### Sample Chapter

**INSTANT DOWNLOAD**

**Statistics and Data Analysis for Nursing Research 2nd Edition By Polit – Test Bank **

Chapter 1

*Introduction to Data Analysis in an Evidence-Based Practice Environment *

1.1. Statistical skills can play an important role in nursing because they help nurses to:

- Calculate appropriate doses and clinical measurements
- Generate clinical questions

*c. Evaluate and generate research evidence for nursing practice

- Make better use of computers and the Internet

1.2. In the context of a quantitative study, a concept is called a(n):

- Operational definition

*b. Variable

- Statistic
- Parameter

1.3. An example of a variable is:

*a. Systolic blood pressure

- Pi (π)
- 52.5 kilograms
- Number of seconds in a minute

1.4. An example of a datum is:

- Systolic blood pressure
- Pi (π)

*c. 52.5 kilograms

- Number of seconds in a minute

1.5. Which of the following is *not *a component of a research question?

- An independent variable
- A population

*c. A sample

- A dependent variable

1.6. Identify the dependent variable in the following: In elderly men, what is the effect of chronic fatigue on level of depression?

- Age
- Sex
- Chronic fatigue

*d. Depression

1.7. Which of the following is a continuous variable?

- Number of pages in a book

*b. Age at death

- Falls during hospitalization
- Number of times married

1.8. Measurement is the assignment of numbers to characteristics of people or objects according to specified _________ . (Fill in the blank.)

*a. Rules

- Definitions
- Concepts
- Parameters

1.9. The measurement level that classifies attributes, indicates magnitude, and has equal intervals between values, but does not have a rational zero, is:

- Nominal
- Ordinal

*c. Interval

- Ratio

1.10. The measurement level that is sometimes called *categorical *or *qualitative *is:

*a. Nominal

- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

1.11. It is not meaningful to calculate an arithmetic average with data from which of the following?

- Nominal measures
- Ordinal measures

*c. Nominal and ordinal measures

- All measures can be meaningfully averaged.

1.12. Degree of pain measured as *none, a little*, or *a lot* is measured on which of the following scales?

- Nominal

*b. Ordinal

- Interval
- Ratio

1.13. Body temperature is measured on which of the following scales?

- Nominal
- Ordinal

*c. Interval

- Ratio

1.14. Type of birth (vaginal or cesarean) is measured on the:

*a. Nominal scale

- Ordinal scale
- Interval scale
- Ratio scale

1.15. Which of the following is a ratio-level measure?

*a. Dietary cholesterol intake (mg)

- Cognitive impairment on a 50-item scale
- Pain on a 10-point scale
- Military rank

1.16. Ratio-level measures are different than any other level by virtue of which property?

- Classification
- Equal intervals between values

*c. A true, rational zero

- Indication of magnitude

1.17. Which level of measurement communicates the most information?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval

*d. Ratio

1.18. Researchers typically collect data from a ________ and hope to generalize their results to a _____________. (Fill in the blanks.)

- Population, sample
- Statistic, parameter
- Sample, statistic

*d. Sample, population

1.19. If the average amount of sleep for all people in the United States was 7.6 hours per night, this average would be a(n) _________ of the population of U.S. residents. (Fill in the blank.)

- Variable

*b. Parameter

- Statistic
- Datum

1.20. If a nurse researcher measured the anxiety level of 100 hospitalized children, the children’s average score on an anxiety scale would be a(n):

- Variable
- Parameter

*c. Statistic

- Operational definition

1.21. Statistical methods that are used to draw conclusions about a population are called:

*a. Inferential statistics

- Descriptive statistics
- Univariate statistics
- Multivariate statistics

** **

Chapter 2

*Frequency Distributions: Tabulating and Displaying Data*

* *

2.1. A major purpose of constructing a frequency distribution with sample data is to:

- Estimate a population parameter
- Test a research hypothesis

*c. Get an organized view of an entire set of scores

- Get experience with statistical software

2.2. In a frequency distribution, the two key informational components are:

*a. Score values (*X*), frequencies (*f*)

- A horizontal (X) axis, a vertical (Y) axis
- Frequencies (
*f*), percentages (%) - Participant ID number (
*id)*, score values (*X)*

