refining Questions

1) The personal interests and observations of researchers

  1. A) can serve as important sources of research questions as well as sustaining the researchers’ interest in a project.
  2. B) have no place in scientific research.
  3. C) can serve as a starting point for research, but cannot sustain interest in a project.
  4. D) have not been used by serious psychologists in their research.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) PsycINFO is an example of

  1. A) an index for psychiatric diseases.
  2. B) an abstract journal.
  3. C) a list of important scientific figures.
  4. D) an index of historical psychological scholars.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Factual

 

3) If research has a heuristic influence, follow-up research is likely to be

  1. A) highly systematic and scientific.
  2. B) useful, but not necessarily systematic.
  3. C) less important to the furtherance of knowledge.
  4. D) discounted; such work is not valid.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) The influence of Darwin and Freud on research has been

  1. A) systematic.
  2. B) heuristic.
  3. C) ritualistic
  4. D) systemic

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Applied

 

5) Controversial theories, such as Freud’s and Darwin’s, that have generated a vast amount of research are said to have

  1. A) systemic value.
  2. B) evolutionary value.
  3. C) heretical value.
  4. D) heuristic value.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Applied

 

6) The systematic influences of research on subsequent research would indicate

  1. A) that the research includes explicit propositions.
  2. B) that Freudian techniques have been employed.
  3. C) that evolution played an important theoretical role.
  4. D) that the research does not include explicit propositions.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) What is the term for the type of influence exerted when a theory generates a great deal of interest and thus generates several lines of research?

  1. A) applied research
  2. B) basic research
  3. C) heuristic research
  4. D) implicit research

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

8) What is the usual starting point for research?

  1. A) the observation phase
  2. B) asking a question
  3. C) communication phase
  4. D) procedures design

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

9) When a theory or research study generates a great deal of attention and interest, along with suggesting further areas of study, the theory is said to have ________ influence.

  1. A) systematic
  2. B) positive
  3. C) heuristic
  4. D) hermeneutic

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) Which type of influence is involved in the testing of explicit propositions in a step-by-step research program?

  1. A) propaedeutic influence
  2. B) systematic influence
  3. C) pedagogic influence
  4. D) heuristic influence

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the textbook as an important reference work helpful in locating relevant research?

  1. A) PsycINFO
  2. B) Medline
  3. C) Encyclopedia Britannica
  4. D) Social Sciences Citation Index

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 59

Skill: Factual

 

12) Freud’s work has stimulated considerable research. Freud’s theories dealt with

  1. A) learning
  2. B) motivation
  3. C) cognitive dissonance.
  4. D) unconscious influences on behavior.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

13) Lovaas conducted research in 1973 with

  1. A) mentally retarded adults.
  2. B) autistic adults.
  3. C) apes in Africa.
  4. D) autistic children.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60

Skill: Factual

 

14) Neal Miller conducted research in which area?

  1. A) schizophrenia
  2. B) modeling
  3. C) motivation
  4. D) autistic children

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60

Skill: Factual

 

15) Who first developed the concept of evolution?

  1. A) the Romans
  2. B) Charles Darwin
  3. C) Alfred Russel Wallace
  4. D) the Greeks

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Factual

 

16) Who is credited with the idea of natural selection?

  1. A) Charles Russel and Keith Wallace
  2. B) Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
  3. C) Charles Darwin and Arthur Keith
  4. D) Alfred Russel Wallace and Arthur Keith

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Factual

 

17) Who was the naturalist who anticipated Darwin’s discovery?

  1. A) Wallace
  2. B) Ptolemy
  3. C) Goodall
  4. D) Thales

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

18) The naturalist who is credited, along with Charles Darwin, with discovering the principles of natural selection is

  1. A) Alfred Russel Wallace.
  2. B) Linus Pauling.
  3. C) Linnaeus.
  4. D) Alfred North Whitehead.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Factual

 

19) Charles Darwin’s famous treatise on natural selection is entitled

  1. A) The Ascent to Man.
  2. B) De rerum naturae (On the Nature of Things).
  3. C) On the Origin of Species.
  4. D) Voyage of Galapagos.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Factual

 

20) The Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution

  1. A) has been discredited by modern psychology.
  2. B) came out of the early nineteenth century psychological research comparing animals and humans.
  3. C) has had little impact on the development of modern psychology.
  4. D) is a major theoretical underpinning of modern psychological science.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace

