Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Understanding Food Principles and Preparation 5th Edition by Amy Christine Brown – Test Bank
 
Sample  Question

 

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 1 – Food Selection

 

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The first impressions of food are received through the sense of
  2. smell.
  3. sight.
  4. hearing.
  5. taste.
  6. touch.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 1

 

  1. The most influential factor in a person’s selection of food is the sense of
  2. sight.
  3. taste.
  4. hearing.
  5. odor.
  6. touch.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. Most people can differentiate between _____ odors.
  2. 250 and 500
  3. 500 and 1000
  4. 1000 and 2000
  5. 2000 and 4000

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. The ability to distinguish between various odors
  2. diminishes over the time of exposure to the smells.
  3. increases over the time of exposure to the smells.
  4. stays the save over the time of exposure to the smells.
  5. All of the above answers are correct depending on the specific smell.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. Four categories of odor classification include
  2. fragrant, acid, burnt, and metallic.
  3. acidic, burnt, savory, and metallic
  4. fragrant, acid, burnt, and caprylic.
  5. sweet, sour, burnt, and metallic.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. Impressions of volatile flavor substances are provided by the sense of
  2. sight.
  3. smell.
  4. taste.
  5. sound.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. The five basic taste stimuli include
  2. alkaline, bitter, sour, sweet, and salty.
  3. sour, sweet, acidic, bitter, and savory.
  4. sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory.
  5. unami, savory, sweet, sour, and salty.
  6. savory, bitter, metallic, sour, and sweet.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 3

 

  1. The savory or umami taste is actually found in certain
  2. simple sugars.
  3. complex carbohydrates.
  4. fatty acids.
  5. amino acids.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 3

 

  1. The sour taste found in some foods comes from
  2. the chemical configuration of food molecules.
  3. the acids found in food.
  4. alkaloid compounds found in food.
  5. ionized salts such as the salt ions in sodium chloride or other salts found naturally in foods.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 3

 

  1. Bitterness is imparted by substances in foods such as
  2. caffeine.
  3. theobromine.
  4. phenolic compounds.
  5. alkaloids.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 3

 

  1. Which of the following statements about threshold concentration is incorrect (false)?
  2. Subthreshold salt levels increase perceived sweetness.
  3. Subthreshold salt levels decrease perceived acidity.
  4. Subthreshold acid concentrations make a food taste less salty.
  5. Subthreshold sugar concentrations make a food taste less salty.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. Consistency is expressed in terms of
  2. brittleness.
  3. chewiness.
  4. thinness.
  5. elasticity (rubbery or gummy).
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 5

 

  1. Some compounds like monosodium glutamate, often used in Chinese cooking, actually adjust the taste of meat and other foods by making them
  2. sweeter.
  3. saltier.
  4. sour.
  5. bitter.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. Aroma provides about _____ percent of the impression of flavor.
  2. 25
  3. 50
  4. 75
  5. 100

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. The feeling of chemesthesis may be felt by some individuals eating
  2. really cold ice cream.
  3. hot chili peppers.
  4. warm chicken noodle soup.
  5. hot chocolate with whipped cream.
  6. hot buttered popcorn.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 5

 

  1. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines promote a healthy diet by emphasizing all of the following except
  2. consuming a variety of vegetables, legumes, and whole grains.
  3. eating lean meats, poultry, seafood, seeds, and nuts.
  4. consuming full-fat milk products.
  5. limiting added sugars.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 6

 

  1. MyPlate
  2. provides directions from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as to the amounts of food required to give you the nutrients you need.
  3. is a list of dietary recommendations concerning diet, exercise, and other lifestyle factors (e.g., alcohol consumption).
  4. is a pictorial illustration of the concepts of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines.
  5. provides nutrient intake recommendations for all Americans aged 2 through 65.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 6

 

  1. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics suggests that properly planned vegetarian diets may reduce the risk of
  2. heart disease.
  3. some cancers.
  4. diabetes mellitus.
  5. hypertension.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 8

 

  1. Functional foods may
  2. impart a physiological benefit that enhances overall health.
  3. help prevent or treat a disease or condition.
  4. improve physical or mental performance.
  5. all the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 9

 

  1. Culture influences food habits most profoundly by dictating
  2. what is or is not acceptable to eat.
  3. which factors that influence food selection are important.
  4. how the nutrients in foods are valued.
  5. how the people in a country prepare the food they eat.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 11

 

  1. Religious practices primarily influence dietary intake by
  2. defining what is and is not acceptable to eat.
  3. declaring foods as acceptable or unacceptable and specifying preparation procedures.
  4. requiring blessings and specialized preparation procedures before consumption.
  5. requiring all food to be blessed and well cooked.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 12

 

  1. What religious group in which approximately 40% of members practice being lacto-ovo-vegetarians discourages consumption of between-meal snacks, hot spices, alcohol, tea, and coffee?
  2. Buddhists and Hindus
  3. Seventh-Day Adventists
  4. Mormons
  5. Orthodox Jews

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 12

 

  1. Which of the following religious groups focuses its dietary laws on three major issues: Kosher animals allowed, blood not allowed, and the mixing of milk and meat is also not allowed?
  2. Mormons
  3. Orthodox Jews
  4. Muslims
  5. Buddhists

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 13

 

  1. Which of the following religious groups follows the practice of consuming halal meat?
  2. Buddhists
  3. Hindus
  4. Muslims
  5. Mormons
  6. Orthodox Jews

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 13

 

  1. The predominant source of information about nutrition for most consumers is
  2. radio.
  3. magazine advertisements.
  4. newspaper.
  5. television.
  6. family and friends.
  7. nutrition classes.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 14

 

  1. The term organic
  2. refers to food products that have been produced without most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.
  3. refers to food products made with crops that have not been genetically modified.
  4. refers to food products made from livestock that have been raised without antibiotics or hormones.
  5. excludes food products that have been irradiated.
  6. only answers a and c are correct
  7. only answers a, b and c are correct
  8. answers a, b, c, and d are correct

 

ANS: g       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 16

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The number of different foods now available makes it more difficult today than ever before to plan a nutritious diet.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 1

 

  1. Volatile molecules are capable of evaporating like a gas into the air.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. The perception that a continuously present smell gradually decreases over time is called adaptation.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2

 

  1. Approximately 75% of the impression of a food’s flavor comes from taste and odor.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. As the temperature of foods or beverages falls below 68 degrees F or rises above 86 degrees F, it becomes easier to distinguish their tastes accurately.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. Threshold concentration is the maximum concentration required to detect a substance.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. Food packaging protects flavor against vaporization of the volatile compounds.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4

 

  1. Changing food habits are related to the increased awareness that diet can be related to some of the leading causes of death in the United States.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 6

 

  1. The SuperTracker is a graphic representation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 6|8

 

  1. The key motivating factor in the selection of food is lower fat and balanced nutrient intake.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 1

 

  1. One of the least important limiting factors in the selection of food for consumption is cost.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 17

 

  1. One of the major positive attributes of genetically engineered foods is that they will not cause an allergic reaction in people who are normally allergic.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 15-16

 

  1. A concern regarding genetically engineered food is that “gene contamination” might occur.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 16

 

  1. The term kosher is the general term applied to foods that are clean in any religion or faith.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 13

 

  1. The ethnic influences on the American food supply are largely due to our diverse minorities, increased travel, and increasing communication distances.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 11

 

  1. Nutrigenomics relies on nutritional biochemistry to explain why differences in genes cause variations in absorption, circulation, or metabolism of essential nutrients.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 11

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. relating to the sense of smell
  2. combined sense of taste, odor, and mouthfeel
  3. a description of a food’s firmness or thickness
  4. relating to the sense of taste
  5. capable of evaporating like a gas into the air

 

  1. volatile
  2. gustatory
  3. olfactory
  4. flavor
  5. consistency

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2
  2. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 3
  3. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 2
  4. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 4
  5. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 5

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. List the primary criteria that people use to select the foods in their diets, and give a brief description of each including its importance.

 

ANS: See pp. 1-17. The answer should include the following criteria with appropriate explanations as presented in the text and in the lecture/ classroom activities:

  • Sensory criteria
  • Nutritional criteria
  • Cultural criteria
  • Religious criteria
  • Psychological and sociological criteria
  • Budgetary criteria

 

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 1-17

 

  1. Imagine the scent of a simmering tomato sauce on the kitchen stove at home. The smell of fresh garlic, onions, tomatoes, olive oil, and red wine greeting your guests as they enter your home. How does this smell get carried to them? Why is it that they can not smell the cold chocolate soufflé when you take it out of the freezer for dessert tonight? Why is the smell of a hot item more intense than the smell of a cold one?

 

ANS: See pp. 2 and 4.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 2|4

 

  1. You are just sitting down to a bowl of hot vegetarian bean chili. It’s made with garlic, onions, red and green peppers, hot chili peppers, and black beans. It’s seasoned with salt, black pepper, and chili powder and flavored with the herb cilantro. You begin to slowly feel a warming sensation in your body. What ingredient is probably making this warming sensation? Explain what is happening in your body because of this specific ingredient.

 

ANS: See p. 5.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 5

 

  1. Your next-door neighbor is talking to you and would like to know the difference between taste and flavor. She is aware that she is incorrect when she uses the terms interchangeably and would like clarification and examples for both. Show off your food science expertise and compare and contrast the similarities and differences between taste and flavor.

 

ANS: See pp. 2-5.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 2-5

 

  1. Suppose that your sister goes to Pilates and yoga classes on a regular basis; however, she still wants to get rid of a few unneeded pounds. How much weight can your sister safely lose in a week? Explain how she can use ChooseMyPlate.gov to help plan her diet. Work with her to determine how many kcalories she needs per meal/day to help her achieve her goal.

 

ANS: See pp. 6-8.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 6-8

 

  1. Social and psychological factors strongly influence the food purchasing habits and eating behaviors of most individuals. What are these factors, and how do they influence a food company’s advertising campaigns? Discuss how these social and psychological factors influence consumers’ responses to the following new additions to the food market: genetically modified, organic, and natural foods.

 

ANS: See pp. 14-17.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 14-17

 

  1. Suppose that this afternoon you are going to interview for a position as a private chef for a Jewish Orthodox family that keeps a strict kosher home. What dietary information should you prepare yourself with before your interview so that you are knowledgeable about their food-related beliefs?