2.3. In a frequency distribution, which of the following is true?

- Σ
*N*=*%* - Σ
*N*=*f* - Σ
*f*=*%*

*d. Σ *f* = *N*

2.4. In the equation Σ % = 100.0, the symbol Σ signifies:

- A percentage

*b. The sum of

- A data value
- A frequency

2.5. In a frequency distribution, percentages are sometimes called:

- Proportions
- Relative proportions

*c. Relative frequencies

- Cumulative proportions

2.6. Data for which of the following variables is most likely to be presented in a grouped frequency distribution?

- Nursing specialty area

*b. Daily cholesterol intake

- Number of abortions
- Number of pets owned

2.7. The level of measurement for data appropriately presented in a bar graph is:

- Interval or ratio
- Nominal only
- Interval only

*d. Nominal or ordinal

2.8. In a frequency distribution graph, frequencies are typically presented on the ____ and data values are presented on the ____________. (Fill in the blanks.)

*a. *Y* axis, *X* axis

*X*axis,*Y*axis*f*axis,*N*axis*N*axis,*f*axis

2.9. Which of the following sets of data is *not *unimodal?

*a. 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5

- 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4
- 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5
- 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9

2.10. Which of the following variables is most likely to be negatively skewed in a general population?

- Number of times arrested

*b. Age at retirement

- Number of times married
- Age at birth

2.11. A normal distribution is *not:*

- Skewed
- Leptokurtic
- Platykurtic

*d. All of the above

2.12. A wild code is*:*

*a. A value that is impossible given the coding scheme

- An outlier or high value
- A code for which there is a very low frequency
- A code for which there is a very high frequency

The next eight questions pertain to the following table (Table 2):

**Table 2**

Number of Pregnancies of Study Participants | Frequency | Percentage | Cumulative Percentage |

0 | 24 | 11.1 | 11.1 |

1 | 29 | 13.5 | 24.6 |

2 | 78 | 36.3 | 60.9 |

3 | 46 | 21.4 | 82.3 |

4 | 22 | 10.2 | 92.5 |

5 | 11 | 5.1 | 97.6 |

6 | 4 | 1.9 | 99.5 |

7 | 1 | 0.4 | 100.0 |

Total | 215 | 100.0 |

2.13 In Table 2, the variable is _______ and the measurement level is _________. (Fill in the blanks.)

- Discrete, interval

*b. Discrete, ratio

- Continuous, interval
- Continuous, ratio

2.14. Table 2 is an example of a:

*a. Frequency distribution

- Grouped frequency distribution
- Class interval
- Data matrix

2.15. In Table 2, the value of *N* is:

- 24
- 100.0

*c. 215

- 7

2.16. In Table 2, the cumulative relative frequency for five or fewer pregnancies is:

- 210
- 199
- 92.5

*d. 97.6

2.17. The best way to graph information in Table 2 would be to construct:

*a. A histogram

- A pie chart
- A bar graph
- Either a pie chart or a bar graph

2.18. In Table 2, the distribution of data would be described as:

- Symmetric

*b. Positively skewed

- Negatively skewed
- It cannot be determined.

2.19. In Table 2, the distribution of data would be described as:

*a. Unimodal

- Bimodal
- Multimodal
- It cannot be determined.

2.20. In Table 2, the most likely number to be an outlier is:

- 0
- 1

*c. 7

- 24

Chapter 3

*Central Tendency, Variability, and Relative Standing*

* *

3.1. A distribution of data values can be described in terms of all of the following characteristics *except:*

- Central tendency
- Variability

*c. Relative standing

- Shape

3.2. Central tendency indexes are all of the following *except* which of the following statements?

- They are descriptive statistics.

*b. They summarize how dispersed a set of scores is.

- They provide information about a value around which scores cluster.
- They are appropriate for interval- and ratio-level measures.