  1. A) were nineteenth century geologists.
  2. B) testified at the Scopes monkey trial.
  3. C) originated the concept of biological evolution.
  4. D) made virtually the same discoveries.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 60-61

Skill: Interpretive

 

22) Research on the language development of children that is conducted for the purpose of improving language training programs can be described as

  1. A) heuristic research.
  2. B) systematic research.
  3. C) applied research.
  4. D) basic research.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Applied

 

23) Applied research involves

  1. A) developing new information by applying standard statistical procedures.
  2. B) using tested animal research paradigms on people.
  3. C) finding answers to questions about practical problems.
  4. D) expanding research in educational institutions.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Factual

 

24) Which of the following is NOT an example of an applied psychological research question?

  1. A) How can we investigate which part of the brain is dedicated to memory?
  2. B) How can we train people to be better parents?
  3. C) How can we refine air traffic control procedures to minimize the chance of controller error?
  4. D) What is an effective approach for designing a relaxation program for retarded children to improve their attentional skills?

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Applied

 

25) Research that is concerned with providing solutions to practical problems is called

  1. A) basic research.
  2. B) applied research.
  3. C) fundamental research.
  4. D) heuristic research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) The question, “How can we train people to be better drivers?”

  1. A) is too vague a question to lead to research.
  2. B) cannot be subjected to research.
  3. C) is an applied research question.
  4. D) is a basic research question.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Applied

 

27) Studying the factors that affect the auditory memory of monkeys is an example of

  1. A) applied research.
  2. B) nomothetic research.
  3. C) basic research.
  4. D) generalization research.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 61-62

Skill: Applied

 

28) Basic research has

  1. A) no specific practical goals.
  2. B) specific and practical goals.
  3. C) little value in terms of adding to knowledge.
  4. D) more value in the “real world.”

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) Which type of research is carried out to add to our understanding and store of knowledge, without any particular practical goals?

  1. A) applied research
  2. B) systematic research
  3. C) heuristic research
  4. D) basic research

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Basic and applied research are related because

  1. A) one cannot be done without the other.
  2. B) they are always part of a continuum.
  3. C) basic research findings are often used in applied research.
  4. D) they are the meeting point of the natural and psychological sciences.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) The line between basic and applied research is

  1. A) often difficult to delineate.
  2. B) clear and precise.
  3. C) used to differentiate between important and less important scientific figures.
  4. D) measured by statistical significance.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) Research

  1. A) always divides neatly into basic and applied.
  2. B) can be categorized as basic, applied, or translational.
  3. C) that is translational must be translated from a foreign language.
  4. D) cannot be translational if it has an applied component.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Translational research

  1. A) has been the reigning research model for nearly 69 decades.
  2. B) has been supplanted by basic research in recent years.
  3. C) is a fairly new model for researchers.
  4. D) prevents application of research findings to real-world problems.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) Translational research centers

  1. A) now exist in the U.S.
  2. B) do not yet exist, but are being planned for 2022.
  3. C) are devoted primarily to the translation of scientific research from foreign languages into English.
  4. D) are focused almost entirely on basic research designs.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63

Skill: Interpretive

 

35) A potential problem with the emphasis on translational research is

  1. A) its enormous financial cost.
  2. B) it may undermine basic research.
  3. C) it may undermine applied research.
  4. D) its lack of governmental support.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63

Skill: Interpretive

 

36) Translational research

  1. A) spans basic and applied research.
  2. B) has been rejected by nearly all scientists.
  3. C) has no place in a democracy.
  4. D) has virtually displaced all other research models in the U.S.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 62-63

Skill: Interpretive

 

37) A variable is

  1. A) any observed event.
  2. B) any set of events that may have different values.
  3. C) any inferred event.
  4. D) kept under direct experimenter control.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 63 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

38) Each set of varying events of interest to a researcher is called

  1. A) a variable.
  2. B) a correlational set.
  3. C) an analysis of variance.
  4. D) a stimulus-response set.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Factual

 

39) The starting point for a research project

  1. A) is the same thing as the specific research hypothesis.
  2. B) may be a vague or general idea.
  3. C) usually needs no refinement if it is a good idea.
  4. D) needs refinement only for new and inexperienced researchers.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Interpretive

 