 

ANS: See p. 13.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 13

 

  1. Compare and contrast the ways that the United States (i.e., the FDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) define and describe functional foods.

 

ANS: See pp. 9-11.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 9-11

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 1 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The first impressions of food are received through the sense of
  2. smell.
  3. sight.
  4. hearing.
  5. taste.
  6. touch.

 

  1. The most influential factor in a person’s selection of food is the sense of
  2. sight.
  3. taste.
  4. hearing.
  5. odor.
  6. touch.

 

  1. Most people can differentiate between _____ odors.
  2. 250 and 500
  3. 500 and 1000
  4. 1000 and 2000
  5. 2000 and 4000

 

  1. The ability to distinguish between various odors
  2. diminishes over the time of exposure to the smells.
  3. increases over the time of exposure to the smells.
  4. stays the save over the time of exposure to the smells.
  5. All of the above answers are correct depending on the specific smell.

 

  1. Four categories of odor classification include
  2. fragrant, acid, burnt, and metallic.
  3. acidic, burnt, savory, and metallic
  4. fragrant, acid, burnt, and caprylic.
  5. sweet, sour, burnt, and metallic.

 

  1. Impressions of volatile flavor substances are provided by the sense of
  2. sight.
  3. smell.
  4. taste.
  5. sound.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. The five basic taste stimuli include
  2. alkaline, bitter, sour, sweet, and salty.
  3. sour, sweet, acidic, bitter, and savory.
  4. sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory.
  5. unami, savory, sweet, sour, and salty.
  6. savory, bitter, metallic, sour, and sweet.

 

  1. The savory or umami taste is actually found in certain
  2. simple sugars.
  3. complex carbohydrates.
  4. fatty acids.
  5. amino acids.

 

  1. The sour taste found in some foods comes from
  2. the chemical configuration of food molecules.
  3. the acids found in food.
  4. alkaloid compounds found in food.
  5. ionized salts such as the salt ions in sodium chloride or other salts found naturally in foods.

 

  1. Bitterness is imparted by substances in foods such as
  2. caffeine.
  3. theobromine.
  4. phenolic compounds.
  5. alkaloids.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Which of the following statements about threshold concentration is incorrect (false)?
  2. Subthreshold salt levels increase perceived sweetness.
  3. Subthreshold salt levels decrease perceived acidity.
  4. Subthreshold acid concentrations make a food taste less salty.
  5. Subthreshold sugar concentrations make a food taste less salty.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Consistency is expressed in terms of
  2. brittleness.
  3. chewiness.
  4. thinness.
  5. elasticity (rubbery or gummy).
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Some compounds like monosodium glutamate, often used in Chinese cooking, actually adjust the taste of meat and other foods by making them
  2. sweeter.
  3. saltier.
  4. sour.
  5. bitter.

 

  1. Aroma provides about _____ percent of the impression of flavor.
  2. 25
  3. 50
  4. 75
  5. 100

 

  1. The feeling of chemesthesis may be felt by some individuals eating
  2. really cold ice cream.
  3. hot chili peppers.
  4. warm chicken noodle soup.
  5. hot chocolate with whipped cream.
  6. hot buttered popcorn.

 

  1. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines promote a healthy diet by emphasizing all of the following except
  2. consuming a variety of vegetables, legumes, and whole grains.
  3. eating lean meats, poultry, seafood, seeds, and nuts.
  4. consuming full-fat milk products.
  5. limiting added sugars.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. MyPlate
  2. provides directions from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as to the amounts of food required to give you the nutrients you need.
  3. is a list of dietary recommendations concerning diet, exercise, and other lifestyle factors (e.g., alcohol consumption).
  4. is a pictorial illustration of the concepts of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines.
  5. provides nutrient intake recommendations for all Americans aged 2 through 65.

 

  1. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics suggests that properly planned vegetarian diets may reduce the risk of
  2. heart disease.
  3. some cancers.
  4. diabetes mellitus.
  5. hypertension.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Functional foods may
  2. impart a physiological benefit that enhances overall health.
  3. help prevent or treat a disease or condition.
  4. improve physical or mental performance.
  5. all the above answers are correct

 

  1. Culture influences food habits most profoundly by dictating
  2. what is or is not acceptable to eat.
  3. which factors that influence food selection are important.
  4. how the nutrients in foods are valued.
  5. how the people in a country prepare the food they eat.

 

  1. Religious practices primarily influence dietary intake by
  2. defining what is and is not acceptable to eat.
  3. declaring foods as acceptable or unacceptable and specifying preparation procedures.
  4. requiring blessings and specialized preparation procedures before consumption.
  5. requiring all food to be blessed and well cooked.

 

  1. What religious group in which approximately 40% of members practice being lacto-ovo-vegetarians discourages consumption of between-meal snacks, hot spices, alcohol, tea, and coffee?
  2. Buddhists and Hindus
  3. Seventh-Day Adventists
  4. Mormons
  5. Orthodox Jews

 

  1. Which of the following religious groups focuses its dietary laws on three major issues: Kosher animals allowed, blood not allowed, and the mixing of milk and meat is also not allowed?
  2. Mormons
  3. Orthodox Jews
  4. Muslims
  5. Buddhists

 

  1. Which of the following religious groups follows the practice of consuming halal meat?
  2. Buddhists
  3. Hindus
  4. Muslims
  5. Mormons
  6. Orthodox Jews

 

  1. The predominant source of information about nutrition for most consumers is
  2. radio.
  3. magazine advertisements.
  4. newspaper.
  5. television.
  6. family and friends.
  7. nutrition classes.

 

  1. The term organic
  2. refers to food products that have been produced without most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.
  3. refers to food products made with crops that have not been genetically modified.
  4. refers to food products made from livestock that have been raised without antibiotics or hormones.
  5. excludes food products that have been irradiated.
  6. only answers a and c are correct
  7. only answers a, b and c are correct
  8. answers a, b, c, and d are correct

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The number of different foods now available makes it more difficult today than ever before to plan a nutritious diet.

 

  1. Volatile molecules are capable of evaporating like a gas into the air.

 

  1. The perception that a continuously present smell gradually decreases over time is called adaptation.

 

  1. Approximately 75% of the impression of a food’s flavor comes from taste and odor.

 

  1. As the temperature of foods or beverages falls below 68 degrees F or rises above 86 degrees F, it becomes easier to distinguish their tastes accurately.

 

  1. Threshold concentration is the maximum concentration required to detect a substance.

 

  1. Food packaging protects flavor against vaporization of the volatile compounds.

 

  1. Changing food habits are related to the increased awareness that diet can be related to some of the leading causes of death in the United States.

 

  1. The SuperTracker is a graphic representation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines.

 

  1. The key motivating factor in the selection of food is lower fat and balanced nutrient intake.

 

  1. One of the least important limiting factors in the selection of food for consumption is cost.

 

  1. One of the major positive attributes of genetically engineered foods is that they will not cause an allergic reaction in people who are normally allergic.

 

  1. A concern regarding genetically engineered food is that “gene contamination” might occur.

 

  1. The term kosher is the general term applied to foods that are clean in any religion or faith.

 

  1. The ethnic influences on the American food supply are largely due to our diverse minorities, increased travel, and increasing communication distances.

 

  1. Nutrigenomics relies on nutritional biochemistry to explain why differences in genes cause variations in absorption, circulation, or metabolism of essential nutrients.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. relating to the sense of smell
  2. combined sense of taste, odor, and mouthfeel
  3. a description of a food’s firmness or thickness
  4. relating to the sense of taste
  5. capable of evaporating like a gas into the air

 

  1. volatile
  2. gustatory
  3. olfactory
  4. flavor
  5. consistency

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. List the primary criteria that people use to select the foods in their diets, and give a brief description of each including its importance.

 

  1. Imagine the scent of a simmering tomato sauce on the kitchen stove at home. The smell of fresh garlic, onions, tomatoes, olive oil, and red wine greeting your guests as they enter your home. How does this smell get carried to them? Why is it that they can not smell the cold chocolate soufflé when you take it out of the freezer for dessert tonight? Why is the smell of a hot item more intense than the smell of a cold one?

 

  1. You are just sitting down to a bowl of hot vegetarian bean chili. It’s made with garlic, onions, red and green peppers, hot chili peppers, and black beans. It’s seasoned with salt, black pepper, and chili powder and flavored with the herb cilantro. You begin to slowly feel a warming sensation in your body. What ingredient is probably making this warming sensation? Explain what is happening in your body because of this specific ingredient.

 

  1. Your next-door neighbor is talking to you and would like to know the difference between taste and flavor. She is aware that she is incorrect when she uses the terms interchangeably and would like clarification and examples for both. Show off your food science expertise and compare and contrast the similarities and differences between taste and flavor.

 

  1. Suppose that your sister goes to Pilates and yoga classes on a regular basis; however, she still wants to get rid of a few unneeded pounds. How much weight can your sister safely lose in a week? Explain how she can use ChooseMyPlate.gov to help plan her diet. Work with her to determine how many kcalories she needs per meal/day to help her achieve her goal.

 

  1. Social and psychological factors strongly influence the food purchasing habits and eating behaviors of most individuals. What are these factors, and how do they influence a food company’s advertising campaigns? Discuss how these social and psychological factors influence consumers’ responses to the following new additions to the food market: genetically modified, organic, and natural foods.

 

  1. Suppose that this afternoon you are going to interview for a position as a private chef for a Jewish Orthodox family that keeps a strict kosher home. What dietary information should you prepare yourself with before your interview so that you are knowledgeable about their food-related beliefs?

 

  1. Compare and contrast the ways that the United States (i.e., the FDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) define and describe functional foods.

