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The World of  the Cell 7th Edition by Wayne M. Becker – Test Bank

 

Exam
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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A spontaneous reaction 1) A) has an overall positive free energy change. B) could occur, but might take a very long time. C) has to occur immediately. D) will never occur. E) is associated exclusively with homeothermic organisms. Answer: B
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 2) Under the conditions of a given reaction, a positive ̇Gƍ means 2) A) the reaction is spontaneous. B) work can be done. C) the reaction will not occur. D) the reaction is at equilibrium. E) no energy needs to be added. Answer: C
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 3)
Nerve impulses travel along the neurons by the opening of channels that allow sodium ions to flow
inward followed by an outward flow of potassium ions. In order to ensure that the impulse may be
produced at any time, sodium is actively transported out of the cell, and potassium is transported
into the cell by the sodium/potassium pump. Which of the following types of work is performed by
the sodium/potassium pump? 3) A) synthetic B) bioluminescence C) electrical D) mechanical E) concentration Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 1
4) Bioenergetics can be simply defined as 4) A) applied thermodynamics. B) holding constant the variables in the universe. C) the units in which energy is expressed. D) the application of biological principles to physics. E) a subdivision of biology. Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 5) When ̇Gƍ = 0 in a chemical reaction, under the conditions 5) A) reactants and products are at equilibrium. B) the reaction is spontaneous to the left. C) work can be done; energy is required. D) no work can be done; no energy is required. E) both A and D Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 6)
In a reversible chemical reaction at equilibrium, the concentration of X (the reactant) is 0.75
moles/liter, and the concentration of Y (the product) is 2.25 moles/liter. At 25° C, what would be the
Keq?
6) A) 37.5 B) 1.69 C) 3.0 D) 1.50 E) 0.33 Answer: C
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 7) The voodoo lily (Sauromatum gattatum) is able to 7) A) emit a foul odor to attract pollinators. B) trick the pollinators into thinking it is rotting meat. C) utilize metabolic heat. D) be pollinated by flies. E) all of the above Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 2
8)
In a chemical reaction, the standard free energy change (PG°ƍ) is calculated to be 3.67 cal/mol. What
can be said of the chemical reaction? 8) A) The reaction is not spontaneous under standard conditions. B) Products predominate over reactants at equilibrium under standard conditions. C) There can be no reaction. D) The reaction is at equilibrium under standard conditions. E) The reaction goes spontaneously to the right under standard conditions. Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 9) Which of the following is not a basic need of the cell? 9) A) 100% efficiency B) chemical catalysts C) information D) molecular building blocks E) energy Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 10) Which of the following is a phototroph? 10) A) an earthworm B) bacteria growing on decomposing matter C) a mushroom D) a person E) a tree Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 11) Which of the following is defined as “heat content?” 11) A) solar radiation B) enthalpy C) energy output D) entropy E) heat loss Answer: B
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 3
12) The statement, “Energy is neither created or destroyed,” describes 12) A) the first law of thermodynamics. B) enthalpy. C) the law of conservation of energy. D) the second law of thermodynamics. E) both A and C Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 13)
Matter and energy flow through the biosphere. The flow of matter, however, differs from the flow
of energy. Which of the following statements accurately describes these differences? 13) A)
Matter does not accompany energy as it enters the biosphere, but it does flow with energy
from the biosphere. B) Matter flows in cycles, whereas energy flows in one direction. C) Energy flows as organic molecules are reduced to inorganic molecules, but matter does not. D)
Energy flows from chemotrophs to phototrophs, whereas matter flows from phototrophs to
chemotrophs. E) Matter and energy flow sometimes in cycles, sometimes unidirectionally. Answer: B
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 14) Muscle contraction is an example of which of the following types of work? 14) A) bioluminescence B) heat C) electrical D) mechanical E) concentration Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 4
15) Which of the following types of work involves a change in position of the cell or a cell structure? 15) A) bioluminescent B) mechanical C) concentration D) synthetic E) electrical Answer: B
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 16) When the ̇G°ƍ of a chemical reaction is positive (Kƍeq < 1.0) under standard conditions, 16) A) work can be done under these conditions. B) reactants and products are at equilibrium. C) the reaction is exothermic. D) reactants predominate over products. E) the reaction is spontaneous to the right. Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 17) Oxidation 17) A) is when oxygen is added and energy released. B) involves the removal of oxygen atoms. C) is endothermic. D) occurs when an atom accepts electrons. E) both B and C Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 5
18)
A student drops his notes, and his papers scatter. The fact that the papers scatter and do not remain
neatly stacked is an illustration of 18) A) the first law of thermodynamics. B) an increase in entropy. C) the second law of thermodynamics. D) both A and B E) both B and C Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 19) A negative free energy change indicates that 19) A) energy must be added to the reaction before it can proceed. B) the reaction is at equilibrium. C) the reaction is not possible. D) the reaction is exothermic. E) the reactant is predominant at equilibrium. Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 20)
ƍ
ƍ
In a cell, the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate is 83 µM and fructose-6-phosphate is 14 µM.