40) The nature of the research question that is asked has ramifications on all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) the level of constraint of a research project.
  2. B) the type of data and measurement.
  3. C) the kinds of statistical analyses used.
  4. D) the care and diligence of the research team.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) Any set of events having different values is called

  1. A) an event network.
  2. B) the variance.
  3. C) variational correlation.
  4. D) a variable.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 63-64 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

42) The process of refining vague and general ideas or questions ultimately provides the researcher with

  1. A) a specific research hypothesis.
  2. B) an initial question.
  3. C) a grant proposal.
  4. D) a null hypothesis.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 64

Skill: Interpretive

 

43) The more a researcher knows about an area of interest,

  1. A) the less refined the research question will be.
  2. B) the more likely it is that high-constraint research methods will be employed.
  3. C) the more likely it is that low-constraint research methods will be employed.
  4. D) the more he or she can afford to ask less refined questions.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 64

Skill: Interpretive

 

3.2 Types of Variables in Research

1) An overt response of an organism is classified as

  1. A) an organismic variable.
  2. B) a behavioral variable.
  3. C) a replicated variable.
  4. D) a correlational variable.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) Those events that have an actual effect on the behavior of the participant are called

  1. A) organismic variables.
  2. B) response variables.
  3. C) dependent variables.
  4. D) stimulus variables.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65-66 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) Behavioral variables can be defined as

  1. A) any kind of response or feeling.
  2. B) any overt response of an organism.
  3. C) any noted chemical or behavioral change.
  4. D) anything that happens as a result of a stimulus.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

4) Which of the following is NOT a behavioral variable?

  1. A) the heart rate of a participant in a psychophysiological study
  2. B) a person’s socioeconomic status
  3. C) a person playing the harpsichord
  4. D) the verbal behavior of children

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65

Skill: Applied

 

5) An example of a stimulus variable is

  1. A) the sex of a participant.
  2. B) a participant’s psychiatric diagnosis.
  3. C) the film participants watch as part of the study.
  4. D) a participant’s racial attitudes.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65

Skill: Applied

 

6) Of the following, which is the type of variable most often observed in psychological research?

  1. A) organismic variable
  2. B) stimulus variable
  3. C) behavioral variable
  4. D) response-inferred organismic variables

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) The speed with which a rat runs a maze is an example of

  1. A) a stimulus variable.
  2. B) a behavioral variable.
  3. C) an organismic variable.
  4. D) a participant variable.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65

Skill: Applied

 

8) A stimulus variable is

  1. A) an event or situation that affects or can affect an organism and its response.
  2. B) the environment.
  3. C) something that has no effect on the participant.
  4. D) the same as a behavioral variable.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65-66 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

9) Which of the following is NOT an important way of classifying variables in psychological research?

  1. A) behavioral variables
  2. B) stimulus variables
  3. C) organismic variables
  4. D) research variables

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65-66 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) Variables are classified based on their

  1. A) nature and use.
  2. B) validity.
  3. C) constraint levels.
  4. D) use and validity.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 65-66

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) Which type of variable is defined by its use in research?

  1. A) behavior variables
  2. B) invisible variables
  3. C) extraneous variables
  4. D) organismic variables

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) Which of the following is NOT an example of an observed organismic variable?

  1. A) a participant’s sex
  2. B) a participant’s height
  3. C) a participant’s weight
  4. D) a participant’s anxiety

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Applied

 

13) Which of the following is an example of an organismic variable?

  1. A) the difficulty level of a test of math
  2. B) the IQs of participants
  3. C) the amount of distraction each participant is exposed to
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

14) Which of the following is NOT an example of an internal stimulus?

  1. A) blood pressure
  2. B) cholesterol level
  3. C) sympathetic nervous system activity
  4. D) the temperature of the immediate environment

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Applied

 

15) Which of the following participant characteristics can be directly observed in scientific research?