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

 

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 3 – Chemistry of Food Composition

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The basic nutrients that comprise all foods and are necessary for the nutritional health of people are
  2. water, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
  4. water, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
  5. proteins, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids.
  6. water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The physiological purpose of eating and drinking is to replace those nutrients used up
  2. in the body’s maintenance.
  3. in the body’s repair.
  4. in the body’s growth.
  5. as energy.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The building blocks of organic material include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen plus
  2. chromium, manganese, and iron.
  3. nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  4. copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium.
  5. magnesium, potassium, and calcium.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The caloric contribution of foods is dependent on the amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol in the food. Protein provides _____ kcal/g, fats provide _____, carbohydrates provide _____, and alcohol provides _____.
  2. 4, 4, 9, 7
  3. 7, 9, 6, 10
  4. 4, 7, 9, 10
  5. 4, 9, 4, 7

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The human body averages _____ percent water.
  2. 20 to 40
  3. 40 to 50
  4. 50 to 60
  5. 60 to 70

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|33

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bound water is false?
  2. Bound water is the most abundant form of water present in foods.
  3. Bound water is not easily removed and is resistant to freezing and drying.
  4. Bound water is not readily available to act as a medium for dissolving salts, acids, or sugars.
  5. Bound water is incorporated into the chemical structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 33

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains the highest percentage of water?
  2. butter
  3. peanut butter
  4. Swiss cheese
  5. baked potato
  6. cooked hamburger

 

ANS: d       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 33

 

  1. The energy value of food is measured in _____ of calories.
  2. tens
  3. hundreds
  4. thousands
  5. ten thousands

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 34

 

  1. _____ dictates whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
  2. Specific heat
  3. Molecular movement
  4. Freezing point
  5. Heat of solidification

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 34

 

  1. In foods, water has several functions, the two most important functions being
  2. transferring energy and dissolving lipids.
  3. transferring nutrients and serving as a universal solvent.
  4. transferring heat and serving as a solvent.
  5. retaining heat and dissolving vitamins and minerals.
  6. retaining nutrients and dissolving carbohydrates and minerals.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 36

 

  1. The amount of energy in calories per gram that is absorbed or emitted as a substance undergoes a change from a solid to a liquid or gas is called
  2. latent heat.
  3. specific heat.
  4. melting point.
  5. heat of vaporization.
  6. heat of solidification.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Increasing the elevation
  2. decreases the boiling point of water.
  3. increases the boiling point of water.
  4. increases the boiling point 1 degree F for every 500-feet increase in altitude.
  5. does not affect the boiling point of water.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. A pressure cooker speeds up heating time by _____.
  2. decreasing atmospheric pressure to five pounds
  3. decreasing the boiling point by ten degrees
  4. increasing atmospheric pressure to fifteen pounds
  5. increasing the boiling point by twenty degrees

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Hard water contains a greater concentration of calcium and magnesium compounds, whereas soft water has a higher _____ concentration.
  2. sodium
  3. potassium
  4. chloride
  5. copper

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Which of the following food items is/are not a colloidal dispersion?
  2. salad dressings
  3. jam, gelatin, cheese, and butter
  4. whipped egg white and whipped cream foams
  5. marshmallows
  6. all of the above are colloidal dispersions

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. Which of the following food items is an example of a suspension?
  2. milk
  3. egg yolk
  4. cornstarch mixed in water
  5. oil mixed with vinegar
  6. ice cream

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. A process in which colloid particles come out of suspension and solidify is called
  2. suspension.
  3. flocculation.
  4. ionization.
  5. salt formation.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of hydrolysis?
  2. Hydrolysis of glucose to sucrose and maltose.
  3. Hydrolysis of maltose to two glucose molecules.
  4. Hydrolysis of cornstarch to yield corn syrup.
  5. Hydrolysis of table sugar to another sugar helpful in the manufacture of candy.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 38-39|42

 

  1. Which of the following substances is/are not used in the food industry to reduce a food’s water activity (aw) level?
  2. salt and sugar
  3. glycerol
  4. propylene glycol
  5. modified corn syrups
  6. All of these substances are used by the food industry for this purpose.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. As free water within a food decreases,
  2. so does water activity.
  3. water activity increases.
  4. water activity remains constant.
  5. bacterial growth increases as a result.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. The primary six-carbon monosaccharides in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 41

 

  1. The primary disaccharides found in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42

 

  1. Which of the following polysaccharides is/are digestible?
  2. inulin
  3. pectin and gums
  4. amylose and amylopectin
  5. cellulose and hemicellulose

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 41|43

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of the gum carrageenan in desserts?
  2. binder
  3. improves mouthfeel
  4. controls syneresis
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 46|59

 

  1. As plants like celery and carrots mature, their cell walls increase in _____ concentration, resulting in a tough, stringy texture.
  2. cellulose
  3. gums
  4. hemicellulose
  5. lignin
  6. pectin
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. The difference between fats and oils is based on
  2. solubility in water and melting temperature.
  3. consistency (liquid or solid) at room temperature and source.
  4. the fatty acid content and the percentage of unsaturates.
  5. the number of unsaturated bonds and the alcohol to which they are attached.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the lowest degree of saturation?
  2. avocado
  3. chocolate
  4. coconut oil
  5. palm oil
  6. cheese
  7. vegetable shortening

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 48

 

  1. Which of the following foods are good examples of predominately monounsaturated fats?
  2. almonds, pecans, and walnuts
  3. peanuts and peanut butter
  4. corn and canola oils
  5. milk, butter, and cheese

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 48

 

  1. The two essential fatty acids are
  2. butyric and histidine.
  3. linoleic and linolenic.
  4. leucine and isoleucine.
  5. threonine and tryptophan.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains phospholipids?
  2. egg yolks
  3. liver
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat germ
  6. peanuts
  7. all of the above answers are correct
  8. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: f        DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Which of the following proteins is classified as incomplete?
  2. amaranth
  3. quinoa
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat berries

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. The key difference in carbohydrate or lipid versus protein composition is the presence of _____ in proteins.
  2. hydrogen
  3. carbon
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. Which of the following reactions is not a function of protein during food preparation?
  2. hydration
  3. denaturation and coagulation
  4. buffering
  5. browning
  6. all of the above are protein functions

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 53

 

  1. The definition of protein complementation is
  2. an increase in the effectiveness of two complete proteins when combined.
  3. the combination of two incomplete protein foods to yield a complete protein profile.
  4. any combination of nonessential amino acids that make a complete protein.
  5. the supplementation of the diet with a complete protein source.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is/are used for meat tenderization?
  2. rennin, also known as chymosin
  3. phenol oxidase
  4. glucose oxidase
  5. papain, bromelain, and ficin

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 54

 

  1. Certain vitamins and one of the minerals function in foods to:
  2. provide energy when the foods are consumed.
  3. reduce microbial growth by increasing water activity.
  4. delay deterioration during storage by inhibiting oxidation.
  5. facilitate chemical reactions when enzymes are lacking.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 57

 

  1. Which of the following foods has/have been enriched?
  2. wheat flour or rice with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
  3. milk with vitamins A and D
  4. orange juice with calcium
  5. cereals with folate
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 57

 

 

True/False

 

  1. You are what you eat.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The most important of all the nutrients is water.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The perishability of a food is related to the water activity of the food.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. Starch is a polysaccharide that does not provide energy to the body.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|42

 

  1. Fiber is an oligosaccharide that does provide energy to the body.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42|44

 

  1. Approximately 95% of all food lipids are triglycerides.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. The sterol of least significance in food is cholesterol.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Most of the complete proteins come from animals; exceptions are those from soybeans and certain grains.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. The presence of a broad spectrum of colors in food makes it more appetizing.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 58

 

  1. Phytochemicals are plant compounds that have possible anti-carcinogenic properties.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 60-61

 

  1. Caffeine belongs to a group of compounds called oligosaccharides.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42|61

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. compounds that are not normally soluble in water.
  2. inorganic elements that play vital roles in body processes.
  3. class of energy nutrients for which half of the compounds required to make them must be obtained from the diet.
  4. organic compounds that do not provide energy to the body.
  5. sugars, starches, and fibers found primarily in plant foods.

 

  1. carbohydrates
  2. lipids
  3. proteins
  4. vitamins
  5. minerals

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 40
  2. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47
  3. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51
  4. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 56
  5. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 56-57

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What makes water so important to humans? Discuss not only the nutritional functions of water, but also the function of water in food preservation and preparation.

 

ANS: See pp. 32-40. Answer should include the basic chemical facts related to water (i.e., its unique chemical properties with respect to solvency and heat transfer), its role in food composition (i.e., the percentage of water contained in various foods), and its role in the preservation of food (i.e., availability of water to microorganisms for growth).

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 32-40

 

  1. What is the basic difference between plant and animal proteins, and how may a person “remedy” a situation where there is a significantly higher proportion of plant proteins in the diet?

 

ANS: See p. 51. Answer should contain a definition of both complete and incomplete proteins and then define and explain complementation of protein foods.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 51

 

  1. Why do some vegetables like celery and carrots get tougher as they age? Why don’t they get soft even when they are boiled in water?

 

ANS: See p. 47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 47

 

  1. You are in the process of beginning to make a fresh fruit cobbler and cutting up the fruits. The phone rings and you proceed to talk for about 45 minutes. When you return to your preparation area your fruit has begun to turn brownish in color. What may have happened? Why do pears, apples, or bananas turn brown when cut into and then allowed to sit? What could you have done to prevent or reduce this browning?

 

ANS: See pp. 55-56.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 55-56

 

  1. Discuss the importance of understanding the roles of water activity (aw), osmosis, and osmotic pressure in food preservation.

 

ANS: See pp. 39-40.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 39-40.

 

  1. What foods are high in carbohydrates? Discuss the classification of carbohydrates, including the various compounds included among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. What are the characteristics of each sugar/starch found in these groups?

 

ANS: See pp. 40-47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 40-47

 

  1. Discuss the differences and similarities between soluble and insoluble fibers. What benefits do these functional fibers provide from a nutritional/health standpoint and what properties do they contribute to food processing? Be sure to include cellulose, hemicellolose, pectic substances, gums, inulin, and lignin in your discussion.

 

ANS: See pp. 44-47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 44-47

 

  1. Discuss lipid composition and how fatty acid structure influences the application of fats from both a health and culinary standpoint. Discuss cis, trans, and omega-three fatty acids. What is a phospholipid? What component in fats allows hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds to mix? Why is this food ingredient so important in the kitchen?

 

ANS: See pp. 47-51.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 47-51

 

  1. Discuss the following functions of proteins in foods: hydration, denaturation/coagulation, enzymatic reactions, buffering, and browning. What are the differences among a complete, an incomplete, and a complementary protein food?

 

ANS: See pp. 51 and 53-56.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 51|53-56

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 3 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The basic nutrients that comprise all foods and are necessary for the nutritional health of people are
  2. water, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
  4. water, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
  5. proteins, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids.
  6. water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.

 

  1. The physiological purpose of eating and drinking is to replace those nutrients used up
  2. in the body’s maintenance.
  3. in the body’s repair.
  4. in the body’s growth.
  5. as energy.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The building blocks of organic material include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen plus
  2. chromium, manganese, and iron.
  3. nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  4. copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium.
  5. magnesium, potassium, and calcium.