3.3. In the following distribution (10 11 12 13 14 15 15 15 15) the mode is:

- 11
- 12
- 14

*d. 15

3.4. In the following distribution (10 11 12 13 14 15 15 15 15) the median is:

- 11
- 12

*c. 14

- 15

3.5. The median is all of the following *except*:

- The 50
^{th}percentile - The point that divides a distribution in half
*Q*_{2}

*d. The most popular score in the distribution

3.6. For which of the following set of numbers are the mean, median, and mode the same value?

*a. 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7

- 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
- 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 7
- All of the above

3.7. In which type of distribution is the mean a higher value than the median or mode?

- A leptokurtic distribution

*b. A positively skewed distribution

- A negatively skewed distribution
- A normal distribution

3.8. If there are outliers at either end of a distribution that is symmetric, a researcher might:

*a. Calculate a trimmed mean

- Report the median rather than the mean
- Report the mode rather than the mean
- Omit the variable from further analyses

3.9. Which of the following indexes of dispersion is *not *in the original units of measurement of the variable?

- Range
- Interquartile range
- Standard deviation

*d. Variance

3.10. Which of the following indexes of dispersion tends to be least stable—most likely to fluctuate from one sample to another from the same population?

*a. Range

*IQR*- Standard deviation
- Variance

3.11. Which of the following indexes involves the calculation of deviation scores (*x*)?

- Range
*IQR*

*c. *SD*

*M*

3.12. Which of the following indexes involves the calculation of percentiles?

*z*

*b. *IQR*

*SD**M*

3.13. Which of the following statistical symbols does not belong with the others?

*SD**IQR**M*

*d. μ

3.14. What percentage of cases for a normally distributed variable lies within 1 *SD *above and below the mean?

- 34%
- 50%

*c. 68%

- 95%

3.15. In calculating standard scores, which two descriptive statistics are needed?

- Median,
*IQR* - Median, percentiles
- Mean, Range

*d. Mean, *SD*

* *

3.16. A *z *score of 0.00 corresponds to an original score that:

- Could not be used in the calculation of the mean

*b. Is the same as the mean in the original distribution

- Is the lowest score in the original distribution
- Is an outlier

3.17. A *z *score of -1.00 corresponds approximately to a score for a normally distributed variable that is at the:

- 1
^{st}percentile - 10
^{th}percentile

*c. 16^{th} percentile

- 84
^{th}percentile

3.18. An extreme outlier is:

- More than 3
*SD*s above the mean - Equivalent to a
*z*score of -3.0 or lower, or +3.0 or higher - More than three times the value of the mean

*d. More than 3 times the *IQR*, below *Q _{1}* or above

*Q*

_{3}

3.19. In a boxplot, information about a distribution is depicted in terms of:

*a. Percentiles

- Standard deviation units
*z*scores*T*scores

3.20. The number 100 can always be thought of as:

- A mean of a distribution when the
*SD*is 15 - A value equivalent to the 10
^{th}percentile

*c. A number whose real limits are 99.5 and 100.5

- An outlier

Questions 3.21 through 3.25 pertain to the following table (Table 3):

**Table 3**

**Characteristics of Chemotherapy Patients ( N =100)**

Characteristic |
M (SD) |
Mdn |

Age (years) | 48.9 (9.8) | 47.0 |

Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m^{2}) |
27.0 (6.0) | 25.1 |

Number of positive nodes | 3.4 (2.9) | 2.0 |

Dose of cyclophosphamide (mg) | 1063.0 (477.0) | 1250.0 |

Dose of doxorubicin (mg) | 125.0 (53.0) | 125.0 |

Degree of nausea, 0-100 scale | 52.1 (25.0) | 52.0 |

3.21. Refer to Table 3. For the variable *body mass index, *the variance is:

- 27.0
- 27.0
^{2} - 6.0

*d. 36.0

3.22. Refer to Table 3. For the variable *number of positive nodes, *the statistics suggest that the distribution is:

*a. Positively skewed

- Negatively skewed
- Symmetric
- Normal

3.23. Refer to Table 3. Assume that the distribution for the variable *degree of nausea *is normally distributed. In such a case, out of the 100 sample members, approximately how many gave a nausea rating of 77 or higher?

- 0
- 3

*c. 16

- 34

3.24. Refer to Table 3. Which variable in Table 3 is most likely to be negatively skewed?

- Age
- Body mass index

*c. Dose of cyclophosphamide

- Dose of doxorubicin

3.25. Refer to Table 3. For the variable *body mass index, *what would be the standard score for a person whose BMI was 21.0?

*a. -1.0

- 0.0
- 1.0
- 2.0

** **

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