  1. A) intelligence
  2. B) racial attitudes
  3. C) neuroticism
  4. D) gender of the participant

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Applied

 

16) Participant characteristics refer to

  1. A) the religious and ethnic background of the participant.
  2. B) organismic variables.
  3. C) environmental factors.
  4. D) stimulus variables.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) Response-inferred organismic variables are also

  1. A) dependent variables.
  2. B) directly observable.
  3. C) constructs.
  4. D) sex characteristics.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) The dependent variable

  1. A) is often manipulated by the experimenter.
  2. B) is sometimes manipulated by the experimenter.
  3. C) is always manipulated by the experimenter.
  4. D) is not manipulated by the experimenter.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) Response-inferred organismic variables

  1. A) are constructs.
  2. B) are directly observed.
  3. C) cannot be measured.
  4. D) occur only at the experimental level.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

20) An example of a response-inferred organismic variable is

  1. A) a participant’s weight.
  2. B) a participant’s race.
  3. C) the amount of weight a participant loses in an 8-week weight loss study.
  4. D) a participant’s attitude toward obesity.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Applied

 

21) An example of a response-inferred organismic variable is

  1. A) a participant’s weight.
  2. B) a participant’s performance on an arithmetic test.
  3. C) a participant’s speed in completing a task.
  4. D) a participant’s anxiety during math exams.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Applied

 

22) Which variable can be directly manipulated by the experimenter?

  1. A) the response-inferred variable
  2. B) the organismic variable
  3. C) the independent variable
  4. D) the dependent variable

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) Characteristics of participants, such as age and sex, are called

  1. A) organismic variables.
  2. B) stimulus variables.
  3. C) response variables.
  4. D) dependent variables.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

24) A response variable in one study

  1. A) must be a response variable in any other study.
  2. B) may be a stimulus variable in another study.
  3. C) may be an independent variable in another study.
  4. D) Both B and C

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) In naturalistic research, the dependent variable

  1. A) is, strictly speaking, not a dependent variable.
  2. B) must be shown to have a causal relationship with the independent variable.
  3. C) is always an organismic variable.
  4. D) must be manipulated extremely carefully for valid results.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) In a study of weight control, in which the proportion of fat and carbohydrate intake is varied across conditions and subsequent weight loss is measured,

  1. A) fat is an independent variable.
  2. B) weight loss is an independent variable.
  3. C) fat and carbohydrates are correlated variables.
  4. D) fat and carbohydrates are dependent variables.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

27) The dependent variable in psychological research is usually

  1. A) a stimulus variable.
  2. B) an organismic variable.
  3. C) an extraneous variable.
  4. D) a behavioral variable.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) The dependent variable in psychological studies is usually a

  1. A) behavioral variable.
  2. B) stimulus variable.
  3. C) external variable.
  4. D) organismic variable.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) The independent variables in psychological studies are usually

  1. A) behavioral or stimulus variables.
  2. B) stimulus or organismic variables.
  3. C) construct or behavioral variables.
  4. D) organismic or behavioral variables.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Which of the following is true in psychological research?

  1. A) The independent variable is usually a response variable.
  2. B) Assigned independent variables are usually stimulus variables.
  3. C) Manipulated independent variables are usually organismic variables.
  4. D) The dependent variable is usually a behavioral variable.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) A researcher hypothesizes that criticism and aggression increase among coworkers when frustration increases. Workers are assigned to one of three groups (no frustration, moderate frustration, high frustration). For each group, verbal criticism and aggression are measured. In this example the independent variable is

  1. A) frustration level.
  2. B) verbal criticism and aggression.
  3. C) number of people in a group.
  4. D) amount of work completed.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Applied

 

32) A researcher hypothesizes that verbal criticism and aggression among coworkers increase as frustration increases. Workers are assigned to one of three groups (no frustration, moderate frustration, high frustration). For each group verbal aggression and criticism are measured. In this example the dependent variable is

  1. A) frustration level.
  2. B) verbal aggression and criticism.
  3. C) the number of people in a group.
  4. D) amount of work completed.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Applied

 

33) In experimental research, the variable designated as the dependent variable

  1. A) always refers to an organismic variable.
  2. B) is not directly manipulated by the experimenter.
  3. C) is merely another term for the organismic variable.
  4. D) is directly manipulated by the experimenter.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) The ________ variable is under the control of the researcher.

  1. A) organismic
  2. B) manipulated independent
  3. C) nonmanipulated independent
  4. D) dependent

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Interpretive

 

35) Research with nonmanipulated independent variables

  1. A) cannot be conducted.
  2. B) usually has organismic variables for independent variables.
  3. C) is best done within an experimental design.
  4. D) can answer questions about causal relationships between variables.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

36) The largest category of nonmanipulated independent variables in psychology consists of

  1. A) extraneous variables.
  2. B) causal variables.
  3. C) organismic variables.
  4. D) stimulus variables.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

37) If a researcher assigns participants to groups based on, for example, their identified political affiliation, the researcher would be employing

  1. A) a nonmanipulated independent variable.
  2. B) a manipulated independent variable.
  3. C) a nonmanipulated dependent variable.
  4. D) a manipulated dependent variable.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

38) Which of these variables is least likely to be controlled by the experimenter?

