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Visual Anatomy & Physiology 3rd Ed By Martini – 
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Visual Anatomy and Physiology, 3e (Martini)

Chapter 1   An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) The maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is termed

  1. A) positive feedback.
  2. B) homeostasis.
  3. C) negative feedback.
  4. D) effector control.
  5. E) integration.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.6

 

 

2) Gas exchange is to the respiratory system as absorption of nutrients is to the ________ system(s).

  1. A) lymphatic
  2. B) urinary
  3. C) digestive
  4. D) cardiovascular
  5. E) urinary and cardiovascular

 

 

 

 

3) Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?

  1. A) cardiovascular
  2. B) lymphatic
  3. C) respiratory
  4. D) digestive
  5. E) endocrine

 

 

 

 

4) Anatomy is to ________ as physiology is to ________.

  1. A) function; form
  2. B) form; structure
  3. C) structure; function
  4. D) structure; form
  5. E) growth; form

 

 

 

 

5) The central principle of physiology is

  1. A) nutrition.
  2. B) reflexes.
  3. C) homeostasis.
  4. D) stimulation.
  5. E) temperature regulation.

 

 

 

 

6) Because the anatomy and physiology of the body’s structures are interrelated, it is often said that “form determines ________.”

  1. A) anatomy
  2. B) physiology
  3. C) structure
  4. D) function
  5. E) biology

 

 

 

 

7) A chemical imbalance in the blood can cause the heart to stop pumping blood, which in turn will cause other tissues and organs to cease functioning. This observation supports the view that

  1. A) all organisms are composed of cells.
  2. B) all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent.
  3. C) chemical molecules make up cells.
  4. D) blood has magical properties.
  5. E) congenital defects can be life-threatening.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.10

 

 

8) Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most complex to the simplest?

  1. A) cellular, tissue, molecular, system, organ, organism
  2. B) molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
  3. C) tissue, cellular, molecular, organ, system, organism
  4. D) organ, organism, molecular, cellular, tissue, system
  5. E) organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular

 

Learning Outcome:  1.10

 

 

 

9) What is the smallest living level of organization?

  1. A) cellular level
  2. B) chemical level
  3. C) organ level
  4. D) organ system level
  5. E) tissue level

 

Learning Outcome:  1.11

 

10) Which of the following cell types is long, slender and makes contractions?

  1. A) red blood cells
  2. B) bone cells
  3. C) fat cells
  4. D) muscle cells
  5. E) white blood cells

 

Learning Outcome:  1.11

 

 

11) Which type of cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?

  1. A) bone cells
  2. B) fat cells
  3. C) muscle cells
  4. D) white blood cells
  5. E) red blood cells

 

Learning Outcome:  1.11

 

 

12) Which type of cells recycle the calcium and phosphate stored there?

  1. A) bone cells
  2. B) fat cells
  3. C) muscle cells
  4. D) nervous cells
  5. E) blood cells

 

Learning Outcome:  1.11

 

 

 

13) Which type of cells are spherical and contain energy molecules?

  1. A) bone cells
  2. B) fat cells
  3. C) muscle cells
  4. D) white blood cells
  5. E) red blood cells

 

Learning Outcome:  1.11

 

 

14) ________ is the study of tissue structures.

  1. A) Gross anatomy
  2. B) Pathology
  3. C) Biology
  4. D) Microbiology
  5. E) Histology

 

Learning Outcome:  1.12

 

15) Which of the following tissues covers and protects exposed surface areas of the body?

  1. A) connective tissue
  2. B) muscle tissue
  3. C) epithelial tissue
  4. D) bone tissue
  5. E) nervous tissue

 

Learning Outcome:  1.12

 

 

16) Which of the following tissues fills internal spaces and provides structural support?

  1. A) connective tissue
  2. B) muscle tissue
  3. C) epithelial tissue
  4. D) bone tissue
  5. E) nervous tissue

 

Learning Outcome:  1.12

 

 

 

17) Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation?

  1. A) integumentary
  2. B) muscular
  3. C) skeletal
  4. D) nervous
  5. E) endocrine

 

Learning Outcome:  1.13

 

 

18) Protection from environmental hazards is a function of the ________ system.