 

  1. The caloric contribution of foods is dependent on the amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol in the food. Protein provides _____ kcal/g, fats provide _____, carbohydrates provide _____, and alcohol provides _____.
  2. 4, 4, 9, 7
  3. 7, 9, 6, 10
  4. 4, 7, 9, 10
  5. 4, 9, 4, 7

 

  1. The human body averages _____ percent water.
  2. 20 to 40
  3. 40 to 50
  4. 50 to 60
  5. 60 to 70

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|33

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bound water is false?
  2. Bound water is the most abundant form of water present in foods.
  3. Bound water is not easily removed and is resistant to freezing and drying.
  4. Bound water is not readily available to act as a medium for dissolving salts, acids, or sugars.
  5. Bound water is incorporated into the chemical structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains the highest percentage of water?
  2. butter
  3. peanut butter
  4. Swiss cheese
  5. baked potato
  6. cooked hamburger

 

  1. The energy value of food is measured in _____ of calories.
  2. tens
  3. hundreds
  4. thousands
  5. ten thousands

 

  1. _____ dictates whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
  2. Specific heat
  3. Molecular movement
  4. Freezing point
  5. Heat of solidification

 

  1. In foods, water has several functions, the two most important functions being
  2. transferring energy and dissolving lipids.
  3. transferring nutrients and serving as a universal solvent.
  4. transferring heat and serving as a solvent.
  5. retaining heat and dissolving vitamins and minerals.
  6. retaining nutrients and dissolving carbohydrates and minerals.

 

  1. The amount of energy in calories per gram that is absorbed or emitted as a substance undergoes a change from a solid to a liquid or gas is called
  2. latent heat.
  3. specific heat.
  4. melting point.
  5. heat of vaporization.
  6. heat of solidification.

 

  1. Increasing the elevation
  2. decreases the boiling point of water.
  3. increases the boiling point of water.
  4. increases the boiling point 1 degree F for every 500-feet increase in altitude.
  5. does not affect the boiling point of water.

 

  1. A pressure cooker speeds up heating time by _____.
  2. decreasing atmospheric pressure to five pounds
  3. decreasing the boiling point by ten degrees
  4. increasing atmospheric pressure to fifteen pounds
  5. increasing the boiling point by twenty degrees

 

  1. Hard water contains a greater concentration of calcium and magnesium compounds, whereas soft water has a higher _____ concentration.
  2. sodium
  3. potassium
  4. chloride
  5. copper

 

  1. Which of the following food items is/are not a colloidal dispersion?
  2. salad dressings
  3. jam, gelatin, cheese, and butter
  4. whipped egg white and whipped cream foams
  5. marshmallows
  6. all of the above are colloidal dispersions

 

  1. Which of the following food items is an example of a suspension?
  2. milk
  3. egg yolk
  4. cornstarch mixed in water
  5. oil mixed with vinegar
  6. ice cream

 

  1. A process in which colloid particles come out of suspension and solidify is called
  2. suspension.
  3. flocculation.
  4. ionization.
  5. salt formation.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of hydrolysis?
  2. Hydrolysis of glucose to sucrose and maltose.
  3. Hydrolysis of maltose to two glucose molecules.
  4. Hydrolysis of cornstarch to yield corn syrup.
  5. Hydrolysis of table sugar to another sugar helpful in the manufacture of candy.

 

  1. Which of the following substances is/are not used in the food industry to reduce a food’s water activity (aw) level?
  2. salt and sugar
  3. glycerol
  4. propylene glycol
  5. modified corn syrups
  6. All of these substances are used by the food industry for this purpose.

 

  1. As free water within a food decreases,
  2. so does water activity.
  3. water activity increases.
  4. water activity remains constant.
  5. bacterial growth increases as a result.

 

  1. The primary six-carbon monosaccharides in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

  1. The primary disaccharides found in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

  1. Which of the following polysaccharides is/are digestible?
  2. inulin
  3. pectin and gums
  4. amylose and amylopectin
  5. cellulose and hemicellulose

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of the gum carrageenan in desserts?
  2. binder
  3. improves mouthfeel
  4. controls syneresis
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. As plants like celery and carrots mature, their cell walls increase in _____ concentration, resulting in a tough, stringy texture.
  2. cellulose
  3. gums
  4. hemicellulose
  5. lignin
  6. pectin
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The difference between fats and oils is based on
  2. solubility in water and melting temperature.
  3. consistency (liquid or solid) at room temperature and source.
  4. the fatty acid content and the percentage of unsaturates.
  5. the number of unsaturated bonds and the alcohol to which they are attached.

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the lowest degree of saturation?
  2. avocado
  3. chocolate
  4. coconut oil
  5. palm oil
  6. cheese
  7. vegetable shortening

 

  1. Which of the following foods are good examples of predominately monounsaturated fats?
  2. almonds, pecans, and walnuts
  3. peanuts and peanut butter
  4. corn and canola oils
  5. milk, butter, and cheese

 

  1. The two essential fatty acids are
  2. butyric and histidine.
  3. linoleic and linolenic.
  4. leucine and isoleucine.
  5. threonine and tryptophan.

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains phospholipids?
  2. egg yolks
  3. liver
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat germ
  6. peanuts
  7. all of the above answers are correct
  8. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following proteins is classified as incomplete?
  2. amaranth
  3. quinoa
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat berries

 

  1. The key difference in carbohydrate or lipid versus protein composition is the presence of _____ in proteins.
  2. hydrogen
  3. carbon
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen

 

  1. Which of the following reactions is not a function of protein during food preparation?
  2. hydration
  3. denaturation and coagulation
  4. buffering
  5. browning
  6. all of the above are protein functions

 

  1. The definition of protein complementation is
  2. an increase in the effectiveness of two complete proteins when combined.
  3. the combination of two incomplete protein foods to yield a complete protein profile.
  4. any combination of nonessential amino acids that make a complete protein.
  5. the supplementation of the diet with a complete protein source.

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is/are used for meat tenderization?
  2. rennin, also known as chymosin
  3. phenol oxidase
  4. glucose oxidase
  5. papain, bromelain, and ficin

 

  1. Certain vitamins and one of the minerals function in foods to:
  2. provide energy when the foods are consumed.
  3. reduce microbial growth by increasing water activity.
  4. delay deterioration during storage by inhibiting oxidation.
  5. facilitate chemical reactions when enzymes are lacking.

 

  1. Which of the following foods has/have been enriched?
  2. wheat flour or rice with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
  3. milk with vitamins A and D
  4. orange juice with calcium
  5. cereals with folate
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

 

True/False

 

  1. You are what you eat.

 

  1. The most important of all the nutrients is water.

 

  1. The perishability of a food is related to the water activity of the food.

 

  1. Starch is a polysaccharide that does not provide energy to the body.

 

  1. Fiber is an oligosaccharide that does provide energy to the body.

 

  1. Approximately 95% of all food lipids are triglycerides.

 

  1. The sterol of least significance in food is cholesterol.

 

  1. Most of the complete proteins come from animals; exceptions are those from soybeans and certain grains.

 

  1. The presence of a broad spectrum of colors in food makes it more appetizing.

 

  1. Phytochemicals are plant compounds that have possible anti-carcinogenic properties.

 

  1. Caffeine belongs to a group of compounds called oligosaccharides.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. compounds that are not normally soluble in water.
  2. inorganic elements that play vital roles in body processes.
  3. class of energy nutrients for which half of the compounds required to make them must be obtained from the diet.
  4. organic compounds that do not provide energy to the body.
  5. sugars, starches, and fibers found primarily in plant foods.

 

  1. carbohydrates
  2. lipids
  3. proteins
  4. vitamins
  5. minerals

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What makes water so important to humans? Discuss not only the nutritional functions of water, but also the function of water in food preservation and preparation.

 

  1. What is the basic difference between plant and animal proteins, and how may a person “remedy” a situation where there is a significantly higher proportion of plant proteins in the diet?

 

  1. Why do some vegetables like celery and carrots get tougher as they age? Why don’t they get soft even when they are boiled in water?

 

  1. You are in the process of beginning to make a fresh fruit cobbler and cutting up the fruits. The phone rings and you proceed to talk for about 45 minutes. When you return to your preparation area your fruit has begun to turn brownish in color. What may have happened? Why do pears, apples, or bananas turn brown when cut into and then allowed to sit? What could you have done to prevent or reduce this browning?

 

  1. Discuss the importance of understanding the roles of water activity (aw), osmosis, and osmotic pressure in food preservation.

 

  1. What foods are high in carbohydrates? Discuss the classification of carbohydrates, including the various compounds included among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. What are the characteristics of each sugar/starch found in these groups?

 

  1. Discuss the differences and similarities between soluble and insoluble fibers. What benefits do these functional fibers provide from a nutritional/health standpoint and what properties do they contribute to food processing? Be sure to include cellulose, hemicellolose, pectic substances, gums, inulin, and lignin in your discussion.

 

  1. Discuss lipid composition and how fatty acid structure influences the application of fats from both a health and culinary standpoint. Discuss cis, trans, and omega-three fatty acids. What is a phospholipid? What component in fats allows hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds to mix? Why is this food ingredient so important in the kitchen?

 

  1. Discuss the following functions of proteins in foods: hydration, denaturation/coagulation, enzymatic reactions, buffering, and browning. What are the differences among a complete, an incomplete, and a complementary protein food?