  1. A) external variables
  2. B) internal variables
  3. C) organismic variables
  4. D) manipulated independent variables

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

39) If a researcher measured neuroticism in a group of participants and then divided the participants into high, moderate, and low neuroticism, this would be an example of

  1. A) classification with an organismic variable.
  2. B) very poor research design.
  3. C) naturalistic research.
  4. D) a causal inference.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

40) An independent variable is

  1. A) directly manipulated by the researcher.
  2. B) not directly manipulated by the participant.
  3. C) indirectly manipulated by the researcher.
  4. D) indirectly manipulated by the participant.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) The classification of a variable (e.g., independent vs. dependent) depends on

  1. A) the characteristics of the variable alone.
  2. B) the nature of the study alone.
  3. C) the characteristics of the variable and the nature of the study.
  4. D) the biases of the researcher.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

42) In experimental research, the variable designated as the independent variable

  1. A) refers to the variable that is directly manipulated by the research team.
  2. B) refers to the variable that is directly manipulated by the participant.
  3. C) refers to a variable that is independent of any measurement strategy.
  4. D) refers to the variable that is not directly manipulated.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 66-67

Skill: Interpretive

 

43) Organismic variables are most likely to be

  1. A) manipulated independent variables.
  2. B) nonmanipulated independent variables.
  3. C) stimulus variables.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

44) In a study with organismic independent variables,

  1. A) causal conclusions are very strong.
  2. B) no conclusions can be drawn.
  3. C) any causal conclusions must be tentative.
  4. D) active manipulation of the independent variable must be included.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

45) The two types of independent variables are

  1. A) spurious and representative.
  2. B) iconic and eidetic.
  3. C) parametric and nonparametric.
  4. D) manipulated and nonmanipulated.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Factual

 

46) The largest category of nonmanipulated independent variables are

  1. A) organismic variables.
  2. B) dependent variables.
  3. C) stimulus variables.
  4. D) behavioral variables.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Interpretive

 

47) In psychology, what is the largest category of nonmanipulated independent variables?

  1. A) physiological variables
  2. B) response variables
  3. C) stimulus variables
  4. D) organismic variables

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (PQ, SG)

Skill: Factual

 

48) If an experimenter is interested in investigating the causal relationship between two variables, what would be the best strategy?

  1. A) Operationally define both measures and carefully measure each.
  2. B) Define which of the variables is to be the organismic variable.
  3. C) Use a nonmanipulated independent variable in a differential research design.
  4. D) Operationally define one of the variables as a manipulated independent variable in an experimental design.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

49) An example of a manipulated independent variable might be

  1. A) the amount of sensory deprivation given a participant.
  2. B) a participant’s religious affiliation.
  3. C) a student participant’s hallucinations in response to severe sensory deprivation.
  4. D) a retarded child’s behavior after a session of relaxation training.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Applied

 

50) In psychological research, gender, hair color, and IQ could be examples of

  1. A) nonmanipulated independent variables.
  2. B) assigned dependent variables.
  3. C) manipulated independent variables.
  4. D) manipulated dependent variables.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Applied

 

51) A constant is

  1. A) the direct opposite of a variable.
  2. B) not a variable.
  3. C) a specific number, as in mathematics.
  4. D) a variable that does not vary.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Factual

 

52) If age and gender caused variability in response to a particular pharmaceutical drug in elderly people, and we only test 70-year-old females, age and gender would be

  1. A) manipulated independent variables.
  2. B) constants.
  3. C) manipulated dependent variables.
  4. D) nonmanipulated independent variables.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67-68

Skill: Applied

 

53) Disruptive behavior is an example of a possible

  1. A) independent variable.
  2. B) dependent variable.
  3. C) stimulus variable.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 67 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

3.3 Validity and Control of Extraneous Variables

1) Validity

  1. A) is something that cannot be achieved.
  2. B) refers to how well a measure or study performs.
  3. C) is a separate statistical measure used by natural scientists.
  4. D) is a way of including extraneous variables to give the study more meaning.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68