  1. A) skeletal
  2. B) muscular
  3. C) integumentary
  4. D) endocrine
  5. E) skeletal and muscular

 

Learning Outcome:  1.13

 

 

19) Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells?

  1. A) cardiovascular
  2. B) digestive
  3. C) muscular
  4. D) respiratory
  5. E) urinary

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

20) Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems is the major function of the ________ system.

  1. A) endocrine
  2. B) cardiovascular
  3. C) respiratory
  4. D) lymphatic
  5. E) digestive

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

 

 

21) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the endocrine system?

  1. A) It releases chemicals that affect other organs or tissues.
  2. B) It produces a more rapid response than the nervous system.
  3. C) It produces effects that last for days or longer.
  4. D) It produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time.
  5. E) It is important in regulating organs and tissues.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

 

22) The heart is an example of a(n)

  1. A) cell.
  2. B) tissue.
  3. C) organ.
  4. D) extracellular fluid.
  5. E) organ system.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

 

23) All of the following are organs of the endocrine system, except

  1. A) pituitary.
  2. B) thyroid.
  3. C) thymus.
  4. D) muscle.
  5. E) pancreas.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

 

24) All of the following are structures of the cardiovascular system, except

  1. A) the heart.
  2. B) arteries.
  3. C) the spleen.
  4. D) veins.
  5. E) capillaries.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.15

 

 

25) Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products are functions of the ________ system.

  1. A) endocrine
  2. B) digestive
  3. C) respiratory
  4. D) urinary
  5. E) lymphatic

 

Learning Outcome:  1.16

 

 

26) Which gastrointestinal organ is responsible for bile secretion and regulation of blood nutrient composition?

  1. A) gallbladder
  2. B) liver
  3. C) stomach
  4. D) pancreas
  5. E) salivary glands

 

Learning Outcome:  1.16

 

 

27) What is the primary function of kidneys?

  1. A) removes carbon dioxide from the body
  2. B) store urine
  3. C) regulate blood glucose
  4. D) form and concentrate urine
  5. E) secret enzymes for digestion

 

Learning Outcome:  1.16

 

 

28) The tendency for physiological systems to stabilize internal conditions is called

  1. A) homeostasis.
  2. B) disease.
  3. C) biology.
  4. D) responsiveness.
  5. E) adaptability.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.17

 

 

 

29) Homeostatic regulation usually involves a(n) ________ that detects a particular stimulus, and a(n) ________ that responds to the stimulus by communicating with a(n) ________ whose activity has an effect on the same stimulus.

  1. A) control center (integrating center); receptor; effector
  2. B) receptor; control center (integrating center); effector
  3. C) effector; control center (integrating center); receptor
  4. D) receptor; effector; control center (integrating center)
  5. E) effector; receptor; control center (integrating center)

 

Learning Outcome:  1.17

 

30) When homeostatic mechanisms fail, an individual will experience the symptoms of

  1. A) homeostasis.
  2. B) negative feedback.
  3. C) illness or disease.
  4. D) positive feedback.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.17

 

 

31) If a response decreases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system.

  1. A) deficit
  2. B) negative
  3. C) neutral
  4. D) polarized
  5. E) positive

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

32) If a response increases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system.

  1. A) deficit
  2. B) negative
  3. C) neutral
  4. D) polarized
  5. E) positive

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

 

33) When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of

  1. A) negative feedback.
  2. B) positive feedback.
  3. C) nonhomeostatic regulation.
  4. D) diagnostic regulation.
  5. E) fever.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

34) All of the following participate in thermoregulation, except

  1. A) brain.
  2. B) skin.
  3. C) gastrointestinal system.
  4. D) blood vessels.
  5. E) sweat glands.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

35) The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the

  1. A) brain.
  2. B) skin.
  3. C) temperature receptor.
  4. D) positive feedback center.
  5. E) thermostat.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

36) A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed a(n)

  1. A) receptor.
  2. B) thermoregulator.
  3. C) control center (integration center).
  4. D) effector.
  5. E) stimulus.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

 

37) An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be

  1. A) temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus.
  2. B) sweat glands that increase secretion.
  3. C) regulatory centers that send commands to an effector.
  4. D) effectors that cause blood vessels to dilate.
  5. E) sweat glands that act like effectors.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

38) All of the following are examples of positive feedback, except

  1. A) blood clot formation.
  2. B) release of chemicals from the blood vessels after injury.
  3. C) decrease bleeding after injury.
  4. D) increase heart rate after blood loss.
  5. E) relaxation of smooth muscles’ blood vessels when body temperature goes up.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.18

 

 

39) Much of the early history in anatomy is tied to what country?