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 11 – Cheese

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Cheese is
  2. a cultured food made from milk.
  3. a fermented food made from milk.
  4. a preserved food made from the curd of milk.
  5. whey and curds made into a semi-solid mixture which is then dried.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 233

 

  1. Cheeses are classified by all of the following characteristics except
  2. milk source.
  3. moisture content.
  4. processing method.
  5. size.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 233

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is not classified as a “fresh” cheese?
  2. Brie
  3. cream
  4. farmer’s
  5. feta
  6. ricotta
  7. pot

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is also called country cheese and is mild tasting and highly perishable because its moisture content is over 80 percent?
  2. soft
  3. semi-hard
  4. hard
  5. fresh

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234

 

  1. Hard cheese contains a moisture content ranging from
  2. 20 to 30 percent.
  3. 30 to 40 percent.
  4. 40 to 50 percent.
  5. 50 to 75 percent.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Parmesan and Romano cheeses?
  2. aged the longest of all cheeses
  3. water content of approximately 30 percent
  4. easily sliced
  5. easily grated or crumbled
  6. none of the above; these are all characteristics of Parmesan and Romano

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235

 

  1. Roquefort, Muenster, Gouda, Port du Salut, Gorgonzola, and Stilton are considered _____ cheeses.
  2. very hard
  3. fresh
  4. semi-hard
  5. soft

e    hard

  1. Each cheese varies in its classification. All the above answers are correct.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234

 

  1. Which of the following is not a basic step in curd treatment?
  2. cutting and heating
  3. salting
  4. knitting
  5. pressing
  6. curing

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 237

 

  1. The yield of ten pounds of milk is approximately _____ pound(s) cheese and _____ pounds whey, respectively.
  2. one; nine
  3. two; eight
  4. three; seven
  5. four; six

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235

 

  1. Which step in the process of cheese production has the greatest impact on the classification of cheese?
  2. coagulation of the curd
  3. curd treatment
  4. curing and ripening
  5. milk selection

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235

 

  1. Currently the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires pasteurization for certain cheeses, but allows the use of raw milk (unpasteurized) to make _____ cheese if it is aged for at least _____.
  2. feta; 20 to 40 days
  3. Camembert; 40 to 50 days
  4. cheddar; 60 days
  5. Parmesan; 90 days

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is among the most common fat-free (non-fat) cheeses available?
  2. ricotta
  3. mozzarella
  4. Brie
  5. Camembert
  6. Swiss and Muenster
  7. both a and b
  8. both c and d

 

ANS: f        DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 237

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is most commonly used to coagulate milk in cheese making?
  2. fermentation-produced chymosin
  3. bovine pepsin
  4. porcine pepsin
  5. calf chymosin

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 236

 

  1. _____ cheese is an excellent substitute for cheese normally used to make cheesecake or other high-fat foods, because it lowers the fat and takes on the other ingredients’ flavors.
  2. Cottage
  3. Farmer’s
  4. Pot
  5. Yogurt

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 237

 

  1. _____ cheese is usually not aged because its high acidity inhibits the bacterial and mold growth that characterizes the aging process.
  2. Acid-coagulated
  3. Enzyme-coagulated
  4. High-fat
  5. Low-fat

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 237

 

  1. The curd produced by acid has a soft and spongy texture. This texture is influenced by pH, becoming
  2. watery as the acidity increases.
  3. mealy and non-cohesive as the pH increases.
  4. more solid and compact as the acidity increases.
  5. more solid and compact as the acidity decreases.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 236

 

  1. The step in curd treatment that involves melting curd into a solid mass through the use of heat is called
  2. cutting.
  3. heating.
  4. salting.
  5. knitting.
  6. pressing.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 237

 

  1. The _____ of cheese originates from a combination of over 300 different volatile and nonvolatile compounds that develop during curing and ripening.
  2. texture
  3. color
  4. nutritional profile
  5. flavor
  6. none of the above

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 238

 

  1. _____ creates the veins found in blue cheeses such as Gorgonzola, Roquefort, and Stilton.
  2. Bacterial ripening that occurs internally
  3. Bacterial ripening that occurs externally
  4. Mold ripening that occurs internally
  5. Mold ripening that occurs externally

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 239|240

 

  1. Processed cheese is a cheese made
  2. from heated cheddar cheese and blue cheese mixed with other natural ingredients.
  3. by combining different varieties of natural cheese, heating, and adding other ingredients to produce a stable emulsion.
  4. through minimum processing of enzyme-coagulated cheese with or without heat.
  5. from all-natural cheese that are melted and then remolded.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 241

 

  1. Grading of cheese is related to the
  2. bacterial count taken at the end of curing.
  3. country or region of origin.
  4. nutrient value of the final product.
  5. variety, flavor, texture, finish, color, and appearance of the final product.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 242-243

 

  1. Cheese often browns and darkens during heating because
  2. of caramelization.
  3. of the Maillard reaction.
  4. there are too few sugars, amino acids, or lactose in the cheese.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 244

 

  1. A tough, grainy cheese texture results from the presence of too much _____, whereas an excessively soft texture may result from excessive _____ breakdown during aging.
  2. sodium; carbohydrate
  3. phosphorus; lipid
  4. calcium; protein
  5. zinc; lipid

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 244

 

  1. _____ tends not to oil off during cooking.
  2. Muenster
  3. Monterey jack
  4. Mozzarella
  5. Camembert

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 244

 

  1. Which of the following represents the time and temperature at which cheese should be cooked?
  2. long time and short temperatures
  3. long time and low temperatures
  4. short time and high temperatures
  5. short time and low temperatures

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 244

 

  1. Cheese that is kept too long can become moldy. Most molds that develop on cheese are
  2. desirable.
  3. undesirable.
  4. benign.
  5. pathogenic.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

  1. What determines whether a cheese can be successfully frozen?
  2. water content
  3. fat content
  4. method of curing
  5. method of ripening

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

  1. Most cheeses should be stored in the
  2. freezer in waxed paper.
  3. original carton in the dry storage pantry.
  4. refrigerator in their original wrappers until opened.
  5. freezer in plastic tubs.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The amount of fat in the cheese is determined by the type of milk.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235

 

  1. The enzyme that is used in the coagulation of cheese is called chymosin.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 236

 

  1. The flavor of a cheese becomes milder with aging.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 240

 

  1. The mold Penicillium roqueforti added to homogenized whole milk converts free fatty acids to smaller compounds, which impart the characteristic tangy flavor to blue cheese.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 239

 

  1. The most popular cheese in the United States based on purchasing information is cheddar.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 243

 

  1. The chemical composition of cheese determines the functional characteristics and ultimately its use in food preparation.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 243

 

  1. Fat is the single determiner of the melting characteristics of cheese.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 243

 

  1. Not all cheese shreds uniformly, which may be important when calculating the amounts of cheese to be purchased for a food-service operation.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 243

 

  1. The concentration of calcium phosphate and the protein network structure determine the stretchability of a cheese.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 244

 

  1. Most semi-hard and hard cheeses reach their full flavor when served chilled.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

  1. It is correct to cut the mold off most soft, unripened cheeses as long as you go out one inch from the moldy area.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

  1. The major problem with freezing cheese is the fat content.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 245

 

  1. Cheese should be both frozen and thawed as quickly as possible for the best quality.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 246

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. A cheese aged for a very short period, containing 50-75% moisture.
  2. A cheese that is not aged, containing greater than 80% moisture.
  3. A cheese aged for varied periods of time, containing 30-40% moisture.
  4. A cheese aged for varied periods of time, containing 40-50% moisture.
  5. A cheese aged for the longest period of time, containing approximately 30% moisture.

 

  1. Very hard cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Fresh cheese
  4. Soft cheese
  5. Hard cheese

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 235
  2. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234
  3. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234
  4. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234
  5. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 234

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. The chemical composition of a cheese determines its various characteristics and dictates how it will be used in food preparation. Describe these functional properties including shredability, meltability, oiling off, blistering, browning, and stretchability. Discuss the specific issues and problems that may occur with each property.

 

ANS: See pp. 243-244.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 243-244

 

  1. What are the two most important principles to keep in mind when preparing foods that contain cheese? Explain what will happen to the product if you violate one or both of the principles. Be specific.

 

ANS: See pp. 243-244. Select the best cheese for the food item, and keep the temperature low and the cooking time short.

 

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 243-244

 

  1. The FDA’s rule on moldy cheese has some exceptions; what are they, which cheeses do they apply to, and why are the exceptions in place?

 

ANS: See p. 245.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 245

 

  1. Describe the many ways that cheese can be classified. Pick one category and explain it in detail. Include several names of cheese for each category.

 

ANS: See pp. 233-235.

DIF: Knowledge-based                                           REF: 233-235

 

  1. Discuss the nutrient content of cheese including kcalories, fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals. Additionally, give nutritious but delicious alternative suggestions for making healthy cheese selections, for both snacking and meal preparation, while being mindful of kcalories and saturated fat.

 

ANS: See pp. 236-237 and 238.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 236-237|238

 

  1. Describe how cheese must be stored to prevent deterioration, including dry storage, refrigeration, and frozen storage. Include problems and issues that may develop for each category.

 

ANS: See pp. 245-246.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 245-246

 

  1. What is processed cheese? What are the typical ingredients that go into it? How is it manufactured? For each of the following cheeses, describe the culinary quality characteristics and its specific uses: processed (process) cheese, cold-pack cheese, process cheese food, process cheese spread, and imitation cheese.

 

ANS: See pp. 241-242.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 241-242

 

  1. Explain the chemical process of how some cheese flavors develop.

 

ANS: See pp. 237-240.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 237-240

 

  1. Name at least ten food additives that are added to cheese and identify their specific functions.

 

ANS: See p. 242.

DIF: Knowledge-based                                           REF: 242

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 11 Test

 

  1. Cheese is
  2. a cultured food made from milk.
  3. a fermented food made from milk.
  4. a preserved food made from the curd of milk.
  5. whey and curds made into a semi-solid mixture which is then dried.

 

  1. Cheeses are classified by all of the following characteristics except
  2. milk source.
  3. moisture content.
  4. processing method.
  5. size.

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is not classified as a “fresh” cheese?
  2. Brie
  3. cream
  4. farmer’s
  5. feta
  6. ricotta
  7. pot

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is also called country cheese and is mild tasting and highly perishable because its moisture content is over 80 percent?
  2. soft
  3. semi-hard
  4. hard
  5. fresh

 

  1. Hard cheese contains a moisture content ranging from
  2. 20 to 30 percent.
  3. 30 to 40 percent.
  4. 40 to 50 percent.
  5. 50 to 75 percent.