Skill: Factual

 

2) Changes in one variable resulting in predictable changes in another

  1. A) show that a causal relationship cannot be inferred.
  2. B) can be observed only in naturalistic or case-study research.
  3. C) occur only in correlational studies.
  4. D) suggest that a causal relationship exists.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) General control procedures can be implemented in research

  1. A) only in low-constraint research designs.
  2. B) only in high-constraint research designs.
  3. C) only in experimental research designs.
  4. D) at many different levels of constraint.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) We seek to control extraneous variables in research because they

  1. A) are threats to reliability.
  2. B) distract the participants.
  3. C) reduce validity.
  4. D) reflect the experimenter’s planned biases.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Being concerned with whether a study answers the questions it posed is a concern for the study’s

  1. A) reliability.
  2. B) replicability.
  3. C) validity.
  4. D) representativeness.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68 (SG)

Skill: Factual

 

6) The influence of extraneous variables can reduce a study’s methodological soundness or

  1. A) replicability.
  2. B) reliability.
  3. C) validity.
  4. D) authenticity.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) Extraneous variables represent threats to validity because they can influence the behavior of

  1. A) both participants and researchers.
  2. B) participants only.
  3. C) researchers only.
  4. D) animals only.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) An example of an extraneous variable in a study designed to explore a child’s unique problem-solving strategies is

  1. A) the child’s response time for each problem set.
  2. B) the number of correct answers a child achieves without assistance.
  3. C) unrequested assistance from other children in solving the problems.
  4. D) the problem sets themselves.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Applied

 

9) The two ways of controlling extraneous variables are

  1. A) the use of high-constraint research designs and the use of general control procedures.
  2. B) the use of low-constraint research designs and the use of general control procedures.
  3. C) the use of high-constraint research designs and the use of correlational designs.
  4. D) the use of high-constraint research designs and employing a smaller sample size.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) A way to control for extraneous variables is to use

  1. A) higher-constraint research designs.
  2. B) lower-constraint research designs.
  3. C) naturalistic observation techniques.
  4. D) complicated extraneous variance correcting statistical procedures.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) The purpose of control and controlled research is to ensure the achievement of

  1. A) validity
  2. B) accuracy
  3. C) reliability
  4. D) uniformity

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) Validity is best achieved by

  1. A) not interfering with variables.
  2. B) simply reporting all observations.
  3. C) choosing a well-studied area of research.
  4. D) controlling for extraneous variables.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) Extraneous variables are threats to the ________ of a study.

  1. A) predictability
  2. B) validity
  3. C) authenticity
  4. D) replicability

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 68-69

Skill: Factual

 

14) Extraneous variables ________ methodological soundness.

  1. A) can attenuate
  2. B) can enhance
  3. C) can have either an attenuating or enhancing effect on
  4. D) have no effect on

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Interpretive

 

3.4 Ethical Principles

1) Psychological research ________ biomedical research.

  1. A) is as potentially risky as
  2. B) is more risky than
  3. C) has similar ethical concerns as
  4. D) is free from the same constraints as

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) Deception in psychology is

  1. A) standard in some areas of study.
  2. B) unnecessary and should be eliminated.
  3. C) ethical under all circumstances.
  4. D) a threat to validity.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) Psychological studies with human participants are

  1. A) always problematic and have to meet a higher test of ethical standards than natural sciences.
  2. B) physically intrusive.
  3. C) subject to government approval.
  4. D) rarely physically intrusive.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) Injecting live disease organisms into a participant, not related to the treatment needs of a participant, without the participant’s permission is

  1. A) ethical in some circumstances.
  2. B) ethical with prison populations.
  3. C) at least questionable and probably unethical.
  4. D) ethical in euthanasia.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Applied

 

5) ________ is frequently employed in psychological research, and therefore raises ethical questions that must be addressed by the researcher.

  1. A) Electroshock
  2. B) Psychophysiological measurement
  3. C) Deception
  4. D) Fraud

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) Which of the following is NOT an important ethical concern of a good researcher?