The ̇G° = 410 cal/mol for the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Based
upon this information, the ̇G for this reaction (in cal/mol) is 20) A) 644. B) 0. C) 27. D) -644. E) -63.7. Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 21) Which process involves an increase in entropy of the system? 21) A) combustion of paper B) formation of raindrops C) freezing of ice D) synthesis of cellulose E) any spontaneous process Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 6
22) Energy is important to life forms because 22) A) it is required to do work. B) all life forms require a continuous supply of it. C) it is required to make specific alterations in the cell. D) both A and B E) choices A, B, and C Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 23) Photosynthesis is an important process that 23) A) uses water and carbon dioxide as reactants. B) is performed by organisms living near deep-ocean thermal vents. C) only plants can perform. D) produces oxidized products. E) is performed by heterotrophs. Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 24)
Fireflies have the ability to convert the energy in ATP to light. Which of the following types of work
is performed by the firefly? 24) A) mechanical B) electrical C) heat D) concentration E) bioluminescence Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 25) The statement, “The total amount of energy in the universe is constant,” is a tenet of 25) A) entropy. B) enthalpy. C) thermodynamic spontaneity. D) the first law of thermodynamics. E) the second law of thermodynamics. Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 7
26) Which of the following statements is NOT true of the value ̇H? 26) A) ̇H = ̇E + ̇(PV)
B) ̇H is change in heat content. C) ̇H is change in enthalpy. D) A reaction with a positive ̇H value is exothermic. E) In biology, ̇H is basically the same as ̇E.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 27)
In a biochemical reaction, reactants may be converted into products. The extent to which this occurs
spontaneously is expressed as which of the following? 27) A) ̇S
B) temperature C) ṪS
D) Keq E) ̇G
Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 28) Which is NOT true of phototrophs? 28) A) They store energy as glucose. B) They can be bacteria. C) They capture light energy. D) They provide energy for chemotrophs. E) They never function as autotrophs. Answer: E
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 29)
In a reversible reaction at equilibrium, the concentration of R (the reactant) is 3.0 moles/liter and the
concentration of P (the product) is 0.9 moles/liter. At 25°C, what would be the Keq?
29) A) 0.3 B) 37.5 C) 1.0 D) 3.0 E) 1.5 Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 8
30) Animals that regulate their body temperature independent of the environment are called 30) A) abiotherms. B) homeotherms. C) biotherms. D) heterotherms. E) poikilotherms. Answer: B
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 31) Aerobic refers to what property of chemotrophs? 31) A) Chemotrophs use, but do NOT require oxygen. B) Heat losses occur in the presence of oxygen. C) Chemotrophs require oxygen to produce energy. D) Fermentation releases great amounts of gas, but only in chemotrophs. E) Chemotrophs remove carbon dioxide from the air. Answer: C
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) 32) The steady state so vital to life is possible because 32) A) the cell continually takes up energy from the environment. B) all reactions are exothermic. C) all cells are autotrophic. D) the cell cannot convert energy from one form to another. E) all reactions are at equilibrium. Answer: A
Explanation: A) B) C) D) E) SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 33) ________ is the transfer of energy from one place or form to another place or form. 33) Answer: Work Explanation: 34)
The standard state of dilute aqueous solutions is at a temperature of ________ °C (298 K),
________ atmosphere(s) of pressure, and products and reactants present in concentration of
________ mol/L. 34) Answer: 25; 1; 1 Explanation: 9
35)
________ reactions require an input of energy when electrons are gained, such as CO2 ї
CH4
.
35) Answer: Reduction Explanation: 36) ________ reactions release energy when electrons are removed from a substance. 36) Answer: Oxidation Explanation: 37) The total energy stored within a system is called the ________. 37) Answer: internal energy Explanation: 38)
A ________ is an organism that requires the intake of chemical compounds such as
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. 38) Answer: chemotroph Explanation: 39) A ________ is the amount of energy required to warm 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. 39) Answer: calorie Explanation: 40)
In every physical or chemical change, energy cannot be created nor destroyed. This is the
________ law of thermodynamics. 40) Answer: first Explanation: 41)
Fermentation is a process that proceeds without oxygen. Such a process can be described as
________. 41) Answer: anaerobic Explanation: 42) Any process that results in an increase in the free energy of the system is called ________. 42) Answer: endergonic Explanation: 43)
In every physical or chemical change, the universe tends toward greater disorder. This is
the ________ law of thermodynamics or the law of thermodynamic ________. 43) Answer: second; spontaneity Explanation: 44) Any process that results in a decrease in the free energy of the system is called ________. 44) Answer: exergonic Explanation: 45)
________ is the partial measure of the internal energy of a system; also known as heat
content. 45) Answer: Enthalpy Explanation: 10
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match the choice on the left with the choice on the right.