  1. A) France
  2. B) Italy
  3. C) United States
  4. D) Spain
  5. E) England

 

Learning Outcome:  1.19

 

40) The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following except the

  1. A) right upper quadrant (RUQ).
  2. B) right lower quadrant (RLQ).
  3. C) left upper quadrant (LUQ).
  4. D) left lower quadrant (LLQ).
  5. E) pelvic quadrant.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

 

41) Which of the following is not considered an abdominopelvic region?

  1. A) right hypochondriac
  2. B) right inguinal region
  3. C) left lumbar
  4. D) left hypochondriac
  5. E) upper right

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

42) A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling. She is in the ________ position.

  1. A) prone
  2. B) supine
  3. C) anatomical
  4. D) dorsal
  5. E) caudal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

43) A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the ________ position.

  1. A) supine
  2. B) prone
  3. C) anatomical
  4. D) frontal
  5. E) sagittal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

44) The common term for the carpal region is the

  1. A) skull.
  2. B) ankle.
  3. C) chest.
  4. D) wrist.
  5. E) leg.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

45) A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane would produce a ________ section.

  1. A) superior
  2. B) coronal
  3. C) transverse
  4. D) parasagittal
  5. E) frontal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

46) Which of the following terms refers to the foot?

  1. A) cervical
  2. B) brachial
  3. C) antebrachial
  4. D) femoral
  5. E) pedal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

47) The urinary bladder is found in the ________ quadrant and the ________ quadrant.

  1. A) right upper; right lower
  2. B) left upper; left lower
  3. C) right upper; left lower
  4. D) right lower; left lower

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

48) The liver is primarily located in the ________ quadrant.

  1. A) right upper
  2. B) left upper
  3. C) right lower
  4. D) left lower
  5. E) hepatic

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

 

49) A person lying face down is in the ________ position.

  1. A) prone
  2. B) supine
  3. C) anatomical
  4. D) anterior
  5. E) posterior

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

50) The anatomical term for the buccal region is the

  1. A) buttock.
  2. B) cheek.
  3. C) head.
  4. D) arm.
  5. E) foot.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

51) The anatomical name for the pollex is the

  1. A) foot.
  2. B) hand.
  3. C) armpit.
  4. D) groin.
  5. E) thumb.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

52) The anatomical name for the patellar region is the

  1. A) kneecap.
  2. B) breast.
  3. C) hand.
  4. D) neck
  5. E) ear.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.20

 

 

 

53) While standing erect, the direction of caudal is

  1. A) upward.
  2. B) downward.
  3. C) laterally.
  4. D) medially.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

 

54) While standing in the anatomical position,

  1. A) front refers to posterior.
  2. B) front refers to inferior.
  3. C) back refers to anterior.
  4. D) back refers to superior.
  5. E) back refers to dorsal.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

55) Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe

  1. A) one body part in relation to another.
  2. B) surgical procedures.
  3. C) a supine position.
  4. D) the nervous system.
  5. E) living matter.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

 

56) The wrist is ________ to the elbow.

  1. A) proximal
  2. B) distal
  3. C) lateral
  4. D) medial
  5. E) horizontal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

 

 

57) An anatomical term that means the same as “ventral” is

  1. A) posterior.
  2. B) inferior.
  3. C) abdominal.
  4. D) anterior.
  5. E) superior.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

 

58) Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?

  1. A) proximal
  2. B) frontal
  3. C) orthogonal
  4. D) transverse
  5. E) sagittal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

 

59) A midsagittal section would pass through the

  1. A) kidney.
  2. B) lung.
  3. C) heart.
  4. D) spleen.
  5. E) leg.

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21

 

60) The heart is ________ to the lungs.

  1. A) lateral
  2. B) medial
  3. C) posterior
  4. D) proximal
  5. E) distal

 

Learning Outcome:  1.21