  1. A) to develop well-designed projects that are executed with care
  2. B) to safeguard participants’ rights
  3. C) to guarantee that the study will be published
  4. D) to consider whether a participant will be a “participant at risk” or “participant at minimal risk”

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69-72

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) Deception, risk, and prying in research are

  1. A) acceptable in certain instances.
  2. B) not acceptable.
  3. C) acceptable if the participant disagrees.
  4. D) acceptable if real benefits can be shown.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69-70

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) Generally, research ethics refer to

  1. A) how participants should behave when doing a study.
  2. B) the treatment and safety of participants.
  3. C) the treatment of all animals in captivity.
  4. D) plagiarizing of other scientists’ work.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 69-70

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) A researcher who studies attachment behavior in people with anorexia without obtaining prior informed consent from participants would be considered

  1. A) ethical but slipshod in his/her methods.
  2. B) to be doing invalid research.
  3. C) to be doing creative research.
  4. D) to be unethical.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Applied

 

10) The most important safeguard that can be employed to minimize risks to human research participants is

  1. A) debriefing of participants.
  2. B) use of coded data.
  3. C) anonymity of participants.
  4. D) informed consent.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Guidelines for Research with Human Participants

  1. A) guarantees a research participant payment for participation.
  2. B) guarantees a research participant the freedom to withdraw at any time from participation.
  3. C) guarantees that there will be no deception or concealment.
  4. D) expressly forbids research on children or persons with impairments.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Factual

 

12) The most important safeguard built into the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Guidelines is that

  1. A) participation in research is decided by the participant.
  2. B) each signature must be notarized.
  3. C) each participant is guaranteed a payment for services.
  4. D) the researcher cannot be sued.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) Using participants who are unable to give informed consent because of age or mental deficit is

  1. A) strictly forbidden by the American Psychological Association.
  2. B) not allowed under current ethical guidelines.
  3. C) allowed, providing a bona-fide representative can give consent.
  4. D) illegal.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Factual

 

14) The use of number identification codes for participants in psychological research is primarily designed

  1. A) to facilitate data entry and analysis.
  2. B) to safeguard participants’ confidentiality.
  3. C) to prevent other researchers from stealing the data.
  4. D) as a convenience for the researcher, but have no real function.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) Doing research in a medical setting by performing harmless, unnecessary procedures without permission of participants is an example of

  1. A) valid biomedical procedures.
  2. B) unethical behavior.
  3. C) the tenacity of the physician.
  4. D) ethical, but questionable practice.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

16) Researchers commonly safeguard confidentiality by

  1. A) changing the names of participants.
  2. B) using participants that live far away from the research center.
  3. C) using numerical codes for participant identification.
  4. D) using initials only.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) The principle concerns for which ethical guidelines in psychology have been drawn up are

  1. A) deception, severe physical harm, and invasion of privacy.
  2. B) invasion of privacy, participants’ rights, and deception.
  3. C) payment for services, deception, and participants’ rights.
  4. D) participants’ rights, severe physical harm, and payment for services.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 70-73

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) IRBs evaluate the research proposals against ethical standards. IRB stands for

  1. A) International Review Board.
  2. B) Institutional Review Board.
  3. C) Instructional Review Bureau.
  4. D) Instructional Research Bureau.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Factual

 

19) IRBs evaluate research proposals against ethical standards. IRBs consist of

  1. A) researchers, peers, and lay people.
  2. B) researchers only.
  3. C) only the top researchers at universities.
  4. D) federally appointed officials and researchers.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Factual

 

20) The ultimate responsibility for ethical research lies with the

  1. A) government.
  2. B) Institutional Review Board.
  3. C) researcher.
  4. D) educational institution.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Factual

 

21) Regarding research procedures and conduct, IRB stands for

  1. A) Interviewing Resources Bank.
  2. B) Institutional Review Board.
  3. C) Investigational Research Bureau.
  4. D) Informational Research Bureau.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Factual

 

22) The Institutional Review Board (IRB)

  1. A) reduces the researcher’s ethical responsibility to design acceptable research.
  2. B) is designed to assist researchers and help protect human participants.
  3. C) is comprised of the president of the university and other top administrators.
  4. D) is designed to help protect animals.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) The risks to participants in psychological research should be

  1. A) weighed against the possible benefits.
  2. B) eliminated, even if benefits outweigh risk.
  3. C) accepted; life is risky.
  4. D) discounted; injury or psychological harm to participants is rare.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) Which of the following is an ethical check that should be employed in a study with human participants?