46) example of biological work Answer: B
47) endergonic Answer: C
48) phototroph Answer: A
A) green plant B) bioluminescence C) +̇G; nonspontaneous D) -̇G; spontaneous 46) 47) 48)
Match the type of work with the example of that type of work.
49) mechanical work Answer: A
A) muscle contraction 49)
Match the choice on the left with the choice on the right.
50) system Answer: A
A) portion of the universe 50)
Match the symbol with the appropriate choice to the right.
51) ̇H
Answer: A
A) change in enthalpy 51)
Match the choice on the left with the choice on the right.
52) pressure Answer: C
53) endothermic Answer: B
54) chemotroph Answer: A
A) animal B) heat absorbing C) an example of a state variable 52) 53) 54)
Match the type of work with the example of that type of work.
55) electrical work Answer: A
56) bioluminescence Answer: B
A) nerve impulse conduction B) luminous toadstools 55) 56) 11
Match the symbol with the appropriate choice to the right.
57) J
Answer: A
A) joule 57)
Match the choice on the left with the choice on the right.
58) exothermic Answer: A
A) heat releasing 58)
Match the type of work with the example of that type of work.
59) heat Answer: A
A) maintaining body temperature 59)
Match the symbol with the appropriate choice to the right.
60) ̇S
Answer: B
A) change in size B) change in entropy 60)
Match the type of work with the example of that type of work.
61) synthetic work Answer: A
A) carbon fixation 61)
Match the symbol with the appropriate choice to the right.
62) ̇G°ƍ
Answer: A
63) Keq Answer: B
64) ̇G
Answer: E
A) standard free energy change B) equilibrium constant C) change in stored energy D) equation constant E) change in gas pressure F) change in free energy 62) 63) 64)
Match the type of work with the example of that type of work.
65) concentration work Answer: A
A) accumulation of substances in a cell 65) 12
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 66)
Identify each of the following examples as phototrophs or chemotrophs. If the example is a chemotroph,
indicate whether the needs of the chemotroph are met with or without oxygen (aerobic and anaerobic).
a. A pine tree grows in a forest.
b. A wolf eats the remains of a deer.
c. Bacteria consume a rotting tree.
d. Bacteria grow in an unopened can of green beans.
e. A mushroom grows among pine needles.
f. Cyanobacteria are growing in a lake.
g. A woman goes jogging for one hour.
h. Microorganisms grow near a deep-ocean thermal vent. Answer:
a. phototroph
b. chemotroph, aerobic
c. chemotroph, aerobic
d. chemotroph, anaerobic
e. chemotroph, aerobic
f. phototroph
g. chemotroph, aerobic
h. chemotroph, anaerobic 67)
There are different types of biological work. Can you identify the type of work illustrated by the examples
below?
a. A man lifts a barbell.
b. A sea creature glows in the dark.
c. Green plants perform carbon fixation.
d. During respiration, protons are transported across the membrane of the mitochondrion.
e. Humans maintain a constant body temperature.
f. Sodium is accumulated inside a cell.
g. A neuron transmits an impulse to a muscle cell.
h. Chromosomes are moved along the spindle fibers during mitosis. Answer:
a. mechanical work
b. bioluminescent work
c. synthetic work
d. electrical work or concentration work
e. heat
f. concentration work
g. electrical work
h. mechanical work 13
Answer Key
Testname: C5
1) B
2) C
3) E
4) A
5) E
6) C
7) E
8) A
9) A
10) E
11) B
12) E
13) B
14) D
15) B
16) D
17) A
18) E
19) D
20) D
21) A
22) E
23) A
24) E
25) D
26) D
27) E
28) E
29) A
30) B
31) C
32) A
33) Work 34) 25; 1; 1 35) Reduction 36) Oxidation 37) internal energy 38) chemotroph 39) calorie 40) first 41) anaerobic 42) endergonic 43) second; spontaneity 44) exergonic 45) Enthalpy 46) B
47) C
48) A
49) A
50) A
14
Answer Key
Testname: C5
51) A
52) C
53) B
54) A
55) A
56) B
57) A
58) A
59) A
60) B
61) A
62) A
63) B
64) E
65) A
66)
a. phototroph
b. chemotroph, aerobic
c. chemotroph, aerobic
d. chemotroph, anaerobic
e. chemotroph, aerobic
f. phototroph
g. chemotroph, aerobic
h. chemotroph, anaerobic 67)
a. mechanical work
b. bioluminescent work
c. synthetic work
d. electrical work or concentration work
e. heat
f. concentration work
g. electrical work
h. mechanical work 15