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Parmesan and Romano cheeses?
  2. aged the longest of all cheeses
  3. water content of approximately 30 percent
  4. easily sliced
  5. easily grated or crumbled

e    none of the above; these are all characteristics of Parmesan and Romano

 

  1. Roquefort, Muenster, Gouda, Port du Salut, Gorgonzola, and Stilton are considered _____ cheeses.
  2. very hard
  3. fresh
  4. semi-hard
  5. soft

e    hard

  1. Each cheese varies in its classification. All the above answers are correct.

 

  1. Which of the following is not a basic step in curd treatment?
  2. cutting and heating
  3. salting
  4. knitting
  5. pressing
  6. curing

 

  1. The yield of ten pounds of milk is approximately _____ pound(s) cheese and _____ pounds whey, respectively.
  2. one; nine
  3. two; eight
  4. three; seven
  5. four; six

 

  1. Which step in the process of cheese production has the greatest impact on the classification of cheese?
  2. coagulation of the curd
  3. curd treatment
  4. curing and ripening
  5. milk selection

 

  1. Currently the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires pasteurization for certain cheeses, but allows the use of raw milk (unpasteurized) to make _____ cheese if it is aged for at least _____.
  2. feta; 20 to 40 days
  3. Camembert; 40 to 50 days
  4. cheddar; 60 days
  5. Parmesan; 90 days

 

  1. Which of the following cheeses is among the most common fat-free (non-fat) cheeses available?
  2. ricotta
  3. mozzarella
  4. Brie
  5. Camembert
  6. Swiss and Muenster
  7. both a and b
  8. both c and d

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is most commonly used to coagulate milk in cheese making?
  2. fermentation-produced chymosin
  3. bovine pepsin
  4. porcine pepsin
  5. calf chymosin

 

  1. _____ cheese is an excellent substitute for cheese normally used to make cheesecake or other high-fat foods, because it lowers the fat and takes on the other ingredients’ flavors.
  2. Cottage
  3. Farmer’s
  4. Pot
  5. Yogurt

 

  1. _____ cheese is usually not aged because its high acidity inhibits the bacterial and mold growth that characterizes the aging process.
  2. Acid-coagulated
  3. Enzyme-coagulated
  4. High-fat
  5. Low-fat

 

  1. The curd produced by acid has a soft and spongy texture. This texture is influenced by pH, becoming
  2. watery as the acidity increases.
  3. mealy and non-cohesive as the pH increases.
  4. more solid and compact as the acidity increases.
  5. more solid and compact as the acidity decreases.

 

  1. The step in curd treatment that involves melting curd into a solid mass through the use of heat is called
  2. cutting.
  3. heating.
  4. salting.
  5. knitting.
  6. pressing.

 

  1. The _____ of cheese originates from a combination of over 300 different volatile and nonvolatile compounds that develop during curing and ripening.
  2. texture
  3. color
  4. nutritional profile
  5. flavor
  6. none of the above

 

  1. _____ creates the veins found in blue cheeses such as Gorgonzola, Roquefort, and Stilton.
  2. Bacterial ripening that occurs internally
  3. Bacterial ripening that occurs externally
  4. Mold ripening that occurs internally
  5. Mold ripening that occurs externally

 

  1. Processed cheese is a cheese made
  2. from heated cheddar cheese and blue cheese mixed with other natural ingredients.
  3. by combining different varieties of natural cheese, heating, and adding other ingredients to produce a stable emulsion.
  4. through minimum processing of enzyme-coagulated cheese with or without heat.
  5. from all-natural cheese that are melted and then remolded.

 

  1. Grading of cheese is related to the
  2. bacterial count taken at the end of curing.
  3. country or region of origin.
  4. nutrient value of the final product.
  5. variety, flavor, texture, finish, color, and appearance of the final product.

 

  1. Cheese often browns and darkens during heating because
  2. of caramelization.
  3. of the Maillard reaction.
  4. there are too few sugars, amino acids, or lactose in the cheese.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. A tough, grainy cheese texture results from the presence of too much _____, whereas an excessively soft texture may result from excessive _____ breakdown during aging.
  2. sodium; carbohydrate
  3. phosphorus; lipid
  4. calcium; protein
  5. zinc; lipid

 

  1. _____ tends not to oil off during cooking.
  2. Muenster
  3. Monterey jack
  4. Mozzarella
  5. Camembert

 

  1. Which of the following represents the time and temperature at which cheese should be cooked?
  2. long time and short temperatures
  3. long time and low temperatures
  4. short time and high temperatures
  5. short time and low temperatures

 

  1. Cheese that is kept too long can become moldy. Most molds that develop on cheese are
  2. desirable.
  3. undesirable.
  4. benign.
  5. pathogenic.

 

  1. What determines whether a cheese can be successfully frozen?
  2. water content
  3. fat content
  4. method of curing
  5. method of ripening

 

  1. Most cheeses should be stored in the
  2. freezer in waxed paper.
  3. original carton in the dry storage pantry.
  4. refrigerator in their original wrappers until opened.
  5. freezer in plastic tubs.

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The amount of fat in the cheese is determined by the type of milk.

 

  1. The enzyme that is used in the coagulation of cheese is called chymosin.

 

  1. The flavor of a cheese becomes milder with aging.

 

  1. The mold Penicillium roqueforti added to homogenized whole milk converts free fatty acids to smaller compounds, which impart the characteristic tangy flavor to blue cheese.

 

  1. The most popular cheese in the United States based on purchasing information is cheddar.

 

  1. The chemical composition of cheese determines the functional characteristics and ultimately its use in food preparation.

 

  1. Fat is the single determiner of the melting characteristics of cheese.

 

  1. Not all cheese shreds uniformly, which may be important when calculating the amounts of cheese to be purchased for a food-service operation.

 

  1. The concentration of calcium phosphate and the protein network structure determine the stretchability of a cheese.

 

  1. Most semi-hard and hard cheeses reach their full flavor when served chilled.

 

  1. It is correct to cut the mold off most soft, unripened cheeses as long as you go out one inch from the moldy area.

 

  1. The major problem with freezing cheese is the fat content.

 

  1. Cheese should be both frozen and thawed as quickly as possible for the best quality.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. A cheese aged for a very short period, containing 50-75% moisture.
  2. A cheese that is not aged, containing greater than 80% moisture.
  3. A cheese aged for varied periods of time, containing 30-40% moisture.
  4. A cheese aged for varied periods of time, containing 40-50% moisture.
  5. A cheese aged for the longest period of time, containing approximately 30% moisture.

 

  1. Very hard cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Fresh cheese
  4. Soft cheese
  5. Hard cheese

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. The chemical composition of a cheese determines its various characteristics and dictates how it will be used in food preparation. Describe these functional properties including shredability, meltability, oiling off, blistering, browning, and stretchability. Discuss the specific issues and problems that may occur with each property.

 

  1. What are the two most important principles to keep in mind when preparing foods that contain cheese? Explain what will happen to the product if you violate one or both of the principles. Be specific.

 

  1. The FDA’s rule on moldy cheese has some exceptions; what are they, which cheeses do they apply to, and why are the exceptions in place?

 

  1. Describe the many ways that cheese can be classified. Pick one category and explain it in detail. Include several names of cheese for each category.

 

  1. Discuss the nutrient content of cheese including kcalories, fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals. Additionally, give nutritious but delicious alternative suggestions for making healthy cheese selections, for both snacking and meal preparation, while being mindful of kcalories and saturated fat.

 

  1. Describe how cheese must be stored to prevent deterioration, including dry storage, refrigeration, and frozen storage. Include problems and issues that may develop for each category.

 

  1. What is processed cheese? What are the typical ingredients that go into it? How is it manufactured? For each of the following cheeses, describe the culinary quality characteristics and its specific uses: processed (process) cheese, cold-pack cheese, process cheese food, process cheese spread, and imitation cheese.

 

  1. Explain the chemical process of how some cheese flavors develop.

 

  1. Name at least ten food additives that are added to cheese and identify their specific functions.

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 21 – Sweeteners

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. In baked goods, sugars
  2. produce a finer texture.
  3. generate the browning of crust.
  4. promote fermentation of yeast breads.
  5. extend shelf life by virtue of its ability to retain moisture.
  6. all of the above answers are correct
  7. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 435

 

  1. The major sources of sweeteners in the United States include
  2. sugar cane.
  3. sugar beets.
  4. maple trees and their sap.
  5. corn.
  6. all of the above
  7. a and b only

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 435

 

  1. Which of the following sugars is the least sweet?
  2. sucrose
  3. glucose
  4. fructose
  5. lactose
  6. maltose

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. The basic building block of most carbohydrates is
  2. galactose.
  3. fructose.
  4. sucrose.
  5. maltose.
  6. glucose.
  7. lactose.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. The baking industry relies on crystalline _____ to enhance crust color, texture, and crumb, and to temper the sweetness of sucrose.
  2. glucose
  3. fructose
  4. maltose
  5. sugar alcohol

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. Glucose is
  2. also known as levulose.
  3. less sweet than sucrose.
  4. half as sweet as maltose.
  5. equally as sweet as sucrose.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. The sweetest of all the granulated sugars is
  2. glucose.
  3. galactose.
  4. sucrose.
  5. fructose.
  6. maltose.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. In food preparation, which sugar causes excessive stickiness in candies, overbrowning in baked products, and lower freezing temperatures in ice cream?
  2. dextrose
  3. fructose
  4. galactose
  5. sucrose
  6. maltose
  7. lactose

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. High-fructose corn syrup is _____ percent fructose.
  2. 25 to 41
  3. 42 to 55
  4. 56 to 65
  5. 66 to 85
  6. 86 to 100

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. Which statement is accurate?
  2. One teaspoon of white granulated sugar is 99.9% pure carbohydrate.
  3. The main source of simple sugars in the U.S. diet is cakes and cookies.
  4. The WHO recommends that 25% or less of kcalorie intake come from sugars.
  5. A food whose label states “no sugar added” is sugar free.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. The only sugar with an animal source is
  2. sucrose.
  3. maltose.
  4. fructose.
  5. lactose.
  6. levulose.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 435|437

 

  1. Which of the following sugars is used primarily as a flavoring and coloring agent in the manufacture of beer?
  2. glucose
  3. fructose
  4. galactose
  5. sucrose
  6. maltose
  7. lactose

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. Which of the following is not a syrup?
  2. honey
  3. molasses
  4. invert sugar
  5. all of the above answers are syrups
  6. none of the above answers is a syrup

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. Most “maple syrup” sold today is
  2. a blend of maple syrup and invert sugar.
  3. a blend of high-fructose corn syrup and maple syrup.
  4. a blend of corn syrup and invert sugar with maple flavoring.
  5. a blend of maple syrup and corn syrup and/or cane sugar syrup.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 440

 