  1. A) The design is sufficient to provide valuable information.
  2. B) Only fit and coherent participants are used.
  3. C) Additional knowledge is gained despite ethical difficulties.
  4. D) The research follows the tradition of early philosophers and scientists.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) Ethical concerns should be examined

  1. A) at the post-observational stage of a study.
  2. B) during the initial idea-generating phase.
  3. C) after all data have been gathered.
  4. D) before any observations.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71-72

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Discomfort and risk assessment as part of the ethical evaluation of a research project is primarily the task of

  1. A) the researcher.
  2. B) the American Psychological Association.
  3. C) the participant.
  4. D) the government.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 71-72

Skill: Interpretive

 

27) “Diversity” in research

  1. A) is considered to be an behavioral variable.
  2. B) refers to how well ethnic, gender, and age groups are represented in the research.
  3. C) is a measure of how varied the procedures are.
  4. D) refers to the number of ways a study can be repeated.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) Which of the following groups were traditionally overrepresented in psychological and biomedical research?

  1. A) females
  2. B) children
  3. C) Caucasian males
  4. D) minority group members

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Factual

 

29) Why is it important to represent the diversity of the culture in psychological and medical research?

  1. A) Because the risk associated with research should be shared equally.
  2. B) Because findings in one group may not apply to other groups.
  3. C) Because Title IX dictates equal availability of research opportunities.
  4. D) Because every group is required to fund the research, every group should be allowed to conduct the research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) When might it be permissible to exclude a gender, ethnic, or age group?

  1. A) studying anxiety disorder
  2. B) studying response to stress
  3. C) studying Alzheimer’s disease
  4. D) It is never permissible to exclude these groups.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Applied

 

31) The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

  1. A) has taken no explicit stand on diversity issues in psychological and medical research.
  2. B) requires that all research, regardless of funding, must include diverse populations.
  3. C) requires that population diversity be represented in all NIH-funded studies unless there is a practical problem in adequately representing key groups.
  4. D) requires that population diversity be represented in all NIH-funded studies unless there is a scientifically justified reason for not including specific groups.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) Which of the following ethical concerns have been raised about using animals in experiments?

  1. A) Animal behavior is unpredictable.
  2. B) Research procedures are often more invasive in animal research.
  3. C) Animals do not provide good data.
  4. D) Fewer drugs are tested on animals.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Factual

 

33) The American Psychological Association has addressed ethical issues in animal research since

  1. A) 1986.
  2. B) 1946.
  3. C) 1961.
  4. D) 1925.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Factual

 

34) With respect to ethical treatment of animals, the American Psychological Association (APA)

  1. A) has shown consistent and early concern for standards in animal research.
  2. B) has failed to develop guidelines.
  3. C) has declared animal research “off limits.”
  4. D) has chosen not to enter this controversial area, since animal research is not necessary for the study of behavior.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 72

Skill: Factual

 

35) Developing alternatives to the use of live animals in research

  1. A) is more difficult in behavioral research than it is in medical research.
  2. B) is easier in behavioral research than it is in medical research.
  3. C) would lead to the desirable state of eliminating animal research altogether.
  4. D) would give psychologists as much information as studying the animals themselves.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 73 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

36) According to Neal Miller (1985), behavioral research involving animals has led to successful treatment for

  1. A) other animals but not humans.
  2. B) human medical disorders but not psychological disorders.
  3. C) almost no one.
  4. D) psychological disorders such as anorexia and enuresis.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 73-74

Skill: Factual

 

37) According to Neal Miller, animal research has

  1. A) destroyed the natural environment.
  2. B) led to questions about the validity of using animals in experimentation.
  3. C) often led to more humane treatment of animals.
  4. D) contributed little knowledge in the area of human psychology.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 73-74

Skill: Factual

 

38) In a 1991 discussion on animal research, Ulrich argued that

  1. A) animals should be used more in order to avoid discomfort of human participants.
  2. B) scientists must be given more freedom; the ethical argument is preventing important research.
  3. C) the misuse of animals is unfortunate, but a necessary evil.
  4. D) misuse of animals occurs in research.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 74

Skill: Factual

 

39) In reference to animal research, who argued that scientists are “guilty of our culture’s propensity to consume anything”?

  1. A) Neal Miller
  2. B) Paul Meehl
  3. C) Albert Bandura
  4. D) Roger Ulrich

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 74

Skill: Factual