  1. Which of the following statements about corn syrup is false?
  2. Corn syrups contain 75 percent sugar and 25 percent water.
  3. Corn syrup is made commercially by adding a weak acid solution to cornstarch, then boiling, filtering, and evaporating the mixture until the correct concentration is achieved.
  4. Adding different enzymes to cornstarch can convert the starch into glucose, maltose, or dextrins.
  5. Beta-amylase enzymes yield more maltose, while glucoamylase enzymes result in a higher-glucose syrup, which is sweeter and less viscous.
  6. Manufacturers control corn syrup characteristics primarily by adjusting the amount of water in the syrup.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437-438

 

  1. As compared with lower-conversion syrups, high-conversion corn syrups
  2. are more viscous.
  3. have greater sweetening power.
  4. have less ability to promote fermentation.
  5. contribute less to browning.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 438

 

  1. High-fructose corn syrup
  2. is made by treating cornstarch with a series of enzymes including glucose isomerase.
  3. is approximately 75 percent fructose and 25 percent glucose.
  4. costs more than sucrose.
  5. cannot be used when clarity and colorlessness are desired.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 438-439

 

  1. The primary adjustment in a recipe when honey is substituted is to _____.
  2. reduce the flour-to-fat ratio
  3. reduce the amount of liquid
  4. increase the amount of baking powder
  5. change the type of liquid
  6. alter the mixing method

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 440

 

  1. After honey is extracted from the comb, it is heated to 140 degrees F for 30 minutes to
  2. destroy most microorganisms.
  3. increase viscosity and flavor intensity.
  4. increase the pH.
  5. prevent cloudiness or precipitation of the sugars into crystals after it is stored for long periods of time.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 439

 

  1. The thick gumminess of molasses is due to
  2. hemicellulose and pectin.
  3. waxes.
  4. proteins
  5. dextran.
  6. all of the above answers are correct
  7. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 440

 

  1. The food industry frequently uses invert sugar in the production of
  2. ice cream.
  3. commercial cake mixes.
  4. confections.
  5. carbonated beverages.
  6. juices.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 441

 

  1. Which among the following appears to be the closest equivalent to sucrose in solubility and functionality?
  2. erythritol
  3. isomalt
  4. lactitol
  5. maltitol
  6. mannitol

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 441

 

  1. Although most sugar alcohols are primarily sold as ingredients to food manufacturers, _____ is/are available to professional chefs for use in their culinary kitchens.
  2. sorbitol
  3. mannitol
  4. xylitol
  5. isomalt
  6. maltitol, lactitol, and erythritol

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 441

 

  1. The sugar alcohols are particularly useful in gums, lozenges, and breath mints because they are
  2. non-kcaloric.
  3. mouth cooling, low in kcalories, and cariostatic.
  4. not absorbed in the intestines.
  5. absorbed in the large bowel only.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 442

 

  1. _____, one of the most widely used sugar alcohols, has the added quality of acting as a humectant and is frequently used in marshmallows and shredded coconut to maintain moistness.
  2. Sorbitol
  3. Mannitol
  4. Xylitol
  5. Isomalt

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 442

 

  1. There are many problems associated with the substitution of nonnutritive sweeteners for sugar but the most problematic is
  2. the difference in kcalories.
  3. the difference in absorptive qualities.
  4. the lack of hygroscopicity of the sugar alcohols.
  5. that the nonnutritive sweeteners do not provide the same functional properties that sugars do.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 442

 

  1. _____ was discovered as a sweetener in 1879, is 200-700 times as sweet as sucrose, provides no kcalories, and can be used in both baked and processed foods.
  2. Acesulfame-K
  3. Aspartame
  4. Neotame
  5. Saccharin
  6. Sucralose

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 443|444

 

  1. _____ is _____ times as sweet as sucrose and stable at high temperatures, making it suitable for use in baked products.
  2. Aspartame; 180
  3. Acesulfame-K; 130
  4. Sucralose; 600
  5. Neotame; 8,000

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 443|444

 

  1. The degree to which a sugar dissolves in water varies from sugar to sugar. Which of the following answers ranks the sugars from most soluble to least soluble?
  2. dextrose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose
  3. sucrose, glucose, maltose, and lactose
  4. dextrose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose
  5. glucose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 446

 

  1. Which of the following statements about sugar crystallization is false?
  2. Sugar crystallization on the outside of brownies forms a sweet, crunchy coating during baking.
  3. The formation of just one crystal in a sugar solution can trigger the precipitation of many others in a domino effect.
  4. Sugar crystals may form on nicks or cracks in the surface of a pan used to heat a sugar solution.
  5. Invert sugar is routinely used in confectionary production because it promotes crystallization.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 441|447

 

  1. Which of the following sweeteners will result in the moistest cake?
  2. confectioner’s sugar
  3. granulated sugar
  4. molasses
  5. sanding sugar

 

ANS: c       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 436|447

 

  1. What is sometimes added to liquids to increase their viscosity and add a creamy, fat-like consistency?
  2. inulin
  3. invert sugar
  4. sucrose
  5. honey

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 448

 

  1. Which of the following foods is an example of the positive use of fermentation?
  2. fruit juice
  3. jam and jellies
  4. wine
  5. fruit sauces
  6. caramel sauce

 

ANS: c       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 448

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The most widely used sweeteners in food preparation are sugars.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 434

 

  1. Fructose is a low-kcalorie sweetener.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. Table sugar is a disaccharide that is extracted from plants and thoroughly processed.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 436

 

  1. Commercial bread bakers favor using lactose in the preparation of yeast products.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437

 

  1. The herb stevia was recently granted GRAS status, while one of its extracted components, rebaudioside A, can only be sold as a dietary supplement.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 445

 

  1. It is possible to successfully substitute honey for all of the granulated sugar in a recipe for a baked product if you make several other modifications.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 440

 

  1. The first individuals to collect the sap of the maple trees and make a sweetener out of it were the Williamsburg colonists.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 440

 

  1. Despite the controversies over the safety of nonnutritive sweeteners, they are popular with people who have diabetes or are trying to lose weight.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 442

 

  1. The sweetness of foods is mostly determined by the type and concentration of sugars.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 446

 

  1. A food or drink will usually taste sweeter when it is hot than when it is cold.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 446

 

  1. The solubility of sugar increases as the temperature increases.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 446|447

 

  1. The Maillard reaction is a browning reaction involving sugars and complex carbohydrates.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 447

 

  1. Any sugar except lactose can be fermented to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast organisms.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 448

 

  1. The preservation of food by the use of high concentrations of sugars is possible because of the dehydration of the microorganisms that might otherwise cause spoilage.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 448

 

  1. Adding sucrose to a solution decreases its boiling temperature.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 446

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. an equal mixture of glucose and fructose created by hydrolyzing sucrose
  2. an alternative sweetening agent providing zero to minimal kcalories
  3. sugary solutions that vary widely in viscosity, carbohydrate concentration, flavor, and price
  4. a process in which dry sugar, or sugar solution with most of its water evaporated, is heated until it melts and then turns into a smooth, brown mixture
  5. the precipitation of crystals from a solution into a solid, geometric network

 

  1. syrups
  2. invert sugar
  3. nonnutritive sweetener
  4. crystallization
  5. caramelization

 

Key:

  1. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 437
  2. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 441
  3. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 434|442
  4. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 439
  5. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 447

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What functions do sugars serve in foods? Give at least two examples of foods that represent each function.

 

ANS: See pp. 435 and 446-448. The answer should come from the sections of the book on functionality. The examples should reflect the classroom examples or research by the students into the functional properties of sugars and the products of the industry.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 435|446-448

 

  1. What are the issues surrounding the use of nonnutritive sweeteners? Explain them with examples of why we should continue to use these sweeteners.

 

ANS: See pp. 442-446. The answer should reflect an investigation into obesity, diabetes, and dental caries incidence rates and the current impact that these products might have on the rates.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 442-446

 

  1. You are getting all of your ingredients ready to make chocolate chip cookies. You take the brown sugar out of the box and it is hard as a rock. Why does brown sugar have a tendency to dry out and become hard? You don’t have time to go to the grocery store. Can you soften it after it has already become hard? If so, how? What can you do to prevent it from happening next time?

 

ANS: See p. 437.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 437

 

  1. Your friend is baking a pound cake and the recipe calls for 2 cups of sugar. She has some old honey with crystals in it in the pantry and wants to substitute it for the sugar and calls you up on the phone to find out if the cake will still turn out to be delicious. First of all, she wants to know how she can get rid of these hard crystals in the honey. Tell her how to soften the honey. Give your friend the possible measurement guidelines for the substitution. Any tips for reducing the stickiness of the honey when measuring it in a measuring cup? Should oven temperatures be adjusted? Describe the flavor difference from the substitution in the final baked product.

 

ANS: See p. 440.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 440

 

  1. What is infused honey? Name some possible flavors. Where can you use it? How do you make it?

 

ANS: See pp. 439 and 440.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 439|440

 

  1. How do you determine the relative sweetness of sweeteners? Name eight sweeteners less sweet than sucrose and eight sweeteners sweeter than sucrose.

 

ANS: See p. 446.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 446

 

  1. Name and describe the three instruments used to measure the amount of sugar solids in a sugar solution such as a syrup or liquid. What is the name of the food industry’s standard unit of measurement for identifying the sugar concentration in sugar solutions? What is a dextrose equivalent and how is it calculated? Why do we care about dextrose equivalents when working with sugars?

 

ANS: See pp. 438-439.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 438-439

 

  1. Name the sugar alcohols. What are they? How are they used in foods? Are there any limitations in using sugar alcohols?

 

ANS: See pp. 441-442.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 441-442

 

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 21 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. In baked goods, sugars
  2. produce a finer texture.
  3. generate the browning of crust.
  4. promote fermentation of yeast breads.
  5. extend shelf life by virtue of its ability to retain moisture.
  6. all of the above answers are correct
  7. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. The major sources of sweeteners in the United States include
  2. sugar cane.
  3. sugar beets.
  4. maple trees and their sap.
  5. corn.
  6. all of the above
  7. a and b only

 

  1. Which of the following sugars is the least sweet?
  2. sucrose
  3. glucose
  4. fructose
  5. lactose
  6. maltose

 

  1. The basic building block of most carbohydrates is
  2. galactose.
  3. fructose.
  4. sucrose.
  5. maltose.
  6. glucose.
  7. lactose.

 

  1. The baking industry relies on crystalline _____ to enhance crust color, texture, and crumb, and to temper the sweetness of sucrose.
  2. glucose
  3. fructose
  4. maltose
  5. sugar alcohol

 

  1. Glucose is
  2. also known as levulose.
  3. less sweet than sucrose.
  4. half as sweet as maltose.
  5. equally as sweet as sucrose.

 

  1. The sweetest of all the granulated sugars is
  2. glucose.
  3. galactose.
  4. sucrose.
  5. fructose.
  6. maltose.

 

  1. In food preparation, which sugar causes excessive stickiness in candies, overbrowning in baked products, and lower freezing temperatures in ice cream?
  2. dextrose
  3. fructose
  4. galactose
  5. sucrose
  6. maltose
  7. lactose

 

  1. High-fructose corn syrup is _____ percent fructose.
  2. 25 to 41
  3. 42 to 55
  4. 56 to 65
  5. 66 to 85
  6. 86 to 100

 

  1. Which statement is accurate?
  2. One teaspoon of white granulated sugar is 99.9% pure carbohydrate.
  3. The main source of simple sugars in the U.S. diet is cakes and cookies.
  4. The WHO recommends that 25% or less of kcalorie intake come from sugars.
  5. A food whose label states “no sugar added” is sugar free.

 

  1. The only sugar with an animal source is
  2. sucrose.
  3. maltose.
  4. fructose.
  5. lactose.
  6. levulose.

 

  1. Which of the following sugars is used primarily as a flavoring and coloring agent in the manufacture of beer?
  2. glucose
  3. fructose
  4. galactose
  5. sucrose
  6. maltose
  7. lactose

 

  1. Which of the following is not a syrup?
  2. honey
  3. molasses
  4. invert sugar
  5. all of the above answers are syrups
  6. none of the above answers is a syrup

 

  1. Most “maple syrup” sold today is
  2. a blend of maple syrup and invert sugar.
  3. a blend of high-fructose corn syrup and maple syrup.
  4. a blend of corn syrup and invert sugar with maple flavoring.
  5. a blend of maple syrup and corn syrup and/or cane sugar syrup.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about corn syrup is false?
  2. Corn syrups contain 75 percent sugar and 25 percent water.
  3. Corn syrup is made commercially by adding a weak acid solution to cornstarch, then boiling, filtering, and evaporating the mixture until the correct concentration is achieved.
  4. Adding different enzymes to cornstarch can convert the starch into glucose, maltose, or dextrins.
  5. Beta-amylase enzymes yield more maltose, while glucoamylase enzymes result in a higher-glucose syrup, which is sweeter and less viscous.
  6. Manufacturers control corn syrup characteristics primarily by adjusting the amount of water in the syrup.

 

  1. As compared with lower-conversion syrups, high-conversion corn syrups
  2. are more viscous.
  3. have greater sweetening power.
  4. have less ability to promote fermentation.
  5. contribute less to browning.

 

  1. High-fructose corn syrup
  2. is made by treating cornstarch with a series of enzymes including glucose isomerase.
  3. is approximately 75 percent fructose and 25 percent glucose.
  4. costs more than sucrose.
  5. cannot be used when clarity and colorlessness are desired.

 

  1. The primary adjustment in a recipe when honey is substituted is to _____.
  2. reduce the flour-to-fat ratio
  3. reduce the amount of liquid
  4. increase the amount of baking powder
  5. change the type of liquid
  6. alter the mixing method

 

  1. After honey is extracted from the comb, it is heated to 140 degrees F for 30 minutes to
  2. destroy most microorganisms.
  3. increase viscosity and flavor intensity.
  4. increase the pH.
  5. prevent cloudiness or precipitation of the sugars into crystals after it is stored for long periods of time.

 

  1. The thick gumminess of molasses is due to
  2. hemicellulose and pectin.
  3. waxes.
  4. proteins
  5. dextran.
  6. all of the above answers are correct
  7. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. The food industry frequently uses invert sugar in the production of
  2. ice cream.
  3. commercial cake mixes.
  4. confections.
  5. carbonated beverages.
  6. juices.

 

  1. Which among the following appears to be the closest equivalent to sucrose in solubility and functionality?
  2. erythritol
  3. isomalt
  4. lactitol
  5. maltitol
  6. mannitol

 

  1. Although most sugar alcohols are primarily sold as ingredients to food manufacturers, _____ is/are available to professional chefs for use in their culinary kitchens.
  2. sorbitol
  3. mannitol
  4. xylitol
  5. isomalt
  6. maltitol, lactitol, and erythritol

 

  1. The sugar alcohols are particularly useful in gums, lozenges, and breath mints because they are
  2. non-kcaloric.
  3. mouth cooling, low in kcalories, and cariostatic.
  4. not absorbed in the intestines.
  5. absorbed in the large bowel only.

 

  1. _____, one of the most widely used sugar alcohols, has the added quality of acting as a humectant and is frequently used in marshmallows and shredded coconut to maintain moistness.
  2. Sorbitol
  3. Mannitol
  4. Xylitol
  5. Isomalt

 

  1. There are many problems associated with the substitution of nonnutritive sweeteners for sugar but the most problematic is
  2. the difference in kcalories.
  3. the difference in absorptive qualities.
  4. the lack of hygroscopicity of the sugar alcohols.
  5. that the nonnutritive sweeteners do not provide the same functional properties that sugars do.

 

  1. _____ was discovered as a sweetener in 1879, is 200-700 times as sweet as sucrose, provides no kcalories, and can be used in both baked and processed foods.
  2. Acesulfame-K
  3. Aspartame
  4. Neotame
  5. Saccharin
  6. Sucralose

 

  1. _____ is _____ times as sweet as sucrose and stable at high temperatures, making it suitable for use in baked products.
  2. Aspartame; 180
  3. Acesulfame-K; 130
  4. Sucralose; 600
  5. Neotame; 8,000

 

  1. The degree to which a sugar dissolves in water varies from sugar to sugar. Which of the following answers ranks the sugars from most soluble to least soluble?
  2. dextrose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose
  3. sucrose, glucose, maltose, and lactose
  4. dextrose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose
  5. glucose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose

 

  1. Which of the following statements about sugar crystallization is false?
  2. Sugar crystallization on the outside of brownies forms a sweet, crunchy coating during baking.
  3. The formation of just one crystal in a sugar solution can trigger the precipitation of many others in a domino effect.
  4. Sugar crystals may form on nicks or cracks in the surface of a pan used to heat a sugar solution.
  5. Invert sugar is routinely used in confectionary production because it promotes crystallization.

 

  1. Which of the following sweeteners will result in the moistest cake?
  2. confectioner’s sugar
  3. granulated sugar
  4. molasses
  5. sanding sugar

 

  1. What is sometimes added to liquids to increase their viscosity and add a creamy, fat-like consistency?
  2. inulin
  3. invert sugar
  4. sucrose
  5. honey

 

  1. Which of the following foods is an example of the positive use of fermentation?
  2. fruit juice
  3. jam and jellies
  4. wine
  5. fruit sauces
  6. caramel sauce

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The most widely used sweeteners in food preparation are sugars.

 

  1. Fructose is a low-kcalorie sweetener.

 

  1. Table sugar is a disaccharide that is extracted from plants and thoroughly processed.

 

  1. Commercial bread bakers favor using lactose in the preparation of yeast products.

 

  1. The herb stevia was recently granted GRAS status, while one of its extracted components, rebaudioside A, can only be sold as a dietary supplement.

 

  1. It is possible to successfully substitute honey for all of the granulated sugar in a recipe for a baked product if you make several other modifications.

 

  1. The first individuals to collect the sap of the maple trees and make a sweetener out of it were the Williamsburg colonists.

 

  1. Despite the controversies over the safety of nonnutritive sweeteners, they are popular with people who have diabetes or are trying to lose weight.

 

  1. The sweetness of foods is mostly determined by the type and concentration of sugars.

 

  1. A food or drink will usually taste sweeter when it is hot than when it is cold.

 

  1. The solubility of sugar increases as the temperature increases.

 

  1. The Maillard reaction is a browning reaction involving sugars and complex carbohydrates.

 

  1. Any sugar except lactose can be fermented to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast organisms.

 

  1. The preservation of food by the use of high concentrations of sugars is possible because of the dehydration of the microorganisms that might otherwise cause spoilage.

 

  1. Adding sucrose to a solution decreases its boiling temperature.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. an equal mixture of glucose and fructose created by hydrolyzing sucrose
  2. an alternative sweetening agent providing zero to minimal kcalories
  3. sugary solutions that vary widely in viscosity, carbohydrate concentration, flavor, and price
  4. a process in which dry sugar, or sugar solution with most of its water evaporated, is heated until it melts and then turns into a smooth, brown mixture
  5. the precipitation of crystals from a solution into a solid, geometric network

 

  1. syrups
  2. invert sugar
  3. nonnutritive sweetener
  4. crystallization
  5. caramelization

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What functions do sugars serve in foods? Give at least two examples of foods that represent each function.

 

  1. What are the issues surrounding the use of nonnutritive sweeteners? Explain them with examples of why we should continue to use these sweeteners.

 

  1. You are getting all of your ingredients ready to make chocolate chip cookies. You take the brown sugar out of the box and it is hard as a rock. Why does brown sugar have a tendency to dry out and become hard? You don’t have time to go to the grocery store. Can you soften it after it has already become hard? If so, how? What can you do to prevent it from happening next time?

 

  1. Your friend is baking a pound cake and the recipe calls for 2 cups of sugar. She has some old honey with crystals in it in the pantry and wants to substitute it for the sugar and calls you up on the phone to find out if the cake will still turn out to be delicious. First of all, she wants to know how she can get rid of these hard crystals in the honey. Tell her how to soften the honey. Give your friend the possible measurement guidelines for the substitution. Any tips for reducing the stickiness of the honey when measuring it in a measuring cup? Should oven temperatures be adjusted? Describe the flavor difference from the substitution in the final baked product.

 

  1. What is infused honey? Name some possible flavors. Where can you use it? How do you make it?

 

  1. How do you determine the relative sweetness of sweeteners? Name eight sweeteners less sweet than sucrose and eight sweeteners sweeter than sucrose.

 

  1. Name and describe the three instruments used to measure the amount of sugar solids in a sugar solution such as a syrup or liquid. What is the name of the food industry’s standard unit of measurement for identifying the sugar concentration in sugar solutions? What is a dextrose equivalent and how is it calculated? Why do we care about dextrose equivalents when working with sugars?

 

  1. Name the sugar alcohols. What are they? How are they used in foods? Are there any limitations in using sugar alcohols?

 

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.